Filter Results By:

Reset Filters

We have over 1000 essays for "Ancient History"

View Full Essay

Ancient Literary Sources How Reliable

Words: 1920 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70146739

For example, in the United States, the Civil War occurred less than 150 years ago, and yet different historians provide conflicting perspectives about the causes of the war, why it was lost, and the consequences of the war for America's history. Moreover, it was only after the Civil War and the end of slavery that one began to see widespread, reliable publication about various slave rebellions that had occurred in the antebellum South. This is interesting, because it makes one wonder if that information would be available or suppressed had the war ended differently. Moreover, the vast majority of Americans are unaware that some northern states were slaveholding states. Furthermore, when one looks at the number of Holocaust deniers, despite the overwhelming physical evidence and documentation regarding the Holocaust, one can see how intentional misrepresentation can play a role in history; there are entire countries that believe it is a…… [Read More]

References

Cornell, T.J. 2005. "The Value of the Literary Tradition Concerning Archaic Rome," in K.A. Raaflaub (ed) Social Struggles in Archaic Rome. New Perspectives on the Conflict of the Orders, 47-74. 2nd ed, Malden, MA.

Forsythe, G. 2005. A Critical History of Early Rome. From Prehistory to the First Punic War. Berkeley, Los Angeles and London. 1-5; 59-77.

Livy, Books 1-10 (trans. de Selincourt, a. 1960. Livy. The Early History of Rome. London and New York). [Scott reserve DG 207 L5 D35 1960 or online at  http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Livy/ ]

Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities (trans. Cary, E. 1937-50. The Roman Antiquities of Dionysius of Halicarnassus. 7 vols. Cambridge, MA. [Scott PA 3611 L63 D562 or online at  http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Dionysius_of_Halicarnassus/home.html ]
View Full Essay

History of the World in

Words: 1369 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90662784

The first piece of literature that has endured over the years, the Epic of Gilgamesh, also testifies about the existence and consumption of beer, even attributing it the power to signify the civilization as opposed to the world of the beast that did not have any use of such drink. One of the heroes in the legend, Enkidu, is brought into the civilized world though the contact with a woman, consumption of beer and hygiene: "Enkidu's primitive nature is demonstrated by his lack of familiarity with bread and beer; but once he has consumed them, and then washed himself, he too becomes a human and is then ready to go to Uruk, the city ruled by Gilgamesh" (the History of the World in ix Glasses, p.27). The first recorded literary piece is linked with the largest city in Mesopotamia and the first alcoholic beverage to be used by humans at…… [Read More]

Standage, Tom. A History of the World in Six Glasses. 2005. Walker Publishing Company. New York

Beer Institute. Retrieved: Oct 17, 2009. Available at:  http://www.beerinstitute.org/tier.asp?bid=142 

A History of Beer. Retrieved: Oct 18, 2009. Available at:  http://www.alabev.com/history.htm
View Full Essay

History of Construction Technology of

Words: 9139 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54599726

Staircase ramps which are comprised of steep and narrow steps that lead up one face of the pyramid were more in use at that time with evidence found at the Sinki, Meidum, Giza, Abu Ghurob, and Lisht pyramids respectively (Heizer).

A third ramp variation was the spiral ramp, found in use during the nineteenth dynasty and was, as its name suggests, comprised of a ramp covering all faces of the pyramids leading towards the top. Reversing ramps zigzag up one face of a pyramid at a time and would not be used in the construction of step pyramids, while lastly interior ramps that have been found within the pyramids of Sahura, Nyuserra, Neferifijata, Abusir, and Pepi II (Heizer, Shaw).

Ancient Greece

Ancient Greek architecture exists mainly in surviving temples that survive in large numbers even today and is tied into Roman and Hellenistic periods which borrowed heavily from the Greeks.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ackerman, J.S. "Architectural Practice in the Italian Renaissance." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (1954): 3-11.

Alchermes, Joseph. "Spolia in Roman Cities of the Late Empire: Legislative Rationales and Architectural Reuse." Dumbarton Oaks Paper (1994): 167-178.

Allen, Rob. "Variations of the Arch: Post -- and lintel, Corbelled Arch, Arch, Vault, Cross-Vault Module." 11 August 2009. Civilization Collection. 5 April 2010 .

Anderson, James. "Anachronism in the Roman Architecture of Gaul: The Date of the Maison Carree at Nimes." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (2001): 68-79.
View Full Essay

History of Project Management at

Words: 6401 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38615055

Houses permitted the people to move from a nomadic existence to a settled and more organized way of life. The majority of the houses were square with other rooms built on. The palaces of the early Sumerian culture were the political, economic and religious focal points of the city; large-scale, lavishly decorated, and consisted of rooms used to house craftsmen and such. Archaeological finds have also revealed them to be temples and burial chambers for the elite, as well as library complexes, armories, and entertainment halls decorated with pictorial and mythological figures.

It was during the time of the Sumerian civilisation transitioning from nomadic hunting to agriculture, that many changes occurred as the population grew and more force was exerted on the local food supply. This necessitated more organization and administration that led to non-tribal leadership with its own political, economic and religious arrangement. Mesopotamia's expansion led to a wide…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

History of Science-Patronage Guiding Thinkers

Words: 1644 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13308766

Therefore, it can be said that the patronage of Federico Cesi was important for Galileo because it placed him in contact with well-known scientists, it offered him the possibility to conduct research by consulting materials from a variety of fields, thus broadening the spectrum of his analysis, and, at the same time, it enabled him to conduct research that would probably bring him prestige and fortune due to the respectability of the group he is part of.

The oyal Academy of Science of Paris is yet another remarkable example of patronage. However, this example points out a new level of motivation for patronage. During the reign of Louis 16th, the oyal Academy of Science came under royal patronage to point out the fact that "the king was the source of everything that happened in his kingdom" (Dear, 115). However, the king at the time had little interest in the actual…… [Read More]

References

Dear, Peter. Revolutionizing the Sciences: European Knowledge and Its Ambitions, 1500-1700. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001

Lindberg, David C. The Beginnings of Western Science: The European Scientific Tradition in Philosophical, Religious, and Institutional Context, 600 B.C. To a.D. 1450. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
View Full Essay

History of Economic of the 4 Periods in Ancient Civilization

Words: 5166 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 16341967

Economics in Ancient Civilization

It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Buck-Norss, S. The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991.

Benjamin, W.(1927). Das Passagen Werken. Notebooks.

Bitros, George C., and Anastassios D. Karayiannis. "Morality, institutions and the wealth of nations: Some lessons from ancient Greece." European Journal of Political Economy 26.1 (2010): 68-81.

Boyazoglu, J., I. Hatziminaoglou, and P. Morand-Fehr. "The role of the goat in society: Past, present and perspectives for the future." Small Ruminant Research 60.1/2 (2005): 13-23.
View Full Essay

History of Management Accounting

Words: 2266 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30844540

history of Management Accounting in a ten-page paper and review product costing, investment analysis and organizational performance evaluation over the past 150 years.

Read Relevance Lost: The Rise and Fall of Management Accounting and reference four other articles that describe the evolution of Management Accounting.

This paper examines the role of management accounting over the years as a system for determining an organization's performance and profitability. This paper further analyses the evolution of certain management accounting practices and their role in global competition and productivity.

Today's management accounting information, driven by procedures and the cycle of the organization's financial reporting system, is too late, too aggregated, and too distorted to be relevant for managers' planning and control decisions.

"In attempting to understand the genesis and scope of modern cost and management accounting systems, accounting historians adopting what has been labeled as a "Foucauldian" approach have been rewriting the history of…… [Read More]

HYPERLINK http://www.acct.tamu.edu?

www.acct.tamu.edu?, "A Short History of Accounting"

Dan R. Hansen & Maryanne M. Maven, Management Accounting, 5th Ed., Oklahoma State University
View Full Essay

History as Myth This-Based Myth Atreus Thyestes

Words: 1157 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23861822

History As Myth

This-based Myth Atreus Thyestes In paper I conversational I supposed a myth teacher a continuing education program geared library patrons aged 50+, a conversation actual essay. Below directions assignment: Briefly describe a historical event, a controversy, a world event, a current event, a military group action, a political event group, a religious group action, a similar phenomenon.

Thyestes and Atreus: The great Civil War of Mycenae

Once upon a time, long, long ago there lived two brothers named Thyestes and Atreus. These two brothers were extremely power hungry and even their own father King Pelops was forced to exile them when they killed their half-brother to better their chances to ascend to the throne. Undeterred, the two brothers found another kingdom to dominate, the land of Mycenae. Proving there is no honor amongst thieves; Atreus was determined to be the sole ruler of this new kingdom. One…… [Read More]

References

Freeman, Elsie, Schamel, Wynell Burroughs & West, Jean. (2992). The fight for equal rights: A

recruiting poster for black soldiers in the Civil War. Social Education 56 (2): 118-120. [24 Mar 2013] Retrieved:

 http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/blacks-civil-war/ 

The war: The crossroads of our being. (2002). The Civil War. PBS. Retrieved:
View Full Essay

History of Zionism Is the Political Movement

Words: 1662 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72081640

History Of Zionism

Zionism

is the political movement that arose in Europe in the late 19th century with the aim of creating a Jewish state in Palestine. It asserted that the Jewish people were a separate nation and were entitled to have a country of their own and succeeded in its objective with the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948. Since then, the Zionist movement has concentrated on strengthening Israel and encouraging Jews from around the world to migrate and settle in the Jewish state. This paper traces the history of Zionism from its origins to the present time.

Origins and ackground

Although the Zionist political movement started in the late 19th century, its roots lie as far back as 70 AD when Great Jewish Revolt against the Romans ended with the destruction of the Temple and the expulsion of Jews from Jerusalem. The land of Israel was…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cohen, Michael Joseph. "Zionism." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, CD-ROM Version, 2002

Edelheit, Abfaham J. And H. Edelheit. "History of Zionism: A Handbook and Dictionary."

Westview Press, 2000

Spiro, Rabbi Ken. "Crash Course in Jewish History Part 62 - Return to the Land of Israel." Aish.com. Jan 27, 2002
View Full Essay

History War and Peace in

Words: 1381 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9109352



Another explanation and reason of the necessity of war in Ancient Rome is economical.

There are several different perspectives on this. First of all, the Roman society was essentially a society using extensively slave labor as the most important form of labor in existence. This basically ranged from constructions to simple chores around the house and often to farming as well, entertainment of its citizens and in other battles. A society relying so much on slaves for its own economic benefits could only necessarily force wars and battles in order to constantly keep a thorough supply of slaves available for work.

Indeed, in general, the population of a nation that had been defeated in battle would have either perished in the fights or would have been enslaved. Enslavement meant not only work in the city of Rome (or elsewhere in the empire), but also the possibility of being sold in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Millar, Fergus. Emperors, Frontiers and Foreign Relations, 31 BC to AD 378.

2. Harris, William. War and Imperialism in Republican Rome. Clarendon Press. Oxford Millar, Fergus. Emperors, Frontiers and Foreign Relations, 31 BC to AD 378.

Harris, William. War and Imperialism in Republican Rome. Clarendon Press. Oxford
View Full Essay

ancient rome timeline of military

Words: 1082 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85204981

Ancient Rome and the Events of the Late Republic (end of the Republic), you will create a timeline of major events that led to the end of the Republic. Your timeline should have at least 7 events.

200 CE: The rise of populist or democratic sentiments and political philosophy. Rome was not a democracy, although it was a Republic. By the 2nd century CE, populist tribunes started to make waves on the Roman political scene. These populist tribunes were mirrored by the uprisings by local governments and communities in Roman-acquired territories throughout the vast empire. With such a vast empire, and such a relatively weak method of centralized governance, it became increasingly impossible to achieve harmony and authoritative rule. It was not as if Rome usurped idyllic ways of life, so much as populist leaders did recognize the need to start "reclaiming public land and putting landless poor citizens back…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Ancient Roman History the Objective

Words: 717 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1078821

" (New Standard Encyclopedia, 1986) There were two classes of people in ancient Rome, specifically those who were the patricians, or landowners and the plebeians who were poor farmers and those who worked in the city as well as those who had gained citizenship.

III. BEST RESENTATIVE of the GOOD SIDE of ROME

The emperor Marcus Aurelius who is remembered for his excellent form of a working government is stated to have passed away during the year of 180 a.D. during a war with the tribes of the Danube River, who were viscous tribes. The government was broke and the countrymen of Rome were sick from the plagues that had been infecting the land. The son of Marcus Aurelius, Commodus was spoiled and loved pleasure. Under the rule of Commodus, the government was poorly run and the result is that Rome is stated to have fallen into decay.

IV. RULE…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Charlemagne (2006) Lucid Cafe Website. Online available at http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/96apr/charlemagne.html.

Rome (1986) New Standard Encyclopedia. Standard Educational Corporation Chicago, Illinois.

Durrant, Will (nd) a Story of Civilization. Online available at http://www.chronique.com/Library/MedHistory/charlemagne.htm

Ancient Roman History
View Full Essay

History Provides Us With Insight

Words: 1391 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37861664

Furthermore, those people who did not speak Greek were referred to as barbar, the root of our word barbarian."[footnoteRef:5] [4: Ibid] [5: Ibid]

Question 3

There are many aspects of Greek culture and artistic traditions that have left their mark on civilization. These contributions included, their architecture, theatre and athletic competition.

Each one of these aspects requires a student of history to investigate and understand how these ideas have impacted human development.

Greek architecture stands out as a visual representation of how the Greeks preferred their living conditions. Greeks spent much time on the design of their buildings. Temples, a Greek staple, were adorned with many flourishes and exact proportions. Giant stone structures were placed in locations important to the region and as a source of pride. esides temples, theaters and gyms were developed to provide a unique sense of community.

Ancient Greek theater is a lasting contribution of this…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"Ancient Greek Philosophy." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  http://www.iep.utm.edu/greekphi  / (accessed April 21, 2013).

"Culture and Society." Ancient Greece.  http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/Culture  / (accessed April 19, 2013).

Polopolus, Leonidas. "Athens, Greece: A City State That Grew From OPtimality in the Golden Era to Excessive Urbanization." University of Florida. http://web.clas.ufl.edu/users/kapparis/aoc/athens.htm (accessed April 19, 2013).

Sage, Michael. Warfare in Ancient Greece. London, New York: Routledge, 1996. (accessed April 19, 2013).
View Full Essay

Ancient Kingdoms- Expansion and Empire Building Ancient

Words: 1649 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27599323

Ancient Kingdoms- Expansion and Empire Building

Ancient kingdoms and their expansion strategies were uniform throughout the ancient world. Persia, Rome, Athens and Sparta had expanded their kingdoms by means of conquests, wars and consolidation. The enlargement of kingdoms had but one purpose i.e. security as Thomas Hobbes notes: "If there is no power erected, or not great enough for our security, every man will and may lawfully rely on his own strength for caution against all other men" (99). Greece, Russia and all other major empires of the ancient world had their focus on just one thing, security which they sought through either conquests or consolidation with weaker nations.

It is strange but true that all major empires especially Sparta, Athens and Persia have histories that were interconnected. It was always believed both by the rulers and the ruled that mightier forces had the right to rule and for this…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

History of the Peloponessian War, Thucydides

Herodotus, Translations of the Histories, by A. de Selincourt

Hobbes, Thomas. "Of Commonwealth." Leviathan. Ed. Nelle Fuller. New York:

Everyman's Library, 1973.
View Full Essay

Ancient Accomplishments and Later Appearances

Words: 357 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87655464



The Sumerians of Mesopotamia were also the first to use iron, They recovered the metal from meteorites and used it for spear tips and ornaments. Later smelting techniques developed in the area to purify the iron, and these spread to Europe via trade routes. By the Middle Ages, large foundries existed for smelting and forging iron into the many things it was used for. Basic trade rules and organization also passed from the Sumerians to Europe; methods of keeping accounts and even early guilds and merchant groups were part of Sumer, and passed est with trade (Airmet).

orks Cited

Airmet. "The History of Iron orking." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.airmetmetalworks.com/iron-working-history.html

Hooker, Richard. "Ancient China: The Shang." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ANCCHINA/SHANG.htm

O'Connor, J.J. And E.F. Robertson. "Egyptian Numerals." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.gap-system.org/~history/HistTopics/Egyptian_numerals.html… [Read More]

Works Cited

Airmet. "The History of Iron Working." Accessed 26 July 2009.  http://www.airmetmetalworks.com/iron-working-history.html 

Hooker, Richard. "Ancient China: The Shang." Accessed 26 July 2009.  http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ANCCHINA/SHANG.htm 

O'Connor, J.J. And E.F. Robertson. "Egyptian Numerals." Accessed 26 July 2009.  http://www.gap-system.org/~history/HistTopics/Egyptian_numerals.html
View Full Essay

Ancient Iraq the Land Where

Words: 880 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55232532

Since they did not have stone, the Sumerians made do with brick, building a myriad of famous constructions during this period according to their needs.

As kings of rival city-states ruled Sumer during this period, they would often go to battle. For this reason, the Sumerians also engineered many important forms of warfare technology. These include the wheeled chariot and the discovery of bronze (via the melding of copper and tin.)

The second major stage of Sumerian development was marked by the invasion of Sargon the Great, who would come to rule all of Mesopotamia. Sargon would conquer the first known empire, which extended all the way across Syrian into southeastern Turkey. Among Sargon's many accomplishments, he standardized weights and measurements in the disparate lands that he came to rule over. This made trading possible in his kingdom. Sargon was also the first Sumerian king who managed to maintain a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Hourani, Albert. A History of the Arab Peoples. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press,

Roux, Georges. Ancient Iraq. New York: Penguin USA, 1993.

Tripp, Charles. History of Iraq. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
View Full Essay

Ancient India the Bhavagad-Gita in the Beginning

Words: 1835 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53161579

Ancient India

The havagad-Gita

In the beginning of "The hagavad-Gita," two groups of opponents prepare for battle. On one side, the one hundred sons of Dhritarashtra stand and on the other side, and the Pandava brothers stand. These soldiers are in the middle of a family feud over the right to govern the land of Kurukshetra.

A soldier named Arjuna, who is the leader of the Pandava armies, prepares to battle as Lord Krishna heads toward the opposition. Just before the battle, Arjuna asks Lord Krishna for advice.

Arjuna is ridden with hesitation and guilt as he faces his family and knows he will have to kill many loved ones to win the battle. Arjuna has set down his weapon and is ready to sacrifice his life. Arjuna approaches Krishna to tell him about his emotions regarding the battle. "Krishna, I seek no victory, or kingship or pleasures" (Miller, 25).…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Miller, Barbara Stoler, translator. The Bhagavad-Gita: Krishna's Counsel in Time of War. New York NY, Bantam Books, 1986.
View Full Essay

Ancient Lit Gilgamesh Questions Why

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88044406



3. What are some of the themes you notice in the "Love Songs"?

The Egyptian love songs use the terms "brother" and "sister" as generic references to male and female lovers and suggest intimacy as well as the taboo of incest. Brother-sister unions were already written into Egyptian mythology by the time the love songs were penned. Also, the love songs reveal an emerging theme of romantic love, which almost seems out of place in ancient literature.

4. Did the erotic or explicit nature of some of the love songs surprise you? Explain.

The eroticism in the love songs is not wholly surprising, given that many ancient cultures addressed human sexuality frankly and even using graphic depictions. The Egyptians also employed some sexual imagery into their art, as did the ancient Indians and Chinese.

Old Testament

1. In what ways is the Hebrew view of God different from the Sumerian…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Histories by Herodotus

Words: 1178 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98763112

Histories of Herodotus

In his Histories, which chronicles the historical aspects of ancient Greece, Egypt and other regions of Asia Minor, Herodotus focuses in the beginning on the myths associated with these cultures and civilizations from his own distant past which at the time had acquired some relevance based on what was viewed as historical truth. Some of these myths, which now through archeological evidence may have some basis in fact, include the abduction of Io by the Phoenicians, the retaliation of the Greeks by kidnapping Europa, the abduction of Helen from Sparta by Paris and the consequences which resulted in the Trojan War.

Following this, Herodotus examines the activities and consequences of more recent historical myths associated with the cultures of the Lydians, the Egyptians, the Scythians and the Persians, all of which are interspersed with so-called dialogue spoken by the leading figures of these cultures. However, Herodotus' ability…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Rawlinson, George, Trans. Herodotus: Histories. UK: QPD, 1997.
View Full Essay

Ancient China the Xia Dynasty

Words: 829 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29243765

The cultures shifted from a primarily agrarian economic base to one that used metal as a means to craft practical and ritual objects. In addition to the ritual cauldrons that were emblematic of the Xia dynasty, other uses of advanced metallurgical techniques include the manufacturing of "jue," vessels used to hold a grain alcohol beverage commonly translated as "wine," (Class unit: 12). In fact, bronze objects were cast en masse during the Xia and Shang dynasties (Class unit: 12). Warfare over metals, especially tin and copper, transformed the balance of power in the region (Class unit: 12). Commoners were frequently conscripted for military service during the Shang dynasty ("The Evolution of Complex Societies in China,": 446). Bronze casting allowed Shang rulers to have access to advanced weaponry. Their bronze weapons, their centralized leadership, and their control over a large number of peasant soldiers enabled the Shang to become the first…… [Read More]

References

Class Unit.

The Evolution of Complex Societies in China,"
View Full Essay

History of the World in 6 Glasses Compare and Contrast 3 Drinks

Words: 2056 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16705836

Histories of the orld in 6 Glasses (compare and Contrast 3 Drinks)

The History of the orld in Six Glasses by Tom Standage

'Tell me what you drink and I will tell you who you are'

The History of the orld in Six Glasses by Tom Standage chronicles human history through changing tastes in beverages, spanning from beer to wine to 'spirits' (hard liquor), coffee to tea, and ending with Coca-Cola. Although many books have explored human history through the lens of a singular foodstuff, few have used beverages. Yet, as Standage points out in his introduction, although a person can survive without food for a relatively long period of time, without liquids, he or she will perish in days. Beverages also have intoxicating properties which can change the way that civilizations unfold, either causing drunkenness or alertness. And it is perhaps for that reason that so many cultures and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Standage, Tom. The History of the World in Six Glasses. New York: Walker & Co., 2005.
View Full Essay

History of Construction Technology Time

Words: 6960 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 51255638

It consists a series of successively smaller platforms which lifted to a height of about 64 feet, and was constructed with a solid core of mud-brick covered by a thick skin of burnt-brick to guard it from the forces of nature (Burney). The Ziggurat's corners are oriented to the compass points, with walls sloping slightly inwards (Molleson and Hodgson) .

The Ziggurat of Ur was a component of a temple building complex that serviced the urban center as an administrative hub. Additionally, in terms of spirituality, it was believed to be the site on earth that the moon god Nanna (the patron deity of Ur) had selected to inhabit. Nanna was shown as a wise and unfathomable old man, complete with a flowing beard and four horns in number. A single shrine crowned the summit of the ziggurat (Faiella). This was purportedly the bedchamber of the god, and was occupied…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

History of Egyptian and Mayan Writing Egyptian

Words: 2110 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37558866

History Of Egyptian and Mayan Writing

Egyptian writing

The Egyptian language is one of the first languages to be put into written form. Some scholars have claimed that the earliest form of writing is the Sumerian language, but this contention has been put into doubt by more recent findings. Egyptian writing first appears on stone and pottery and dates back to 3,000 .C. (Mysteries of Egypt) The earliest alphabetical writing was found in the Abydos-Luxor -Thebes region of Egypt dating to 1800 .C.

Egyptologists have found limestone inscriptions that they say are the earliest known examples of alphabetic writing... carved in the cliffs of soft stone, the writing - in a Semitic script with Egyptian influences - has been dated to somewhere between 1900 and 1800 .C., two or three centuries earlier than previously recognized uses of a nascent alphabet.

Smith, Tony)

Recently, Egyptian writing dating to 3,300 .C. has…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ancient Egyptian Writing. May 18, 2004.  http://www.dragonstrike.com/egypt/write.htm 

The Ancient Maya.

Digital Meesh. May 18, 2004.  http://www.digitalmeesh.com/maya/history.htm 

Egyptian writing dating to 3300 B.C. discovered. The Japan Times, December 17, 1998. Accessed: May 20, 2004.  http://www.trussel.com/prehist/news95.htm
View Full Essay

Ancient Civis an Examination of

Words: 1418 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25047016

Ancient Greek urban planning dates its glory to Pericles. Temple architecture sourced in a precedent civilization, the Minoan of Crete, is actually reflective of palace architecture from that society's maritime city-state, Knossos (de la Croix, H. And Tansey).

The Greek civis was largely informed by astronomy; influencing everything from temple design to the order of the public City-State. 'Archaeoastronomical' patterns beginning with the Geometric through the final Hellenistic period in Greece reveal sophistication in calculation synonymous to solar alignment. This perspective fits with what is known about the star gazing cult practices found in the archaeological record (Belmonte). Sacred objects further this theory, and there remain a significant number of votive statuary stored at temple sites. Votive offerings were left by devotees of that particular cult, including weapons, helmets, and even statues. The interior of the temple, known as the cella, was often decorated with columns and most used for…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Belmonte, Juan Antonio. From the Atlas to the Caucasus: The Other Side of the Mediterranean Before Islam. Archaeoastronomy 15.(2000): 78.

de la Croix, H. And Tansey, R.G. Gardner's: Art Through the Ages. New York, NY: Harcourt and Brace, 1980.

Dimock, Wai Chee. The Egyptian Pronoun: Lyric, Novel, the Book of the Dead. New Literary History 39.3 (2008): 619-643.

Maddison, Angus. The Contours of World Development. The World Economy, OECD, 2010.. Web.
View Full Essay

Ancient Cultures the Purpose of

Words: 1299 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55561573

Greek and Roman civilizations were not primitive. Their life style was organized and constructed in an structured pattern of rules that set the base for what we know today as modern existence.

Life was seen differently in Greece than in Rome. In the Greek conception, humans and gods were almost equal characters and they portrayed both parts in the same dimension. Humans were given divine attributes, while gods were represented as humans. This was a form of magic suggestion to compare humans with gods and create the feeling of power and balance that characterized life in the Classic Period. It was this conviction of their similitude to the divine entities that gave society the strength and balance to grow and flourish for many centuries, recreating a feeling of prosperity and harmony. The godly world they reflected in their mythology and poetry was as full of conflict as the human world,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Burckhardt, J. (2002). History of Greek Culture. New York: Dover publications.

Hingley, R. (2005). Globalizing Roman Culture: Unity, Diversity and Empire. London: Routledge

Hurwit, JM. (1987). The Art and Culture of Early Greece, 1100-480 B.C. New York: Cornell University press.

Burckhardt, J. (2002). History of Greek Culture. New York: Dover publications
View Full Essay

Ancient Earth Women's History

Words: 958 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20809174

Ancient Earth - Women's History

OFFICIAL USE ONLY

SUBJ:

An Analysis of "Life" Magazine dated November 17, 1958

Lexicoczar (All Hail!)

As you know, the recent discovery of a cache of "magazines" has provided our department with an opportunity to better understand the colorful but largely heretofore-baffling mid-20th century. The graphics and pictures contained in one of the "magazines" entitled "Life" appear to be particularly illustrative of the customs and values that were predominant during this period in Western history. Some sample illustrations, together with this analyst's interpretation of the contents of an issue of a "Life" "magazine" dated November 17, 1958 and their likely functions and purposes as they apply to female gender issues, are provided below.

General Description and Contents of "Magazine."

This copy of "Life" "magazine" is comparable to the other specimens discovered in "gar-[b?]ages" in recent years; this copy, though, is especially well preserved, due in…… [Read More]

References

TomFolio.com. Galactic Web: Available:  http://www.tomfolio.com/bookdetailsfg.asp ?

b=40315& m=40.

Source: TomFolio.com. Galactic Web: Available:
View Full Essay

Ancient Near Eastern Values in

Words: 2893 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90605352

The use of physical suffering as a symbol for emotional and spiritual suffering is also well-known in the estern tradition. Centuries later, men and women would disappear into the desert in search of God. They would live apart from all human companionship, and deprive themselves of all physical comfort. Gilgamesh does the same. Gilgamesh is also like the lover who pines away for his beloved and wastes away in body, as well as in heart. The message is that the eternal truths of the universe are not easily discovered, and again that these truths are largely hidden from humankind. Humanity's lot is to suffer even in the face of our greatest happiness. Unlike the gods, we cannot know joy eternally. Enkidu was a dear friend, but he could not be by Gilgamesh' side forever. The joy and love that the hero had known were foreordained to be short. Even if…… [Read More]

Works Cited

 http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5000947937" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
View Full Essay

History of Wrestling An Overview

Words: 1385 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56626960

In a reversal, which is worth two points, the prone person comes from underneath and gains control. A near fall is worth 2-3 points and is a 'near pin.' The points awarded for a 'near fall' are based upon how long the 'near pin' lasts. Points are also awarded based upon the opponent's infractions. These may include illegal holds, technical violations (like leaving the mat), grabbing clothing, the mat, or the opponent's headgear, locking or overlapping hands, improper or illegal equipment, "stalling," "unnecessary roughness" and "unsportsmanlike conduct" ("Overview of wrestling rules," est Virginia resting, 2010). Scholastic wrestling is scored as a team sport as well as individually.

The issue of women in wrestling has proved to be a controversial issue. On the Olympic level, women competed in wrestling for the first time in 2004. "omen from 21 nations competed in four freestyle weight classes. Medals were awarded to wrestlers from…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dicker, Ron. "Olympic wrestling." Lifewire. [28 Feb 2012]

http://olympics.about.com/lw/Sports-Recreation/Amateur-sports/Olympic-Wrestling-an-Illustrated-History.htm

"Cutting weight." Independent Lens, 2000. [28 Feb 2012

 http://www.pbs.org/independentlens/girlwrestler/cutting_weight.html
View Full Essay

History Geography During the Beginning of Ancient

Words: 1245 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14863458

History Geography

During the beginning of ancient times, Classical civilization still lived as hunters and gatherers. They used the resources available to them and learned to gather grains, berries, and other plant foods and store them for the winter. This required them to live where the geography and climate could support them, and where supplies of water were easily available. Early settlements clustered around rivers and streams for this reason. y the end of the Classical Era, The Roman Empire had fallen. European cultures had been influenced by Rome's accomplishments, however, and Europeans knew how to build aquifers to bring the water to them. They had learned to build both roads and bridges. They had tamed livestock and used them for transportation. y the Classical Era, many of geography's limitations had solutions. Thus people could live in villages, towns and cities, farm the surrounding countryside and transport it to where…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Garraty, John A., and Gay, Peter, Eds. The Columbia History of the World. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1999.
View Full Essay

Ancient Jewish Weddings in Ancient Jewish Custom

Words: 1880 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10789868

Ancient Jewish Weddings

Weddings in Ancient Jewish Custom

There is an example of a wedding feast from the gospel of Luke that is not of the famous Cana Wedding Feast that takes place at the beginning of Jesus' ministry, but a gathering in the house of a Pharisee. The Pharisees and scribes invited Jesus there because, as always they were trying to test Him. It was on the Sabbath, and there had already been some discussion of this seminal event in the Jewish week, but the discussion had changed because Christ had been asked to heal a man who walked up to him who had dropsy (an abnormal swelling due to excessive water retention). He asked them if they thought it was lawful to heal a man on the Sabbath, and as they were testing Him, they did not answer. So, he told them that they would definitely take their…… [Read More]

References

Celine. (2010). Difference between Talmud and Torah. Retrieved from http://www.differencebetween.net/miscellaneous/religion- miscellaneous/difference-between-talmud-and-torah/

Orthodox Judaism. (2010). A guide to Jewish wedding tradition. Retrieved from  http://www.orthodox-jews.com/jewish-wedding-tradition.html#axzz1qcIRRWOQ 

Rich, T.R. (2011). Marriage. Retrieved from  http://www.jewfaq.org/marriage.htm 

West, J. (2003). Ancient Israelite marriage customs. Quartz Hill School of Theology. Retrieved from  http://www.theology.edu/marriage.htm
View Full Essay

History of the World in

Words: 1289 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1853217

Anyone can virtually make wine out of grapes. The quality of the grapes is the first and most important feature in the wine production and only after that are there other factors involved that influence the final product.

Standage considers the first distinction between Eastern and Western thught and civilization closely linked to the attitude the two cultures from two opposite regions of the globe had when it came to wine consuming. While Greeks drank wine at formal parties, making it more a part of a ritual destined to loosen tongues and relax while sharpening the minds and setting imagination loose, the Persians, mostly drank beer as a part of their nourishment and even when they drank wine, it was not for intellectual purposes of for the pleasure of savoring it, but more as a display of wealth and power, as it was the case mentioned before. Based on such…… [Read More]

Like, beer, the wine was nourishment, the beverage for feasts, celebrations and intellectual gatherings, but also an element of religious rituals and even medicine. As alcoholic beverage on the table of the poor and rich alike it is still praised for its benefits just as it is blamed for the destruction of families and the perversion of whole societies that fell its victim. It is, of course, not the wine, but the human nature, subject to greed and sometimes the victim of its own inability to keep moderation in sight at all times.

Standage, Tom. A History of the World in Six Glasses. 2005. Walker Publishing Company. New York

McGovern, P. Ancient Wine: the Search for the Origins of Viniculture. 2003. Princeton University Press. Princeton Historical Timeline. Georgian Spring. A Magnum Journal. Retrieved; Oct 18, 2009. Available at: http://www.georgianspring.com/timeline.php
View Full Essay

History of Racism and the

Words: 3824 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5709741

This was racism at its worst. The enslaved Africans and the native Indians began to get closer to each other, and started to share certain ethic traditions between themselves, and soon, they started to marry each other, especially because of the disproportionate number of African males to females. A number of red-black people began to emerge from these unions, and these people formed traditions of their own. However, slavery continued to flourish and all these people were technically termed slaves. Having decided to take maters into their own hands to protest against the indignities being perpetrated against them in the name of slavery, Africans, Cherokees or Native Americans, and also Irish workers put up small acts of resistance and revolutions. (Chronology on the History of Slavery 1619 to 1789)

In the year 1790, in the United States of America, a census revealed that about 19% of the entire population of…… [Read More]

References

Ainslie, Ricardo; Brabeck, Kalina. Race Murder and Community Trauma: Psychoanalysis and Ethnography in Exploring the Impact of the Killing of James Byrd in Jasper, Texas. Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society. Vol. 8; No: 1; 2003; pp: 114-116

Allen, Annette M; Brackett, Kimberly P; Marcus, Ann; Mullins, Larry C; Pruett, Daniel W; Tang, Zongli. Perceptions of Racism on Campus. College Student Journal. Vol. 37; No: 1; 2003; pp: 20-24

Bynon, Gai; Cleary, Felicity; Hamilton, Alex; Maller, Jerome; Melior, David; Watson, Lara. The Perception of Racism in ambiguous scenarios. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. Vol. 27; No: 2; 2001; pp: 46-52

Chronology on the History of Slavery 1619 to 1789. Retrieved at  http://www.innercity.org/holt/chron_1790_1829.html . Accessed on 28 June, 2005
View Full Essay

History of Satan Since the

Words: 4478 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 21876124

These Gods subjugated humans in a way that never happened in other primitive river-valley cultures yet seemed to follow a political will as the concept evolved. This finally culminates in the marriage between the God of Above, Nergal, lord of Summer, Growth and Heat; and the Goodness of the Below, Ereshkigal, queen of the underworld, inter, the Cold, and of Death. e now have opposites, attracted, and yet polarized in deed, action, and even interpretation (Messadie, 1996, 90-7).

This conception then seems to flow mythologically out of the Middle East into other cultures; we have the trickster, the shadow, the evil one, and even the unknown. However, considering the geographical location of the Abrahamic religions, it is logical that there would be a cross-over from the archetype that would manifest itself within these religious traditions.

Satan in Judaism -- in traditional Judaic thought, there is no conception of the Devil…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Jews Believe in the Satan, and Not in the Devil. (2003, March). Retrieved November 2010, from What Jews Believe: http://whatjewsbelieve.org/explanation7.html

Anderson, W. (2010). Dante the Maker. Brooklyn, NY: S4N Books.

Bowker, J. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. New York: Oxford University Press.

Catchpool, D. (2002). The Koran vs. Genesis. Creation, 24(2), 46-51.
View Full Essay

History of the Resurrection Tradition

Words: 3003 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 41643718

History Resurrection

The History of Resurrection Tradition

According to Merriam-ebster dictionary, the word 'resurrection' stands for "the state of one risen from the dead." Generally, resurrection refers to restoration to life of the person who is clinically dead.

Concept of resurrection has been in existence in one form or the other since the very birth of the first human being in this planet. Over the centuries, different religions and mythological schools of thought have defined and taken the tradition of resurrection in different ways; therefore, it is always hard to find any commonly agreed fact about it.

For further clarification, it will be necessary to point out that resurrection stands apart from the concepts of 'immortality of soul' and 'resuscitation' as it involves the rebirth of both body and soul (Harrington).

It will not be wrong to say that the tradition of resurrection is closely associated with the philosophy of…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Harrington, D., J. Jesus: A Historical Portrait. Cincinnati, OH: St. Anthony Messenger Press, 2007.

Inplainsite.org. 9 October 2011

Keathley, J.H."The Resurrection of Jesus Christ."09 October 2011 <

 http://bible.org/article/resurrection-jesus-christ >.
View Full Essay

Ancient Culture Development

Words: 916 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9617420

Ancient Culture Development (AC)

Ancient Culture Development

As ancient man developed, they were faced with various challenges that were as well confronted in particular ways, in order to survive in the environment that was full of challenges. There was the use of stones shaped like chisels, flaked at the tip to provide a sharp edge to cut meat. This is one of the earliest documented tools that are estimated back to around 2.5 million years ago (Anne Pyburn, 2003). These were tools that were discovered in East Africa at Olduvai Gorge as one of the ancient man's abode.

There was division of labor apparently, and men who were faster were commissioned to hunting while women did the gathering of plant products and caring for children. This was a simple governance structure that had to do mainly with domestic labor structure. This was during the lower Paleolithic.

During the upper Paleolithic…… [Read More]

References

Anne Pyburn, (2003). The First People and Culture. Retrieved January 24, 2012 from  http://www.indiana.edu/~arch/saa/matrix/ia/ia03_mod_10.html 

Anne Pyburn, (2004). Middle and Upper Paleolithic Hunter-Gatherers The Emergence of Modern Humans, The Mesolithic. Retrieved January 24, 2012 from  http://www.indiana.edu/~arch/saa/matrix/ia/ia03_mod_11.html 

The Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, (2010a). The 'Neolitic Revolution'. Retrieved January 24, 2012 from  http://teachmiddleeast.lib.uchicago.edu/foundations/origins-of-civilization/essay/essay-02.html 

The Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, (2010b). Life in Mesopotamia: Law and Governance. Retrieved January 24, 2012 from  http://mesopotamia.lib.uchicago.edu/mesopotamialife/article.php?theme=Law%20and%20Government
View Full Essay

History of Communication

Words: 6119 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37691919

History Of Communication Timeline

TIMELINE: HITORY OF COMMUNICATION

(with special reference to the development of the motorcycle)

35,000 BCE.

First paleolithing "petroglyphs" and written symbols. This is important in the history of communication because it marks the first time humans left a recorded form of communication. Also, these written symbols became the ultimate source of later alphabets.

Wikipedia, "Petroglyph."

12,600 BCE.

Cave paintings at Lascaux show early representational art. This is important in the history of communication because the caves depict over 2000 figures, including abstract symbols. More recent research suggests these may record astronomical information.

OURCE: Wikipedia, "Lascaux."

3400 BCE.

First surviving umerian pictograms demonstrate a primitive form of record keeping. This is important in the history of communication because pictograms, together with ideograms, represent a primitive form of writing, in which a symbol either means what it looks like, or represents a single idea.

OURCE: Wikipedia, "Pictogram."

3300…… [Read More]

St. Hubbins, David and Tufnel, Nigel. "Stonehenge." London: Polymer, 1984.

Thompson, Hunter S. Hell's Angels. New York: Modern Library,1966.

Wikipedia.org
View Full Essay

History of Air Cargo IT's

Words: 3792 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62401065

It's oeing. Starting from their first aircraft models oeing &W and Douglas DT/C-1 and up to the modern airfreight oeing 747-400, company oeing and oeing-related enterprises had been always on the frontier of air cargo industry, and nowadays oeing airfreights stand for 90% of commercial air cargo companies.

Everything started with mail delivery. Today lots of us associate aircrafts with people transportation, but primary oeing was responsible only for cargo.

The company was started in 1916, when ill oeing and his partner George Westervelt made a first model of future civil aviation's world leader- jet &W. &W had later become the first plane that was delivering cargo and mail to New Zealand. Three years later ill oeing and Eddie Hubbard delivered 60 letters from Vancouver, Canada to Seattle, which became the first event in the history of international air shipping.

Nearly at the same time, company Douglas Aircraft had signed…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Allaz, Camille The history of Air cargo and airmail Christopher Foyle Publishing, 2002

IATA International Traffic Statistics: December 2004 and Year-end 2004 available on web:  http://www.iata.org/pressroom/industry_stats/2005-01-31-01.htm 

Boeing History articles from www.boeing.com
View Full Essay

History of Western Art Since

Words: 1096 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63184512

(Kleiner, 2010, pg. 360)

While Giotto's Christ Entering Jerusalem, is a depiction of Christ entering the Jerusalem. In this situation, he is trying to instill a sense of history and righteousness by showing Christ entering one of the holiest cities in Christianity. At the same time, he is embracing the same kind of basic painting style that was most commonly used during the time. This is important, because it shows how Giotto is taking more a historical approach about various events that are occurring. ("Christ Entering Jerusalem," 2009)

When you compare the two works side by side, it is clear that the 13th century ible is telling a story about how everyone should be acting within society, by highlighting how the King is viewed in same light as other religious symbols. While Christ Entering Jerusalem is showing a historical approach, based upon past events (giving everyone a sense of respect…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Christ Entering Jerusalem. (2009). Art Work Today. Retrieved from:  http://artworktoday.blogspot.com/2009/04/christ-entering-jerusalem-by-giotto.html 

Michael Angelo's David. (2010). Turismo. Retrieved from:  http://www.turismo.intoscana.it/allthingstuscany/tuscanyarts/michelangelo-david-facts/ 

Pieter Bruegel. (2010). Met Museum. Retrieved from:  http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/brue/hd_brue.htm 

Dobson, R. (2000). Weighing of Souls. Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages (pg. 1540). New York, NY: Routledge.
View Full Essay

History of the Modern Army

Words: 950 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 26047656



After a long search and review of different systems, the committee decided to send their men to train at the Gracie Jiu-Jitsu Academy in Torrance, California (National Guard, 2012; lanton, 2008; Curtez, 2012). In time, it found the razilian Jiu-Jitsu taught in this Academy as meeting almost every aspect requirement of a military combatives program long sought by them. It was easy to learn, competitive and proven effective in hand-to-hand encounters. It detailed the techniques to be taught and in the proper order. It would first teach the basics of razilian Jiu-Jitsu ground fighting. Then it would proceed to throws and takedowns of judo and wrestling. This would be followed by the strikes of oxing and Muay Thai. All these initial steps could combine with a training phase on marksmanship and weapons towards a totally integrated system of close quarters combat. The committee saw that one could pass smoothly between…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Blanton, J.F. (2008). Hand-to-hand combatives in the U.S. Army. U.S. Army Command

and General Staff College. Retrieved on July 12, 2012 from  http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA511484 

Curtez, R. (2012). The history of the modern army combatives program. Army Combatives: Army Combatives Program. Retrieved on July 12, 2012 from http://www.armycombatives.org/the-history-of-the-modern-army-combatives-program

National Guard (2011). The history of modern army combatives. National Guard
View Full Essay

History of Corrections

Words: 2922 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38581426

History Of Corrections

Humankind, all through recorded history, has actually created innovative methods to "punish" their own kind for legitimate and even apparent transgressions. Amongst tribal communities as well as in much more developed cultures, this kind of punishment may include, amongst various other tortures, lashes, branding, drowning, suffocation, executions, mutilation, as well as banishment (which within faraway areas had been equivalent to the dying sentence). The degree related to the punishment frequently relied on the actual wealth and standing of the offended individual and also the culprit. Individuals charged or determined guilty and those who had been more potent had been frequently permitted to make amends simply by recompensing the sufferer or their family members, whilst people who had been less well off as well as lower status had been prone to endure some kind of physical penalties. However regardless of the strategy, and also for no matter what…… [Read More]

References

Johnson, R. 2002. Hard Time: Understanding and Reforming the Prison. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

King, R., and M. Mauer. 2002. State Sentencing and Corrections Policy in an Era of Fiscal Restraint. Washington, DC: Sentencing Project.

King, D., 2011. Changes In Community Corrections: Implications For Staff And Programs. Available at:  http://aic.gov.au/media_library/publications/proceedings/11/king.pdf 

Lin, A.C. 2000. Reform in the Making: The Implementation of Social Policy in Prison. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
View Full Essay

History of the Rosicrucian Order

Words: 5816 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 46875287



ather than continue the process that began in the first two books, in which the osicrucian Order first announced themselves, gave their history, and then responded to certain criticisms while making their position within Christian theology clearer, the Chymical Wedding can almost be seen as the first instance of literature written within the osicrucian tradition, rather than as part of its manifesto-like founding documents, because it does not seek to explain the history of osicrucianism, but rather explicate how the teachings and underlying beliefs of osicrucianism contribute to and alter one's interpretation of Christian scripture (Williamson 17; Dickson 760). Specifically, one can see a distinct connection between the Chymical Wedding and seventeenth-century attempts to expand Protestantism throughout Europe. The Chymical Wedding can be seen as a the most explicit attempt on the part of osicrucians and osicrucian supporters to wed the new (or newly revealed) society to the larger religious…… [Read More]

References

Andreae, Johann. The Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz. N/a: Benjamin Rowe, 2000.

Case, Paul F. The True and Invisible Rosicrucian Order: An Interpretation of the Rosicrucian

Allegory and an Explanation of the Ten Rosicrucian Grades. York Beach, Me: S. Weiser,

1985. Print.
View Full Essay

History Diabetes Today Is a

Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66918489

Even in the second half of the 17th century did doctors prescribe apparently absurd remedies such as viper's flesh, red coral, sweet almonds, and fresh flowers for diabetes sufferers (DiabetesHealth.com). Of course, these had little effect, and sufferers were generally condemned to death. The first breakthrough before the 1920s came in the form of Dr. John Rollo, who built on the work of Dr. Dobson of Liverpool to prescribe the first relatively successful treatment of the disease: a diet that was high in fat and meat and low in grains and breads. This improved the prognosis significantly, and for the first time in history could diabetes sufferers expect an extended life.

The year 1921 saw a miraculous discovery that would change the treatment of diabetes forever (Sattley). The surgeon Frederick Banting and his assistant Charles Best were instrumental in the discovery of insulin as an effective treatment for the disease.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Canadian Diabetes Association. The History of Diabetes. 2009.  http://www.diabetes.ca/about-diabetes/what/history/ 

Diabetes Health. History of Diabetes: From Raw Quinces & Gruel to Insulin.  http://www.diabeteshealth.com/read/1992/11/01/25/history-of-diabetes-from-raw-quinces-and-gruel-to-insulin/ 

Health.Savvy. A Timeline of the History of Diabetes. Feb 8, 2008.  http://health.savvy-cafe.com/a-timeline-of-the-history-of-diabetes-2008-02-08/ 

Sattley, Melissa. The History of Diabetes. Dec. 17, 2008. Diabetes Health.  http://www.diabeteshealth.com/read/2008/12/17/715/the-history-of-diabetes/
View Full Essay

History of Punishment Critically Assess

Words: 4559 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95135347

Too little, for what matters is that he knows he is being watched and too much, because he has no need in fact of being so (Alford, 2000).

Bentham laid down the principle that power should be visible and unverifiable. Visible in that the inmate would constantly have before him the tall outline of the central tower from which he was watched. Unverifiable in that the inmate must never know whether he is being looked at or not, but he must be sure that there is always the possibility. In order to make the attendance or nonattendance of the guard unverifiable, so that the prisoners, in their cells, cannot even see a shadow, Bentham visualized not only venetian blinds on the windows of the central observation hall, but, on the inside, partitions that intersected the hall at right angles and, zigzag opening instead of doors. For even the slightest noise,…… [Read More]

References

Alford, C.F. 2000, "What would it matter if everything Foucault said about prison were wrong? Discipline and Punish after twenty years," Theory and Society, vol. 29, no. 1,

pp. 125-146.

Barratt, E. 2002, "Foucault, foucauldianism and human resource management," Personnel

Review, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 189-204.
View Full Essay

History of Science

Words: 331 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63316418

History Of Science

Islam has made enormous contributions to modern science. However, in the article "Science and Civilization in Islam," Seyyed Hossein Nasr discusses not necessarily how Islam impacted modern science, but rather, shows how science was viewed in the ancient Islamic world. The author talks about both religion and science in context and illustrates how spiritual beliefs affect the worldview of a culture. Because of Islam's rich tradition of scientific investigation, the article is important in understanding the entire history of science.

The history of science must include cultural and religious references like those presented in Nasr's article. Until fairly recently in human history, religion guided scientific thought. Politics have also played a major role in determining the role of science in a society. Even today, science is not exempt from religious and political influences. Therefore, Nasr's article and its main points offer valuable insight into the ways modern…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. "Science and Civilization in Islam." Online at .
View Full Essay

History in Architecture Because They

Words: 1611 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93403681

They displayed great knowledge of architecture, and their building style had been noteworthy.

As the Roman Empire began to take shape, Romans built several wonderful architectural structures for their time. They built city walls, fortifications, temples, bridges, and pavements. Most of the structures were built using large stones which were gently cut. Romans are also among the first nations in the world to have built a functional sewer system. Their remaining of their architectural structures withstood the passing of millennia and survived till today. Christian churches and even apartments buildings were built over Roman temples and other public buildings with some of them, like the Theater of Marcellus being functional even today.

orks cited:

1 H.R. Hitchcock, Seton Lloyd, David Talbot Rice, Norbert Lynton, Andrew Boyd, Andrew Carden, Philip Rawson, John Jacobus 1963. "orld Architecture: An Illustrated History." McGraw-Hill.

2. Hamlin, Talbot 1940 "Architecture through the Ages." G.P. Putnam's Sons,…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1 H.R. Hitchcock, Seton Lloyd, David Talbot Rice, Norbert Lynton, Andrew Boyd, Andrew Carden, Philip Rawson, John Jacobus 1963. "World Architecture: An Illustrated History." McGraw-Hill.

2. Hamlin, Talbot 1940 "Architecture through the Ages." G.P. Putnam's Sons,

H.R. Hitchcock, Seton Lloyd, David Talbot Rice, Norbert Lynton, Andrew Boyd, Andrew Carden, Philip Rawson, John Jacobus. "World Architecture: An Illustrated History." McGraw-Hill, 1963.

Talbot Hamlin. "Architecture through the Ages." G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1940.
View Full Essay

History of Economics the Role

Words: 954 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36727662

But the home was very important for other reasons, again overshadowing the economy. Now people buy homes based on where they can find jobs, or even experience forced moves from their jobs -- this would have been unthinkable then.

A third interesting factor of early economies is the goal of self-sufficiency that individuals had. Large amounts of wealth were not really attainable, and the basic goal of the time was to have everything you needed. This was the definition of success, whereas poverty meant you were dependent on someone else, not just underprivileged. This leads to a fourth point Polanyi makes, specifically about kinship-organized societies. These groups especially tended to have little extraneous wealth, so there were very few exchanges that actually changed economic status. Such exchanges almost always marked major occasions, like proposals and/or weddings. The principles of exchange in these times were either utilitarian or symbolic, and not…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

History of Riga Latvia the

Words: 876 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46012022

9-11).

Wars

In 1621, iga came under the rule of Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus who declared iga the second capital of Sweden. During the ussian-Swedish War, ussia failed to colonize iga as it remained to be the, "second largest city under Swedish control until 1720 during a period in which the city retained a great deal of self-government autonomy" (ibid., par. 13). In 1720, Tsar Peter the Great of ussia became successful in its invasion to iga. As a result, "iga was annexed by ussia and became an industrialized port city of the ussian empire" (ibid., par. 13). By 1900, iga was already holding the third spot in terms of ussia's most industrialized cities. This massive industrialization led to the rise of Latvian bourgeoisie which made iga the center of National Awakening. This particular social phenomenon entailed a string of nationalist movements (ibid., par.15).

German occupation in iga during World…… [Read More]

References

History of Nations. (n.d.) "History of Latvia." Retrieved from www.historyofnations.net/europe/latvia.html. On December 1.

Latvia & Riga. (n.d.). "History." Retrieved at http://www.latvia-riga.com/history_latvia.htm#on December 1, 2008.

New World Encyclopedia, (n.d.). "Riga, Latvia." Retrieved at  http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Riga,_Latviaon  December 1, 2008.

U.S. Department of State. (n.d.). "Background Note: Latvia." Retrieved from www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5378.htm. On December 1.
View Full Essay

History of the Media in America Media

Words: 2710 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32475062

History Of the Media in America

Media America, a History

Media incorporates mediums such as advertisements, magazines, newspapers, radio, television, and now -- the Internet. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, it was only in the 1920s that people began to actually talk about 'the media,' and a generation later, in the 1950s, of a 'communication revolution,' however, the art of oral and written communication was actually quite important in ancient Greece and ome. It was studied in the Middle Ages, and with greater enthusiasm in the enaissance.

Until Johannes Gutenberg invention of the moveable type in 1450, information was spread primarily orally. That is, it was town criers, ministers from the pulpit, and bartenders who disseminated information or news. "Town criers, for example, broadcast royal edicts, police regulations, and important community events, such as births, marriages of princes, war news, and treaties of peace or alliance."

Less than a…… [Read More]

References:

Breen, T.H. The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American

Independence. Oxford University Press, 2005.

Briggs, Asa. Social History of the Media: From Gutenberg to the Internet. Polity; 3rd

edition, 2010.
View Full Essay

History Social Science Textbook Controversy History

Words: 1394 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93087411

So let's change the interpretation a little bit so that it will be the way we wished it were." Well, that's not what history is. History is what happened, and history ought to be nothing more than the quest to find out what happened. Now, if you want to get into why what happened, that's probably valid too, but why what happened shouldn't have much of anything to do with what happened. (Limbaugh 1994)

The push for the elimination of negative stereotypes, and to encourage the diversification of perspectives through education of our youths is certainly a noble and worthwhile effort. However, there cannot be an absolute answer for all of the problems. Certainly racism, for example, needs to be abolished, and the tone and viewpoints of our educational tools is the perfect place to begin this alteration. However, is it necessarily beneficial to erase all evidence of racism from…… [Read More]

References

Cheney, Lynne V. 1994. The end of history. Wall Street Journal. 20 October 1994.Evans, R.W., & Pang, V.O. (1995). National Standards for United States History: the Storm of Controversy Continues. Social Studies, 86(6), 270-274.

Faulconer, T., & Freeman, A.C. (2005). Teachers, Classroom Controversy and the Media. Social Education, 69(6), 323+.

Garvey, J. (1995, December 15). The Earth Is Flat: My Textbook Says So. Commonweal, 122, 7+.

Heritage Foundation (2006).  http://www.heritage.org/ .
View Full Essay

History of the World in

Words: 1287 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 9274352

111), a product that gathered both good and evil forces on its way, a drink that could not have become global without the use of the slaves on a mass scale.

long their existence, the spirited drinks were designated as medicine, recreational drinks for pastime, means of social control, and due to the high degree of addiction that set in as soon as they moderation went out of the way, a source of distress for those who became addictive and their families. Rum, the first to replace the ratios of beer of the British ships and the main ingredient in the first cocktail, became the favorite drink of the English settlers who came to Virginia hoping to find a new source of wealth for them and their country. The second cocktail based on rum came on the tables of the Englishmen in the New World, under the form of punch.…… [Read More]

After centuries of using the spirits as a trade currency and means of alleviating during hard time, at the beginning of the twentieth century, the United States came to a stage when a movement that started by the middle of the nineteenth century will spread and end in the Prohibition era, with the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Health and religious reasons had led more and more people to believe that the only answer to the loss of moderation was to ban the production and consumption of alcoholic beverages altogether. Today, the period of fourteen years when the Eighteen Amendment was in use, is regarded as e period of experimentation that proved once again that any interdiction attracts the rise of illegal activities meant to work around it.

Standage, Tom. A History of the World in Six Glasses. 2005. Walker Publishing Company. New York

Drink: The History of Alcohol 1690-1920. The National Archives. Retrieved: Oct. 20, 2009. Available at: http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/events/calendar/drink.htm
View Full Essay

History of the Jewish Community

Words: 1003 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91030742

("Golden Age of Jewish Culture" 2005) The Jewish community faced a second and harsher wave of prosecution at the end of the Muslim rule in Spain when, as a result of the Inquisition, sevaral hundred thousand Jews were expelled from Spain and Portugal; most of them fled to the Balkan peninsula under Ottoman Empire.

Money Lending Jews and Isolated Existence

The Jewish communities that settled in various parts of Europe usually kept to themselves (or were forced to do so by others). Most Jews became merchants and money lenders since Usury was declared illegal by the Church for Christians. Although many Jews prospered in this way, their isolated existence and money-lending role made them easy targets as scapegoats for misfortune of others.

Prosecution During Crusades

Although the Christian crusades in the Middle Ages were primarily directed against their arch enemies -- the Muslims, they frequently degenerated into massacres of an…… [Read More]

References

Golden Age of Jewish Culture." (2005). From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved on November 04, 2005 at  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_age_of_Jewish_culture_in_Spain 

History of the Jews." (n.d.) History World. Retrieved on November 04, 2005 at  http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?groupid=413&HistoryID=aa42 

Jews in the Middle Ages." (2005). From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved on November 04, 2005 at  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jews_in_the_Middle_Ages 

It was only in 1974 that the Vatican formally declared that the Jewish people are not to be held collectively responsible for the death of Jesus
View Full Essay

History of Chopsticks Chopsticks Eating

Words: 730 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81979963

71). Because of this, with few exceptions, the Japanese eat nearly everything with chopsticks. Many Japanese do not want to eat sandwiches with their hands, and in Japan, sandwiches are cut into small pieces and served with toothpicks (Grew, p. 266). Chopsticks play an important role from a child's earliest days in Japan to teach the importance of not eating with the hands. Around 100 days after its birth, a small ceremony is held where the child is introduced to solid food. Soft food suitable for a small baby is prepared and placed in front of the child. The mother uses never-before-used chopsticks to give the baby morsels of the solid food (endry, p. 36).

But while the Japanese culture was using chopsticks as part of a cultural interest in cleanliness, in China, chopsticks became a symbol of their cultural value on belonging to a group rather than standing out…… [Read More]

Hendry, Joy. Becoming Japanese: The World of the Pre-School Child. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1986.

Ohnuki-Tierney, Emiko. "Rice as Self: Japanese Identities through Time." Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Shih, Chih-Yu. Negotiating Ethnicity in China: Citizenship as a Response to the State. Oxford, England: Routledge, 2002.
View Full Essay

History of the Modern Era

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28715355

The history from the Renaissance to the Machine Age was defined by major technical and stylistic advances that allowed for much larger, taller, more elegant buildings, and higher degrees of functionality and architectural expression.

In cultural and scientific matters, the Modern Era was characterized by an increasingly rationalistic trajectory of thought which was based on an ethos of the humanistic exploration of reality and truth. While in a cultural sense religion still played a significant role, the Industrial Revolution as well as the advent of the Machine Age and the predominance of empirical science and the scientific method, had overtaken the norms and values of the rural and agrarian worldview. There were many other factors that played an important role in the scientific culture of this era, including the rise of Capitalism and international trade. This in turn is linked to other concomitant factors such as the use of steam…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

History of Crime and Punishment in Europe 17c 18c

Words: 3773 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13465288

History of Crime and Punishment in Europe 17C-18C

This paper traces the history crime and punishment in Europe. It looks at the influences of that time the social and philosophical movements and how they affected the whole evolution of treatment of crime and the thought behind punishment. The paper details about the neoclassical period its forbearers and how they regarded the issue of crime and punishment and their assumptions regarding the problem.

Crime is as old as civilization itself and where you find groups of people, you will consistently find some shape of criminal activity. You will also find punishment. The criminal has always been seen as undermining the values and, even, the very fabric of the society she or he deceives. Accordingly, those found out or found culpable have often been dealt with unsympathetically. Again, the Jewish Mythology will spring to the Western mind with its mantra of an…… [Read More]

References

Andrews Richard Mowery. 1994. Law, Magistracy and Crime in Old Regime Paris, 1735-1789. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dictionary of the History of Ideas. 1973-4. 5 vols. Edited by Philip D. Wiener New York: Scribners

Gatrell, V.A.C., Bruce Lenman and Geoffrey Parker eds. 1980.Crime and the Law. The Social History of Crime in Western Europe since 1500. London: Europa.

Garland, David. 1985. Punishment and Welfare: In History of Penal Strategies. Aldershot: Gower. GOLDMANN Lucien. 1973. The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
View Full Essay

History of Western Art Looking

Words: 1837 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54328299

To illustrate these different views, he creates Starry Night over the Rhone. This shows the sense of anticipation that is occurring before the evening begins. As he is depicting, a quit outdoor cafe that is waiting for: the customers to begin arriving and the festivities to commence. To illustrate this sense of anticipation he uses different colors and lighter brush strokes. As there is: yellow, black, blue, tan and gray; to highlight the overall emotions that Van Gogh is feeling (when he reflects on his life in Paris). At the same time, the lighter brush strokes are used to show the changes of time that are taking place, by making the background somewhat blurry. This is important, because it is illustrating how the artist is trying to create that sense of realism and the passage of time, by showing their positive emotions about their past lives. ("Vincent Van Gough," 2011)…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette. (2011). Web Museum Paris. Retrieved from:  http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/renoir/moulin-galette/ 

Frans Hals. (2011). ABC Gallery. Retrieved from:  http://www.abcgallery.com/H/hals/hals.html 

Hudson River School. (2011). Visual Arts. Retrieved from:  http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/history-of-art/hudson-river-school-landscape-painting.htm 

Jean -- Antione Houdon. (2011). Scholar Resource. Retrieved from: http://www.scholarsresource.com/browse/artist/637