their political systems were far less developed too, and although Egyptian religion had taken root in most of the communities of Upper and Lower Egypt temples had yet to reach their characteristic grandiose size until the pharaonic period. The rise of the great pharaohs meant an enormous boost in wealth and political power to the demigod/kings who could commission the large architectural projects that epitomize dynastic Egypt. During the Old Kingdom, massive pyramids flanked the Giza plateau, and later tombs and temples proved the might of pharaonic wealth and power. Egypt was therefore easier than Mesopotamia to manage and control under one centralized government because prior to the first King Menes, Egypt was comprised of relatively small and simple agricultural villages. Mesopotamia, on the other hand, was made up of city-states that had substantial wealth and power bases as well as centers of learning and technology. It is naturally easier to unify a series of already interdependent villages than a network of rival city-states.
The unification of Lower and Upper Egypt proved enormously successful for several reasons. First, the centralized theocratic government imposed one state religion that in turn became a major source of social order. In Mesopotamia, the city-states had unique identities that might have precluded religious unification. Second, a centralized government in Egypt enabled control of the Nile delta for economic purposes. To do so in Mesopotamia would have been more difficult given the more varied geographic terrain and the presence of more than one river. Similarly, Egypt was less vulnerable to foreign invaders than Mesopotamia was. Geography therefore played a major role in determining the differences between ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt.
Egypt's system of language and writing; their sophisticated systems of astrology and calendar-making; and their technological developments all followed from unification. Unification allowed cultural flourishing to take place primarily by increasing economic prosperity. In Mesopotamia, on the other hand, systems of writing and language; technology and science had already...
The city-states were already fairly prosperous and thus did not attribute their prosperity or their learning to the central government but to their local histories.
Ancient Mesopotamia was relatively diverse socially, especially when compared with ancient Egypt. Semetic and non-Semetic languages of Mesopotamia were based on similar phonemes but individual city-states developed their languages and later, systems of writing, differently from one another. Their differences created unique cultural identities for Mesopotamian city-states. In Egypt, a common language evolved and only after unification did hieroglyphs and other emblems of Egyptian culture emerge. The Egyptian people began viewing themselves as a unified culture as the society evolved organically, as a whole. In Mesopotamia, cultural evolution took place long before unification was possible. Unification failed to give Mesopotamian people new identities or reasons to identify with a distant centralized government. Mistrust of neighboring city-states also led to the eventual dissolution of the Mesopotamian central government that Sargon initiated.
By the time of Alexander the Great, the Egyptian empire was showing signs of decline. A series of foreign kings weakened the cohesive society that Egypt depended on for the strong sense of unity between the various cities along the Nile. As foreign cultures and powers encroached on Egypt, and as dynastic power weakened, the region fell sway relatively easily to the Achaemenid Persian Empire. The Persian Empire also encroached on Mesopotamia. Without a centralized government to help mobilize troops to fend off the Persians, Mesopotamian city-states gradually weakened.
Whereas ancient Mesopotamia is mainly a history of disparate city-states that often vied for wealth, power, and control of natural resources, ancient Egypt remained a unified kingdom for several thousand years. The differences between how the two regions developed can be traced to pre-written history of the two regions, which developed differently. Mesopotamia developed earlier than Egypt, and city-states were powerful and self-sufficient by the time any king attempted to unify the region. History, politics, and culture all played major roles in determining the success of unification in Egypt and Mesopotamia.
The Story of Sinuhe." Retrieved Jun 16, 2008 at http://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/storysinuhe.html
Wenamun in Byblos." Retrieved Jun 16, 2008 at http://phoenicia.org/wenamun.html
Ancient History The ancient histories of Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations have much in common. Both regions were inhabited since prehistoric times by nomadic groups, which began to settle down in towns and villages by around 6000 BCE. Consistent settlements soon grew into larger cities; in both Egypt and in Mesopotamia, these cities became city-states with complex lifestyles and forms of government. Some of the first written languages were created simultaneously in
Ancient as Egypt Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, 20 U.S.C.S. § 1681-1688 law established in 1972 was a groundbreaking law prohibiting sex-based discrimination in much of education. 20 U.S.C.S. § 1681(a) states that "no person in the United States shall on the basis of sex be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving
Cyprus Problem Ancient History Establishment of the Republic of Cyprus Intercommunal Conflict Establishment of the UNFICYP Turkey Bombs Cyprus Turkey Rejects UN s Mediator on Solution of Cyprus Problem New Round of Intercommunal Talks Military Junta Takes Over in Greece Kofinou Crisis Reinforced Talks with Constitutional Experts Formation of the EOKA B. And Civil Strife Junta Coup d'Etat and Turkish Invasion The Aftermath Restoration of Communal Order Great Britain Greece Turkey Greek Cypriots Turkish Cypriots Sovereignty EU and the Cypress Problem Struggle for Justice and Compromise Where Should the Solution Line be Drawn? POLICY
This exchange of cultural ideas and manifestations sounds suspiciously like that propagated by Bernal under his Revised Ancient Model. Yet, for some reason, Lefkowitz feels the need to spend the bulk of her article antagonizing Bernal and polarizing him as if he is advocating some sort of Afrocentric stance. This fact is evinced by the preceding passage, in which she references another author -- one who is decidedly pro-Afrocentric --
Ancient Egypt's Economic Growth Ancient Egypt became renowned as a major export / import region and a major center of trade. Hatshepsut's expedition to Punt as well as Thutmose III's trades for loot in Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean Region caused Egypt to become a highly attractive country amongst its neighbors for much of the Ancient period. Ancient Egypt had its up and downs with trading during its successive string of Dynasties.
Another notable development and contribution of ancient from Greek is the Olympics. The event was begun in Greek as an entertainment session but later evolved into an international event. Additional invention of Greek is the architecture. The Greek were immensely talented in art and, therefore, the exemplary architectural inventions and developments in the modern world today. They all can trace the history of the building system in this ancient