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The ancient Chinese were an innovative people who were able to independently develop the ideas for many of the things we take for granted today. Even though these ideas originated in the East they have proven valuable throughout the world, disseminated by such explorers as Marco Polo and others who realized the importance of the things they had seen. Francis Bacon viewed many of these Chinese inventions as crucial to the development and transformation of European society during the 16th and 17th centuries (Selin, 1997, p.261). These inventions changed the world as we know it and not always for the better. However, the myriad inventions continue to influence the way that people all over the world live their lives every day.
Overview of Chinese Inventions
The ancient Chinese have been credited with inventions ranging from the mundane to supreme technological innovations in many different fields. For example, in…
Deng, Y. (2011). Ancient Chinese inventions. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gunergun, F. (2011). Science between Europe and Asia. New York: Springer Science.
Haven, K. (2006). 100 greatest science inventions of all time. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited.
Krebs, C.A. & Krebs, R.E. (2003). Groundbreaking scientific experiments, inventions, and Discoveries of the ancient world. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
By the fifth millennium BCE, China had developed the basic elements that were to identify it as a civilization, such as social structure, agricultural skills and the domestication of animals (Schmidt pp). It was also developing concepts related to the order of the natural environment, to life, death, and life after death (Schmidt pp). China's cultural identity, as it is known today, can be traced to the endeavors of the Neolithic village communities of the Yangshao culture that flourished during this time (Schmidt pp). Ancient Chinese communities produced numerous vessels and objects from various mediums for use in both utility and religious purposes.
Only fragments and traces of items created in ephemeral materials remain from the prehistoric and early historic periods, yet numerous ancient Chinese objects of jade, earthenware, and metal have survived in fairly good condition, most of which were found preserved in ancient burial sites (Schmidt…
Schmidt, Carolyn Woodford. "Early Societies and the Arts: The Foundations of A
The Art of Chinese Bronzes - ancient Chinese bronze artwork.
Ancient Chinese weddings began with elaborate preparation, including the proposal and acceptance. However, the wedding itself was rather simple, and generally comprised of the bride and groom paying homage to Heaven and Earth, the family ancestors and the Kitchen God, Tsao-Chun, at the family altar, after which they drank tea offered by the groom's parents, and then bowed to each other (Chinese pp). This completed the marriage ceremony. Although the marriage ceremony itself was simply, there were numerous customs that were required both before and after, many of which are still observed today.
Today, many Chinese-Americans choose to combine their traditional culture with modern estern traditions. Traditionally, the color red is the symbol of happiness and joy, and is used throughout Chinese celebrations, including weddings (Traditions pp). The wedding invitations and reception menus are a deep red with black or gold calligraphy, and the guest book is always…
Chinese Wedding Traditions. Chinese Historical and Cultural Project.
Traditions and Wedding Customs: Chinese Weddings. Japanese Wedding
That is, the notion of rivalry and envy is not inherently connected to rational ideas about good and evil. These ethical value judgments are quite secondary to the matter of human conflict and its role in the affairs of both love and power. As Giovetti (2012) points out, "Feng Yi Ting (running until June 7 and stopping in New York at the Lincoln Center Festival, also under Redden's directorship, in July) is characterised by an emotional neutrality that leaves the audiences to decide for themselves how they feel." (Giovetti, p. 1)
In many ways, this is a distinctly eastern way of approaching conflict, providing its details as a history rather than an allegory. And once again, as with the kung fu movies that made so great an impression on me as a child, the play would using certain visual strategies to supplement these themes. They demonstrate the same spare simplicity…
Giovetti, O. (2012). Spoleto Festival continues to provoke with Glass and Guo Wenjing. Gramophone.
Johnson, a. (2012). Atom Egoyan talks about directing Spoleto Festival's 'Feng Yi Ting'. Post and Courier.
Moore, R. (2012). Feng Yi Ting Spoleto After Party. Charleston Mag.com.
Poole, O. (2012). Spoleto Review: Feng Yi Ting Chinese Opera. Art Mag.
Chinese' Food and the Model Minority study in ethnic cuisine and culture, marginalization and commercialization, and the paradox of exoticism.
The anthropological theme studied for this work was that of the ethnic compromises and paradoxes inherent in creating a "Chinese" restaurant in America, for Americans. In every English speaking country from England to Canada, Chinese food is a huge business. For many immigrants it is one of the only businesses ready and willing to take them in. Most Chinese restaurants strive to present themselves as cultural representations where the American connoisseur can have a legitimate cross-cultural experience. The more I researched the actual traditions of Chinese and Asian cuisine and the way in which Western prejudices and expectations shape the presentation of this experience, the more it became apparent that --like so many other cultural phenomena-- the cultural relevance of the Chinese-food experience is far from untainted. Repeated immersion at…
About, Inc. "Eating Patterns: You call this Progress?" What You Need To Know About.
2003. Accessed at http://nutrition.about.com/library/weekly/aa070201a.htm
Hung-Youn, Cho. "Traditional Way of Life in East Asia." Korea Focus Vol.9 No.1. 2000.
Acessed at http://www.kofo.or.kr/koreafocus/content.asp?no=354
In spite of the fact that it never became as popular as Daoism, Confucianism was important because it was responsible for a series of reforms in the moral and political systems of China. It was only during the ruling of Dong Zhongshu that Confucianism became appreciated as China's main school of thought. The philosophy slowly but surely experienced progress and came to be one of the main systems guiding China's politics. In addition to assisting politics, society, and economics, Confucianism also provided the Chinese with the opportunity to adopt a new and improved way of life. ith the ru school being supported by the state, it became clear that Confucianism had become the principal philosophy in the territory.
Confucianism was particularly impressive because it brought together elements found in Legalism and in Daoism. The ideology emphasized the importance of morality and it also assisted the state in implementing its laws…
Guo, X. (2002). The Ideal Chinese Political Leader: A Historical and Cultural Perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Ivanhoe, P.J. And Van Norden, B.W. eds. (2001). Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy. New York: Seven Bridges Press.
Orts, E.W. "The Rule of Law in China," Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 34.1 (2001): 43
Pohl, K. And Muller, A.W. eds. (2002). Chinese Ethics in a Global Context: Moral Bases of Contemporary Societies. Boston: Brill.
Intro to Cultural Anthropology
Ch'en, Kenneth K.S. Buddhism in China: A Historical Survey. New Jersey: Princeton University
Press, 1907-1964. In this text, Professor Kenneth Ch'en writes a historical account of the development of Buddhism and how it modified as it grew. Buddhism is a unique religion in that it has been adapted to incorporate the cultural attitudes of the various countries in which it is found. Within China, Buddhism took an especially strong hold because it was able to incorporate the philosophical ideas of people like Confucius.
Ch'en's main argument of the piece seems to be that Buddhism is different from other religions. This is what makes the book a useful tool for academic research. There is not one set of dogmatic rules that have to be accepted, but rather many different versions of the religion. In this text, Ch'en has identified all of the social,…
Yuan, Haiwang. The Magic Lotus Lantern and Other Tales from the Han Chinese. USA: Green
Wood Publishing Book, 2006. This book is a collection of folktales from Chinese culture. Each of these stories is beautiful in its own right as a work of fiction, but also interesting in what the story tells about the culture of the period in which the story was written. Each story has some element of magic in it, but also an element of cultural historicity.
While not really about the religious beliefs that are held by Chinese people, they nonetheless tell about the value systems of the time period in which the stories were written. It is the beliefs that people already held that determined what religion they chose. These beliefs would also shape the unique form of that religion which would become popularized in the region.
Global Health Care and Culture
Traditional Health Care Concepts
Modern Health Care in China and its Affordability
The public health system in China has been able to make progress in many aspects owing to the economic growth of the country. Problems like child mortality and life expectancy have shown considerable improvements over the last 20 years in conjunction with the rising economy. With significantly more hospital beds in the country compared to about 10 years ago, China has made all efforts to embrace the modern medical system and formulated policies to make modern health care affordable to every Chinese citizen (Mehlhorn, Wu & Ye, n.d.).
However give the above context, it is still a fact that Chinese system of health care is still governed and guided by the cultural values and traditions of ancient Chinese health care. This is in conformation to the ways the Chinese value their centuries old…
Cheung, K., & Chen, H. (2010). Semantic Web for data harmonization in Chinese medicine. Chinese Medicine, 5(1), 2. doi:10.1186/1749-8546-5-2
Mehlhorn, H., Wu, Z., & Ye, B. Treatment of human parasitosis in traditional Chinese medicine.
PARKER, M. (2011). OVERSTATING VALUES: MEDICAL FACTS, DIVERSE VALUES, BIOETHICS AND VALUES-BASED MEDICINE. Bioethics, 27(2), 97-104. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8519.2011.01902.x
Social Values and Ethics for Communicating the Corporate Identity. (2012). Chinese Business Review, 11(07). doi:10.17265/1537-1506/2012.07.006
In ancient China, the science of mathematics was subsumed under the larger practice of suan chu, or the "art of calculation." The Chinese are believed to be one of the first civilizations to develop and use the decimal numeral system. Their early mathematical studies have influenced science among neighboring Asian countries and beyond.
This paper examines the history of mathematical knowledge in China. It looks at the early Chinese achievements in the field of mathematics, including the decimal system, calculation of pi, the use of counting aids and the application of mathematical principles to everyday life. It also examines the influence of Indian and later, European mathematical knowledge into Chinese mathematics.
Unlike the ancient Greeks who prized knowledge for its own sake, much of the scientific studies conducted in ancient China were spurred by practical everyday needs. Because of its geographic location, China was prone to…
Martzloff, Jean-Claude. A History of Chinese Mathematics. New York: Springer Verlag, 1997.
Needham, Joseph. Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 3, Mathematics and the Sciences of the Heavens and the Earth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1959.
Spence, Jonathan D. To Change China: Western Advisers in China, 1620-1960. New York: Penguin Press, 200
Swetz, Frank. Was Pythagoras Chinese?: An Examination of Right Triangle Theory in Ancient China. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1977.
The Evolution of the Chinese Film Industry
Contemporary Chinese Film Poster (Chinese Films)
For literally thousands of years, the Culture of China has inspired people and been a source of awe and excitement for people all over the world. The Chinese culture is rather unique and elegant with elements that are not commonly found in other cultures. Part of the cultures attraction is undoubtedly because it is one of the oldest cultures in the world and had has thousands and thousands of years to evolve into what it is today. It has drawn so much interest that it is integrating with other cultures. Although much of the ancient traditions have been somewhat overcome by various estern influences and modernization, traces of various aspects of the previous cultures still manage to stand the test of time and can still be seen today.
Many changes have occurred in the Chinese…
Chinese Films. "Chinese Films Meet Difficulties to Advance in Global Arena." 1 March 2012. Chinese Films. Web. 5 June 2012.
Cultural China. "Classic Movie and Stars." N.d. Cultural China. Web. 6 May 2012.
Kushner, B. "Is that really funny? -- humor and identity in Japan and China." 17 April 2009. Japan Society. Web. 5 June 2012.
Moses, L. "Chinese Embassy host film festival." N.d. Embassy of the Peoples Republic of China. Web. 6 June 2012.
ecause of rhetoric that was rampant through the region, the result was "a skewed perception among some Chinese intellectuals that Indian must have been a race of violent and uncouth barbarians" (Mather, 1992). The once positive relationship between the two regions was tarnished, as evident by the "Discourse on Triple Destruction" which illuminates the barbarian traits that the Indian people have (Mather, 1992). This laid, along with the foundational elements Scripture of Lao-tzu Converting the arbarians, for a negative perception of India and allowed for huddism to flourish on Chinese terms.
uddhism in China was taught as "radical dualism," with teachings that focused on sudden enlightenment on salvation through grace rather than through ascetic practices" making it more appealing to a larger population of Chinese (Whyte, 2008). The Consul General of China asserts that "in Northeast Asia and some Southeast Asian countries, the historical influence of Chinese culture could be…
Mather, Richard B. (1992). Chinese and indian perceptions of each other between the first and seventh centuries . Journal of the American Oriental Society, 112(1), 1-8.
Siwei, Mao. (2011, June 19). China and india: related yet different civilizations. Retrieved from http://www.defence.pk/forums/world-affairs/115473-china-india-related-yet-different-civilizations.html
Whyte, Bob. (2008). Religion in china. Retrieved from http://www.sacu.org/religion.html
The cultures shifted from a primarily agrarian economic base to one that used metal as a means to craft practical and ritual objects. In addition to the ritual cauldrons that were emblematic of the Xia dynasty, other uses of advanced metallurgical techniques include the manufacturing of "jue," vessels used to hold a grain alcohol beverage commonly translated as "wine," (Class unit: 12). In fact, bronze objects were cast en masse during the Xia and Shang dynasties (Class unit: 12). Warfare over metals, especially tin and copper, transformed the balance of power in the region (Class unit: 12). Commoners were frequently conscripted for military service during the Shang dynasty ("The Evolution of Complex Societies in China,": 446). Bronze casting allowed Shang rulers to have access to advanced weaponry. Their bronze weapons, their centralized leadership, and their control over a large number of peasant soldiers enabled the Shang to become the first…
The Evolution of Complex Societies in China,"
This rationale may prove correct to some degree, but only in those areas where the villagers have no means of communication between villages and thus no way of exchanging opinions and finding out about irregularities and breaking of the law. Kolhammer is pointing out that the declared official role of the organic law of Village Committees is only going to be put in practice after the villagers will be aware of the right they have according to it and act accordingly.
There is no possibility that one can draw the conclusion that peasants in most villages in China are not aware of their rights in terms of electing their village leader and Village Committee. The degree of knowledge in this sense may vary, but a country that has experienced huge economic changes after the death of Mao could not have remained immobile to significant social and political changes. The political…
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113359016
Ding, Yijiang. Chinese Democracy after Tiananmen. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002. Questia. 18 Aug. 2008 http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=113359114' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Chinese Jade Burial Suits
During all my travels throughout ancient China, one of the more peculiar beliefs I came across was the notion that jade holds mystical powers, capable of preventing the body from decaying. I am currently in Chang'an, the capital of the dynasty, which is known in the present day as Xi'an. The year is 192 CE. The people of the estern Han Dynasty universally agree that this supposedly magical material is the essence of mountains, and because it prevents the decomposition of the physical form, it may in fact ensure rebirth. Now, as of the present day, very few of these jade burial suits still actually exist, and it may seem ambiguous as to whether or not they were a passing fad or a momentary excess amongst emperors. However, upon my investigation of the long-forgotten past, I have found that this practice of burying the dead with…
Cultural China. (2007-2010). Jade burial suit. Retrieved December 9, 2010, from http://arts.cultural-china.com/en/32Arts415.html
China.org.cn. (2001). Handicraft industry and technological advances. Retrieved December 9,
2010, from http://www.china.org.cn/e-gudai/4.htm
H-ry?-ji. Horyuji: a brief history. Retrieved December 9, 2010, from http://www.horyuji.or.jp/horyuji_e.htm
The Sumerians of Mesopotamia were also the first to use iron, They recovered the metal from meteorites and used it for spear tips and ornaments. Later smelting techniques developed in the area to purify the iron, and these spread to Europe via trade routes. By the Middle Ages, large foundries existed for smelting and forging iron into the many things it was used for. Basic trade rules and organization also passed from the Sumerians to Europe; methods of keeping accounts and even early guilds and merchant groups were part of Sumer, and passed est with trade (Airmet).
Airmet. "The History of Iron orking." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.airmetmetalworks.com/iron-working-history.html
Hooker, Richard. "Ancient China: The Shang." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ANCCHINA/SHANG.htm
O'Connor, J.J. And E.F. Robertson. "Egyptian Numerals." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.gap-system.org/~history/HistTopics/Egyptian_numerals.html
Airmet. "The History of Iron Working." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.airmetmetalworks.com/iron-working-history.html
Hooker, Richard. "Ancient China: The Shang." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ANCCHINA/SHANG.htm
O'Connor, J.J. And E.F. Robertson. "Egyptian Numerals." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.gap-system.org/~history/HistTopics/Egyptian_numerals.html
3. What are some of the themes you notice in the "Love Songs"?
The Egyptian love songs use the terms "brother" and "sister" as generic references to male and female lovers and suggest intimacy as well as the taboo of incest. Brother-sister unions were already written into Egyptian mythology by the time the love songs were penned. Also, the love songs reveal an emerging theme of romantic love, which almost seems out of place in ancient literature.
4. Did the erotic or explicit nature of some of the love songs surprise you? Explain.
The eroticism in the love songs is not wholly surprising, given that many ancient cultures addressed human sexuality frankly and even using graphic depictions. The Egyptians also employed some sexual imagery into their art, as did the ancient Indians and Chinese.
1. In what ways is the Hebrew view of God different from the Sumerian…
In addition, the ceremony also contained firecrackers which were symbolic of purification and joy. The food that was served at a marriage ceremony was also symbolic. For example, fruit and longevity noodles were symbolic of harmony, happiness, and prosperity.
Indeed the marriage arrangement was detailed and extravagant (for the wealthy) during the Qing dynasty. Now that we understand the marital arrangement let us focus on the role of the ideal wife during Qing's Dynasty.
The role of the ideal wife (Qing Dynasty)
Once the transfer was complete, the wife was totally immersed in pleasing her husband and his family. All kinship ties to the wife's family were broken and when she visited her family, she was considered a guest not a relative. Smith (1994) asserts that this was a cause of distress for many new wives because they were usually amongst strangers and the mother in law had a great…
Atwill, D.G. (2003). Code, Custom, and Legal Practice in China: The Qing and the Republic Compared. China Review International, 10(2), 411+. http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=14304634' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Figue 1. Demogaphic composition of the United States (2003 estimate).
Souce: Based on tabula data in Wold Factbook, 2007 (no sepaate listing is maintained fo Hispanics).
Fom a stictly pecentage pespective, it would seem that Asian-Ameicans do not epesent much of a theat at all to mainsteam Ameican society, but these mee numbes do not tell the whole stoy of couse. Fo one thing, Asian-Ameicans ae one of the most divese and fastest gowing goups in the United States today (Hong, Kim & Wolfe, 2005). Accoding to Alvaez and Kimua (2001), studies have documented time and again that, consistent with thei histoical teatment, Asian-Ameicans continue to be the tagets of acially motivated popety vandalism, vebal haassment, theft, physical assaults, and in some instances, homicide; futhemoe, othe studies have confimed that a pesistent patten diving anti-Asian violence is the peception of Asian-Ameicans as foeignes who pesent an economic, academic, social, and/o…
Due to skills and abilities
4. Based on what you know and believe, would you agree or disagree with the following statements?
Racism in America is no longer a problem for Chinese-Americans.
Racism in America is no longer a problem for women and minorities
Prompt 1: Pick two passages about education and explain what makes them "Confucian" or "Neo-Confucian."
Zhu Xia's Neo-Confucianism Program which is labeled "Preface to the Family Rituals" both exhibit the qualities that are found in the writings and teachings of Confucius. Confucianism is the philosophical and ethical system of belief based upon the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius which is then applied to daily life, including education and religion. The core belief of Confucianism was humanism which is the belief that human beings can change, adapt, and grow. No one's identity or personality is concrete and anyone can learn from their mistakes and change. People are asked to make decisions using reason, logic, and critical thinking. In the section "Preface to the Family Rituals," the authors explore how one man, Zhu Xi, believed in adapting Confucianism to the modern period by actually redefining the social structure of…
Chih, Hu. "A Record of Learning through Difficulties." The Confucian's Progress:
Autobiographical Writings in Traditional China. Ed. Pei-Yi Wu. Princeton, 1990. 243-
De Bary, William & Bloom, Irene. Zhu Xia's Neo-Confucianism Program.
Ancient Text ith Modern Text
Because written literature is capable of being transmitted from the person who wrote it across generations, it acquires the status of communal wisdom simply by being recorded. Yet there are limitations to the applicability of such stories, and to a certain degree wisdom consists in knowing that there are limitations to the theoretical knowledge one can acquire in this way, or human error can misinterpret the text. I would like to look at the way in which three texts -- one ancient (by Rumi) and two modern (by Siije and Soyinka) -- offer wisdom at the same time that they suggest limits to our own knowledge, and limits to the applicability of any such wisdom.
The poems of Rumi, by virtue of their age, seem almost to define the way by which wisdom can be transmitted in literature, but also can acknowledge its own limits.…
Rumi, Jalal al-Din. The Essential Rumi: New Expanded Edition. Translated by Coleman Barks. New York: Harper-Collins, 2004.
Siije, Dai. Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress. New York: Anchor Books, 2001.
Soyinka, Wole. Death and the King's Horseman. New York: Norton, 2002.
Traditional Chinese Beliefs that played a part if Taoism and Confucianism
Taoism and Confucianism both have their roots in the ancient beliefs of Chinese people. The core of Taoism and Confucianism is still based in the ancient Chinese beliefs. Taoism emphasizes the significance of being compatible with nature by balancing the forces of yin and yang. In reference to the traditional Taoist cosmology, matter and force are contemplated to be ruled by five movements. Earth exerts its presence strongly before the beginning of every season.
Taoism is in favour of a simple life. It is a strong follower of acquiring spiritual harmony by incorporating positive attitude, compliance, and serenity in our lives. The simplest way of life is the ideal one. A wise person always complies with to the rhythm of the world.
Taoism is about accepting life and everything associated with it in its natural form. Taoists…
Chow K., Ng O.C. & Henderson J.B. (1999) Imagining boundaries: changing Confucian doctrines, texts, and hermeneutics. New York. United States of America. University of New York Press.
Wiesner M.E. (2001) Gender in history. United Kingdom. Blackwell Publishers.
Wong. E (1997) The Shambhala guide to Taoism. United States of America. Shambhala Publishers.
Yang J-M. (1997) The Essence of Taiji Qigong: The Internal Foundation of Taijiquan. Canada. YMAA Publication Center In
Women Live in Ancient China
China is one of the world's oldest nations, being more than 4000 years old it shows no signs of decline. China has a rich history. It was ruled by several men and by various dynasties. Each ruler set standards for how the Chinese civilization was to be governed and every emperor and dynasty makes the history of China only more interesting.
The ancient Chinese society was predominantly male oriented. Women were considered to be unequal and inferior to men. Most women lived an oppressed life. Even women who belonged to rich and noble families could not always escape from the oppression; however, to an extent their lives were easier than the majority of the other females. (Waley)
The role of women in ancient China was defined by Confucius who was a philosopher, teacher and politician. He believed that women should spend most of their lives…
Brown, M. A brief history of Chinese civilization. Cengage Learning.
Buckley, P. Chinese civilization: A sourcebook . Simon and Schuster.
Falkenhausen, L. Chinese society in the age of confucius. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, University of California.
Harold, T. (2009). China: A history. Hackett Publishing.
In contrast Mozi argued that people should always care for others equally.
Linking the thoughts of different philosophers
The ancient Chinese sacrificial practice was very common whereby the historical dynasties had carried out human sacrifices quite extensively. However there was the disappearance of this ritual during the periods of spring and autumn as well as the warring periods. Though it was practiced privately this ritual of sacrificing humans was replaced at the state level by clay puppets. The reason why this ritual was discontinued was not known. All these philosophers ignored the blood letting ritual but instead put emphasis on ritual morality to form the foundation of ritual state. Xunzi came up with a funeral ritual which was an ancestral right which required blood sacrifice in the ancient time. This according to him was to form the basis for good citizenship and morality when it came to rituals (Plutschow, 2002).…
Plutschow, H. (2002). Xunzi and the Ancient Chinese Philosophical Debate on Human Nature. Retrieved May 23, 2013 from http://www.anthropoetics.ucla.edu/ap0801/xunzi.htm
Cultural-china.com. (2010). Mohism (Philosophy of Mozi). Retrieved May 23, 2013 from http://history.cultural-china.com/en/49H6943H12322.html
Brindley, E. (2011). Individualism in Classical Chinese Thought. Retrieved May 23, 2013 from http://www.iep.utm.edu/ind-chin/
Piblius. (2007). Comparing Mohism and Confucianism. . Retrieved May 23, 2013 from http://www.chinahistoryforum.com/index.php?/topic/16546-comparing-mohism-and-confucianism/
Invention of Gun Powder and the Impact it Had on the Chinese Society and Warfare
The invention of gunpowder was driven by the quest for unending life. Gunpowder, however, ended up being more or less a death potion, responsible for the development of the deadliest war weapon, after the atomic bomb. An invention dating back to the Song and Tang Dynasties, between the 9th and 11th centuries, gunpowder came to be considered one of China's "Four Great Ancient Inventions,' alongside the compass, printing, and papermaking. Due to its explosive nature, gunpowder was first used for fireworks, and later, as an explosive in war. Prior to gunpowder invention, the Chinese military used fire as their main war weapon. Fire, however, had limited coverage, and Chinese strategists sought to develop a weapon with wider coverage.
Gunpowder was employed in warfare in the 15th century. It evolved from the ancient cannon to the…
Black, Jeremy. War: a Short History. Maiden Lane, NY: Continuum, 2009.
Chase, Kenneth. Firearms: a Global History to 1700. West Street, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Gunpowder and Firearms. Washington University. http://depts.washington.edu/chinaciv/miltech/firearms.htm
Panciera, Walter. "Venetian Gunpowder in the Second Half of the Sixteenth Century: Production, Storage, Use." In Gunpowder, Explosives and the State, edited by Brenda Buchanan, 93-120. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2006.
Chinese calligraphy & Western calligraphy
Weather in the East or in the West, calligraphy, the art of writing, is first and foremost an art form, by definition. This art is dedicated to practical purposes, but as any craft, it has taken its own individuality as an expression of the craftsman's abilities, his imagination, creative power and mastering of the specific techniques.
Calligraphy and literature are highly dependent on each other in sia, particularly in China. Technology has brought typewriters and keyboards on writers' desks in most places in the world, yet Chinese writers as well as painters are still paying a great deal of effort and attention to the art of calligraphy. It is only through the lens of the Chinese culture that one might properly understand the value of calligraphy. Most of the western world would consider calligraphy as an art of the past with no particular resonance in…
Avi-Yonah, Michael. 2004. Ancient Scrolls: Introduction to Archaeology. Books&Bagels
Beyerstein, Barry L. 1992. The Write Stuff: Evaluations of Graphology -- the Study of Handwriting Analysis. Prometheus Books
Burial ituals: The Early Chinese
From Early Chinese periods, starting roughly from the Shang Dynasty, the Chinese community have been of the belief that the souls of those who demise subsist in another world. This world is referred to as the netherworld and that graves were their earthly dwellings (China Highlights, 2016). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the different burial rituals and customs that were practiced in the ancient Chinese period.
The appropriate manner of the burial ceremony has always been an aspect of great significance to the Chinese. A person's soul was believed to leave the physical body at the time of death, with the purpose of taking its place in the spirit realm. Therefore, according to the Early Chinese, an elaborate funeral provided the spirits in the subsequent world, together with the bereaved persons left behind, a proper indication of the rank of…
Bradley, J. (2016). Traditions of Ancient China Regarding Death. Retrieved 29 February, 2016 from: http://classroom.synonym.com/traditions-ancient-china-regarding-death-7976.html
China Highlights. (2016). A Grave Day -- the Culture of Death! Retrieved 29 February, 2016 from: http://www.chinahighlights.com/travelguide/article/death-culture.htm
Clydesdale, C. H. (2009). The Vibrant Role of Mingqi in Early Chinese Burials. In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000. Retrieved 29 February, 2016 from: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/mgqi/hd_mgqi.htm
Lagerwey, J., Kalinowski, M. (2009). Early Chinese Religion: Part One: Shang Through Han (1250 BC-220 AD) (2 Vols). Netherlands: Brill.
Art and Death: The Chinese
Portraying death to children
In the preschool age, educators seldom broach the topic of death. However, some picture books for kids directly address death and related issues. Their current approach is worth utilizing as reference. Book presentations follow the steps: comprehending death with preschoolers' internal experiences, slowly probing into what death means in the eyes of preschoolers, and expanding on the subject by seeking the continuance of love. The above three elements serve as references for Chinese picture books with death as the central theme. Such books depict a child's world using children's language and culture-specific images. The concept of death is taught to students in the form of interesting stories, which portray children's pure world, characterized by curiosity and innocence. Adults are also deeply affected by their simplicity, love and care (Chen, 2012).
Thesis: Death has been incorporated, as a theme, into Chinese books,…
Chen, Y. (2012). The Expression of Death in Children's Picture Story Books. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 210-213.
Danto, A. C. (1998). The End of Art: A Philosophy of Defense. Blackwell Publishing, 127-143.
Han, S. (2012, June 22). The invisible red line - maneuvering Chinese art censorship. Retrieved from All that is banned is desired: http://artsfreedom.org/
Sharf, R. H. (1992). The Idolization of Enlightenment: On the mummification of Ch'an masters in Medieval China. The University of Chicago Press, 1- 31.
Invention and Evolution of Porcelain in China
Although the precise origins of porcelain have been lost in the mists of time, most modern researchers believe that it was invented in China. Not surprisingly, then, many Chinese today boast that their ancestors were drinking tea from porcelain cups when their European counterparts were still wearing animal skins and living in caves, and it turns out that this pride is accurate and justifiable. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide a discussion concerning the technical and artistic history of porcelain drawing on four examples that span four different time periods in Chinese history. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings about the invention and evolution of porcelain in China are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Porcelain differs in fundamental ways from ordinary pottery known as earthenware that is formed from clay and then…
Bartlett, S. (2011, Annual). Robert Finlay, the pilgrim art: Cultures of porcelain in world history. Southeast Review of Asian Studies, 33, 229-232.
Chinese art. (2016). Development of Visual Arts in China. Retrieved from http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/east-asian-art/chinese.htm#tangpottery .
Porcelain. (1988, October). UNESCO Courier, 22-24.
Fitzgerald, C. P. & Seligman, C. G. (1938). China: A short cultural history. New York: D. Appleton-Century.
FUNERAL RITES SIMLAR TO AND DIFFERENT FROM THOSE SEEN IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES?
The objective of this study is to examine how contemporary funeral rites are similar to and different from those viewed in archaeological sites. Toward this end a literature review in this area of inquiry will be conducted.
Shape and Depth of the Grave
According to Pearson (1999) the "shape and depth of a grave may relate to the social status or gender of the person buried. It may also reflect the degree of formality in the burial rite." (p.7) In addition, the hole that is dug for the grave "may serve not just as a repository for the corpse, but its shape and dimensions may be constructed so that it echoes other contexts." (Pearson, 1999, p. 7) Pearson additionally reports that there are many examples of graves that are similar to "houses or storage pits." (1999, p. 7)…
Death (nd) Ancient Tombs in Archaeology. Retrieved from: http://www.bible-archaeology.info/tombs.htm
Pearson, Mike Parker (1999) The Archaeology of Death and Burial. Texas A & M. University Press. College Station. Retrieved from: http://depthome.brooklyn.cuny.edu/anthro/jadar/pearson.pdf
Wigington, P. (2014) Caring for the Dead: Funeral Practices Around the World. Paganism. Retrieved from: http://paganwiccan.about.com/od/samhainoctober31/a/CaringForDead.htm
Chinese-American born in Victorville, California and raised in Los Angeles. As a child, my parents were recent immigrants who had to struggle to establish themselves here in the United States. Although they were eventually successful, they had to initially work hard to a build a small import/export company and to obtain U.S. Citizenship. We first lived in a very modest one bedroom, one bath apartment for a family of four. English is a second language that I did not learn until grammar school; I had learned Mandarin and Chinese at home. In the beginning, the financial, cultural and language barriers distanced me from my class mates and added extra challenges to doing well in school. I also felt isolated because I was the only student of Asian ethnicity in my class which it made it more difficult for me to make new friends. However, I adapted over time thanks to…
It upheld, rather than tore down, the existing order. The search for salvation could be seen to be connected to performance of one's duty here in the material world. Confucianism was indeed an important philosophy in the Tokugawa Period, but Japanese forms of Buddhism, together with native Shinto practice always remained central to the Japanese religious experience. As in Korea, Confucian ideals found support because of their emphasis on order. The military classes of the samurai and daimyo, especially, saw a strong linkage between Confucian practice and military ideals, many even criticizing Buddhist doctrines of rebirth as irrational, especially in regard to the idea of the punishment in hell of supposedly incorporeal bodies.
Japanese Neo-Confucianists even criticized Buddhism as an antisocial religion.
Confucianism was seen as supremely rational, while Buddhist doctrines were often questioned by those in authority.
On yet other levels, Chinese ideas were adapted to fit Korean and…
Goodwin, Janet R. Alms and Vagabonds: Buddhist Temples and Popular Patronage in Medieval Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1994.
Lancaster, Lewis R., Richard K. Payne, and Karen M. Andrews, eds. Religion and Society in Contemporary Korea. Berkeley, CA: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, 1997.
Leggett, Trevor. Samurai Zen: The Warrior Koans. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Nosco, Peter, ed. Confucianism and Tokugawa Culture. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997.
Chinese First Emperor as with the Egyptian pharaohs, the tomb was a microcosm of the world that they knew in life, and filled with the objects that they would use in the afterlife. In early times, servants, soldiers, concubines and entertainers were even put to death so they could serve the monarch in the next world, although later these were mostly represented by statues and replicas. For the First Emperor of China, the tom was an elaborate "analogue of life," reportedly constructed by 700,000 men over many years -- far more than the number of workers used by the Egyptian pharaohs to build their tombs and pyramids (awson, 2007, p. 123). He even had a terracotta army with cavalry, archers, chariots and thousands of troops buried in pits to defend him from his enemies in the next world, along with stone armor to protect against evil spirits. Pit 1 had…
Burstein, S.M. (2009). Ancient African Civilization: Kush and Axum. Markus Wiener Publishers.
Krishan, Y. (1996). The Buddha Image: Its Origin and Development. New Dehli: Munshiran Manoharlal Publishers.
Mitchell, S. (ed). (2000). Bhagavad Gita: A New Translation. NY: Three Rivers Press.
Rawson, J. (2007). "The First Emperor's Tomb: The Afterlife Universe" in Portal, J. (ed), The First Emperor: China's Terracotta Army. British Museum Press: 114-51.
Wandering in the Garden and Soul Mountain
In comparing and contrasting the literary techniques of "Wandering in the Garden, Waking from a Dream" and "Soul Mountain," one of the biggest contrasts between the two stories is perspective: Gao Xingjian's "Soul Mountain" is written in the 2nd person, while Pai Hsien-yung's "Wandering in the Garden" is written in 3rd person. The narrator in each story is omniscient, which is their biggest similarity -- but the two differ in style in the sense that "Wandering in the Garden" has a stream-of-consciousness manner that runs through it, taking the reader deep into the main characters thoughts as she revisits her past. The style of "Soul Mountain" is much more descriptive and focused on producing the effect of putting the reader at the heart of the action -- after all, the reader is the subject of the narrative and so it is almost like…
Soon after, the Banker died as well, and the entire family fortune and responsibility fell on the Son.
With the passage of her husband, Mother was now no longer the head of the household, but she was confident nothing would change, after all her son loved her. When she came back from a vacation trip after a hot summer, she went into her room only to find that all of her possessions were missing. In a panic she ran to her Son's room and found him sitting on his desk.
Where are my things my beautiful son, where did you move them to?," she cried.
Why to grandmother's room of course," he diffidently stated.
What? To that dirty little shack, you cannot expect your mother to live their?!," she screamed.
Her son looked up at her and blinked his eyes. "Why are you so angry, I am treating you no…
Taoism, Confucianism, Judaism
Taoism, Confucianism, and Judaism
There are several major religions in the world and in different parts of the world the religions are quite diverse. In China, two major religions are Taoism and Confucianism, while in the West one of the oldest religions is Judaism. These religions are quite different, with historical, theological, and philosophical differences. But they also have certain aspects in common, such as honesty, integrity, and compassion. These religions espouse doctrines on how a person should to live their life, how they should behave in relationships, and how they should treat other people. This essay will explore these three religious traditions; their histories, differences, and similarities.
Sometime around 550 BCE, in the Chinese kingdom of Lu, there was born a man named Confucius, called "Kung Fu Tzu" in Chinese. After opening a school and serving as a minister for his ruler, Confucius was forced to…
"Catholic Encyclopedia: Confucianism." NEW ADVENT: Home. Web. 18 June 2011.
"Confucianism." Religious Tolerance.org. Web 17 June 2011. http://www.religioustolerance.org/confuciu.htm
Dosick, Wayne. "Living Judaism: the complete guide to Jewish belief, tradition, and practice." Google Books. Web 17 June 2011. http://books.google.com/books?id=bpXUYUO7cg8C
The three authors presented above and their works were considering the different ways science and the results of scientific knowledge translated in the advance of technology influence human lives. Hawthorne saw technology positively influencing the lives of those taking advantage of it and helping them get out of the darkness of unknown; Dick was imagining a much more gloomy outcome of the combination between human nature and technology, while Taylor was presenting the importance of addressing the issues of prosperity in an industrial society benefitting the advantages of technology solely from the point-of-view of science.
Dick, P.K.(1968) Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep. Ballantine Books.
Hawthorne, N.(1898) the House of the Seven Gables. etreived: Oct. 15, 2008. Available at http://books.google.com/books?id=wxYPsGsZOQQC&dq=the+house+of+the+seven+gables&pg=PP1&ots=tJCsK0U_GC&sig=Ez5dxVgBzgzPk9DZNOvMO4PrdY&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result
Taylor, F.W. (1911) the Principles of Scientific Management. Harper. Originally from Harvard University. etrieved: Oct. 15, 2008. Available at http://books.google.com/books?id=5ek4cYPdndYC&dq=the+principles+of+scientific+management&pg=PP1&ots=jZtS7Qkgc5&sig=_AhmBEtfZQZbjyjJwq4crGqmc0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result
Dick, P.K.(1968) Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep. Ballantine Books.
Hawthorne, N.(1898) the House of the Seven Gables. Retreived: Oct. 15, 2008. Available at http://books.google.com/books?id=wxYPsGsZOQQC&dq=the+house+of+the+seven+gables&pg=PP1&ots=tJCsK0U_GC&sig=Ez5dxVgBzgzPRk9DZNOvMO4PrdY&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result
Taylor, F.W. (1911) the Principles of Scientific Management. Harper. Originally from Harvard University. Retrieved: Oct. 15, 2008. Available at http://books.google.com/books?id=5ek4cYPdndYC&dq=the+principles+of+scientific+management&pg=PP1&ots=jZtS7Qkgc5&sig=_AhmBEtfZQZbjyjJwq4crGqmcR0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result
The Paradox of the Chinese-American Community in San Francisco -- a New Province of an Ancient Land is Created Upon American Shores
What does it mean to be Chinese-American? Perhaps, to answer this question it is best to ask what it means to be Chinese. To be Chinese in China means to speak with a Mandarin, Cantonese, or another dialect particular to one's region and location in that vast land. It is to be either of rural or urban location in one's manners and customs and birth. It is, in other words, to have a distinctly territorial and ethnic identity within a highly complex and evolving country that is still coming to terms with the legacy of Maoism. China today is still building an economy on a worldwide scale that delicately balances its past traditions with the needs of the global marketplace.
To be a Chinese-American, however, is…
Pan Chao's text "Lessons for Women" illustrates women's role and self-perception in first century China. These seven lessons were written out by Pan Chao for her daughters in an attempt to prepare them for married life and for their roles as women in Chinese society. Pan Chao's teachings stress the restrictions imposed on women by themselves and their society. Women were viewed as the weaker sex, as necessarily subservient to men, and of secondary importance to their husbands. Marriage is also portrayed as the culmination of a woman's life, as she has essentially no genuine personal life of her own save that which exists in the context of the marriage. "Lessons for Women" shows that a woman's daily life in ancient China consisted mainly of household duties and psychological obligations to her husband and her in-laws; the teachings underscore the remarkable strength of character exhibited by women like…
Honor Code of Chinese Warriors
The objective of this study is to discuss the honor code of warrior-heroes in Chinese history and to answer to what the honor code consists of and the origin of the honor code. As well, this study will examine how this honor code influenced the intentions, words, and actions of the warriors and how the honor code manifests itself in novels, how and when the codes apply and what competing visions existed in human conduct.
Wuxia is a term in Mandarin that means literally "martial arts chivalry" and is representative of a unique Chinese type of story that is dated back as far as the Tang Dynasty (681-907). Wuxia is defined by stories "that combine wushu (martial arts) tradition with deeds of heroic chivalry perfomed by men and women." (Pollard, 2011, p.1) Wuxia stories are rooted in "early youxia (?
) and cike (?
The Warrior Code (nd) China History Forum. Retrieved from: http://www.chinahistoryforum.com/index.php?/topic/31149-warrior-spirit-in-china-chinese-warrior-codes/
Hsia, C.T.C.T. Hsia on Chinese Literature. Columbia University Press, 2004 (ISBN 0231129904), pg. 149
Bordahl, Vibeke. Four Masters Of Chinese Storytelling: Full-length Repertoires Of Yangzhou Storytelling On Video. Nordic Institute of Asian Studies; Bilingual edition, 2004 (ISBN 8-7911-1464-0), pg. 166
Guth, Christine. Longfellow's Tattoos: Tourism, Collecting, and Japan. University of Washington Press (2004), p147
Both Spartan men and women exercised together in the nude, and both were "encouraged to improve their intellectual skills" ("omen in Ancient Greece"). Being a woman in Sparta certainly ensured a greater sense of gender equality -- but that does not necessarily mean Sparta was the preferred residence of women in Greece. After all, Sparta did without a lot of the creature comforts that other city-states like Athens took for granted as essential to civilization. There is a reason the phrase "Spartan living" has come to be synonymous with the bare necessities.
As for variance in the social structure of the various states, democracy prevailed in Athens for a time (but so did tyranny and corruption as well). Thebes also had its monarchy and later on its heroic warrior citizens. Sparta had two kings who ruled simultaneously. But its social structure was also more slave-based than anywhere else. In fact,…
Haaren, John. Famous Men of Rome. NY: American Book Company, 1904.
Johnston, Sarah. Religions of the Ancient World. Harvard University Press, 2004.
Kyziridis, Theocharis. "Notes on the History of Schizophrenia." German Journal of Psychiatry, vol 8, 42-48, 2005.
Sikora, Jack. Religions of India. Lincoln, NE: Writer's Club Press, 2002.
In addition for many years it was indeed considered impolite to laugh out loud in public which had an impact on the aesthetic value of the period in history.
The faith of Ancient Buddhism is perceived to be one of the oldest faiths in the world. Its teachings are still followed today in much of the Eastern part of the world and its simplistic view of life and the meaning of life can be seen in many other areas and cultures.
There is no denying the aesthetic value that the faith had on the period of ancient times when one examines the art being located on digs today. The beliefs of Ancient Buddhism have carried over to impact the aesthetic value of Western cultures as well as can be evidenced in the color lessons at designers schools and the study of color by modern day mental health professionals.
Ultimate Journey: Retracing the Path of an Ancient Buddhist Monk Who Crossed Asia in Search of Enlightenment. - Review - book review Christian Century, May 23, 2001 by Leo D. Lefebure http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1058/is_17_118/ai_75496693
Color Symbolism in Buddhist Art http://www.kheper.net/topics/Buddhism/colors.html
Real Buddhas Don't Laugh:Attitudes towards Humour and Laughter inAncient India and ChinaMICHEL CLASQUINUniversity of South Africa http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:0ZC9clSD9mMJ:www.thezensite.com/ZenEssays/Philosophical/Buddhas_Dont_Laugh.pdf+aesthetic+%22ancient+Buddhism%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=5&gl=us&ie=UTF-8
Origin of Ancient Nepal
Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people were living in the Himalayan region in the distant past, although their culture and artifacts are only slowly being explored. Written references to this region appeared only by the first millennium .C. During that period, political or social groupings in Nepal became known in north India. The Mahabharata and other legendary Indian histories mention the Kiratas (Roberts JM, History of the World), who still inhabited eastern Nepal in 1991.
Some legendary sources from the Kathmandu Valley also describe the Kiratas as early rulers there, taking over from earlier Gopals or Abhiras, both of whom may have been cowherding tribes. These sources agree that an original population, probably of Tibeto-urman ethnicity, lived in Nepal 2,500 years ago, inhabiting small settlements with a relatively low degree of political centralization.
Monumental changes occurred when groups of tribes calling themselves…
Roberts JM History of the World.
Women throughout Chinese history have experienced the oppression their tradition and culture exert as well as the power only members of their sex can attain in their chosen domains. Although readers have been exposed to historical anecdotes relating foot binding and Man's superiority to women, there are also many stories relating their freedom and tenacity, whether they are wives, concubines, courtesans or prostitutes. The history of Chinese women is not necessarily limited to persecution and being dominated, it is also peppered with inspirational stories of women who have been able to find happiness, success and fulfillment within the parameters Chinese tradition and culture dictate.
In Chinese society, the positions women maintained were very indistinct (http://www.wm.edu/CAS/anthropology/faculty/hamada/Virtual_Classromm/wwwb.../208.htm,1)."In Chinese society, women as a category had a dependent status." (Watson, 1991, 232). efore a girl married, she was controlled completely by her father. After she married, this responsibility was transferred to her husband. If…
Bennett, Natalie. (2001) Women of Emperial China: A Re-Examination. http://www.journ.freeserve.co.uk/china/china4.html
Burns, Dennis. (2002) The View From the Dragon's Lair. http://www.crystal-bridge.com/dennis0402.html
Jaschok, Maria. (1988) Concubines and Bondservants: The Social History of a Chinese Custom. London: Zed Press.
Jaschok, Maria & Miers, Suzanne (eds.) (1994) Women and Chinese Patriarchy. New Jersey: Hong Kong U.
riters accused of composing subversive works were jailed, exiled, or executed" and thus silenced (Pamintuan, 2003).
Such puritanical attitudes on the part of the leadership seemed to be embraced by the common people. For example, a woman's virtue was held in particularly high regard during this period. The number of widows who honored their dead husbands by refusing to remarry or by committing suicide reached a historical high (Pamintuan, 2003). The government sponsored special female-only homes to support impoverished widows who refused to marry, to honor the memory of their dead husbands (Pamintuan, 2003).
The first Manchu emperor's successors, Yongzheng and Qianlong, were equally long-lived, ensuring stability of the regime and sustained peace. Also, they were quite effective in accumulating imperial intelligence in outlying areas of the empire. "Missives called 'memorials' were sent from trusted officials in these areas directly to the emperor with seals to guarantee that the document…
Nilsson, Jan-Erik. "Qing." Chronology. Text based on China: A Country
Study by Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, Edited by Robert L. Worden, Andrea Matles Savada and Ronald E. Dolan. Research Completed July 1987. Created 2002. Updated 23 Feb 2007. http://www.gotheborg.com/index1.htm?http://www.gotheborg.com/chronology/qing.shtml
Pamintuan, Tina. "Breaching the Great Wall: How the Manchu Took China."
Humanities. March/April 2003. Volume 24/Number 2. http://www.neh.gov/news/humanities/2003-03/greatwall.html
Ancient Chinese Architecture
Modern Chinese Architecture
Ancient Chinese architecture is considered to be an important part of the world architectural system along with architecture in Europe and Arabian architecture. Over centuries, the construction and architecture of China has developed in to a style of its own and is often characterized by the heavy timberwork that combines with stone carving and rammed earth construction and bucket arch buildings and other techniques that make it unique (Guo, 2005).
The Great Wall, Forbidden City and the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor are some of the examples of ancient Chinese architectural miracles that were created by the laboring people of the country.
The rampant use of timber framework was the primary and significant characteristic of ancient Chinese architecture. In order to make the buildings more beautiful and attractive the ancient Chinese architects used paintings and carvings that were put up into…
Guo, Q. (2005). Chinese architecture and planning. Stuttgart: Edition Axel Menges.
Lou, Q., & Chen, P. (2002). Ancient Chinese architecture. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press.
Lu, D. (2007). Architecture and global imaginations in China. The Journal Of Architecture, 12(2), 123-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13602360701363411
Wang, Q. (2011). Chinese architecture. New York: Better Link Press.
Acupuncture is an ancient practice of the East with a long history, which has been incorporated into modern Western use, and has been met with mixed reviews by the public and scientific communities.
The History of Acupuncture
The Origins of Acupuncture
Early tools and methods
Evolution of Acupuncture
F. Development of schools and comprehensive Texts
Eastern Medicine Meets the Modern West
Medical Missionaries to China
Adoption of Western Practice
The Decline of Acupuncture
Communist Support for Acupuncture
Regrowth and new methods
Acupuncture in Use Today
FDA Approved Needles
Universities and Physicians
New variations on Acupuncture
E. Why Western Medicine Fails
Arguments Against Acupuncture
A. The skeptics
C. How to avoid Risks
Scientific Proof and Conclusion
A. Studies have varying conclusions
. Remains widely used by prestigious medical institutions and private practitioners
C. Acupuncture makes people feel better, therefore it works
Carroll, Robert Todd. "Acupuncture." The Skeptic's Dictionary. 2003. http://www.skepdic.com/acupunc.html
Dold, Catherine. "Needles & Nerves - Evidence of the Effectiveness of Acupuncture." Discover. September 1998.
Ellis, Andrew, Wiseman, Nigel, and Boss, Ken. Fundamentals of Chinese Acupuncture. Boston: Paradigm Publications, 1991.
Findlay, Steven; Podlosky, Doug; and Silberner, Joanne. "Acupuncture." U.S. News & World Report. 23 September 1991.
learn so little about these ancient Eastern civilizations?
Ancient Greece and Rome are often called the cradles of modern, Western civilization. Greece 'gave birth' to democracy and major philosophic and scientific ideas spanning from the concept of atoms to geometry. Once upon a time, all roads famously lead to Rome, reflecting the importance of Rome in shaping the landscape of the modern globe. But simply because these civilizations were so important in shaping our own worldview does not mean we should discount the contribution of the East.
The recent excavation site of the Dadiwan relics of Qin'an at the Gansu Province is a demonstration of the richness of the early civilizations of the area. The archeological site has yielded some of the earliest findings of agriculture and pottery ever discovered, pushing back the date of the discovery of millet to a far earlier time than originally assumed. New evidence of…
The founding of the Chinese Communist Party was preceded by an influential intellectual movement called the New Culture Movement. Usually dated between 1915 and 1919, the New Culture Movement was headed by Chen Duxiu of Beijing University, as well as Cai Yuanpei, Li Dazhao, Lu Xun, and Hu Shi (Ebrey; "New Culture Movement"). The New Culture Movement provided the theoretical, scholastic, and ideological underpinnings of the subsequent political movements that would come to define 20th century Chinese culture. riters like Lu Xun captured the prevailing social unrest in his unconventional novel A Madman's Diary. A Madman's Diary uses a grotesque metaphor to capture the self-destructive, primitive, outmoded, and senseless oppression of the Chinese model of feudalism. ritten during the warlord period, A Madman's Diary exposes the futility of social conformity to the Confucian value system while suggesting that the only way to evoke change is to appear as…
Ebrey, Patricia B. The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1996. p. 270-271. Retrieved online
Lu Xun. A Madman's Diary.
"New Culture Movement." Cultural China. Retrieved online
Economics in Ancient Civilization
It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…
Buck-Norss, S. The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991.
Benjamin, W.(1927). Das Passagen Werken. Notebooks.
Bitros, George C., and Anastassios D. Karayiannis. "Morality, institutions and the wealth of nations: Some lessons from ancient Greece." European Journal of Political Economy 26.1 (2010): 68-81.
Boyazoglu, J., I. Hatziminaoglou, and P. Morand-Fehr. "The role of the goat in society: Past, present and perspectives for the future." Small Ruminant Research 60.1/2 (2005): 13-23.
This era is significant because it was dominated by peace at a local level, political constancy, and economic growth as a result of a dictatorship created by Tokugawa Ieyasu. The moment when he became shogun was very important in Ieyasu's life, as he was provided with the opportunity to commence a plan that he was thinking of long before he came to rule Japan. He sent many of his allies to rule over areas that he considered being potentially hostile in an attempt to have people there change their opinions regarding his personae. This individual was well-acquainted with the fact that control was one of the most effective tools that a leader could use and thus focused on having as much control as possible. Ieyasu's successor further continued his predecessor's system of gaining control over his people and influenced all of the Daimyos in Japan to live in Edo for…
Henshall, Kenneth, "A History of Japan: From Stone Age to Superpower," (Palgrave Macmillan, 15.05.2012)
Lambert, Tim, "A BRIEF HISTORY of KOREA," Retrieved October 16, 2012, from the a World History Encyclopedia Website: http://www.localhistories.org/korea.html
Miles, Nancy, "Footbinding," Retrieved October 16, 2012, from the UCLA Website: http://www.international.ucla.edu/shenzhen/2002ncta/miles/index.htm
Seth, Michael J. "A Concise History of Korea: From the Neolithic Period Through the Nineteenth Century," (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006)
The author of this report has been asked to compare and contrast the religious belief systems that existed in the Ancient Near East, the Indian subcontinent and China. Indeed, there will be a recitation of what they have in common and how they differ. The religions in question would include ones like Judaism, those of ancient Egypt and others like Mesopotamia and beyond. The more Eastern religions like Confucianism and Daoism is also in the discussion. hile the religions in the regions cited are alike and similar in many ways, there are still absolutely differences and variations that exist.
Some of the religions in question are Taoism/Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism. Taoism, Buddhism and Confucianism are often collected in a set that is known as the "three teachings. All of the religions in question date back about fourteen centuries. One thing that they absolutely have in common is that…
ACM. "Asian Civilisations Museum." Acm.org.sg. N.p., 2017. Web. 28 Jan. 2017.
Duiker, William J. and Jackson J. Spielvogel. World History. 7th ed. Australia: Wadsworth Cengage
Learning, 2013. Print.
Kimchi in an ancient Korean food made from a pungent mixture of fermented vegetables and its variations amount to 80 kinds of dishes of that period (aymond). For the season's summer and fall it is made in small quantities because the fermentation can go bad, but for winters it is made in large quantities so that it can be eaten for 3-4 months of the winter season. The Kimchi curing for the winter season is called "kimjang" and in usually done in the last days of November (aymond).
In the old times, kimchi was made of greens picked and salt or salt and alcohol mixture. By the end of Unified Shillan and start of Koryo era, pickled sliced radish in brine was made very popular (aymond). Soon after chili was introduced in Korea and it was added in the kimchi making as well. During the late Chosen era, powdered chili…
Armstrong, E. The Importance of Fermentation. 2004. www.treelight.com
Donna. Kimchi: Why This Delicious Korean Staple is Also a Health Wonder food. Body Ecology. 2008
Olsen. How kimchi prevents obesity. Bright Hub. 2009
Owl. The Everyday Benefits of Kimchi. Flu Trackers. 2006
4. Social and Political Life
There is a general paucity of information about the actual societal and political structure of the Olmec. While there is not much evidence to build a comprehensive picture of the daily and social life of these people, there is enough available data from certain archeological sites to provide some reasonable speculations.
One of the assumptions that is derived from the excavation of sites at San Lorenzo and then at La Venta is that the society was very centralized. This in turn has led to the view that the society was highly structured, with a hierarchical basis of order and class stratification. This also implies the existence of a ruling elite and a system of power and control, which was possibly based on religious beliefs. This view of the structure of the society is summarized as follows: "Olmec society was & #8230;highly centralized, with a…
Griffin Gillett G., the Olmec World: Ritual and Rulership,
http://www.tribalarts.com/feature/olmec / (accessed 8 November, 2010).
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Chinese Atist AI Weiwei
"Tuth, No Matte the Powe: China govenment's aggesso."
This pesentation will povide you with an intoduction to Ai's life and wok, including his pesonal backgound, some of his geatest woks of at and thei significance as well as the contovesies they have caused in his native China.
Although AI has faced temendous opposition fom the Chinese govenment, he is a foce to be eckoned with: he has dedicated his life to change and expanding awaeness about human ights abuses in China. His intenational fame has made him a global voice fo China's 1.3 billion people.
Fist, I will povide you with a bief backgound as to Ai's beginnings. Ai is known fo his conceptual at, at that emphasizes ideas ove aesthetics and visual appeal. Ai believes that being an atist is moe about a lifestyle and attitude than poducing an atistic poduct. His ealy, seminal influence…
Examining Cultural Influences of Behavioral Nutrition: The Traditional and Nutritional Values of the Chinese Cultural Diet
It is a general belief that adequate nutrition equals healthy living. From time immemorial, human beings have understandably placed a premium on diets. Rightly so as lives have been saved or lost through food. However, while nutrients will always be a significant factor which decides what people eat or do not eat, there are other as worthy elements that influence human eating behavior. One of those other several factors that determine people's choice of food is cultural influences. This explains why food is one of the crucial elements that define people's way of life. People’s culture cannot be holistically discussed without good attention to their diets. One of the world's cultural groups that are very popular for their diet culture are the Chinese people. Of several other components of the Chinese, food is a…
In Lao Tzu's opinion, there is much more to Dao than just matter. In order to understand Dao people need to dispose of their previous concepts in relation to life and to their purpose on earth. Chapter fourteen gives instructions on how people should act if they actually want to see, hear, and touch Dao. According to Lao Tzu, one of the biggest mistakes made by people when they attempt to discover something is that they try to compare it to something from their daily lives.
As written in the Prehistoric Origins chapter, people constantly search for new theories to adopt and to follow for the rest of their lives. In contrast to that, Dao is not something that one could follow from a certain point in their lives, as it is something that people have always followed from the beginning of time. Unlike the sun that shines for only…
1. Correa, Nina. "MY DAO DE JING." Retrieved September 29, 2009, from the Dao is open Web site: http://www.daoisopen.com/BYNina.html
2. Lao Tzu. "Tao Te Ching."
Whenever a person planted a garden or changed a landscape in any way, it was important to be sure that this balance was taken into consideration. A second school of feng shui was developed in order to show the best places for objects. This school used a grid, compass, and square to determine where objects are in harmony with one another ("Feng Shui," 2009).
Today, it is this school of feng shui that is most often practiced and that is very popular in the West. Home designers place the bagua, an octagon shaped chart divided into eight sections, which represent the eight sections of life that must be balanced: career, marriage and relationships, family and health, wealth, helpful people, children and creativity, knowledge, and fame, as well as the four essential elements and other components. By placing this chart over the plan of a room, home designers can arrange furniture…
Discover Chinese Astrology. (2007). Retrieved August 10, 2009, from Fire Pig:
Feng Shui. (2009). Retrieved August 10, 2009, from Microsoft Encarta:
Fengshui is an ancient Chinese tradition of placement in the universe which is designed to create balance within the self. The theory is that by placing certain articles in specific places within the home, the spirit of the person who lives there will be more balanced and will be more likely to achieve a feeling of inner peace. The four corners of a square room are each given a color designation (green, red, white, and dark) which is used to represent the four directions. These also have an animal symbol. Placement of certain items in the correct corner will lead to the intended balance (Brunn 48). Under the Communist rule of China following the middle of the 20th century, the idea of fengshui was suppressed for being emblematic of what was perceived as outdated spirituality and superstition. However, in Hong Kong, then a location which was under the control of…
Brunn, Ole. "The Fengshui Resurgence in China: Conflicting Cosmologies Between State and Peasantry." The China Journal. 36. 1996. 47-65. Print.
Chen, Hau Ling. "Constructing a Transnational, Multilocal Sense of Belonging: an Analysis of Ming Pao." Journal of Communication Inquiry. Sage. 29:141. 2005. Print.
Lee, Francis L.F. And Angel M.Y. Lin. "Newspaper Editorial Discourse and the Politics of Self-
Censorship in Hong Kong." Discourse and Society. 17:331. Sage. 331-358. Print.
By placing these lessons within the context of the battlefield, Sun Tzu provided thousands of years of audiences with a Taoist approach to conflict and to warfare.
Taoism is traditionally thought of as a peaceful, natural philosophy that avoids fighting much like Buddhism. But this is untrue. Taoism recognizes that life involves conflict, but that the wise man can mediate this conflict and control it so that it is least destructive and most productive. Thus, war is not an anathema to Taoists, merely a last resort. Sun Tzu concludes, "The art of war is of vital importance to the state. It is a matter of life and death, a road either to safety or to ruin. Hence under no circumstances can it be neglected" (Sun Tzu 9). Taoists would agree: conflict is an inescapable part of life, thus a deeper understanding of it such as Sun Tzu provides is the…
Cantrell, Robert L. Understanding Sun Tazu on the Art of War. Arlington, VA: Center for Advantage, 2003.
Evans-Campbell, Brent. "The Art of Strategy." 1999. 9 April 2007 http://www.langara.bc.ca/prm/1999/strategy.html .
Sun Tzu. The Art of War. Ed. James Clavell. New York: Delacorte Press, 1983.
Wilson, Jaret. "The Tao of War." 4 Literature.net. 28 July 2002. 9 April 2007 http://www.4literature.net/story/2002/7/28/114855/249.
. The Dao is the source of all power which embodies all beings and encompasses both the yin and the yang. Remarkable quiet and serene, the Dao is rarely detected by humans, but provides invulnerability to those who posses it. Dao philosophy calls for its followers to refrain from certain foods and sexual activity, and also separates the role of the state from the lives of its citizens.
The great philosopher Confucius, also known as Kong Fu-Xi, evolved his teachings out of Dao philosophies. Confucius, like estern philosopher Socrates, is known to modern man through the others attempting to preserve his teachings. He took Dao teachings and evolved them into an entirely different sect. Unlike Daoism and later the Shinto religion, he believed that men were the source of the secret life, rather than the cosmos. The Analects of Confucius are dialogues between his followers and he which best embodies…
Confucius. The Analects. Penguin Classics. New York. 1998.
Noss, David S. History of the World's Religions. Prentice Hall. 12th ed. 2008.