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Greek novels of antiquity had their own taste for romance which was closely connected with conventional values and religious beliefs. The fact that five novels of ancient Greece that have withstood the test of time present romance in conventional ways, basically rooting it in heterosexual marriage so as to remove any possibility of controversial debate. The very concept of Greek romance is grounded in fourth century CE, after which it went on to leave an indelible mark on influential poets like Nonnus and Musaeus. Five important texts that managed to reach us in entirety from that age include Chariton's Callirhoe from the first century and Xenophon's Anthia and Habrocomes; from the second century, Achilles Tatius' Leucippe and Clitophon and Longus' Daphnis and Chloe; and, from the fourth century, Heliodorus' Charicleia and Theagenes.
Interestingly though each narrative was original in central concept, one theme that runs through all novels…… [Read More]
As Richard Polidoro and Uriel Simri (1996) write, "
Most of the athletes participating in the Games of 676 C probably came from various Peloponnesian districts and had a relatively short distance to travel. Some participants, however, may have traveled from communities located outside the immediate vicinity. Under the sacred truce, or ekecheiria, the athletes, officials, and spectators were guaranteed safe passage to and from Olympia."
Another important factor to note is that there were no such professional and specialized training institutes or organizations for the Greek athletes who participated in the events. Therefore, the athletes, more often than not, belonged to the wealthy class. Therefore it is fair to say that the Greek Olympics had been an event sponsored by the rich and participated by the rich. Finley and Pleket (1976) write, "The athletes of the 26th Olympiad probably came from the wealthy class, since only the wealthy would…… [Read More]
"The Greeks studied the movement of the body, how weight is carried, and how a shift in stance could affect the placement of limbs, torso, and head. After 480 BCE, the first marble sculpture displaying the qualities of 'contrapposto," or weight shift, appeared in the Kritios Boy" ("Classical Greek Sculpture: Background," Greek Sculpture, 1998). This is why classical sculptures are more atomically naturalistic. This is particularly evident in the facial expression, which is usually serene, proportional, yet not as vacant as archaic sculpture, because of the more naturalistic facial structure of the statues. More individuation is shown in the bodies of men and women, and gods, goddess, and idealized figures of heroes and athletes are typical subject matter. It is unsurprising, perhaps, that the greatest statues of this period were of gods and goddesses in temples of worship, like the figure Athena that once graced the Parthenon, and in terms…… [Read More]
These fundamental concepts of a polis also illustrate the similarities between the Greek polis and modern western civilizations.
However, there are some significant differences between the polis and modern society. For example, our cities and states are not organized in a geographic fashion which includes an agricultural area and an urban center. Our cities and states are also not necessarily sovereign. Although the United States affords individual states the opportunity to govern themselves while also enjoying the benefits of a central and unifying federal government, each state does not stand on its own. Further, as the developed world becomes more interconnected both politically and economically, it is less likely that even countries could be considered sovereign and independent. and, as is clear in the United States, it is not only are educated men that band together to form the collective intelligence and governing body of the city, state or nation.…… [Read More]
Ancient Greek Writers
Throughout the course of human history the definition of good citizenship is continually evolving. This is based upon changing social standards and how they are applied to the actions of different individuals. In ancient Greece, there were conflicting views as to which attributes were most desirable. To fully understand the differences within their society requires comparing the ideas of Plato and Homer. Together, these elements will highlight what it means to be a good citizen.
Plato's Views on Citizenship
Plato believed that anyone who is considered to be a good citizen must embrace a number of attributes in the process. The most notable include: the ability to remain composed / act dignified, honesty, someone who will not publically grieve the death of their friends / loved ones, a willingness to die in battle, respect / striving for worthiness and the realization that good people will meet favorable…… [Read More]
The skene or 'tent' was the building that was directly behind the stage, and this was where the actors of the drama could enter or exit from. It would usually be decorated as a temple or a palace, and it would have at least one set of doors from where actors could enter the stage. At times, there would be access to the skene form the roof, so that actors who were playing roles of Gods could enter form the roof if necessary. The paradoi meant 'passageways', and these were paths by which the actors and the chorus playing roles of messengers or persons returning from a trip could enter or exit. The audience could also use these passageways to enter and exit. (Parts of a Greek Theater)
The ancient Greeks, as everyone knows, were a truly unique people, and it was their firm belief that an individual was free,…… [Read More]
Ancient Greek Literature
The objective of this paper is to illustrate the relationship between ancient Greek burial or death rites, and ancient Greek literature. It has 6 sources.
Ever since the existence of man as a relatively advanced and developed life form capable of understanding the essentiality of employing the naturally inherent mental potential, humans have extensively focused upon producing large bodies of literary reproductions, tailoring and polishing their original themes and ideologies in order to illustrate the particular theme, motif or symbol that they perceived to be of instrumental, philosophical or abstract relevance, this depending upon the societies they lived within in addition to their psychological profiles.
From Shakespeare to Plato, from Socrates to Machiavelli, all of the literarily relevant figures focused, more often than not, upon integrating into their stories and volumes of abstract literatures themes that were relevant to a particular norm or parameter within their societies,…… [Read More]
Ancient Greek History
As the leader of Athens during the Peloponnesian War, it was Pericles' responsibility to develop an overall strategy for the waging of the war. The strategy he developed played on Athens' strengths and the weaknesses of the Spartans. Thucydides, in The Peloponnesian War, praised Pericles' strategic ability stating "when war broke out, he also he seems to have rightly gauged the power of his country."
(Strassler 1996, 127) Athens was primarily a sea power, and so Pericles placed his faith in the Athenian fleet. Instead of confronting the Spartans on land, Pericles called for all Athenians to enter the city and wait. He knew that the Spartans could never undertake a successful siege of Athens because of the "long walls" which connected the city to the sea. As long as the fleet kept the city supplied, they could outlast the Spartans.
While Thucydides was clearly…… [Read More]
Herodotus is called first historian, as he was the first known author of the historical book called the Histories, which contained various myths, legends and also many important historical events that were commented by this great Greek.
Herodotus was a very smart man but when reading his book I have to mention that we have to treat him as ancient man who sincerely believed different myths (for example he was sure that men living in Eastern Europe near Carpathian mountains were covered with hair allover their bodies). Sure, we know that was not true, and such features of his book can surprise but we should remember that he lived about 2,5 thousands years ago and ancient Greeks though being very educated nation believed in various myths and legends.
Also we have to remember that he was Greek and considered his nation and state as the most progressive civilization of all…… [Read More]
Instead of meaning "apology" in the modern sense, I am sorry, it is more a rhetorical device to allow one to defend one's beliefs and actions. Most of the text is written from Socrates' point-of-view, and while there were a number of accounts written about Socrates' last days, most consider Plato's version to be the most historically accurate- at least for writers of that time period.
In terms of evidence, the work focuses on the Socratic method in which the author, Plato / Socrates, has a dialog of logic and philosophy with the reader. Time after time Socrates uses the point-of-view that he was not corrupting anyone that was not already corrupted, but instead, trying to reconcile the truth of all things. However, by questioning everyone and everything, and never allowing himself to be satisfied with the answers, he seemed to earn a reputation of a busybody, or gossip. But,…… [Read More]
Ancient Greek society was highly stratified in terms of gender, class, and ethnicity. These stratifications had tremendous implications for how power was distributed and expressed in Greek society. One of the most notable power differentials, and likely the most severe and immutable, was the difference in status between males and females. Females were categorically prohibited from altering their own status or role, ensuring the perpetuation of patriarchy. Women meditated the patriarchal system by developing spheres of power and command in two realms in particular: the domestic and the religious.
Elite women had access to systems of power that lower class women did not. So bereft of power were the women of the lower classes that their lives were not deemed worthy enough of observation or analysis by Greek historians, scholars, writers, or philosophers. Elite women, on the other hand, enjoyed some treatment by each of these historiographies. Particularly in Sparta,…… [Read More]
In ancient Greek culture, homosexuality was generally accepted between males and, depending on the location, only partially accepted between females. These relationships existed because the modern concept of marriage between loving partners was not the norm, and men and women generally remained segregated from each other in society. Marriages became social and political alliances which were made primarily for the creation of legitimate offspring. Love and emotional fulfillment were mostly found in homosexual relationships, not marriages. Literature from that period can provide many examples of different views on homosexuality. For instance, in the Iliad, the traditional "erastes/eromenos" relationship is exhibited in the friendship between Achilles and Patroclus. Whether or not the relationship was physical, and those of the time assumed it was, the two of them gained personal fulfillment from their relationship with each other. On the other hand, in Aristophanes' Lysistrata male homosexual relationships are thought of to be…… [Read More]
The individual and group perspectives expressed within the sources of Chapter 5 The Greek Experience are the following: first, there is the experience of Homer, who writes in epic poetry of the Battle of Troy -- the Greeks' war against the Trojans (the selection is primarily concerned with the wrath of Achilles who is offended by the Greek commander Agamemnon): this source provides the essential "Greek" backdrop, the religious atmosphere as well as the military-like culture of the Greek people coupled with their intellectual and philosophical outlook on life. There is the perspective of Lysias, who writes on the death of Eratosthenes; there is the perspective of Plato, who writes from the philosophical perspective in the Apologia, regarding the trial of Socrates, where the teacher defends himself against the accusations of his accusers: this offers the perspective of the intellectual Greeks in Athens, who were more interested in transcendental…… [Read More]
Named after the Ancient Greek Goddess of Love, Aphrodite, aphrodisiacs are generally foods or aromas that are priced as erotic stimulants (Mallon 1999).
Since the beginning of time, cultures have priced certain foods and scents for their aphrodisiac qualities. The Greeks valued onions, carrots, truffles and sturgeon to excite their passions, while the Romans believed that liver of pike, peacock brains and flamingo tongues could inflame romance (Mallon 1999). The Romans also valued crushed celery seeds, even dedicating celery to Pluto, their god of sex (Mallon 1999). The Aztecs named the avocado 'ahucatl' which means 'testicle' and after the Spanish spread the news of the avocado's stimulating powers, Catholic priests forbade their parishioners to eat it (Mallon 1999). In the Tantric tradition, bananas were associated with erotic energy due to the shape, and according to legend, the serpent that tempted Eve hid in a bunch of bananas (Mallon 1999).…… [Read More]
Shifting ork Patterns
Introduction number of things about the history of accounting can be learned by studying ancient civilizations. It is important to look at the shifting work patterns in Greece, Rome and London in the 12th and 13th centuries to gain a better insight to these cultures.
In the 12th and 13th centuries, Greek men "ran the government, and spent a great deal of their time away from home. hen not involved in politics, the men spent time in the fields, overseeing or working the crops, sailing, hunting, in manufacturing or in trade (www.cedarville.edu/dept/ed/resource/schools/chca/othergrades/gree...)."
Most Greek women were not allowed much freedom outside of their homes, however inside the home, they were the boss. The main job for the woman was "to run the house and have children. Most Greek women did not do house work themselves, but instead had slaves (www.cedarville.edu/dept/ed/resource/schools/chca/othergrades/gree...)."
It was the female slave's…… [Read More]
I write to you to bring you tidings, and hope that your health is as it should be. I have an ulterior motive, however. I am writing to persuade, Moenidas.
As you know, I am an elder statesman here in Athens. The age of Pericles has dawned, and it is clearer than ever that our system of direct democracy is indeed the most superior form of government. I write today to persuade you to in turn persuade your colleagues in the Council of Elders to change to our form of government.
The time has come, Moenidas, to switch to a more egalitarian system, such as ours. Our Ekklesia is selected by all adult male citizens. We do not allow only some in our society the right to choose our leaders. Rather, it is the right -- nay, duty of all adult males to vote, and to be involved in…… [Read More]
Violence of some sort was often depicted. Sculptures of the Roman period, not surprisingly, were very similar. Again, it is difficult to tell the difference between Greek Hellenistic sculptures and Roman originals. And what better influence of classic Greek sculpture and its ideal art form on Roman artists than Michelangelo's David. The Baroque period is exemplified by Bernini's work at the Vatican. However, in his fine work, one cannot mistake the influence of Greco-Roman myth such as his own version of "Apollo and Daphne."
Examples of some of the differences between Roman art and Greek art would be Roman art tends to be more naturalistic then Greek art. Greeks were more interested in idealism. For example it's when a painter would manage to create an ideal beauty even more perfect than any of the flawed original models he was using. Romans were more interested in realism.… [Read More]
The three authors presented above and their works were considering the different ways science and the results of scientific knowledge translated in the advance of technology influence human lives. Hawthorne saw technology positively influencing the lives of those taking advantage of it and helping them get out of the darkness of unknown; Dick was imagining a much more gloomy outcome of the combination between human nature and technology, while Taylor was presenting the importance of addressing the issues of prosperity in an industrial society benefitting the advantages of technology solely from the point-of-view of science.
Dick, P.K.(1968) Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep. Ballantine Books.
Hawthorne, N.(1898) the House of the Seven Gables. etreived: Oct. 15, 2008. Available at http://books.google.com/books?id=wxYPsGsZOQQC&dq=the+house+of+the+seven+gables&pg=PP1&ots=tJCsK0U_GC&sig=Ez5dxVgBzgzPk9DZNOvMO4PrdY&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result
Taylor, F.W. (1911) the Principles of Scientific Management. Harper. Originally from Harvard University. etrieved: Oct. 15, 2008. Available at http://books.google.com/books?id=5ek4cYPdndYC&dq=the+principles+of+scientific+management&pg=PP1&ots=jZtS7Qkgc5&sig=_AhmBEtfZQZbjyjJwq4crGqmc0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result… [Read More]
Greek Project 1272
ART204 Formal Research Project Summer Term 2012
Ancient Greek sculpture is one of the most famous historical forms of art. Three main forms of life are represented by this sculpture; war, mythology, and rulers of the land of ancient Greece. The main aim of the paper is to revisit the history of the art of sculpturing in ancient Greece and different steps of its development within different time periods. Some of the main developments in Greek sculpture included depiction of changes in forms, depiction of female and male figures, degrees of present realism, and how sculpturing was used to achieve these effects.
Developments in Greek Sculpturing techniques
There are four main periods in which main developments and changes in the Greek sculpturing took place. The first period is referred to as the geometric period; second period is the archaic period, the third one being the classic and…… [Read More]
Greek History World Civilizations
What made the Greek civilization so great? What made the Greeks so great?
Greeks are the most famous and advance people around the world. There are so many areas and variety of things that makes this country and nation so rich and lively. The Greeks has a great history due to having great philosophers, socialist, wars, kings, food, outfits, culture, and great thinkers.
The history of Greek civilization is very rich and deep, it can be dated back to 300 B.C. The nation is entirely long and vast.
It was the first civilization in Europe. This part of the world was developed near the eastern side of the Mediterranean Sea. It is also considered as the birthplace of democracy as per several popular scholars, nations and authors of the world in the history.
The Greek is the first democratic country over the earth. The idea of…… [Read More]
The ancient Greeks pioneered philosophical rationalism, the practice of critically examining thoughts, ideas, and facts while discounting the importance of religious faith or emotionalism. A predecessor of hard science, rationalism underlies much of what we now call "Western Civilization." Rationalism implies that the powers of reason are sufficient to give human beings an understanding of the universe. Anything superstitious or fanatical would be anathema to the rationalist. Although a person can simultaneously believe in God and be a rationalist, in general, rationalism and religion propose conflicting worldviews. In fact, religion and rationalism often coexist peacefully in many parts of the modern world. For example, in religious countries like Italy, Ireland, Israel, and in some parts of the United States, people believe strongly in the tenets of their faith. However, in general religion remains separate from science. Rationalism dominates the worldview of most people in the modern world, at…… [Read More]
Also, this carving is quite sentimental in appearance, for it reflects "the solemn pathos of the Greek citizen, much like some of the sculptures found on the pediment of the Parthenon" (Seyffert, 245).
Our last artifact is titled Pair of Armbands with Triton and Tritoness Holding Erotes, made in the Hellenistic period, circa 200 .C.E. These jewelry objects were apparently designed for a woman of high Greek culture, for they are made from solid gold and are fashioned in the shape of two loosely-coiled snakes or serpents. Whomever designed these intricate and beautiful objects realized the special properties of gold, for the woman lucky enough to wear these could easily slip her arms through the loops, due to the malleability of solid gold. The two figures located at the tops of each piece are representations of Triton and Tritoness, most closely associated with the Greek god of the sea Poseidon.…… [Read More]
All of the Greek gods and their interactions were very similar to how humans would naturally act. They are all inclined to be jealous and vengeful of one another, along with having affairs that rival any daytime soap opera. They would choose sides and create massive wars on earth in order to win their way and prove their point.
Although the ancient Greek religion had fundamental elements which were very similar to other ancient religions, there is one thing that set it apart. The quarrelsome Greek gods did not try to teach their human subjects any kind of religious doctrine. Unlike Judaism and Christianity, with its strict rules and commandments, the Greek religion had no specific doctrines which it's followers needed to generally follow. Instead, the ancient tradition relied on mysticism, such as what was seen in the case of the Oracle of Delphi. Many researchers and scholars say that…… [Read More]
A Timeline of Greek Sculpture
Polykleitos, Doryphoros (early fourth century BC)
As Paul Johnson (2003) records, this ancient example of Greek classicalism "epitomizes a canon of male beauty embodied in mathematical proportions" (p. 63). Showing the perfection of contraposto, Doryphoros (or the spear-carrier) is a balanced representation of the body's muscles. Polykleitos, a contemporary of Phidias, had his own school of young artists, which carried on into the third century BC. Polykleitos' works are treated on in his own treatise, called "The Canon," which gave explicit attention to symmetry, clarity, and wholeness. The Spear-carrier is one of the best examples of Polykleitos' teaching -- however, this example is a copy of his original, and is held in Naples -- a fitting representation of the art of Greek sculpting.
Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos (mid-fourth century BC)
Praxiteles actually made two statues for Kos -- so the legend goes. One…… [Read More]
The vengeance of the gods is further underscored by the Chorus who warns that "But if any man comes striding, high and mighty, in all he says and does, no fear of justice, no reverence for the temples of the gods-let a rough doom tear him down, repay his pride, breakneck, ruinous pride!" Oedipus portrays tyranny and the people's greatest blessing becomes their worst curse.
In the last stage, Oedipus is a man who has become humbled with the pain and dejection of knowing the truth of reality as he is forced to admit his tragic destiny by the overwhelming evidence. The writer shows the sudden change in the protagonist's persona when Oedipus condemns himself by saying, "I stand revealed at last -- cursed in my birth, cursed in marriage, cursed in the lives I cut down with these hands!" (1309-1311) Oedipus's complete transformation is demonstrated when he gouged out…… [Read More]
Ancient Greek urban planning dates its glory to Pericles. Temple architecture sourced in a precedent civilization, the Minoan of Crete, is actually reflective of palace architecture from that society's maritime city-state, Knossos (de la Croix, H. And Tansey).
The Greek civis was largely informed by astronomy; influencing everything from temple design to the order of the public City-State. 'Archaeoastronomical' patterns beginning with the Geometric through the final Hellenistic period in Greece reveal sophistication in calculation synonymous to solar alignment. This perspective fits with what is known about the star gazing cult practices found in the archaeological record (Belmonte). Sacred objects further this theory, and there remain a significant number of votive statuary stored at temple sites. Votive offerings were left by devotees of that particular cult, including weapons, helmets, and even statues. The interior of the temple, known as the cella, was often decorated with columns and most used for…… [Read More]
Mediterranean agriculture therefore turned out as extraordinarily market-oriented.
Slavery turned out to be a further key component of the Mediterranean world economy. Aristotle was among the Philosophers who came up with the justifications for requisite of slavery to a proper society, for exclusive of slaves it would have been challenging for aristocrats to learn what was required to maintain culture or have the time to nurture political virtue. Slaves were obtained as a consequence of wars, bizarrely common in the Mediterranean world. Athenians relied on slaves for household jobs as well as workers in their enormous silver mines, which accelerated the development of Athens's empire as well as money-making operations, even though working environment were awful. Slavery also assisted elaboration on why Greece was never particularly engrossed in technological modernism appropriate to either agriculture or manufacturing. The Greeks established significant advances in building ship as well as routing, which proved…… [Read More]
Like imhotep and Asclepius, though to a lesser degree, Hippocrates' life is so shrouded in myth that it is difficult to state many facts about the man. He certainly existed, hwoever, and was one of the first to apply true rules of logic and science to the practice of medicine. This was possible largely because of the changes made in philosophy both by the pre-Socratics, who determined that the gods were not responsible for the laws of nature, and the major Athenian philosophers such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, who developed a system of rigorous logic that was attached to investigations of truth. Hippocrates focused on keeping the body healthy through preventative medicine, and that the body would often return to its natural state unaided -- thus the injunction to "do no harm."
Galen, a Greek physician arriving on the scene centuries later, learned all he could about the internal…… [Read More]
Historical Issues In Modern Education
There are numerous issues seeded in a Greek civilization, rooting down to the contemporary world; for instance Gender Equity, home schooling, Pledge of allegiance, Unions and collective bargaining just to name a few. Each of the issues would be addressed in due course.
Most notably gender bias as practiced by the Greeks is the major parasitical issue in all avenues of education. A study commissioned by the American Association of University Women (AAUW) in 1991 claims that girl don't receive as much attention and are not put into challenging situations like complex and abstract questioning, as compared to boys, in an average school (Woodward, 1998). Moreover, countable school books portray "stereotypical" image of women. These books are void of any acknowledgements of the abilities and achievements of women altogether. This has also been hinted by Cahill in the chapter Warrior: how to fight and also…… [Read More]
Greek Myths and Human Nature
Ancient Greek myths represent the view of a previous culture that has influenced current beliefs. Greek culture was one based on the stories and moral lessons told and learned from older generations to more recent generations. The destruction of human kind and the honorable lessons learned from those myths define what human nature is all about; these destruction myths highlighted the positiveness of human nature. Although it may seem counterintuitive and difficult to think of destruction as a positive notion, the idea of cleanliness, rebirth, and immortality allow for this exact interpretation to be made. In Greek destruction myths, it is not about the destroying involved in the myth itself, but it is instead about the aftermath that this destruction may bring to its people, community, and society.
As is well documented in many Greek myths, there is one God that overpowers all others: Zeus.…… [Read More]
Greek and Roman civilizations were not primitive. Their life style was organized and constructed in an structured pattern of rules that set the base for what we know today as modern existence.
Life was seen differently in Greece than in Rome. In the Greek conception, humans and gods were almost equal characters and they portrayed both parts in the same dimension. Humans were given divine attributes, while gods were represented as humans. This was a form of magic suggestion to compare humans with gods and create the feeling of power and balance that characterized life in the Classic Period. It was this conviction of their similitude to the divine entities that gave society the strength and balance to grow and flourish for many centuries, recreating a feeling of prosperity and harmony. The godly world they reflected in their mythology and poetry was as full of conflict as the human world,…… [Read More]
Ancient Kingdoms- Expansion and Empire Building
Ancient kingdoms and their expansion strategies were uniform throughout the ancient world. Persia, Rome, Athens and Sparta had expanded their kingdoms by means of conquests, wars and consolidation. The enlargement of kingdoms had but one purpose i.e. security as Thomas Hobbes notes: "If there is no power erected, or not great enough for our security, every man will and may lawfully rely on his own strength for caution against all other men" (99). Greece, Russia and all other major empires of the ancient world had their focus on just one thing, security which they sought through either conquests or consolidation with weaker nations.
It is strange but true that all major empires especially Sparta, Athens and Persia have histories that were interconnected. It was always believed both by the rulers and the ruled that mightier forces had the right to rule and for this…… [Read More]
Except for Miletus, which was sacked as an initiator of the revolt, the other cities were treated rather reasonably, going as far as recommendations for the settled Persians to respect local religious traditions (Herodotus VI 42-45).
This does not necessarily need to be seen only as a reasonable conquering policy, but also as a diplomatic and political approach: once Darius asked for the submissions of mainland Greek cities, many of them accepted, based on the previous behavior of the conquerors in Ionic cities. Athens and Sparta obviously remained aside, but this was also because they were also assuming a regional power status and would not find it calculable to surrender without a fight.
Reasonably enough, though, the Persian invasion could also be seen as a direct consequence in the involvement of the Athenians in the revolt of the Ionic cities and in their attempt to preserve a democracy here and…… [Read More]
Ancient Art / Comparing Two Works
Two ancient works of art were viewed for discussion in this paper. The first is called "Vessel Terminating in the Forepart of a Stag" at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The second is an Etruscan engraved mirror, which can be viewed at the Louvre. Although the objects are from different time periods and cultures and depict different images, they have in common the fact that they are both utilitarian objects made beautiful with adornment.
The stag vessel [http://www.metmuseum.org / Collections/search-the-collections/30006086] was discovered in Central Anatolia (a region of Turkey) and is attributed to the Hittite Empire, circa the 14th -- 13th centuries BCE. It is a drinking vessel made of silver with gold inlay. It is a representational piece that stands eighteen centimeters tall. According to the Museum's website, the stag's front legs and torso, which opens into a cup, was hammered from a…… [Read More]
Greek Concept to Movie Troy
Ancient mythology as never ceased to amaze and fascinate its readers and followers. Especially Egyptian and Greek mythology, having followers everywhere; in the current times it has found a new fan, that is the movie making business, with a special interest in Greek mythology. Nothing is better than watching your favorite characters brought up to life and actually see them doing all the things we had previously only imagined them doing. One such captivating movie is 'troy' based on the Greek Trojan war starring Brad Pitt. Various Greek concepts were shed light in this movie, which will be discussed, in relation to the movie.
The first concept is Fate, since in Greek mythology fate does not just happen. The gods make things happen, in their own engineered ways, and interfere to make things happen on their own account. Then there is MOIA, which means that…… [Read More]
Following these rules, the formation of the numbers is intuitive: the number would be split into hundreds, tens and units and the letters combined to give the graphical representation. This was a derived version of the addition numerical system that was used in the ancient times.
An additional problem was the fact that the system proved difficult to use initially for numbers that were larger than 999. What the Greeks did was add an extra stroke before the letter to symbolize that the respective number would be multiplied by 1000. This meant that you would now be able to include any kind of larger numbers with that stroke.
With the fractions, there were different representations that the Greeks used. One of them involved marking the denominator with a double accent and sometimes writing it down twice. However, there was also the representation we are mostly used to nowadays by which…… [Read More]
3. What are some of the themes you notice in the "Love Songs"?
The Egyptian love songs use the terms "brother" and "sister" as generic references to male and female lovers and suggest intimacy as well as the taboo of incest. Brother-sister unions were already written into Egyptian mythology by the time the love songs were penned. Also, the love songs reveal an emerging theme of romantic love, which almost seems out of place in ancient literature.
4. Did the erotic or explicit nature of some of the love songs surprise you? Explain.
The eroticism in the love songs is not wholly surprising, given that many ancient cultures addressed human sexuality frankly and even using graphic depictions. The Egyptians also employed some sexual imagery into their art, as did the ancient Indians and Chinese.
1. In what ways is the Hebrew view of God different from the Sumerian…… [Read More]
According to the Roman historian Pliny, in his Natural History, in 238 BC, at the direction of an oracle in the sibylline books, a temple was built to honor Flora, an ancient goddess of flowers and blossoming plants. (Pliny, XVIII.286) the temple was dedicated on April 28 and the Floralia instituted to solicit her protection for the city.
Although the Floralia originated as a "moving festival," after a period with bad crops when according to Ovid, "the blossoms again that year suffered from winds, hail, and rain" (Ovid, Fasti, V.329ff), the festival Ludi Florales started to be held every year, the first in 173 BCE. "It was later fixed on April 27th. After Caesar's reform of the calendar, it was April 28th. The purpose of the festival was to ensure the crops blossomed well." ("Flora," Roman Religion and Mythology: Lexicon, 1999)
Flora thus is fertile, like a mother, for she…… [Read More]
For example, in the United States, the Civil War occurred less than 150 years ago, and yet different historians provide conflicting perspectives about the causes of the war, why it was lost, and the consequences of the war for America's history. Moreover, it was only after the Civil War and the end of slavery that one began to see widespread, reliable publication about various slave rebellions that had occurred in the antebellum South. This is interesting, because it makes one wonder if that information would be available or suppressed had the war ended differently. Moreover, the vast majority of Americans are unaware that some northern states were slaveholding states. Furthermore, when one looks at the number of Holocaust deniers, despite the overwhelming physical evidence and documentation regarding the Holocaust, one can see how intentional misrepresentation can play a role in history; there are entire countries that believe it is a…… [Read More]
Ancient Ballgame of Mesoamerica
There are many ancient art forms that are acknowledged today as culturally enriching. The dramatic plays of ancient Greece are revered as great artistic accomplishments. The development of writing and ship building by the Phoenicians is recognized as a ground breaking achievement that changed the course of society. Yet some cultures do not receive this kind of acknowledgment for their customs, inventions, and creations which have nonetheless steered the course of humanity to a great degree. While the Olympics of Greek ancestry have gained high acclaim worldwide for the impact they have had on athletics and culture, other ancient sporting traditions have been glossed over by mainstream history. Games and sports were an integral part of the cultures of Central America and Mexico, including Volador (high pole), patolli (dice), stilts, hunting, and jai alai. One instance of a seriously underrepresented athletic influence is the most important…… [Read More]
This was true for example in the northern countries of Europe where Protestantism had firmly embedded itself an thrown off Church teaching. ars were the result as the Holy Roman Empire attempted to put down the Protestant Rebellions -- but the Peace of estphalia in 1648 finally and politically gave the Protestant countries in the north of Europe the right to exercise their new religions. Humanism, indeed, was spreading as a result of the Renaissance and many societies were willing to adopt it.
Bennett, Judith. Queens, hores and Maidens: omen in Chaucer's England.
University of London. 5 March 2002. Royal Halloway, Hayes Robinson Lecture Series No. 6. eb. 23 March 2011.
Haaren, John. Famous Men of Greece. NY: American Book Company, 1904.
Johnson, Paul. Art: A New History. NY: HarperCollins, 2003.
Jusserand, J.J. English ayfaring Life in the Middle Ages. Chatham, UK: &J Mackay & Co. Ltd., 1950.…… [Read More]
Ancient Text ith Modern Text
Because written literature is capable of being transmitted from the person who wrote it across generations, it acquires the status of communal wisdom simply by being recorded. Yet there are limitations to the applicability of such stories, and to a certain degree wisdom consists in knowing that there are limitations to the theoretical knowledge one can acquire in this way, or human error can misinterpret the text. I would like to look at the way in which three texts -- one ancient (by Rumi) and two modern (by Siije and Soyinka) -- offer wisdom at the same time that they suggest limits to our own knowledge, and limits to the applicability of any such wisdom.
The poems of Rumi, by virtue of their age, seem almost to define the way by which wisdom can be transmitted in literature, but also can acknowledge its own limits.…… [Read More]
Athens and Sparta were two most powerful states in Ancient Greece. Athens was known for its undying focus on infrastructural development while Sparta had an unmatched military prowess. As such, Sparta was the most powerful Greek state. Although the two states are very close geographically, they do have contrasting lifestyles, governance structures, military strength and economic systems (Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Greece. 1998).
Unlike Athens, which was a democracy government, Sparta was an Oligarchy system of government. This means the state was ruled by a few individuals. Two kings acted as leaders who were accompanied by five Ephors. The Kings passed on their crowns to their sons. The Ephors and Kings would attend the general assembly to develop and pass motions, decrees legislations and make civil decisions (Blackwell, 2003).
In Sparta, the goal of education is to yield a well-disciplined and well-drilled marching army. These people believe in…… [Read More]
Deborah is believed to have played a key role in public arena.
Even in the male dominant society of Israel, Deborah's orders were followed and people looked up to her for advice. In the position of a prophetess, she could give orders which were readily followed: "She sent for Barak...and said to him, 'The Lord, the God of Israel, commands you: "Go, take with you ten thousand men..."" Barak was not willing to go alone and wanted Deborah to accompany him. Deborah is an important figure in ancient Hebrew culture and it is through her that we can see how this culture allowed women to have some freedom in their restricted sphere.
The daughter of Jephthah was another prominent figure. She was also a judge who ruled Israel as she was a woman of strong faith. After her father promised Lord that if he won, he would offer "whatever comes…… [Read More]
Art of classical antiquity, in the ancient cultures of Greece and ome, has been much revered, admired, and imitated. In fact, the arts of ancient Greece and ome can be considered the first self-conscious and cohesive art movements in Europe. Style, form, execution, and media were standardized and honed to the point where aesthetic ideals were created and sustained over time. The art of classical antiquity in Greece and ome reverberated throughout history, impacting the art of subsequent eras in Europe. In fact, there can be no absolute "neoclassical" era in art history because of the way neoclassicism evolved throughout the centuries since the fall of the oman Empire. The arts of the enaissance borrowed heavily from classical antiquity, as can be seen in enaissance icons such as Michelangelo's David. Some suggest that medieval art pays homage to classical antiquity, even if the quotations from classical Greek and ome are…… [Read More]
Therefore, it is true that the aspect of trade of wine and quality, as well as publication of the paintings, used the grapes and wine themes for the marketing brand associated and the underlying culture within the painter's lives.
Why the artists from Classical Antiquity to Modernism have been using particularly this theme?
From the Classical Antiquity to the modernism era, people developed an attitude that keeps certain groups of painters making a name through the themes they apply in their paintings. Therefore, the grapes and wine theme is already in deep roots within the basis of sales possible. Every painting that applies the use of the grapes and wines theme receives significant support and acceptance within the society; hence, the reason it has such wide application by the classical antique and modernism-painting activists.
Why the modern artists have been continuing to use themes particularly from Classical antiquity and from…… [Read More]
The Greeks were one of the most religious societies in the ancient world. With roots in Minoan culture, West Asian beliefs, and Central Asian gods, religion permeated virtually every aspect of Greeks' life -- from politics and culture to family, morals, agriculture, festivals, games, as well as beliefs about nature and the origin of life (Carr). The Greeks strongly believed that there were invisible, all-powerful gods and goddesses that controlled every occurrence. As a society, therefore, it was important to maintain a good relationship with the gods through prayer, sacrifice, and leading a good (morally upright) life. The prayers and sacrifices were made in sacred sites and temples where the gods were erected in their personified forms (Cartwright). Gods were also believed to reside in mountains.
Religion in ancient Greece was strongly tied to natural phenomena like rain, storms, plagues, earthquakes, and volcanoes (Carr). There were gods for each of…… [Read More]
structure of ancient and modern dramas to highlight their differences and similarities. The paper also shows how drama evolved over the centuries with references to Greek, Elizabethan and Modern plays.
MODEN AND ANCIENT DAMA: A COMPAISON
Drama has an inherent ability to adapt itself to the thinking and wishes of the society in which it takes birth. Therefore modern drama with all its intensity, relevance and eloquence is certainly more popular among modern audiences than its ancient counterpart. Still we cannot deny the importance of ancient dramatic concepts, models and devices in the development and evolution of modern drama. While ancient plays are mostly remembered for their grandeur and myths, close analysis reveals that there is more to them than meets the eye. All ancient Greek tragedies contain some similar elements, which set them apart from tragedies of later eras. While they basically concentrated on highlighting the significance of myths,…… [Read More]
The Roman people regarded themselves as highly religious. They linked their success as a powerful force in the world to their cordial relations with the gods. The victory by the Romans was essentially a religious occasion in which the generals exhibited their piety and zeal to serve society by dedicating a fraction of their fortunes to the gods. Jupiter was particularly called to attention in such circumstances because he was the god of justice in leadership. Following the Punic wars fought between 264 BC and 146 BC in which Rome fought hard to assert its power as a dominating authority, magistrates built many temples in honor of a deity who they depended on to guarantee success in the war (Religion in ancient Rome) (Roman mythology).
How Ancient Rome Practiced Religion
Ancient Romans recognized and offered prayer too many gods and goddesses. Some of the gods were of Roman origin but…… [Read More]
As Amun, he also wears a flat-topped crown, which was his signature. The figure is carrying and ankh in one hand and a scimitar in the other which is laid across his chest.
The gold represents the sun in ancient Egyptian culture, and so it is the only fitting
The Hellenistic period began in 323 BC, after the death of one of ancient Greece's great heroes, Alexander the Great. Alexander had conquered vast expanses of the ancient world, which opened up great cultural influences on the people of Greece (National Museum of Athens 2010). During this era, the people speak a multitude of different languages, and there are cultural influences from around the ancient world parading through the streets, which might I add, have all been recently paved. The city itself looks strikingly similar to more modern day cities. The culture is ripe with artistic expression and acceptance.…… [Read More]
Marriage in Greek Myth
efore we discuss the depictions of marriage in the Theogony, the Homeric Hymn to Demeter and the Odyssey, perhaps we should first discuss the real- life ancient Greek marriage rituals and reveal their attitude towards marriage.
Indeed, many of the things we see in Greek myths happened in real life as well. For example, the Greek girls usually married quite young, around the age of 14, which was meant to ensure that the girl was a virgin and pure in mind and body. "Marriage to a family member was an acceptable alternative and occasionally encouraged in order to consolidate family wealth"- if we look at many of the marriages between gods (taking only this example), we will notice that many of them were affiliated. Remember, for example, that almost all of the Olympian Gods were in some way related, most of them being brothers and sisters,…… [Read More]
Thompson, James. "What Athenian men said about women." Women in the ancient world. evised July 2010. November 15, 2010.
Figure 1: Michael Lahanas
Figure 2: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Figure 3: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Figure 5: Discus thrower
Figure 5: From the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Figure 6: Metropolitan Museum of Art
James Thompson, "What Athenian men said about women," Women in the ancient world, evised July 2010, accessed November 15, 2010 at http://www.womenintheancientworld.com/whatathenianmensaid.htm
Lahanas, Michael. "Kore/Korai," Art Gallery, available November 15, 2010 at http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Arts/Kore.htm
"Attributed to Exekias: Neck-amphora (17.230.14a,b_27.16),"in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006), available November 15, 2010 athttp://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/17.230.14a,b_27.16 ?
"elief of a dancing maenad [oman copy of a Greek relief attributed to Kallimachos] (35.11.3)," in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006), available November 15, 2010 at…… [Read More]
e. The Law of Hospitality, which stressed over the utilization of the expertise and support services towards an individual or community, which has experienced critical and crucial time, similarly, the services and obligations between the master and servant towards each other has been the focused of his teachings and practices (Steven, 2006).
The Odyssey attempted several times to return to his kingdom in Ithaca, whereas the exiled ama never planned any political or military outrage against the ruling authority to ensure his return. The major difference in both the epics has been the deep involvement and influence of the ama's family in his life. Sita, the wife of ama, contributed deeply towards the spiritual objectives of her spouse, their children were equally involved in the quest marked by their parents. The Sita was forcibly victimized by the associates of the ama, and she was alleged for malpractices which eventually resulted…… [Read More]
According to Bass, "Hinduism is the only major religion lacking an adequate explanation as to its origin," as no definitive Hindu text exist that that date before 1000 B.C. Indeed, because Hinduism is one of the religions that views time as cyclical rather than linear, what information is available about Hinduism does not give a very accurate picture of its history (Bass 5). hat can be gleaned from this history is the fact that Hinduism is one of the oldest religions with one of the oldest societies in the world. Just as their origins are difficult to define, the beliefs of Hinduism are varied depending on one's personal interpretation of the religion. However, one of the more important aspects of Hinduism is its social caste system. This belief states that there are four casts, and each "has its rules and obligation for living." The three castes are Brahman, priests, hatriyas,…… [Read More]
They are the people who are not media-savvy enough to have their name recognized but should still be considered good citizens. Many of the people who are in the public eye and recognized as good citizens deserve their accolades. However, a good citizen cannot be defined solely by a person's image or level of popularity.
Interestingly, one classmate said that good citizens feel a sense of personal gratification when they help someone. Deriving personal gratification from helping someone is admirable, but an impossible standard to measure. Plus, even the most stalwart good citizen grows frustrated with local bureaucracies and derives little personal gratification from some of their work. Deriving personal gratification from helping others does, however, suggest that the good citizen must act out of a sense of duty and not out of a desire for fame or fortune.
Classmates implied that being a good citizen is important for creating…… [Read More]
Economics in Ancient Civilization
It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…… [Read More]
Marble Statue of a Kouros, Greek, Archaic Period, c. 590-580 BCE
Ancient Greece was a place of incredible artistry in terms of architecture, playwriting, and sculpture. So much of what is known about the Greeks has been learned through their artwork. Many of the pieces of Ancient Greek art are available to be seen in history and art museums around the world. In the present moment, by looking at the artworks which have been discovered that date back to the period of the Ancient Greeks, modern scholars can interpret what differences occurred in the various epochs of the era, such as the types of artwork created, the subjects which were given the most importance, and the mediums employed. The subject of the sculpture in particular can explain a great deal about the specific epoch in terms of clothing, armaments, and other aspects. At the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New…… [Read More]
The Cycladic Female Figurine- Most of the Cycladic sculptures are similar in tone to many of the Stone Age pieces found in the Aegean, Near East and Western Europe. They represent nude women with their arms folded across their abdomens. They have been found in many sizes ranging from a few inches to almost life-size, in graves, settlements, and even in places suggesting idolatry or religious activities. However, some modern scholars think that the term figurines or idols is not really correct. Idols imply a religious function that has not been confirmed and figurines do not fit with some of the larger figures. However, because of the distribution of these pieces of art, we can tell they were popular among the people of Crete and Mainland Greece as well; and their distribution suggests they were produced not just for the wealthy, but had a broader appeal (Doumas, 1969).
The…… [Read More]
The ancient Mexican region not only stands out as a mythological haven, but also as a culturally vibrant and technologically advanced civilization. Among the Mesoamerican civilizations, the Aztecs standout for their significant contributions in the fields of astronomy, medicine, and also for their bizarre ritualistic practices.
The Aztecs represent an important group of the Mesoamerican civilizations. They arrived from the north to the 'valley of Mexiaco' or what is currently the city of Mexico, during 1200 AD. Known as the 'Tenochca' or the 'Toltec' tribe, the Aztecs dominated the Mexican valley between the 14th and 15th centuries. Initially, confronted by the Culhuacans the Tenochcas had to flee the mainland and move towards the island. Under the command of Itzacoatl, the Tenochcas gained freedom and undertook the construction of the grand city of Tenochtitlan. As new regions in the valley of Mexico came under the Aztecs they also absorbed the…… [Read More]
Odyssey: Daily Life for Women
When it comes to the Greeks, Homer's Odyssey is recognized as a piece of literature that was not just about gods, men, and creatures, this historical read served as a cultural example about the women and their place in society. This book, provides a wide-ranging view of the Achean's peacetime people. Throughout Odyssey, a person is able to pick up some understanding of what is appropriate or inappropriate in relationships among servant and master, father and son, guest and host, god and mortal, and--notably -- woman and ma. It is clear that the women are the ones that perform an important role in Odyssey. With that said, this essay will explore the daily life of women from the literature Odyssey.
Social customs, marriage, rights and freedoms
While Odysseus is looked at as being an interesting figure, the women persons in the Odyssey are just as…… [Read More]