366+ documents containing “animal testing”.
Animal testing or animal experimentation is a necessary evil. At least that is what some say. Others believe animal testing should cease as society evolves past the need to experiment on living creatures. The topic remains a hot button issue.
It rings especially true for those who adopt a vegan lifestyle and believe animals should have the same rights as people in terms of value of life and so forth. Although animal testing has ceased in some cosmetic companies and label their goods as not animal tested, most companies, especially pharmaceutical companies, rely on animals to test drugs and vaccines in order to promote evolution of medicine but refrain from putting human lives at risk. This essay will show the pro and con sides of animal testing/animal experimentation. Does it remain as unavoidable or can society move past animal testing and find new ways to test products and medicines?
Balls, Michael. 'The Conflict Over Animal Experimentation: Is The Field Of Battle Changing?'. ATLA 40 (2012): 189-191. Print.
Latham, Stephen R. 'U.S. Law and Animal Experimentation: A Critical Primer'.Hastings Center Report 42.s1 (2012): S35-S39. Web.
Pal, TK. 'Animal Experimentations: Part I: General Considerations'. J Int Clin Dent Res Organ 7.1 (2015): 7. Web.
Saraf, ShyamK, and Vinay Kumaraswamy. 'Basic Research: Issues with Animal Experimentations'. Indian Journal of Orthopaedics 47.1 (2013): 6. Web.
By using animals in research, and through animal research science learns how certain chemicals "interact with living systems"; this knowledge can be "translated into protection of humans, animals, and the environment from toxic levels of natural -- as well as man-made -- exposures (SOT, 6).
Legal and professional accountability
In Canada there are Research Ethics Boards (REBs) that have the power to authorize or reject funding for experiments with animals; when animal research proposals do not meet with proper ethical requirements, the REBs can put a halt to the experiments (Tremayne-Lloyd, et al., 2007, p. 56-57). The law in Canada -- which should be imitated in other countries that do not now have laws protecting animals -- allows that an overseeing regulatory agencies like the College of Chiropractors of Ontario (CCO) can "reprimand members and/or suspend or revoke licenses to practice" (Tremayne-Lloyd, 57). Cruelty to animals, assault on animals, or "criminal….
American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. (2008). Animal Research FAQ.
Retrieved April 21, 2012, from http://www.aalas.org .
Archibald, Kathy. (2005). Test People, Not Animals. New Scientist, 187(2518), 1-2.
Kolar, Roman. (2006). Animal Experimentation. Science and Engineering Ethics, 12(1), 111-
Negatives of Animal Testing Outweigh Its Positives and Therefore Should Not be Allowed
Many cures and treatments have been developed in the last three hundred years due to advances in medical technology. These developments are sometimes attributed partly to the fact that scientists and researchers have been able to use animals as "guinea pigs" for testing new medications or treatment methods before passing them to human volunteers. There is strong evidence supporting this claim though technology today allows scientists to bypass animal testing in many cases. Moreover, animal testing has led to many horrible abuses and misleading results due to the fact that animals' organism does not match the complexity of human bodies. Ultimately, when the benefits and harms of using animals for testing purposes, it is evident that animals should not be used for experiments. In this paper, I will present both sides of the argument and then explain….
Dolgin, Elie. "Animal Testing Alternatives Come Alive In U.S.." Nature Medicine 16.12 (2010): 1348. MEDLINE. Web. 7 May 2012.
Dove, Alan. "The Search For Animal Alternatives. (Cover Story)." Drug Discovery & Development 13.4 (2010): 10-13. Academic Search Premier. Web. 7 May 2012.
FERDOWSIAN, HOPE. "Why We Need Alternatives." Chronicle Of Higher Education 57.12 (2010): B9-B10. Professional Development Collection. Web. 7 May 2012.
Ferdowsian, Hope R, and Nancy Beck. "Ethical And Scientific Considerations Regarding Animal Testing And Research." Plos One 6.9 (2011): e24059. MEDLINE. Web. 7 May 2012.
Animal Testing: Cosmetics and Toiletries
Animal testing is the use of non-human animals in a variety of experiments (Wikipedia, 2005)
Many experiments aim to test certain substances to determine their effect on humans, or to test medical or psychological hypotheses. Animal testing is a very controversial and well-researched topic. Proponents and opponents constantly argue over both ethical concerns and the effectiveness of the practice of using animals for scientific research.
The term "vivisection" is now used as a blanket term for all animal experiments, although it originally only referred to those that involved cutting the animals (Wikipedia, 2005)
Many dictionaries and encyclopedias now use the term "vivisection" to describe any type of animal experiment that causes suffering, whether it involves cutting or not, although those animal experimentors dislike this trend as they feel that "vivisection" is a term that spurs emotion (Croce, 1991).
For many years, people have debated on the topic of animal testing….
Croce M., (1991) Pietro, Vivisection or Science - a choice to make BETA Tipografica s. r. l.:Rome.
PETA. (2005). Media Centre-Fact Sheet. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.peta.org /mc/facts/fsae1.html.
Ruesch, Hans (1989) 1000 Doctors (and many more) Against Vivisection Civis: London .
Wikipedia. (2005). Animal Testing. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_testing .
Animal testing is not only for the benefit of the humans but is also beneficial to the animals themselves. "The research of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences benefits animals because NIEHS research contributes to protecting the environment for all the life that shares the earth - companion animals, farm animals, wildlife, marine life - and plant life as well" (Anonymous). Much more animals are consumed as a food source by humans and only a small percentage are used for animal testing. Some of these animals are also the ones that are abandoned and are kept in pounds or shelters (Kate Kristoff). Animal testing has been proved to be beneficial regarding a lot of diseases and this cannot be denied by anyone. Scientists do not love to put animals to testing for no reason whatever. There are legislations that prevent any cruelty and thus animals are kept under….
Anonymous - Animal Testing 101. [Online website] Available at http://www.stopanimaltests.com/animalTesting101.asp[Accessed on: 25/09/2005]
Karen Lee Stevens - Animal Testing Alternatives. [Online website] Available at http://www.allforanimals.com/alternatives1.htm [Accessed on: 25/09/2005]
Peter Tatchell - Article Title: Why Animal Research Is Bad Science: The Government Is Wrong to Support Vivisection -- And Not Only Because of the Suffering Caused to Non-Human Creatures. Most Human Diseases Are Unique to Us, and Testing on Other Species Is Downright Misleading. Magazine Title: New Statesman. Volume: 133. Issue: 4700. Publication Date: August 9, 2004. Page Number: 18+.
Andrew N. Rowan - Article Title: Ethical Review and Te Animal Care and Use Committee. Journal Title: The Hastings Center Report. Volume: 20. Issue: 3. Publication Year: 1990. Page Number: 19+.
These experiments are done to see how the humans fair on with the treatment or the diseases without putting much consideration to whether it would survive or die FRAME Reduction Committee, 2005()
Some other ways in which animals are unethically used for scientific purposes include in cases where Genetically modification is done on animals where some of their genes are added or removed as per type of experiment done, use to test for product safety such as in agricultural chemicals, food additives, cosmetic and industrial chemicals, where animals subjected to gas chambers, substances forced into their eyes, stomach or skin EMP, 2004()
Even after subjecting these animals to such harsh test, the success rate for predicting the harmful side effect is still lagging at 5-25%, which is way, below as compared to what the animals have to go through EMP, 2004(; Flint C, 2005)
. Therefore, scientist can also pay attention to….
Bibliography of Training Materials on Experimental Design and Statistical Analysis. Nottingham, UK: Retrieved from www.frame.org.uk/reductioncommittee/bibliointro.htm.
MORI. (2005). Use of Animals in Medical Research. Research Study Conducted for Coalition for Medical Progress.
Simon Festing, R.W. (2007 ). The ethics of animal research. Talking Point on the use of animals in scientific research. Science and Society, 8(6), 526 -- 530.
However, it is also characteristic for them to be in total agreement with the procedure when it involves their well-being or the welfare of someone close to them. Ed Owen's (2005) testimony regarding his daughter and how she manages to stay alive due to the large amount of medicine that she takes is certainly breathtaking. Even more amazing is the fact that most of the medicine that she uses had been created with the help of animal testing (Owen).
The fact that that many animals suffer as a result of animal testing is indisputable. Nevertheless, their suffering is not in vain, as even more people (and even animals) benefit from the exploit. As long as people do not come up with a serious alternative to animal testing, humankind is forced by its very condition to perform tests on animals.
1. Gallagher, M. Rapp, P.R. The Use of Animal Models to….
1. Gallagher, M. Rapp, P.R. The Use of Animal Models to Study the Effects of Aging on Cognition, Annual Review of Psychology.
2. Mitchell R.W. Allen C. Rollin B.E. Mullen S. Tobias M. Scholtmeijer M. Regan T. Sztybel D. Francione G.L. Broida J.P. Finsen S. (1998) Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. ed. Marc Bekoff and Carron a. Meaney. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
3. Orlans, F.B. (1990). Policy Issues in the Use of Animals in Research, Testing and Education, the Hastings Center Report 20.3
4. Owen, E. (2005, 12 Sept.) the Dangers of Cuddly Extremism: By Their Emotive Rejection of All Animal Testing, the Mainstream Animal Rights Organisations Are Providing Encouragement for the Violent Fringe, Argues Ed Owen. New Statesman.
Animal Testing: Pros and Cons
Animal testing is when animals are used in scientific experiments (ichards). Most animal testing is done by universities, pharmaceutical companies, and medical schools. Most animals used for research are breed for the specific purpose of testing and few animals used for testing are captured from the wild. Some animal testing is done for basic research such as behavior studies and genetics while other animal testing is done for the benefit of humans. This research includes drug testing, surgical procedures, medical equipment, and somewhat inconsequential applications like; cosmetics, and other household products. Most animals that are used for researched are euthanized once the experiment is finished.
Opinions about the ethics of animal testing have shifted greatly through the end of the 20th century and into the 21st century (Dixon). Some question the accuracy of animal testing and if animal testing can be done humanely. Others argue that animal….
R. Richards. "Animal Testing Pros and Cons." Suite101, 2010. Retrieved From http://www.suite101.com/content/animal-testing-pros-and-cons-debate-over-animal- research
Peter Aldhous, Andy Coghlan and Jon Copley. "Let the People Speak." Animal Experiments: Where do you draw the line? 1999. Retrieved from http://www.animalliberationfront.com/Philosophy/Debating/Polls/Newscientpoll.htm
Thomas Dixon. "Animal Experimentation." Idebate.org, 2000. Retrieved from http://www.idebate.org/debatabase/topic_details.php?topicID=7
" [Peter Tatchell]. Thus it is clear that animal models provide unreliable and often contradictory results for pharmaceutical research experiments and also delay the development of vital drugs that could potentially save millions of humans.
New Testing Methods
Advancements in biotechnology have drastically impacted our understanding of diseases and the development of appropriate pharmacological interventions. 'Science-ased Toxicology' (ST) enables us to study toxicity at the cellular level. There is definitive hope that ST
would replace cumbersome and often misleading animal studies in the near future. The ability to use parallel screening methods imply that ST research can expedite drug synthesis by avoiding the long delay involved with the animal testing phase. The use of 'Structure Activity relationship Models' makes it possible to accurately predict toxicity of the test drugs.[Animal Aid] in vitro testing methods such as EYTEX, Skintex can replace painful and cruel animal tests such as the Draize test. [Animal Liberation Inc.….
1) Andrew Knight, (Aug 2007), 'Systematic reviews of Animal Experiments Demonstrate Poor Human Utility', AATEX 14, Special Issue, 125-130.
2) Animal AID, 'Contribution to REACH: By the Scientific Board of Pro-Anima', Accessed Aug 11th 2009, Available at, http://www.animalaid.org.uk/campaign/vivi/reach.htm
3) Animal Liberation Inc., ' Irritancy Testing', Accessed Aug 11th 2009, Available at, http://www.animalliberation.org.au/skineye.php
4) DLRM, 'Alternative Medical Research', Accessed 11th Aug 2009, Available at, http://www.dlrm.org/resources/alternative.htm
Science and the sub-science of chemistry has provided some significant advances to society and the health and welfare of society. Throughout this history, animals have been used as components of these chemical tests and there is much debate about the ethics and effectiveness of this practice. The purpose of this essay is to describe how animal testing is no longer a viable option in many cases of scientific experiment and should be used sparingly if at all. This argument will incorporate differing attitudes about the complex nature of this problem and synthesize these ideas with a relevant link towards further understanding of science and chemistry.
History of Animal Testing
The problem can be difficult because it appears that throughout the history of animal testing, great advances were made in chemistry and other sciences. Scutti (2013) added that "n ancient times, scientists made use of animals principally to satisfy anatomical curiosity. Early….
Dolan, Kevin. Ethics, animals and science. Blackwell Science Ltd., 2000.
Ruiz-Meana, Marisol, et al. "Animal ethics in Cardiovascular Research." Cardiovascular research 93.1 (2012): 1-3.
PETA.com (nd). Animal Testing is Bad Science: Point/Counterpoint. Viewed 11 Jan 2014. Retrieved from http://www.peta.org /issues/animals-used-for-experimentation/animal- testing-bad-science/
Animal Testing Debate
Animal testing as well as experimenting, is a practice that has been there from the fifteenth century, even though the activity become more popular in the 1800's. Ever since individuals that realized animals could feel pain, a debate on animal testing became an issue as well as a controversial topic.
Every year scientists experiment with around 100 million monkeys, rats, dogs mice, and fish in the name of medical discoveries. The animals are exposed to medicines and therapies, which could be the next drug for cancer treatment. The majority of animals involved in the study are rats as well as mice. Animal testing is significant in the medical world as animal experimentation plays a vital role in numerous medical advances (Gahlmann, 1993). These include development of vaccines, surgical techniques and antibiotics.
Great discoveries have been by using animal testing in transplants of kidneys, disease treatment such as diabetes and….
Animal Testing Statistics
In research, reports, and activism efforts, statistics are often used to strengthen a specific cause or viewpoint. The challenge, particularly from the viewpoint of the reader, is that many of these statistics, while not inaccurately quoted, tend to be taken out of context. This creates an inaccurate focus that was unintended when the statistics were created in the first place. This phenomenon is clear in the guest post by obin Lovell-Badge (2013) where the author makes a claim about the accuracy of quoting animal testing statistics to strengthen the cause against such testing on animals.
What particularly surprised me about the post is the explanation of the usefulness of animal testing in developing medicines. There appears to be a fundamental misunderstanding of the purpose of animal testing among animal activists who would have these terminated. While most drugs tested on animals fail to make it to the human trial….
Lovell-Badge, R. (2013, Jan 23). Nine out of ten Statistics are taken out of Context. Speaking of Research. Retrieved from: http://speakingofresearch.com/2013/01/23/nine-out-of-ten-statistics-are-taken-out-of-context/
Powell, B. (2014, Jan. 22). Right-Wing Media: Low-Income Americans Are Inheriting Too Much, Working Too Little. Media Matters for America. Retrieved from: http://mediamatters.org/mobile/blog/2014/01/22/right-wing-media-low-income-americans-are-inher/197696
animal testing. The writer argues that animal testing is a necessity and that alternative testing is not as effective. There were four sources used to complete this paper.
Throughout the years there have been many groups who have protested using animals for the purpose of testing products. These products include medical products, consumer products and research for cures and discoveries about illnesses and disorders. The groups who protest the use of animals say that it is cruel to use them for the tests when alternative methods could be found. While alternative methods have been developed for many types of testing the use of animals for testing must still be embraced. Alternative testing methods have not proven themselves to be as reliable as animal testing.
Those who oppose animal testing believe that it is inhumane treatment of living things. Over the years there have been hotly debated arguments over the use of….
Ahmad, Nadia (1999)Role of animals in research debated at U. California-Berkeley., University Wire, 04-21-1999.
____(2001). CONSUMER POLICY: SPLITS OVER PLANNED CHANGES TO COSMETICS DIRECTIVE., European Report, 03-10-2001.
Wereschagin, Mike (2000). U. Minnesota student group defends using animals for research purposes., University Wire, 02-08-2000.
Philips, Trevor (1998). Sometimes it is right to sacrifice animals for our own well-being., Independent, 04-25-1998, pp 21.
UK legislation requires that researchers refine their procedures to keep suffering to the minimum, ensure the number of animals is reduced to the minimum required for meaningful results, and seek to replace the use of animals with non-animal alternatives where appropriate" (the oyal Society, 2004). This argument is valid from the point-of-view of the necessity of animal testing. The attempts to reduce the pain and discomfort of animals are significant for their added value to science. That is to say that even the research conducted to limit the discomfort can provide important information for scientists.
Some of the most common animals on which tests are being conducted are the monkeys that are considered to be relatively close in terms of structure and behavior to humans. Therefore, the question is often related to the ethical and moral nature of testing on monkeys. However, in terms of the added value provided by….
AAVVS (2012) "Problems with animal research" Accessed 02 November 2012, from http://www.aavs.org/site/c.bkLTKfOSLhK6E/b.6456997/k.3D74/Problems_with_Animal_Research.htm
Americans for Medical Progress (2012). "Animal Research Means Medical Progress." Accessed 02 November 2012, from http://www.amprogress.org/animal-research-benefits
Ringach, D. (2011). "The Use of Nonhuman Animals in Biomedical Research" the American Journal of the Medical Sciences, Vol 342, No 4.
The Royal Society. (2004) "The use of non-human animals in research: a guide for scientists." Accessed 02 November, 2012 from http://royalsociety.org/policy/publications/2004/non-human-animals/
controversy with regard to preclinical testing on animals, as society has reached a point where the ethics behind testing drugs on animals makes it difficult and almost impossible for researchers to continue to perform their studies. Institutions such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration agency are unhesitant about supporting testing in animals because this is in most cases the most effective way to find out more about a drug's potential effects on a human. Even though testing on animals can be considered cruel by some, the reality is that it is one of the principal reasons why society as a whole was able to produce some of the drugs that helped mankind evolve rapidly during recent decades.
In order to see the topic of animal testing in a context enabling a person to understand why it is significant, one would have to consider the numerous cases when drugs that….
Animal testing or animal experimentation is a necessary evil. At least that is what some say. Others believe animal testing should cease as society evolves past the need to…Read Full Paper ❯
By using animals in research, and through animal research science learns how certain chemicals "interact with living systems"; this knowledge can be "translated into protection of humans, animals,…Read Full Paper ❯
Animal Testing Negatives of Animal Testing Outweigh Its Positives and Therefore Should Not be Allowed Many cures and treatments have been developed in the last three hundred years due to advances…Read Full Paper ❯
Animal Testing: Cosmetics and Toiletries Animal testing is the use of non-human animals in a variety of experiments (Wikipedia, 2005) Many experiments aim to test certain substances to determine their effect…Read Full Paper ❯
Animal testing is not only for the benefit of the humans but is also beneficial to the animals themselves. "The research of the National Institute of Environmental Health…Read Full Paper ❯
These experiments are done to see how the humans fair on with the treatment or the diseases without putting much consideration to whether it would survive or die…Read Full Paper ❯
However, it is also characteristic for them to be in total agreement with the procedure when it involves their well-being or the welfare of someone close to them.…Read Full Paper ❯
Animal Testing: Pros and Cons Animal testing is when animals are used in scientific experiments (ichards). Most animal testing is done by universities, pharmaceutical companies, and medical schools. Most animals…Read Full Paper ❯
" [Peter Tatchell]. Thus it is clear that animal models provide unreliable and often contradictory results for pharmaceutical research experiments and also delay the development of vital drugs that…Read Full Paper ❯
Black Studies - Philosophy
Animal Testing Science and the sub-science of chemistry has provided some significant advances to society and the health and welfare of society. Throughout this history, animals have been used as…Read Full Paper ❯
Animal Testing Debate ANIMAL TESTING Animal testing as well as experimenting, is a practice that has been there from the fifteenth century, even though the activity become more popular in the…Read Full Paper ❯
Education - Mathematics
Animal Testing Statistics In research, reports, and activism efforts, statistics are often used to strengthen a specific cause or viewpoint. The challenge, particularly from the viewpoint of the reader, is…Read Full Paper ❯
animal testing. The writer argues that animal testing is a necessity and that alternative testing is not as effective. There were four sources used to complete this paper. Throughout…Read Full Paper ❯
UK legislation requires that researchers refine their procedures to keep suffering to the minimum, ensure the number of animals is reduced to the minimum required for meaningful results,…Read Full Paper ❯
controversy with regard to preclinical testing on animals, as society has reached a point where the ethics behind testing drugs on animals makes it difficult and almost impossible…Read Full Paper ❯