Animal Abuse Essays (Examples)

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Abuse of Horses Boarding Horses

Words: 1556 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89578883

"

orks Cited

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. "ASPCA Equine Program."

Retrieved April 6, 2007, at http://www.aspca.org.

Australian Broadcasting Corporation. "Neglected horsed die, more in danger." Retrieved April 6, 2007 at http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200704/s1887025.htm.

Crawfurd, John. "On the Relation of the Domesticated Animals to Civilization." Transactions

Of the Ethnological Society of London Vol. 2 (1863): 387-468.

Flynn, Clifton P. "hy Family Professionals Can No Longer Ignore Violence toward Animals."

Family Relations 49.1 (2000): 87-95.

Hortness, Darci. "Neglected Horses Rescued by DoubleHP." Argus Leader Media. Retrieved April 7, 2007, at http://www.argusleader.com.

United States Equine Rescue League, Inc. "Abuse & Neglect." Retrieved April 7, 2007, at http://www.ncerl.com/abuse/abuse.html.… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. "ASPCA Equine Program."

Retrieved April 6, 2007, at http://www.aspca.org.

Australian Broadcasting Corporation. "Neglected horsed die, more in danger." Retrieved April 6, 2007 at http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200704/s1887025.htm.

Crawfurd, John. "On the Relation of the Domesticated Animals to Civilization." Transactions
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Animal Testing the Use of

Words: 309 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76159435

This is what makes drug testing on animals so very important in the pharmaceutical industry.

References

Cami, Jordi. (1991). Perspectives and future on testing for abuse liability in humans. British Journal of Addiction. 86(12), p1529-1531.

De Boer, Bonita. (2009). IV Drugs, Vaccines and Animal Testing. Retrieved March 19, 2010,

from Avert Web site: http://www.avert.org/hiv-animal-testing.htm

Greaves, Peter, Williams, Andrew and Eve, Malcolm. (2004). First dose of potential new medicines to humans: how animals help. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 3(3), p226-

oudebine, L.-M. (2005). Use of Transgenic Animals to Improve uman ealth and Animal

Production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 40(4), p269-281.

Wanjek, Christopher. (2008). Why Lab Animals are Still Used. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Live Science Web site: http://www.livescience.com/health/080212-bad-animal-testing.html… [Read More]

Houdebine, L.-M. (2005). Use of Transgenic Animals to Improve Human Health and Animal

Production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 40(4), p269-281.

Wanjek, Christopher. (2008). Why Lab Animals are Still Used. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Live Science Web site: http://www.livescience.com/health/080212-bad-animal-testing.html
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Wicca Animal Use Shelley Rabinovitch Has Asserted

Words: 2191 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98402505

icca Animal Use

Shelley Rabinovitch has asserted that modern iccans see themselves as part of a world that includes all living beings in Nature (69), which generally prevents exploitative 'use.' This is not universal, but animal abuse would probably exclude a practitioner from the group "iccans." This has not been the case throughout history, and some modern Neo-Pagans include use of animals in ritual they claim falls within the harmonious balance of a non-dualistic participation in Nature (below). The result is a change in modern iccan relationship to animals compared to historical relationships as far as the available evidence shows. This requires defining the group "iccans," and also 'use' and 'animals,' because some groups typically classified alongside icca under the class "Neo-Pagans" are beginning to differentiate themselves through ritual animal use in ways iccans may perhaps want to dissociate themselves from.

"The language of self-identification to outsiders differs from that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Church Of The Lukumi Babalu Aye, Inc., et al. v. City Of Hialeah No. 91-948. 508 U.S. 520

(1993).United States Supreme Court, 11 June, 1993. < www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/91-948.ZS.html>

Faculty of Oriental Studies, the University of Oxford. "Gilgames and Aga." The Electronic Text

Corpus of Sumerian Literature. n. pag. <  http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.1.8.1.1# >
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Rights and Welfare of Animals

Words: 754 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54812576

Animal Advocacy Organizations

There are many local, national, and international organizations that advocate for the rights and welfare of animals, domestic and wild. Two of those organisations are PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) and the ASPCA (American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals). In this paper, the two will be compared and contrasted.

PETA & ASPCA

The ASPCA was the very first humane society to exist in North America, according to their website. Henry Bergh founded the ASPCA in 1866, who believed that animals have the right to be respected by humans, and to be treated kindly, and to be protected under the law. In fact the ASPCA was the first humane organization that has been granted "legal authority to investigate and make arrests for crimes against animals… [although the ASPCA] fulfills its mission through nonviolent approaches" (ASPCA).

PETA was founded in 1980, and their…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA). (2011). How to Recognize

Cruelty / About the ASPCA. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://www.aspca.org.

Benz, Kathy, and McManus, Michael. (2005). PETA accuses lab of animal cruelty.

CNN.com. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://articles.cnn.com.
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Scientific Research With Animals and

Words: 2057 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71444644



In these cases, the ethical and moral choice seems to be to find another way to test these products that is not so cruel, and to keep cruel procedures out of the labs altogether. The case of the cat sex experiments at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City in the 1960s are another case in point. esearchers maimed cats in a variety of ways, from removing parts of their brains to obliterating their sense of smell, and then noted how these procedures affected their sexual activities. The study continued for over a decade, without any clear results, and when the public learned about it, there was a huge outcry and the testing stropped (Degrazia 98). Studies like this, without a clear purpose, seem even more cruel and unusual, and they helped to give animal research such a bad reputation that laws were enacted regarding the ethical…… [Read More]

References

Carbone, Larry. What Animals Want: Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Degrazia, David. Animal Rights: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Editors. "Animal Research in Psychology." American Psychological Association. 2009. 1 March 2009. http://www.apa.org/science/animal2.html.

Katrink, Vicki. "Blinded for Beauty: Rabbits Used in Product Testing." American Anti-Vivisection Society. 2009. 1 March 2009. http://www.aavs.org/testingTypesBlinded.html.
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Zoo Animal Technology Program I Want to

Words: 718 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70082961

Zoo Animal Technology Program

I want to enter the Zoo Animal Technology Program at BLANK University for a number of reasons. First, I have always loved animals since I was very young, and I've always felt I wanted to help take care of them in some capacity as my career. In the past, I've had tropical fish, dogs, cats, hamsters, guinea pigs, rabbits, birds, and other animals in my family for as long as I can remember. I have always been involved in training, maintaining, and caring for these animals, and I have loved every one of them. I would like to continue in my life.

I also strongly believe in animal conservation and husbandry, and the zoo technology program would allow me to learn more about these important areas of zookeeping. I know that many animals are endangered in the wild today, and the only way to help preserve…… [Read More]

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Indictment of the Moral Offense of Animal

Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89130367

Indictment of the Moral Offense of Animal Cruelty

Animals think. Animals feel emotion. Animals experience pain. Yet there are members of our human society that find these facts irrelevant. In fact there are many people that have no problem disregarding these facts entirely as long as they are able to reap some type of personal reward or benefit from an animal. hether that benefit is in the form of food, clothing, or testing the latest new lipstick, it is always at the expense of the animal's well-being. In this paper I argue that the abuse of animals is morally wrong and therefore animals ought to be afforded rights which place the same consideration on their sentience as is placed on human beings.

Sentience is a term used to describe the fact that animals feel pain and emotions in much the same fashion as human beings. It is also used as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arluke, Arnold. Just a Dog: Understanding Animal Cruelty and Ourselves. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. 2006.

Cohn, Priscilla. In John M. Kistler's People Promoting and People Opposing Animal Rights: In Their Own Words. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 2002.

Kolber, Adam. "Upright: The Moral and Legal Standing of Humans and Other Apes." Stanford Law Review, 54.1 (2001): 163-204.
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Diversity and or How Child Abuse in Handled in New York Compared to Other Countries

Words: 3623 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45470755

Diversity and Child Abuse Prevention

Diversity and How Child Abuse in Handled in New York Compared to Other Countries

There is developing debate regarding the suitable combination of programs and polices needed to react to concerns of child abuse and neglect. Child neglect and abuse hold significant effects for prospective health and mental health of a child. As a result, it is imperative to comprehend connections among different forms of maltreatment, family and child factors and connect with the systems for children welfare. The child abuse prevention programs and polices adopted in the New York State are generic and appears to be meant for the majority in the society. The programs are not cultural specific and hence, cannot benefit the minority group in the society. For instance, the Asian immigrants present an increased rate of child abuse. However, according to the Asian culture, worldviews, values and perspectives, suffering is an…… [Read More]

References

Chan, K.L. (2012). Comparison of parent and child reports on child maltreatment in a representative household sample in Hong Kong. Journal of Family Violence, 27 (1), 11-

22.

Fallon, B., Trocme, N., & MacLaurin, B. (2011). Should child protective services respond differently to maltreatment, risk of maltreatment, and risk of harm? Child Abuse & Neglect, 35, 236 -- 239.

Fallon, B., Trocme, N., Fluke, J., & Turcotte, D. (2011). Responding to child maltreatment in Canada: Context for international comparisons. Advances in Mental Health, 11 (1), 76-
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Economics of Alchohol Abuse Alcohol for Consumption

Words: 1853 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61366901

Economics of Alchohol Abuse

Alcohol for consumption is not a necessary food item, but for some has become a standard part of adult culture. Increasing the level of alcohol consumption, however, moves from an economic paradigm to a social issue due to the ancillary health and behavioral effects from alcohol abuse. In turn, this becomes part of economics in that it requires fiscal resources to treat societal issues caused by alcoholism: domestic abuse, crime, traffic or driving issues, etc. The economic effects of alcohol are undebatable, and are pervasive in the overt and covert areas of the economy (short- and long-term) (Fogarty, 2006).

In the economic sphere of political and social policy, alcohol, like tobacco and gambling, are considered a "sin" tax that is ostensibly designed to reduce transactions for issues society considers dangerous or undesirable. However, when it comes to alcohol, many see that this type of a sumptuary…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Ensuring Solutions to Alcohol Problems. (2011). Ensuring Solutions. Retrieved from: http://www.ensuringsolutions.org/

Profit-Maximization in the Long Run. (2010). Welker'sWikinomics. Retrieved from: http://welkerswikinomics.wetpaint.com/page/Profit-Maximization+in+the+Long-run

Tobacco, Alcohol Industries Reject New Sin Tax Bill. (February 22, 2012). ABS/CBN News. Com. Retrieved from: http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/business/02/22/12/tobacco-alcohol-industries-reject-new-sin-tax-bill

Avorn, J. (2004). Powerful Medicines: The Benefits, Risks, and Costs of Prescription Drugs. New York: Random House.
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Child Abuse The Issues of Child Abuse

Words: 2331 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75017424

Child Abuse?

The issues of child abuse in the larger society are often unnoticed until it is too late. Unfortunately, public perceptions of the precursors to abuse are limited, and the unfortunate reality of 'out of sight, out of mind' is prevalent in a society which moves as quickly as ours, and in which individuals are completely engaged in their own lives, expressing little ability to watch out for, or concern for the well being of others. The following studies look into the well-being of children, the impact of foster care on the well being of children, and the community's overall involvement in the problem of child abuse.

In order to construct a viable policy regarding what to do about the problem of child abuse, researchers must first accurately perceive the problems which exist in the larger society, and make sure that they have accurately measured the important factors. Since…… [Read More]

Resources

Calvert JF and Munsie-Benson M. Public opinion and knowledge about childhood sexual abuse in a rural community. Child Abuse Negl 1999; 23:671-682.

Clewell, B.C., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Benasich, A.A. (1989). Evaluating childrelated outcomes of teenage parenting programs. Family Relations, 38, 201-209.

Cooper, R, and Sutton, K. (1999)

The Effects of Child Abuse on Preschool Children's Play Australian Journal of Early Childhood, Vol. 24.
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Autonomy Abuse and the Hippocampus

Words: 2602 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67428134

Current brain imaging surveys and other experiments also present evidence that child abuse could permanently damage neural structure and the functioning of the developing brain itself (Carloff).

Cohen (2001) discusses the merits of art therapy with its innate therapeutic qualities, which simultaneously activate the nervous system, the brain, the endocrine and the immune system in a uniquely particular way to support effective clinical management. Psycho-neuroendoimmunology connects an unregulated stress response to health, with stress as the underlying neurological dynamics of psychological and behavioral symptoms. Stress triggers an adaptive sympathetic nervous system response aimed at maintaining an optional state of functioning. This nervous system regulates the fight, flight, or freeze response to stress, which in turn provides the energy for survival and temporarily sharpens memory and brain function. Nature intends the use of this sympathetic adaptive response for survival, but the external reality is that our daily lives or urban environment…… [Read More]

References

1. Al-Kurdi, H. (2006). Messing with Our Minds. Dirty Tricks, Inc. VOXNYC.  http://www.voxfux.com/features/mind_control_child_abuse_cover_up.html 

2. Bower, B. (1996). Small Hippocampus Linked to Higher Risk of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Science News: Science Service, Inc. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_n20_v149/ai_18319734

3. Brick, N.D. (2005). How Childhood Sexual Abuse Affects Interpersonal Relations. Smart News. http://members.aol.com/smartnews/howchildhoodsa.htm

4. Carloff, A. (2002). Child Abuse and Damage. Punkerslut.  http://www.punkerslut.com/articles/childabuse.html
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Man's Ability to Treat Humans Like Animals

Words: 4278 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22493133

Man's Ability To Treat Humans Like Animals

It is a vivid fact that the feelings of cruelty, discrimination and racial distribution are embedded well in to human nature since its very inception. This world depicts several cases where humans treat other humans like animals and ignore their right of living peacefully and according to their own will. This article highlights the work of several writers who have depicted the different ways in which humans have been treated brutally by other humans. Majority of the cases deal with racial discrimination and poverty-based cruelty issues encountered by humans. The article presents an in depth analysis of the works of seven different writers and how their works represent the ill treatment encountered by the human race.

Charles Chestnutt's "Po Sandy" and its Linkage to Human Cruelty

"Po' Sandy" written by Charles Chestnutt is basically the story of Sandy, who is made the slave…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chestnutt, Charles. Charles W. Chesnutt: Stories, Novels, and Essays, USA: Library of America,

2002.

Esposito, Scott, "The Changeling by Kenzaburo Oe," Los Angeles Times,468, 7 March 2010.

Mackay, Marina. The Cambridge Companion to The Literature Of World War II, New York,
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Child Abuse From All Angles

Words: 4974 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44047446

The victim is often put into situations where they are physically deprived of the things they need to make appropriate decisions. For instance they may be deprived of sleep or food so that they can be more easily manipulated. Mental abuse may also involve teasing or name calling. In many cases the perpetrator is very aware of the victim's weaknesses and uses them to humiliate or subjugate the victim.

Sexual Abuse

The sexual abuse of children is increasing throughout the world and has increased drastically in recent years. Sexual abuse can include the molestation and/or rape of a child. In many cases children are sexually abused by someone that they know, rather it be a neighbor, a parent or an acquaintance. Sexual abuse can also have lasting effects on the psyche of an individual. Studies have found that children who experience sexual abuse are more likely to become promiscuous as…… [Read More]

References

Bolen, Rebecca M. 2003. Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention or Promotion?. Social Work 48, no. 2: 174+.

Cochrane, John, Gaynor Melville, and Ian Marsh. 2004. Criminal Justice: An Introduction to Philosophies, Theories and Practice. London: Routledge. Book online.

Child Abuse. National Institutes of Health. Available at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/childabuse.html

Child Abuse Statistics. Available at http://www.childhelp.org/resources/learning-center/statistics.Internet
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Risk Factors for Abuse Does

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36286494

In fact, 29% of fatalities occurring between 1991 and 1993 involved parental substance abuse" (American Humane Association, 2010).

There are other characteristics of those with abusive tendencies that are also worth discussing. The American Journal of Public Health article insists that although substance abuse plays a huge role in helping to shape abusive personalities and fuel abusive rages, there are other factors worth considering, as well. "Societal and environmental factors have been considered primary to the development of both child maltreatment and parental substance abuse," say Kelleher, Chaffin, Hollenberg, & Fischer. "Social class is strongly linked to both reported child maltreatment and a wide range of mental disorders, including drug and alcohol disorders" (Kelleher, Chaffin, Hollenberg, & Fischer, 1994).

They also go on to suggest that statistics for child abuse and neglect have been found to be higher among families with lower income. This while proves that while the abuse…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Humane Association, (2010). Fatalities due to child abuse and neglect Retrieved from http://www.americanhumane.org/about-child-abuse-neglect.html

Kelleher, K, Chaffin, M, Hollenberg, J, & Fischer, E199. (1994). Alcohol and Drug Disorders

Among Physical Abusive and Neglectful Parents in a Community-Based Sample,

American Journal of Public Health, 84(10), 1586-1590.
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Medical Testing on Animals

Words: 952 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27055506

against experimentation on animals, and some are more compelling than others. Some people suggest that the practice is immoral because choosing to experiment upon animals is directly analogous to racial or sexual discrimination; or more closely related to discrimination on the basis of mental capacity. Others contend that it is wrong because, by their estimations, no clear advances in medical research have been made through animal experimentation, and alternative modes of research are emerging. Doubtlessly, animal experimentation is a delicate moral issue, but asserting that animals should enjoy the same rights as humans within a society is a weak claim. Arguments have been formed differentiating animals from humans depending upon both their moral status and biological status. Yet, the most obvious line of reasoning is associated with the fact that granting animals the same rights as humans within society leads to many logical contradictions.

One question that needs to be…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

1. Dunbar, Daniel. "The Confinement and Use of Non-Human Animals in Scientific and Medical Experiments is Morally Unacceptable." Ithaca University, 2005. Available: http://www.ithaca.edu/faculty/cduncan/250/ddunbar.doc.

2. Mitchell, Graham. "Guarding the Middle Ground: the Ethics of Experiments on Animals." African Journal of Science, Issue 85, May 1989. Available:  http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/essays/v13p114y1990.pdf .
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Child Sexual Abuse

Words: 2076 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20367889

Child Sexual Abuse

According to the oxford advanced learners dictionary, child sexual abuse is the cruel treatment of a minor especially sexually. The case of an offender of child sexual abuse can be categorized into three clusters which comprise of sexual assault which occurs when an adult touches a minor in a manner so as to fulfill his or her sexual desires; the second cluster is sexual exploitation whereby the minor is victimized by the adult for profit, sexual fulfillment or advancement and lastly the third cluster is called sexual grooming which is a social conduct by the offender in which he or she tries to make the minor accept to the advances made.

This paper seeks to primarily analyze child sexual abuse specifically for children under the age of fourteen years. First it will define the problem statement then the effects of child sexual abuse which is followed by…… [Read More]

Work cited

Cynthia Crosson-Tower (2008). Understanding child abuse and neglect, Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.

Durkin, K.F., and Clifton D.B., (1999), "Propagandizing pederasty: A thematic analysis of the online exculpatory accounts of unrepentant pedophiles" Deviant Behavior

Lascaratos, J, Ascaratos J. And Poulakou-Rebelakou, E (2000), "Child Sexual abuse: Historical cases in the Byzantine Empire (324 -- 1453 A.D.)" Child Abuse & Neglect

Lew, Mike (2004). Victims No Longer: The Classic Guide for Men Recovering from Sexual Child Abuse. Perennial Currents
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Substance Abuse Clients and the

Words: 1519 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28147421

This is also a condition when a person does not think beyond what is observed in the surroundings. So children should be given exercise to create new thoughts which are devoid of substances in their surrounding or mentality. The most effective method of cognitive approach is to teach recovery techniques to a client that assist to overcome the condition, rather than find methods to change the mentality of a person directly. This is attained by self-monitoring, self-assessment and self consequation. Each step is followed by the other till the patient reach a significant point of recovery. Self consequation is the final stage when a person appreciates himself for the significant change in the behavior. (Mennuti; Arthur, 2006)

eferences

Blow, Frederic C. (1999) "Substance Abuse among Older Adults: Treatment Improvement

Protocol" Diane Publishing.

Mennuti, osemary B. Arthur, F. (2006) "Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions in Educational

Settings: A Handbook for..." outledge.

Onken, Lisa S;…… [Read More]

References

Blow, Frederic C. (1999) "Substance Abuse among Older Adults: Treatment Improvement

Protocol" Diane Publishing.

Mennuti, Rosemary B. Arthur, F. (2006) "Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions in Educational

Settings: A Handbook for..." Routledge.
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Binge Eating Animal Models of Addiction Do

Words: 3066 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31876046

Binge Eating

Animal models of addiction do not generalize well to substance dependence in humans as there are different criteria involved. For example, in animals "addiction" has been traditionally defined by a caged laboratory animal's tendency to press a lever for a reinforcing substance, whereas in humans the criteria for dependence (the clinical term for addiction) include a number of behavioral criteria and consequences that could never exist in laboratory animals (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). These criteria include: tolerance, withdrawal, taking more of a substance than originally intended, a history of unsuccessful attempts to quit, inordinate amounts of time spent in using and seeking the substance, a reduction in activities (occupational, social, or education) due to use, continued usage despite adverse consequences (APA, 2000). Interestingly, only three of these criteria need to be met in a year, so one need not demonstrate significant physical signs such as tolerance and…… [Read More]

References

Adam, T.C. & Epel, E.S. (2007). Stress, eating and the reward system. Physiology and Behavior, 91, 449-458.

Alexander, B.K. (2008). The globalization of addiction: A study in the poverty of the spirit. New York: Oxford University Press.

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV-text revision. Washington, DC: Author.

Bartsch, A.J., Homola, G., Biller, A., Smith, S.M., Weijers, H.G., & Wiesbeck, G.A. (2007). Manifestations of early brain recovery associated with abstinence from alcoholism. Brain, 130(1), 36-47.
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Child Abuse How Large Is

Words: 4401 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46242485

The second includes verbal and emotional assaults including persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, and other nonphysical, but clearly hostile or rejecting behaviors, such as repeated threats of beatings, sexual assault, and abandonment. The third, residual, category includes other forms of emotional abuse such as attempted sexual or physical assaults; throwing something at a child but missing; withholding shelter, sleep, or other necessities as punishment, and economic exploitation (p.11).

According to ighthand, Kerr, and Drach (2003), psychological abuse can be technically defined as:

1. Verbal or emotional assault, exemplified by persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, or other nonphysical but rejecting, hostile, and degrading behaviors.

2. Terrorizing the child, exemplified by threatening to physically hurt, kill, or abandon the child, or by exposing the child to chronic or extreme partner abuse or other forms of violent behaviors.

3. Exploiting or corrupting the child, exemplified by modeling criminal or antisocial behavior;…… [Read More]

References

Barnett, D., Manly, J.T., and Cicchetti, D. (1994). Defining child maltreatment: the interface between policy and research. Child abuse, child development, and social policy: advances in applied developmental psychology, 8,7-73. New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Calam, R. & Franchi, C. (1987). Child abuse and its consequences. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Grapes, B.J. (2001). Child abuse. California: Greenhaven Press.

Parton, N. (1979). The natural history of child abuse: a study in social problem definition. British Journal of Social Work, 9, 427-51.
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Teenage Substance Abuse Substance Abuse

Words: 5378 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9674352

Help her to realize that having a child may interfere with her future career, but that many mothers have successful home and job lives. There are an infinite number of options, and a determined teenager can find a way to success. Do not skirt around the issues of danger, however, as teenagers are more likely to miscarry or have other complications with their pregnancy such as premature labor and low birth weight of the child. Teenage mothers are more likely to need bedrest during the late stages of pregnancy, and a cesarian section during birthing, and the child is at greater risk for any number of complications.

Of course, while supporting a pregnant teen is vital, the key to solving the problems faced by teenagers dealing with pregnancy is to stop it before it happens.

Provide accurate and unashamed information about sex and pregnancy to children and teenagers, and encourage…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adolescent Anger and Aggression." Psychiatric Institute of Washington. 2001. http://www.psychinstitute.com/mental_illness/adol_anger.html

Combat Teenage Sexual Abuse." NSPCC. 2001. http://www.nspcc.org.uk/html/home/informationresources/combatteenagesexualabuse.htm

Getting a Sexually Transmitted Disease." Frequently Asked Questions. American Social Health Association. http://www.iwannaknow.org/faqs/getting.html

Lamprecht, Catherine. "Talking to your Child about STDs." KidsHealth. Nemours Foundation. 2001. http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=KidsHealth&lic=1&ps=107&cat_id=171&article_set=23006
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Understanding the Dangers of Methamphetamine S Abuse in the US

Words: 2414 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61647303

Properties, Abuse Patterns, and Effects of Methamphetamine

Characteristics of Methamphetamine

Methamphetamine also referred to as "meth" describes a powerful man-made drug that adversely impacts the central nervous system. Common terms used to refer to meth include glass, speed ice, crystal, and crank. The preparation of meth engages the catalytic hydrogenation of pseudoephedrine or ephedrine and subsequent conversion to hydrochloride. Preparation of meth can also engage reducing the condensation product of methylamine and benzyl methyl ketone (Dobkin, & Nicosia, 2009).

Physical Properties

Meth occurs as a white substance.

Occurs in a solid state, crystals.

Odorless with a bitter taste (Mehling & Triggle, 2008).

Chemical Properties

Soluble in water, alcohol, and chloroform. Besides, it is slightly soluble in absolute ether.

It melts at temperatures between 171 °C and 175 °C.

Meth's Abuse Patterns

Meth abuse occurs in three patterns that include low intensity, binge, and high intensity. Low-intensity abuse refers to an…… [Read More]

References

Brackins, T, Brahm, N. C. & Kissack, J. (2011). Treatments for Methamphetamine Abuse: A Literature Review for the Clinician. Journal of Pharmacy Practice. Volume 24(6): 541-550

Brown, R. (2010). Crystal Methamphetamine Use among American Indian and White Youth in Appalachia: Social Context, Masculinity, and Desistance. Addiction Research & Theory, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp. 250-269

Dean, A. C. et al. (2013). An Evaluation of the Evidence That Methamphetamine Abuse Causes Cognitive Decline in Humans. Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, Volume 38(2): 259-274

Dobkin, C. & Nicosia, N. (2009). The War on Drugs: Methamphetamine, Public Health, and Crime. The American Economic Review, Volume 99, Issue 1, pp. 324-349
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Analyzing the Alcohol Abuse

Words: 1043 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93135447

Alcohol Abuse (esearch Draft)

Alcohol abuse differs from excessive drinking, despite several people using the two terms interchangeably. The concept of "excessive" drinking has largely been a social notion, and such social standards undergo changes. Numerous historical figures consumed alcohol in quantities proportional to those consumed by modern-day "alcoholics." Sailors of the oyal Navy were, in the seventeenth century, issued one gallon per day, of beer, as it was regarded healthier compared to water during long voyages. Pints of strong rum replaced this in the year 1655. The rum ration provided to them on an everyday basis was well beyond that recommended at present on a weekly basis. However, combined with a mug of lemon juice daily, this was the recommended treatment for scurvy as well as a means to sterilize dirty water. The condition known as alcohol abuse is associated with a medical, and not social, meaning. Alcohol abuse…… [Read More]

References

Allsop, S. (2012). Fanning the flames of prevention. Drug and Alcohol Review 31(6), 729-730.

Gordis, E. (2001). Improving the old, embracing the new: implications of alcohol research for future practice. Soc. Work Health Care. 3(1):17-41.

Manning, M., Smith, C. & Mazerolle, P. (2013). The societal costs of alcohol misuse in Australia. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.

Ward, B., Snow, P. & Aroni, R. (2010). Children's alcohol initiation: an analytic overview. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 17(3), 270-277.
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Child Abuse and Neglect Is an Ongoing Problem

Words: 753 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80775386

Non-Traditional Parenting

The main point of the article, "Moms at ork and Dads at Home: Children's Evaluations of Parental Roles," is that when children are given a chance to express their opinions on traditional vs. non-traditional roles, they speak up. In this case, the children used in the survey (67 second-graders and 54 fifth-graders) saw it as "acceptable for both mothers and fathers to work full-time" (Sinno, et al., 2009). However, children found it not as acceptable for fathers to be stay-at-home parents as it is for mothers to be stay-at-home parents. Clearly, 2nd graders were "more likely to rely on ... stereotype knowledge of appropriate roles" (mom home, dad at work), and when dad was the key child-rearing parent it became a non-traditional family. http://abcnews.go.com/NT/story?id=130760&page=1. (This is an ABC News report on the growing trend of fathers raising children.)

Another non-traditional family is the Foster Care family. According to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Sinno, S.M., and Killen, M. (2009) Moms at Work and Dads at Home: Children's

Evaluations of Parental Roles. Applied Developmental Science, 13(1), 16-29.

Tyler, K.A., and Melander, L.A. (2010). Foster Care Placement, Poor Parenting, and Negative Outcomes Among Homeless Young Adults. Journal of Child and Family

Studies, volume 19, 787-794.
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Cruelty and Thereafter Apply the

Words: 1475 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73028253

No animal understands what experimentation is. Therefore, how does one decide whether it is ethical to conduct experiments on them, experiments that involve blatant cruelty and assault?

It must be remembered that those people who voice their objections to using animals in experimentation fall under two broad categories: animal welfare activists, and animal rights activists. hile those who belong to animal welfare groups do agree that animal experimentation must carry on, but that they must be minimized, so that the pain and suffering of the poor creatures is also minimized, those that belong to the animal rights group are more radical with their opinions. These people have often stated that animals too have their rights, in much the same way as human beings do, and that animals must therefore never be used for the purposes of experimentation, as this is extremely cruel, unkind, brutal and unethical. (Bridgstock, 69)

Going back…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bridgstock, Martin. Science, technology and society.

Cambridge University Press. 1998.

Covino, Joseph. Lab animal abuse, vivisection exposed.

Epic Press. 1990.
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Buy Your Dog From a Pet Store

Words: 752 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71203039

buy your dog from a pet store 'How much is that doggie in the window?' Passing by a pet store, it's easy to be tempted to buy a puppy or a kitten. However, according to the American Humane Society, it is estimated that approximately 3.7 million animals were euthanized in American shelters in 2008. "56% of dogs and 71% of cats that enter animal shelters are euthanized," according to the organization. This is despite considerable efforts of the Humane Society not to euthanize animals, unless absolutely necessary. And while some of these animals may have been unsuitable as pets because they were sickly or violent, many were not and were killed due to simple overcrowding. The most common reason people surrender their pets is that they are simply unable or unwilling to care for them. There are too many dogs for too few owners in the United States. Buying a…… [Read More]

References

Animal euthanasia. (2011). American Humane Society. Retrieved July 11, 2011 at  http://www.americanhumane.org/animals/stop-animal-abuse/fact-sheets/animal-shelter-euthanasia.html 

Buying dogs in pet stores. (2011). Dog Guide. Retrieved July 11, 2011 at  http://www.dogguide.net/pet-store-dogs.php 

What is a puppy mill? (2011). American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.

Retrieved July 11, 2011 at http://www.aspca.org/fight-animal-cruelty/puppy-mills/what-is-a-puppy-mill.aspx
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Forensic Entomology

Words: 1904 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3275813

Forensic

According to Elvidge (2014), the first record of the use of forensic entomology is Song Ci (Sung Tz'u), in 13th century China. However, using insects and arthropods like arachnids to aid in forensics investigations is a relatively new field, and one ripe with potential. The most notable applications of forensic entomology are in the identification of time elapsed since death, and the geographic location of death. When applying forensic entomology to homicide and other death studies, the specialist will take into account the various stages of decomposition. Forensic entomology can also be used to elucidate other types of crimes in which any type of decaying organic matter is a clue, in cases of human or animal abuse in which wounds have festered, in analyzing dried blood samples, in the investigation of botanical drug trafficking, and when detecting the presence of drugs in the deceased. Less glamorous but equally as…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, G.S. (n.d.). Forensic entomology: the use of insects in death investigations. Retrieved online:  http://www.sfu.ca/~ganderso/forensicentomology.htm 

Byrd, J.H. (2014). Forensic entomology. Retrieved online:  http://www.forensicentomology.com/info.htm 

Byrd, J.H. & Castner, J.L. (2009). Forensic Entomology. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Byrd, J.H., Lord, W.D., Wallace, J.R. & Tomberlin, J.K. (2010). Collection of entomological evidence during legal investigations. Retrieved online:  http://www.esf.edu/efb/parry/fsc%20lectures/sampling.pdf
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Psychologists Are Addressing Both Psychologists

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38204485

The next day he got an a on the test. Can he conclude that eating lots of popcorn is a necessary condition for memorizing psychology information? Why or why not?

No, Todd cannot draw that conclusion from the limited experiment he conducted. First of all, Todd does not know how he would have performed on the test if he hadn't eaten the popcorn, and he hasn't considered all the other conditions that occurred and may be the necessary condition for getting an a on the test, such as: amount of studying, amount of sleep, type of food eaten, memory ability, learning ability, etc.

* Depict a scenario describing each of the three relationships with their required conditions as discussed earlier in the Analyzing Data section of this Journal Activity.

Necessary condition: If the child hears the English language spoken, the child may or may not learn to speak English.

Sufficient…… [Read More]

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Extremist Groups Difference of Opinion

Words: 2606 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78098146

ALF ensures that animals are liberated from these activities. It has formally established vicinity for animals where these animals are kept after liberation and are facilitated to live their life in the natural manner.

In addition to liberating animals from painful life, ALF also fights against the entities which are involved in animal killing for their economic gains.

Motivations, eliefs and Desired End State for ALF

The basic motivation behind ALF is to give free life to animals which they actually deserve and are created for naturally. Any activity which hinders their natural living must be combated. There is no point in legalising these activities either for commercialisation or amusement. However, it is important to mention that ALF does not forbid the actions which are natural for animals even their slaughtering for diet purposes. This is the reason; the people who serve the cause of ALF include both vegetarian and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anti-Defamation League. 2005. "Ecoterrorism: Extremism in the Animal Rights and Environmentalist Movements" Accessed March 08, 2013. http://archive.adl.org/learn/ext_us/ecoterrorism.asp

This article gives an idea about extremist organisations serving in USA. Particularly in the context of animal rights, various organisations are discussed to give the reader an idea about level of protest carried out in USA to protect the life of animals.

Best, Steven and Nocella, Anthony. 2004. Terrorists and Freedom Fighters. Nigeria: Lantern Books.

This book gives narration of various concepts related to ALF.
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Direct Correlation Between Domestic Violence

Words: 972 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50998605

orkshops are arranged for their further training in recognizing such behavior but over time the officers have also found direct relationships with other crime such drug dealing and grand theft auto. Other such animal cruelty like cock and dog fighting are also on the rise for the Midwest Region (Getz, par. 2). Laura McCloskey also found a direct relationship, weak in theory but however present between firesetters and people who are cruel to animals. She states, "youths who are both firesetters and cruel to animals are especially at risk of delinquency. Firesetting and animal cruelty have been linked conceptually because of their covert nature and empirical evidence indicating an overlap between these two behaviors" (page 6). She further elaborates that the tendency toward such behavior will over time lead to other delinquencies. It is believed such behavior is learned and can be found in paternal influence but also is a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Humane Urges Alabama to Strengthen Pet Protection Act." PR Newswire

Getz, Jim. "WORKSHOP LINKS ANIMAL ABUSE to DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PETS CAN PROVIDE CLUES to BIGGER PROBLEM." St. Louis Post-Dispatch 16 Nov. 2000.

McCloskey, Laura a. "A study of firesetting and animal cruelty in children: family influences and adolescent outcomes." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (2004).

Meyer, Diana Lambdin. "Animal Abusers More Likely to Abuse People." Contemporary Women's Issues 1 Sept. 1996.
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Virtues It Is Clearly Chronological

Words: 1236 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2788116

The article specifically listed school shootings as one connection! One thing I noticed as I read through results was that animal abuse before the age of ten seems to be a very definite indicator of adult violence. I did not find anything on Los Angeles laws, but I was ready to look at the various cases of random violence.

I searched on this term in all the same places and came up with nothing useful until I added the word "schools." Even then, the results showed far too much. In fact, random violence is far more prevalent than I thought, so my topic narrows again to random school violence. However, these results were very difficult to find. So I tried searching on Columbine and Dawson College in hopes to get more. There is lots written on these, though Dawson is so recent that these are mostly news articles. Most of…… [Read More]

Bibliography-Link.html

Hoffman, Frank L. 2006. SHOOTING OURSELVES IN THE FOOT

The Sanitizing of Violence in Our Society

PetAbuse. Cruelty Connections. 2006.   http://www.pet-abuse.com/pages/abuse_connection.php  

Bender, William N.; Shubert, Terresa H.; McLaughlin, Phillip J.
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Public Attention Drawn to Cruelty

Words: 2074 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36045776

In surveying the player's responses to Vick's situation, the journalists were bringing about public reaction to be evaluated to determine what direction to take their stories in. It demonstrated that,.".. survey respondents who experience difficulty answering questions respond differently to related subsequent questions than do those who do not experience such difficulty (JA, Effects of urvey)."

The story of animal abuse in dog fighting was one that caused polls to be taken to measure public opinion. That public opinion was in strong support of the animals that Vick had abused and used in an abusive manner. The journalistic tactic was one wherein the journalists used the opportunity for the public to speak out, to be heard, to participate in the outcome of Vick's legal proceedings as an incentive to be surveyed publicly. "In an effort to counter mounting problems of non-cooperation, survey organizations are increasingly offering incentives to respondents, sometimes…… [Read More]

Some animal lovers have attempted to deal with the problem of young people being indoctrinated into the sport of dog fighting by creating more social and legal ways to be entertained, and to compete. "Concerned by the increasing number of youths involved in dog fighting, former animal control officer Sue Sternberg decided to do something about it. In 2002, Sternberg started Lug-Nuts, a program that encourages inner-city teens to enter their dogs in weight-pulling competitions instead of fights (NG JA a Humane)."

Sternberg's efforts are interesting, and there should be research devoted to the outcomes she is experiencing in the program. "Within this context, this analysis is predominantly definitional, seeking to isolate the unique features of qualitative research (JA QRRC)."

As the Michael Vick legal processes unfold, we can expect to see and hear much more about the life and fate of the American Bull Terrier.
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Abortion One of the Most

Words: 2008 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68342505



The pro-choice group really does not have an argument other than the right to choose. It is, unfortunately, not much of a choice when it involves killing a living thing without reason. The political ramifications have reached such a point that the abortion is the only medical procedure that has no age restrictions (or require parental consent). Abortion also goes against the scientific laws of nature. In the creative scheme of things, after God, women occupy a very important place. Such power cannot be misused. Even atheists would concede the powerful natural forces at work here. A woman's body goes through significant changes as it readies it self to create a brand new human being. Abortion cuts this process short.

Then there are guilt feelings and burdens of society. Obviously, a woman who goes through abortion merely for convenience would be guilt ridden for a long time (if not for…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Callahan, Joan C. "The Fetus and Fundamental Rights." The Ethics of Abortion: Pro-Life vs. Pro-Choice. Eds. Robert M. Baird and Stuart E. Rosenbaum. Rev. ed. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1993. 203-09.

ChristianAction. "Prolife: 10 Arguments against Abortion." 2009. Christian Action. org. April 11, 2009. .

Noonan, John Thomas. "The Morality of Abortion; Legal and Historical Perspectives." The Morality of Abortion; Legal and Historical Perspectives. Ed. John Thomas Noonan. Cambridge, Mass.,: Harvard University Press, 1970. 51-59.

Steyn, Mark. America Alone: The End of the World as We Know it. Washington, DC
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Enemies of Science Haldane P 225

Words: 1081 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96827417

HALDANE

"Some Enemies of Science" J.B.S. Haldane

The vivisection debate: J.B.S. Haldane's "Some enemies of science"

The vivisection debate is an old one. As early as 1928, the scientist J.B.S. Haldane rigorously defended the practice of vivisection against its earliest detractors, arguing that even moderate government regulation of scientific behavior to protect animal rights was hypocritical, given the way that animals were treated in other spheres of human life. In contrast, David Suzuki's 1989 essay "The pain of animals" highlights the central paradox of animal experimentation. On one hand, animal experiments are only useful because of our biological similarities to animals. On the other hand, we assert our right to exploit animals based upon our inherent differences from them. The intelligence of animals such as the chimpanzee is analogous to a two-year-old child and yet through logical sleight of hand we justify using chimps in the laboratory by calling them…… [Read More]

References

Haldane, J.B.S. (2004). Some enemies of science. The Nelson Introduction to Literature (2nd

Ed). Valleau, Al & Jack Finnbogason. (Eds.). Toronto: Thomson Nelson.

Suzuki, David. (2004). The pain of animals. The Nelson Introduction to Literature (2nd

Ed). Valleau, Al & Jack Finnbogason. (Eds.). Toronto: Thomson Nelson.
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Rise of the Planet of the Apes

Words: 1271 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49498136

Rise of the Planet of the Apes

The interaction of human beings and the natural world has always been one of conflict because of the inhumane way that people can behave. Animal have been used by human beings as pets, as entertainment, and in the course of scientific research. Fictional depictions of this interaction have reflected the nature of this relationship between man and animal. Some people value animal research as a means of curing human ailments and others decry it as animal cruelty. This is not a clear cut issue, but rather one of many different viewpoints. This document will show various attitudes toward these interactions; the positive aspects of animal testing, the negative attitudes towards testing, and finally how both these attitudes are fitted into the context of the film Rise of the Planet of the Apes, a film which shows exactly how society feels about this complicated…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Cohn, M. (2010). Alternatives to animal testing gaining ground: researchers, regulators develop new systems for experiments. The Baltimore Sun.

Hajar, R. (2011). Animal testing and medicine. Heart Views. (12:1). 42.

Jeffries, DH (2011). Planet of the apes and the rise of the animal rights film. The Veganomaly.

The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, Volume II (2012). Fullbooks.com
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Conciliation for the Sake of

Words: 2011 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82514145

"Using animals this way is morally right. efusing to use them because to do so is thought as an infringement of the 'rights' of rats and mice is morally wrong." It is inhumane, to the majority of Americans.

It is possible to find a middle ground in the issues of such animal rights groups as PETA, and list several points of agreement regarding what is ethically humane and for the animal's positive welfare. That is, the two opposing sides should be able to agree to the following without abandoning their basic positions: 1) Animals do have sensations, such as pain, and emotional states, such as fear or suffering. esearch is growing for the proposition that at least vertebrate animals are very likely sentient (ose and Adams); 2) Numerous animals, at the very least mammals, have the capacity a variety of other mental states, such as distress and discomfort. This is…… [Read More]

References:

Cohen, Carl and Regan, Tom. Animal Rights Debate. New York: Roman & Littlefield, 2001

Hayhurst, Christ. Animal testing: the animal rights debate. New York: Rosen Publishing, 2000.

Moore, David. Public Lukewarm on Animal Rights. Gallup Poll. 21 May 2003. 23 April, 2010.  http://www.gallup.com/poll/8461/public-lukewarm-animal-rights.aspx 

Mur, Cindy. Animal Experimentation. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2004
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Ethics & Sharks Ethical Issues

Words: 1680 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88934434



Sharks Are Dangerous to People:

Finally, with respect to the argument that sharks constitute a genuine danger because they often attack and eat human beings, that point is both inaccurate and simplistic. Sharks actually avoid human beings except where drawn to us, either by the scent of blood in the water or perceptible signs of physical stress, both of which they evolved over many millions of years to detect (Perrine 1995). The evidence actually suggests that many fatal attacks on humans are the result of sharks' mistaking us for their usual prey; that accounts for the relative frequency with which sharks initiate only one test bite without pursuing the attack further (Stevens 1999). In fact, the vast majority of shark attacks on human are attributable to the ridiculous practice of feeding sharks in the open ocean, such as in conjunction with tourist cruises and diving expeditions. These practices condition sharks…… [Read More]

References

Bright, M. (1994) Intelligence in Animals: The Earth, Its Wonders, Its Secrets.

Montreal: Reader's Digest Books

Broad, W. Scientists Say Frenzy Over Shark Attack Is Unwarranted; the New York Times (9/5/01). Accessed April 29, 2008, at: http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0DE3D61439F936A3575AC0A9679C8B63&n=Top/News/Science/Topics/Sharks

Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
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Marketing Plan for Opening a

Words: 6854 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32314033

Likewise, McCain (2003) reports that, "The United States is a dog-loving nation. The American Veterinary Medical Association says about 36% of U.S. households own dogs, compared with 31% that own cats. The most popular breeds, the American Kennel Club says, are Labrador retrievers, golden retrievers and German shepherds" (2). According to the Southwest Boston Dog Owners' Group (2007), "The number of licensed dogs in Boston is 8,500; Animal Control estimates the total number of dogs in the city is 40,000" (Petition to Boston City Council and Mayor's office 4).

The results of the 2000 census of Boston showed that the city enjoys a healthy percentage of middle- to upper-middle class residents as shown in Table ____ below.

Table ____.

2000 Census Breakdown of Household Incomes in Boston.

Category

Number

Percent

Households

Less than $10,000

10,000 to $14,999

15,000 to $24,999

25,000 to $34,999

35,000 to $49,999

50,000 to $74,999

75,000…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barker, Randolph T. (2005). "On the Edge or Not? Opportunities for Interdisciplinary Scholars in Business Communication to Focus on the Individual and Organizational Benefits of Companion Animals in the Workplace." The Journal of Business Communication 42(3):299.

Boston Housing Authority: Elderly & Disabled Housing Program Pet Policy. (October 1, 2000). Boston Housing Authority. [Online]. Available: http://www.bostonhousing.org/pdfs/OPS2003ElderlyPetPolicy.pdf.

Dennick, Reg and Kate Exley. Small Group Teaching. New York: RoutledgeFalmer, 2004.

Goldberg, Jonah. (2002, December 9). "Man Bites Dog: The Axis of Evil Takes on Canines," National Review 54(23):37.
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Zoos Are Categorically Utilitarian in

Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90118739

Singer would also claim that there is no actual utility in abusing animals in this way, and that it does not promote the greatest good for the greatest number for either the animal or human communities. Even if an individual animal has no inherent rights (as Tom Regan would claim), the human being has a moral duty to respect all animals with the capacity for suffering.

It is important to alleviate suffering, and therefore important to liberate the animals in their collective condition of oppression in an exploitative zoo. Tom Regan would argue that the exploitative zoo infringes on the rights of the individual animals -- as Regan does claim that animals have the same rights as human beings. Therefore, it is more likely that Regan would denounce all zoos including those designed for species preservation -- because Regan would not place any perceived utility before rights. Regan's thesis is…… [Read More]

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Nature Is Being Apart From

Words: 1578 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3742250



Animals have been overused both in terms of their skins and pelts and in terms of consumption by the standards of greed. It is common knowledge that chickens are kept in cramped quarters and live short lives of being shot full of steroids toward the ends of bigger chickens faster to sell on today's inflated food market. Not only is food more contaminated it is also less bountiful that in times past when the earth's population was not at such a burdensome level for Earth to sustain.

Summary and Conclusion:

Sustainable development" is a commonly used terms in today's society. Sustainable development refers to a level of development in all matters, industrial, construction focused, agriculturally speaking and indeed in all areas of life on earth it is a lifestyle of development which the earth has the ability to sustain and one that does not overtax or work against the sustenance…… [Read More]

Bibliography

2005 Could Be Warmest Year Recorded, Says NASA (2005) ENN Full Story Online available at http://www.enn.com/today.html?id=7123

Experts Baffled by Finch Die-Off in Alaska (2005) Associated Press Feb 9, 2005 [Online available at http://www.enn.com/wild.html?id=229

Wyoming to Study Declining Moose Population (2005) Associated Press 2005 Feb 10 [Online available at http://www.enn.com/wild.html?id=230

Dischinger, Joe (2005) the Water Front: Top Issues in Water Quality in 2005 [Online available at http://www.eponline.com/Stevens/EPPub.nsf/frame-open&redirect= http://www.eponline.com/Stevens/EPPub.nsf/Articles2/634892F1D1DEFD6986256F8E00023C52?OpenDocument
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Breed Specific Bans State and Local Government

Words: 766 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85087176

reed Specific ans

State and Local Government Laws on reeding Dangerous Pets

While some states and local government have breeding bans on dangerous pets, other states and local governments have failed to address this issue. Rather than a ban on breeding of dangerous pets, the law would be better served to hold owners of dangerous pets responsible for their pets.

The purpose of the study proposed is to examine the state and local laws on breeding of dangerous pets and to determine if a federal law should be enacted on this issue.

The significance of this study is the additional knowledge that will be added to the already existing base of knowledge in this area of inquiry.

Research Questions

The research questions addressed in this study include those as follows:

(1) What types of laws have been enacted by state and local governments to address the issue of breeding dangerous…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Breed Specific Legislation (2012) ASPCA. Retrieved from: http://www.aspca.org/fight-animal-cruelty/dog-fighting/breed-specific-legislation.aspx

Review of the Viability of City of County Pre-Emption of Banning Certain Dog Breeds By Ordinance (2008) The Florida State Senate Interim Report 2009-102. Oct 2008. Retrieved from:  http://archive.flsenate.gov/data/Publications/2009/Senate/reports/interim_reports/pdf/2009-102ca.pdf 

Snyder, E. (2012) Dangerous Dog Breeds. Edgar Snyder and Associates Law Firm. Retrieved from: http://www.edgarsnyder.com/dog-bite/dangerous-dogs.html
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Controversy Over Zoos Most People

Words: 2175 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86715106

This issue was put in front of the public with the story of Keiko, a killer whale that was badly abused in a Mexican facility. Eventually, Keiko was moved to a better aquarium in Oregon, but activists insisted that Keiko should be released to live in the wild (Staff writers, 1997). In fact, people have worked for animal rights since the 1860's when the first Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was established in the 1860's (Unti & Rowan, 2001), but until recently, most people did not consider holding captive animals in well-designed and well-maintained zoos as inhumane or cruel. ecause of the attention Keiko received, including the animal being represented as the lead character in two "Free Willy" films, Keiko was eventually released. This action demonstrated the difficulty of returning captive animals to the wild. Although Keiko had begun life as a wild animal, he did not…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Diamond, Jared. 1995. "Playing God at the Zoo." Discover, March.

Paulson, Amanda. 2004. "It's No Longer a (Traditional) Zoo Out There." The Christian Science Monitor, June 15.

Staff writers. 1997. "Keiko the Killer Whale at Center of Debate over Animals in Zoos." Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Oct. 6.

Sunquist, Fiona. 1995. "End of the Ark? (Zoos)" International Wildlife, Nov. 21.
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Greyhound Racing The Case for

Words: 1747 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44572698

Not only does it use animals for mere entertainment at a huge cost to the welfare of those animals, but it also condones countless other modes of abuse and neglect -- from needless or excessive animal experimentation, vivisection, to "animal mills" or excessive breeding facilities based on the "bottom line," to the needless suffering and torture of livestock reared and killed in "factory farms." Yet this nation does have tremendous empathy in some of its ranks -- enough at times to galvanize law makers (like the ones in Pennsylvania) to enact laws against the mistreatment of animals in whatever form. Dog racing is on the decline. One has but to work a bit harder to see it eventually die out altogether.

orks Cited

Animal Aid Campaign. "Greyhound Racing." eb site. 2000. Retrieved on November 22, 2004, from http://www.animalaid.org.uk/campaign/wildlife/racing.htm)

LCA. Last Chance for Animals (staff). "Greyhound Racing." eb site. 2004. Retrieved…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Animal Aid Campaign. "Greyhound Racing." Web site. 2000. Retrieved on November 22, 2004, from http://www.animalaid.org.uk/campaign/wildlife/racing.htm)

LCA. Last Chance for Animals (staff). "Greyhound Racing." Web site. 2004. Retrieved from Web site on November 21, 2004, from http://www.lcanimal.org/cmpgn/cmpgn_011.htm

Nardone, Melani. "The Myth of Neutrality." Greyhound Muses. 2004. Retrieved from Web site on November 21, 2004, from  http://www.greyhoundmuses.com/neutrality.htm . TheMyth of Neutrality. Melani Nardone 2004

Rhodes, Amy. "PETA ASKS GOVERNOR to CLOSE DOG TRACKS in LIGHT of OUTBREAKS." Peta Media Center. 2003. Retrieved on November 22, 2004, from  http://www.peta.org /news/NewsItem.asp?id=2151
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Everyone Should Not Own a Pet

Words: 933 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75140166

domestication of dogs over ten thousand years ago, companion animals have held a special place in the hearts of people. For many people, owning a companion animal is a rewarding and enjoyable affair. Pets will offer unconditional love and support that may otherwise be unobtainable to people in today's cold-hearted, "dog-eat-dog" society. However, owning a pet of any species, much like having a human child, is an endeavor that calls for a great deal of commitment and responsibility on the part of the human companion. "Even people who care about animals are often unable to recognize or meet animals' many needs." (PETA) People who are unable to provide for an animal's financial needs, are unwilling to make life-style changes for an animal, or are opposed to treating an animal with love and respect should not own a pet.

Unlike most acquisitions, adopting a pet is not a one-time "purchase." Once…… [Read More]

Bibliography

PETA. "Companion Animals: Doing What's Best for Them." Fact Sheet. 2003. Accessed Online 25 November 2003. Available at  http://www.peta.org /mc/facts/fsc19.html

Pet adoption"

City of Pasadena, Texas. 29 Apr 1999. Accessed Online 25 November 2003. Available at http://www.ci.pasadena.tx.us/pet.htm

Steinman, Moco. Personal Interview. 25 November 2003.
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Environmental Themes

Words: 5447 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33113853

Environmental Themes in Grapes of rath

This essay reviews environmental themes from the following five books: Dust Bowl by Donald orster, The Grapes of rath by John Steinbeck, Everglades: River of Grass by Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Killing Mr. atson by Peter Matthiessen, and River of Lakes by Bill Belleville. This paper discusses the role that culture has played in environmental issues during the past century. Five sources used. MLA format.

Environmental Themes

Humans from the very beginning of their existence have had an impact, for better or worse, on the environment. Man has for the most part tried to control the environment to suit his needs or tastes of the era. Over-grazing, over hunting, ignoring the importance crop rotations, dam building, and toxic dumping, are but a few of the ways man tries to control. Few societies have ever considered any of the above when it comes to the environment.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Belleville, Bill. River of Lakes. University of Georgia

Press. 2001.

Douglas, Marjory Stoneman. The Everglades River of Grass.

Pineapple Press. 50th Anniversary Edition. 1997.
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American Pit Bull Terrier

Words: 6478 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22805840

American Pit Bull Terrier

What is the American Pit Bull Terrier? What are its origins and what is its history? The American Pit Bull Terrier has most often been described as the dog that is closest to the human race, in its likeness to the human race. This endearing breed of dog has the most charming and pleasing of personalities, in that it is very individualistic and independent, as well as intelligent and friendly. It has an innate strength, is extremely tenacious, and is also full of beans, and when all these traits are combined with its basically soft and charming nature, this is a breed that is very close to the human race, and it closely resembles an ordinary human being. All the character traits that have been found in the American Pit Bull Terrier not only make it an easy breed to own and train, but also make…… [Read More]

References

American Pit bull Terrier, Breed and Health Information. Retrieved From

 http://www.pupcity.com/dog-breeds/american-pit-bull-terrier.asp  Accessed on 2 January, 2005

American Pit Bull Terrier: Bull Dog Breeds.com. Retrieved From

 http://www.bulldogbreeds.com/americanpitbullterrier.html  Accessed on 2 January, 2005
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Beauty and Life of the Monarch Butterfly

Words: 2888 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83935617

Beauty and Life of the Monarch Butterfly

This is a paper about the Monarch Butterfly. What animal kingdom is it from? Listed is the life cycle of the butterfly. What are the adaptations of the Monarch Butterfly?

THE BEAUTY OF THE MONACH BUTTEFLY

Many people think butterflies live in a carefree environment, but they are wrong. They seem so peaceful visiting flowers, but they are bound by social conventions and instincts of their own. Although their lives appear to be so simple, yet their lives are quite demanding (Farrand 1990). The beauty of the Monarch is found delighting in most butterfly lovers. The life of a Monarch Butterfly is quite complicated as it meets the instincts that it is bound with. A butterfly's life depends on finding enough food, where to lay its eggs safely, the intricate demands of courtships, and on finding the right spot of transformation from a…… [Read More]

References

Butterflies and Moths" Encarta Encyclopedia Article. http://encarta.msn.com/find/Concise.asp?z=1&pg=2&ti=761578331&cid=2

Butterflies The World of Nature" 1990. New York: Gallery Books

Carson, Shawn. "Unraveling the Secrets of Monarchs" Scientific American Sep. 1997 Vol. 277 Issue 3 p. 90

Darrach, Brad. "Millions of Monarchs" Life. Aug 93. Vol. 16. Issue 9. p. 50
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Toxic Waste Feasibility of Market

Words: 3454 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26566486

Another unfortunate reality is that simply banning the discharge of effluents into the Olifants River will only stymie efforts to improve the economic situation of the region. New mining, agricultural, and electrical interests are being encouraged to invest in the region because they will facilitate economic growth and propel communities out of poverty. An outright ban on the discharge of effluents into the Olifants River will have the net result of undermining economic growth and crippling the communities that already rely on this economic base for their livelihood.

Many communities and governments, however, are experimented with market-based solutions to situations in which the interests of many firms, individuals, and organizations must be balanced with the larger desire to protect valuable environmental resources so that all can utilize them. The Australian government, in particular, has pioneered efforts to introduce market economic into pollution control and regulation. Their experiences with this method…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Helmer, Richard and Hespanhol, Ivanildo (eds.). "Water Pollution Control -- a Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles." London: Thomson Professional, 1997.

How the Scheme Works." Hunter River Salinity Trading Scheme. New South Wales Environmental Protection Agency. 27 Nov. 2003. 15 Nov. 2007 http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/licensing/hrsts/how_the_scheme_works.htm.

James, David. "Environmental Incentives: Australian Experience with Economic Instruments for Environmental Management." Environmental Economic Research Paper No. 5. Australian Government: Department of the Environment and Water Resources. 1997. 15 Nov. 2007 http://www.environment.gov.au/about/publications/economics/incentives/trade.html.

Olifants River Basin, the." International Water Management Institute. 31 Oct. 2007. 13 Nov. 2007 http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/Research_Impacts/Benchmark_Basins/Olifants.aspx.
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Court Opinion United States v

Words: 1054 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68000698

U.S.C. § 48 is not aimed at specific instances of animal cruelty, but specifically at the creation and distribution of depictions of such abuse for the purposes of interstate and/or foreign commerce. This is the act that the appellant was unarguably engaging in when apprehended by law enforcement, and the fact that the law is not aimed at those participating directly in acts of animal cruelty does not in and of itself create a constitutional objection.

The statutes specific mention of interstate commerce renders the appellant's claim that the constitutionality of the statute is in question due to a dependence on state definitions also moot. Not only were the acts depicted in the videos the appellant old to law enforcement agencies unquestionably illegal in all fifty states, but the federal government has a duty to regulate interstate commerce specifically because state definitions and regulations differ. Failing to regulate the interstate…… [Read More]

References

FindLaw (2010a). NEW YORK v. FERBER, 458 U.S. 747 (1982). Accessed 14 January 2010. http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=U.S.&vol=458&invol=747

FindLaw (2010b). CHAPLINSKY v. STATE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE, 315 U.S. 568 (1942). Accessed 14 January 2010. http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/cgi-bin/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=315&invol=568
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Legalize Marijuana Now Today the United States

Words: 1583 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94331501

Legalize Marijuana Now!

Today, the United States enjoys the dubious distinction of incarcerating more of its citizens than any other industrialized nation on earth. Perhaps even more troubling still, the majority of these citizens have been imprisoned for nonviolent crimes involving drugs, with marijuana being one of the most prominently drugs. Furthermore, these issues have assumed new importance and relevance in recent years. As the country continues to struggle to recover from the Great Recession of 2008, dwindling federal and state budgets have forced lawmakers to scramble to identify ways to save money in order to turn the tide for economic recovery. One initiative that has been advanced time and again is the legalization of marijuana because it would reduce the number of people being incarcerated and help generate new tax revenues. To determine if this is the legalization of marijuana is a truly viable option, this paper provides a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cameron, Kenzie A., Campo, Shelly and Brossard, Dominique. (2003). "Advocating for Controversial Issues: The Effect of Activism on Compliance-Gaining Strategy

Likelihood of Use." Communication Studies 54(3): 265-266.

Dripps, Donald A. (1998). "The Liberal Critique of the Harm Principle." Criminal Justice Ethics

17(2): 3.
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Multi Ethnic Literature

Words: 3326 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33967127

Multi-Ethnic Literature

The focus of this work is to examine multi-ethnic literature and focus on treating humans like farm animals that can be manipulated for various purposes. Multi-Ethnic literature offers a glimpse into the lives of the various writers of this literature and into the lives of various ethnic groups and the way that they view life and society and their experiences. Examined in this study are various writers including Tupac Shakar, Dorothy West, Petry, and others.

A Rose Grows From Concrete

One might be surprised to learn that Tupac Shakar was the writer of many sensitive poems. Upon his death in 1996, Tupac's mother released a collection of poems entitled 'A Rose Grows From Concrete', which includes various love poems among the 72 poems in the collection. Tupac writes:

Things that make hearts break.

Pretty smiles

Deceiving laughs

And people who dream with their eyes open

Lonely children

Unanswered…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Jones, SL (2012) Rereading the Harlem Renaissance: Race, Class and Gender in the Fiction of Jessie Fauset, Zora Neale Hurston and Dorothy West. Greenwood Publishing Group. 2002. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=NeRtokbeXDEC&dq=social,+political+and+economic+oppression,+created+a+climate+in+which+Dorothy+West+felt+compelled+to+refrain+from+completing+or+actively+pursuing+a+publisher+for+The+Wedding.+West%E2%80%99s+nearly+half-a-century+space+between+publication+of+The+Living+Is+Easy+(1948)+and+The+Wedding+(1995)+signifies+the+complexities+of+African+American+literature+and+the+debate+over+which+aesthetics%E2%80%94folk,+bourgeois,+and+proletarian%E2%80%94should+take+preeminence+at+a+given+time&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Edwards, Walter. "From poetry to rap: the lyrics of Tupac Shakur. " The Western Journal of Black Studies. 26.2 (Summer 2002): 61(10). Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale. College of Alameda. 17 Sept. 2008

Hale, JC (1985) The Jailing of Cecelia Hale. University of New Mexico Press. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=eW6RGpubQ9UC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

Pat Mora (2012) Artist Page. Retrieved from: http://voices.cla.umn.edu/artistpages/mora_pat.php
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Anne Bronte Novel Tenant of Wildfell Hall

Words: 1466 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83900794

Domestic Relations and Domestic Abuse -- the clear-eyed vision of alcoholic dissipation of Anne Bronte's the Tennant of ildfell Hall

According to the posthumous introduction to her final novel, The Tennant of ildfell Hall the Victorian author Anne Bronte was often considered the 'nicest' and most conventionally of all of the three female Bronte sisters who lived on past childhood, to become published authors. However, Anne Bronte's novel The Tennant of ildfell Hall may perhaps be the most ostentatiously feminist of all of the texts published by the various female Brontes, from Emily's uthering Heights, to Charlotte's Jane Eyre, Shirley, and even Villette.

Unlike Emily Bronte's uthering Heights, Anne Bronte's final novel does not romanticize or excuse the brutality of her central male protagonist. Rather, Anne validates the central female character Helen Huntington's determination to escape Mr. Huntington's sway. Nor does Anne's novel ideologically excuse even romantic forms cruelty to…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Bronte, Anne. The Tennant of Wildfell Hall. From the Online Literature Library. Sponsored by Knowledge Matters Ltd. Last updated Tuesday, 29-Jun-1999 13:54:25 GMT. < http://www.literature.org/authors/bronte-anne/the-tenant-of-wildfell-hall/chapter-03.html.> [14 Mar 2005]
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Negative Group Roles and How I Dealt

Words: 858 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26863369

negative group roles and how I dealt with the negative group member

My very first encounter with negative group roles was when I was seventeen years old and while working part-time at a local electronics store. At the electronics store, we were divided into various groups that were headed by different group leaders. Our salary was based on a basic pay as well as commission. This means that our earnings depended much on our push for more sales. The sales force of every individual was highly dependent on the amount of group cohesion and strategy which we put in place in attracting more clients to our stand as well as to our groups. In regard to the sales and promotion functions, we were allowed to engage potential clients via email, phone calls and direct conversations. This means that we had to work together in ensuring that our sales and marketing…… [Read More]

References

Janis, I.L. (1982). Groupthink: Psychological studies of policy decisions and fiascoes (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Janis, I.L. (1989). Crucial decisions: Leadership in policymaking and crisis management. New "York: Free Press

Smith, T (2011). A Euphemism for Marginalization.The New York Times

 http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2011/09/21/under-obama-is-america-post-racial/a-euphemism-for-marginalization
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Production of Food Products Has Changed Dramatically

Words: 2941 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82456402

production of food products has changed dramatically over the past several years. Technological changes in machinery, increased use of better and more expedient forms of transportation, and improved fertilizers have all contributed to a more efficient food production process. This more efficient process, however, has not come with some requisite problems.

The existing system of delivering food products in the United States is a major contributor to the world's global warming problem. The largest contributor to global warming is the use of fossil fuels. One study released in 2000 estimated that nearly ten percent of all the energy used in the United States was consumed by the food industry. (Heller, 2000).

This large use of fossil fuels is generated throughout the food production and delivering industry. A large measure of this use is through the extensive reliance upon artificial fertilizers and pesticides. Although the use of these products results in…… [Read More]

References

Center for Disease Control. (2003). Diabetes Public Health Resource. Retrieved December 4, 2010, from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/figuretext.htm#fig1

Eckholm, E. (2010, August 11). Farmers Lean to Truce on Animals' Close Quarters. The New York Times .

Eisnitz, G.A. (2006). Slaugherhouse: The Shocking Story of Greed, Neglect, and Inhuman Treatment Inside the U.S. Meat Industry. Prometheus Books.

Fossil Fuels. (n.d.). Retrieved December 3, 2010, from U.S. Department of Energy: http://www.energy.gov/energysources/fossilfuels.htm
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Aspect of Human Development Social Work

Words: 2353 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39911377

child abuse and considers it as the cause for people developing differential perceptions in life and elevating crime rates. It has 15 sources.

Although caregivers give their undivided attention to children, there is always a chance that a child might be exposed to danger. This danger can be in any form, such as a fire in the house, falling and injuring one's self or child abuse. Child abuse may be the unsuitable actions of an adult towards a child that leads the child to develop distorted perceptions of life. These actions by adults may cause a child to grow up and do the same thing to other children or it may simply result in a child lacking trust in people no matter how kind they are or even over trusting people, hoping to let out the emotions held back. (Fergusson et al., 1996)

Thesis:

Child abuse causes instability in the…… [Read More]

Sources:

Eshtain, J. (1993): "Family Matters: The Plight of America's Children." The Christian Century. 14-21.

McMillan, B. (2000) Transcript Conference with: Holli Marshall & Niki Delson on "Survivors of Sexual Abuse"

Fergusson, D.M., Lynskey M.T., and Horwood, L.J. (1996), 'Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorders in young adulthood: Part I: The prevalence of sexual abuse and the factors associated with sexual abuse,' Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 35, pp. 1355-1365.

Child Abuse and Neglect -- A Tragic Trend Continues. Children's Voice. Child Welfare League of America, (1995) Washington, D.C.,Volume #17, Summer, p. 11
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Contingency Management Alcohol & Marijuana

Words: 11354 Length: 41 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27822679

" (1995)

The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.

McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)

Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)

Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.
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Illinois Department of Conservation Police Law Enforcement

Words: 4190 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76268566

Illinois Department of Conservation Police Law Enforcement

The American system of local governance for the purpose of maintaining parks and other recreational areas is political as well as democratic, and is based on certain citizens' awareness and desire to create better living conditions as far as environment is concerned, for the benefit of future generations. This entails preservation and conservation of natural parks and wildlife to a large extent. This is especially true in the case of the citizens of Illinois, who are always on the campaign for more open spaces, more parks, and more as well as better recreational facilities for its citizens. Officials are elected for the purpose of looking after and governing the problems that arise from these forests and natural forest preserves, and these officials do believe and also demonstrate the same determination and strongly idealistic beliefs of their predecessors, of the days gone by. The…… [Read More]

References

Blagojevich, Rod. (April 2004) "Illinois's Multi-Year strategy to Control Drug and Violent Crime FFY2004" Retrieved at http://www.icjia.state.il.us/public/word/Byrne/ByrneStrategy.doc. Accessed on 28 October, 2004

Carlile, Harry E. "Keeping our parks a safe place to play" Retrieved at http://www.lib.niu.edu/ipo/ip960919.html. Accessed on 27 October, 2004

DUI, International Referral Database of DUI, DWI, Impaired and Drunk Driving, Drinking and Driving, Lawyers & Attorneys" Retrieved at  http://www.lawyers.ca/international/summaryoflaw.asp . Accessed on 28 October, 2004

Educational information: Illinois Department of Natural Resources" (2003) Retrieved at http://dnr.state.il.us/lands/education/index.htm. Accessed on 27 October, 2004
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Tragedy of Commons and Clean

Words: 1848 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24574941



The solution that Hardin proposes is that of a coercive method; as always he gives a lucid example to support the point that he proposes. Hardin reminds the reader that society mutually agreed to make it illegal to rob banks, rather than appeal to the sense of responsibility to those who wish to rob banks as a means of deterring them. Bank robbers (real and potential) know that very immediate consequences await them, such as police chases which could end in injuries or fatalities, jail time and other comparable results. These consequences are real and immediate because they're reinforced by the state, the judicial system and by the police force. This form of coercion prevents more people from attempting to rob banks. Our natural resources of water need to be treated as though they're as valuable as banks filled with money. Dumping chemicals such as fertilizers, pharmaceuticals and personal care…… [Read More]

References

Environmentalgraffitti, n.d. 7 Extinct Animals: Rare Photographs. [Online]

Available at: http://www.environmentalgraffiti.com/featured/rare-photographs-

now-extinct-beasts/14727?image=2

Magnuson, M.L. et al., 2005. Responding to Water Contamination Threats. [Online]
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Man Racism Isn't an Inborn

Words: 677 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98265806

There are costs to bearing and believing in such a secret.

These costs are manifested in many ways. There are the psychosomatic costs Jesse endures, his impotence, his weakness around the black boy in the jail, his tremors at the thought of Otis, "Now the thought of Otis made him sick. He began to shiver." There are also the psychological costs that Jesse is plagued by, the self-delusion associated with believing racism is moral, the mental anguish, and the constant struggle over whether he can trust his coconspirators, "They were forced to depend on each other more and, at the same time, to trust each other less" (Baldwin). What Baldwin is underscoring with these psychological and psychosomatic burdens is that the path Jesse has followed, a path of racism and discrimination, has led him to a very troubled existence.

Baldwin wants the reader to understand that proponents for a Jim…… [Read More]

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Intervention & Addiction Therapy Theory

Words: 3133 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96162245

.

The two hypothetical systems working on an individual's brain during the experience of addiction are complementary within and between system changes. The first counteradaptation results in a decrease in the transmission of dopamine and serotonin release during withdrawal phases of the cycle (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively, dopamine and serotonin transmission is artificially increased beyond the normative range during drug use, then virtually stopped once the drug has left the body. This intensifies not only the "come down" feeling but also the preoccupation anxieties associated with substance abuse as well as the existing emotional, environmental, or social vulnerability which lead to the initial lapse. Sensitization is the component of addiction which compels an individual to continually seek greater quantities of the substance (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively once the brain has been exposed to a chemical which alters neural transmission, the body attempts to return to a homeostatic state.…… [Read More]

References

1. Nesse, R. (1994). An evolutionary perspective on substance abuse. Ethology and Sociobiology, 15, 339- 348.

2. Robinson, T, & Berridge, K. (2001). Mechanisms of action of addictive stimuli incentive- sensitization and addiction. Addiction, 96, 103- 114.

3. Koob, G., & Le Moal, M. (1997). Drug abuse: Hedonic homeostatic dysregulation. Science, 278, 52- 58.

4. Brown, J.M., & Miller, W.R. (1993). Impact of motivational interviewing on participation and outcome in residential alcoholism treatment. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors,7, 211-218.
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Steroid Use Controversies of the

Words: 5176 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32219224

e., their use of anabolic steroids (and whether they had ever been offered steroids), their involvement in power sports, appearance and eating problems, and problem behavior. Background information about the participants included their degree of urbanization, parental socioeconomic status and the region to which they belonged.

Analyses of the study's results show that the prevalence of steroid use among Norwegian youth was lower (lifetime use was 0.8% and 12 months prevalence was 0.3%) than in several other Western societies such as the U.S. (2.5% to 7%) and in Australia, Canada, Sweden and South Africa (2% to 3.5%). It also showed that AAS use was first and foremost associated with problem behavior (i.e., drug [marijuana] involvement and aggressive-type conduct problems). Its relation with power sports and appearance came in at second and third place respectively.

The study is, therefore, significant in highlighting the hitherto largely ignored area of problem behavior in…… [Read More]

References

Admissions before BALCO grand jury detailed." (2004, December). ESPN.com. Retrieved on November 1, 2005 at http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/news/story?id=1936592

Anabolic Steroid Abuse." (2000, April). National Institute on Drug Abuse: Research Report Series. Retrieved on November 1, 2005 at http://www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/RRSteroi.pdf

Langone, J. (1995). Tough Choices A Book about Substance Abuse. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

Miller, R.W. (1987, November). Athletes and Steroids: Playing a Deadly Game. FDA Consumer, 21, 16+.
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Non-Profit Management PALS 4 Paws Case Study

Words: 2220 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64819046

Fundraising for PALS 4 Paws

Financing for Non-profit Organization

PALS 4 paws is a non-profit organization interested in safeguarding pets in the U.S.A. To protect them from abuse, neglect, abandonment, and euthanasia. The goal of PALS 4 Paws is to decrease the number of animals that are going into animal shelters and increase the number of local adoptions to ensure better lives for pets. As a non-profit, PALS 4 paws will manage the rescue of pets that fall victim to issues of mistreat, tragedy or other forms of animal suffering. One the other hand, it will provide pet lovers with low cost pets by facilitating the adoption process through owner-to-adopter communication. This paper discusses the fundraising aspect of Pals 4 Paws as well as details of the organization's financial policies.

Fundraising plan

Strengths

Based on the assessment of the organization, three key areas of strength are identified. The first is…… [Read More]

References

Burnett, K. (2012). Relationship Fundraising: A Donor-Based Approach to the Business of Raising Money. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Cannon, C.M. (2012). An Executive's Guide to Fundraising Operations: Principles, Tools & Trends. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Ciconte, L.B., & Jacob, J. (2012). Fundraising Basics: A Complete Guide. Chicago: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Klein, K. (2012). Fundraising for Social Change. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
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Ecstasy Use by Adolescents in Miami Dade County FL

Words: 4630 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84746661

Ecstasy Use by Adolescents in Miami-Dade County, FL

Ecstasy, also known as MDMA, Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, has become popular as a club drug and at techno dance events, such as raves, trance scenes and private parties. Many who attend raves and trances do not use drugs, but those who do, may be attracted to their generally low cost and to the intoxicating highs that are said to deepen the rave or trance experience ("NIDA," 2004). It has gained the reputation as a "hug drug" promoting empathy, relaxation, and sexuality. Studies indicate an increase in abuse of this drug, especially among adolescents and/or teenagers. It is a human-made drug that acts as both a stimulant and a hallucinogen. It is taken orally, in the form of a capsule or a tablet. It has short-term effects including feelings of mental stimulation, emotional warmth, enhanced sensory perception, and increased physical energy.

Health effects can include,…… [Read More]

References

Chassin, L., Pitts, S.C., DeLucia, C., Todd, M. (1999). A longitudinal study of children of alcoholics: Predicting young adult substance use disorders, anxiety, and depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, pp.106-119

Director's report of the national advisory council on drug abuse. (1999). National

Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved April 22, 2005 from http://drugabuse.gov/DirReports

Drug facts. (2004). Office of National Drug Control Policy. Retrieved April 21, 2005
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Logical Thinking Is an Important Part of

Words: 924 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7877550

Logical Thinking is an important part of our daily lives. This type of thinking is essential in any business environment and any type of counseling. Logical thinking is described as methodological thinking, problem solving and the ability to analyze the situation (Lurz, 2009). Human beings are one of the few species that are capable of logical thinking, it is skill that we are blessed with and cannot take for granted. esearch has been conducted on animals such as chimpanzees to determine if other species of animals are capable of logical thinking. This type of thinking is essential in any work environment, especially in the field of psychology and counseling. As a person who has worked in the field of substance abuse, I understand the importance of logical thinking.

Who is a Logical Thinker?

A logical thinker can be described as someone who can clearly analyze the situation and generate alternative…… [Read More]

References

Lurz, R. (2009). If chimpanzees are mindreaders, could behavioral science tell? Toward a solution of the logical problem. Philosophical Psychology. 22 (3) 305-328

Wikipedia. (2010). Critical Thinking. Retrieved on November 17, 2010 from www.wikipedia.org/logical_thinking
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Orwell Social Control Is the Cornerstone of

Words: 595 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54639354

Orwell

Social control is the cornerstone of both 1984 and Animal Farm. However, the methods of persuasion and propaganda used in these two Orwell novels differ from one another. Animal Farm exemplifies overt forms of persuasion, intimidation, and violence. A revolutionary government is created; to maintain its power, the government becomes tyrannical and overbearing. It must therefore use methods of persuasion and treachery in order to retain its control over the animals. In 1984, methods of persuasion and social control are more covert in nature. Thought crime and the thought police comprise subversive methods of undermining individuality and creating a dystopic reality. Therefore, the primary difference between the methods of persuasion and social control in Animal Farm and 1984 is that the former utilizes straightforward, almost traditional methods of oppression; whereas 1984 takes propaganda and persuasion to a whole new, sinister level.

Animal Farm represents a typical coup d'etat: the…… [Read More]

References

Orwell, G. (1945) Animal Farm. Signet Classics (Harcourt, Brace).

Orwell, G. (1949). 1984. Signet Classics (Harcourt, Brace).
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Brooks Investigate Aspect David Brooks NY Times

Words: 1238 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89971149

Brooks

Investigate aspect David Brooks NY Times article "Let's All Feel Superior"

Normalcy Bias

Investigation of Aspects of David Brooks NY Times Article "Let's All Feel Superior,"

The recent sexual scandal and alleged atrocities among well-known and respected members of the sporting community at Penn State has led to a great deal of social dismay and outrage. This refers to the accusation that Penn State's ex-football assistant coach Jerry Sandusky, is guilty of numerous cases of child molestation (Shamed Penn State coach Jerry Sandusky hit by two new allegations of sexual abuse).

There is a wide-ranging view that those who knew or suspected that young boys were being molested should have reported the incident to the authorities much earlier on than was the case. However, many did not do so and this leads to obvious questions as to why certain people of standing who had suspected or even seen these…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brooks, D. (2011). Let's All Feel Superior. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/15/opinion/brooks-lets-all-feel-superior.html?_r=2&src=tp&smid=fb-share

Normalcy bias. Retrieved from  http://www.godlikeproductions.com/forum1/message1708280/pg1 

Shamed Penn State coach Jerry Sandusky hit by two new allegations of sexual abuse.

(2011).  http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2065083/Penn-State-scandal-Jerry-Sandusky-hit-2-new-allegations-sexual-abuse.html
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Women in Business

Words: 1326 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43642171

Entrepreneurial Titans - Mary Kay Ash and Anita oddick

From time immemorial, entrepreneurship has undeniably been a crucial part of human life. Entrepreneurship entails identifying and starting a business as well as organizing and sourcing the required resources to start the business venture. It also entails taking risks and rewards associated with some business ventures. Entrepreneurship may revitalize mature organizations or result in new firms in response to perceived business opportunity. This report will attempt to compare two entrepreneurial titans- Anita oddick and Mary Kay Ash as leaders and managers. Secondly, it will attempt to explain the achievements of both women. It will also evaluate various quotes made by the two women about their business ventures. I will then provide recommendations to both entrepreneurial titans concerning various business matters (igby, 2011).

Similarities

First, oddick was an international businessperson, environmental campaigner and a human rights activist born in Britain. She was…… [Read More]

References

Boyett, J.H., & Boyett, J.T. (2000). The guru guide to entrepreneurship a concise guide to the best ideas from the world's top entrepreneurs. New York: John Wiley.

Crossan, M.M., Gandz, J., Seijts, G.H., & Stephenson, C. (2010). Cross-enterprise leadership business leadership for the twenty-first century. Mississauga, Ont.: Jossey-Bass.

Miller, J. (2012). The new heart at work: stories and strategies for building self-esteem and reawakening the soul at work. U.S.: Trafford Publishing.

Rigby, R. (2011). 28 business thinkers who changed the world the management gurus and mavericks who changed the way we think about business. London: Kogan Page.
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Validating the Effectiveness of Participation in a

Words: 7348 Length: 27 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2865324

Validating the Effectiveness of Participation in a Time-Sensitive Closed Therapeutic Group for Preschool Aged Children Allegedly Sexually Abused

This paper will review existing research on allegedly sexually abused preschool aged children. The traumatic psychological effects of the abuse including low self-esteem, poor peer relationships, behavior problems, cognitive functioning and physical/mental health will also be evaluated.

The author notes the paucity of available material on sexually abused children. Very little therefore is known of the effectiveness of psychotherapy to assist in the treatment of the problems of this particular group of abused children - a population of 40 selected children with a mean age of 45, with their parents (either father or mother) and/or caregivers attending sessions in another session hall at the same time the children are undergoing therapy.

This proposed study will therefore focus on how mental health services are provided to preschool children with ages ranging between 4…… [Read More]

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Despondent State of Human Condition in Funny

Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52615926

Despondent State of Human Condition in Funny by Anna Kamienska and I Am a Cat by Natsume Soseki

In the world of literature, humans predominate as characters in portraying social realities in the world. This is a common practice among writers, since human experience is best illustrated through the point-of-view of a human; and with every social experience, a subjective interpretation of this experience yields a particular reality that is unique and distinct for an individual. In effect, this process becomes the core of literature -- the documentation of social experiences as interpreted by the subjective writer. However, writers of literature are not confined to human subjects alone in conveying the harmony and conflict that exists between individual and society, as well as human society and the environment. In Anna Kamienska's Funny and Natsume Soseki's I Am a Cat, the writers used the natural environment, in particular, animals, in portraying…… [Read More]

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Scholastic and Personal the Process

Words: 3023 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5264773

" (KGI, 1)

I did start to notice many changes in myself, both in terms of my increasing tendency toward physical activeness and my heightening interest in the opposite sex. At first, this interest was manifested of my generally social nature. And to the point, this adolescent period would be an excellent time in my life in terms of cultivating a loose but increasingly intimate social network. This conforms with my general research on this stage of development, which is highlighted by a transition from a life dominated by home and family to one increasingly more divided to the pursuits of school, extra-curricular activity, athletic team membership and information social gathering. These tend to function as substitutes in certain areas where previously only the family fulfilled certain needs.

This was a tough time though. In the midst of the rapid changes that were altering my physical and emotional experiences, my…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Crain, W.C. (1985). Theories of Development. Prentice-Hall.

Erikson, E.H. (1963). Childhood & Society. W & M. Morton & Co.

Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University: Educational Psychology Interactive.

KGI. (2007). Growth Milestone-12 Years: Declaration of Independence. Kids Growth. Online at  http://www.kidsgrowth.com/resources/articledetail.cfm?id=1130
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Narcoterrorism and the Future

Words: 18088 Length: 70 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91167730

Mexico faces an array of drug-related problems ranging from production and transshipment of illicit drugs to corruption, violence, and increased internal drug abuse. Powerful and well-organized Mexican organizations control drug production and trafficking in and through Mexico, as well as the laundering of drug proceeds. These organizations also have made a concerted effort to corrupt and intimidate Mexican law enforcement and public officials. In addition, the geographic proximity of Mexico to the United States and the voluminous cross-border traffic between the countries provide ample opportunities for drug smugglers to deliver their illicit products to U.S. markets. The purpose of this study was to develop informed and timely answers to the following research questions: (a) How serious is the trade in illicit drugs between Mexico and the United States today and what have been recent trends? (b) How does drug trafficking fund terrorist organizations in general and trade between Mexico and…… [Read More]

References

Delaware fact sheet. (2014). Friends of Narconon, International. Retrieved from http://www.friendsof narconon.org/drug_distribution_in_the_united_states/delaware_drug_facts/delaware_fact

sheet/.

Drug threats in Wilmington. (2014). Drug Enforcement Edu.org. Retrieved from http://www.

drugenforcementedu.org/delaware/wilmington/.
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Organic Evolution Please Discuss the

Words: 4338 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43722112



Noncoding DNA, also known as "junk DNA" describes portions of the DNA sequence that do not appear to have any presentable use -- they do not encode for proteins, etc. In fact, in a most eukaryote cells, a rather large percentage of the total genome is noncoding DNA, but this varies between species. However, it is now a misnomer to call this material "junk," because the more sophisticated we become at biochemistry, we find that many do have subtle biological functions, including the transcriptional and translational regulation of certain protein-coding sequences. esearchers also belive that other noncoding sequences have a likely, but unconfirmed function, as an inference from high levels of inherited tratis and natural selection processes (Masters, 2005, 163-5).

esearchers know that the amount of genomic DNA varies widely between organisms, as does the proportion of coding and non-coding DNA within these genomes. For instance, 98% of the human…… [Read More]

REFERENCES:

Barrows, E. (2001). Animal Behavior Desk Reference. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Mueller, Guo and Ayala. (1991). Density Dependent natural Selction and Trade-Offs in Life History Traits. Science, 253(1), 433-35.

Ricklefs and Whiles. (2007). The Economy of Nature: Data Analysis Update. New York: Macmillan.
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Technology in Can You Hear

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75471511

" Turkle claims that "our fragile planet needs our action in the real," which is exactly what the little girl was trying to point out. Her appreciating the animatronic animals more than the real ones is a product of technology saturation.

Technology has become an annoyance: we all experience the "sense of encroachment of the device" on our personal time and it is difficult to cut ourselves off from the world. Yet technology is a blessing. Turkle points out that the shy and inhibited are hiding behind their virtual selves. Indeed they are: to their advantage. Many readers would agree that technology has allowed the shy and socially awkward to engage socially with others without having to sweat or take anxiety medication.

Being constantly connected with the world is a choice we make. Technology is not deadening us to the world, as Turkle implies. Quite the opposite: technology is enhancing…… [Read More]

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Food Prices Over the Past

Words: 5030 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86265982



In developing countries, consumers are more affected for two reasons. One is that consumers are more likely to buy raw ingredients. ithout manufacturing entities to absorb some of the commodity price increases, consumers are left to absorb almost all of the increase (Ibid.). As a result, food prices have increased more in the developing world than in the developed world. Additionally, consumers in these countries already expend a significantly higher percentage of their income on food than do consumers in estern nations. Thus, demand for food in the developing world is price elastic and consumers suffer because they are unable to meet their food needs.

In the developed world, increased food prices suppress demand in other sectors of the economy, which can cause minor shocks in employment and investment in some businesses and industries. In the developing world, food price shocks can result in starvation and civil unrest. The recent…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lapidos, Juliet. (2008) "Why are Global Food Prices Soaring?" Slate. Retrieved December 4, 2008 at http://www.slate.com/id/2187882/

Wiewel, Wim & Persky, Joseph. (2002) Suburban Sprawl M.E. Sharpe, Armonk NY, 2002.

Barnier, Michael. (2008) "Europe is Key to Solving Food Crisis" Tehran Times. Retrieved December 4, 2008 at  http://www.tehrantimes.com/index_View.asp?code=184060 

Clayton, Mark. (2008) "As Global Food Costs Rise, are Biofuels to Blame?" Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved December 4, 2008 at http://www.csmonitor.com/2008/0128/p03s03-usec.html