Animal Testing Essays (Examples)

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Animal Experiments and Testing Pcrm

Words: 1765 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53241280

Mignini, Pradeep Jayaram, and Khalid S. Khan

BMJ 2007 334: 97. Online available at http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/extract/334/7588/274

Perel, et al. (2007) states that only immediate preclinical testing of new drug therapies, but animal research aids medical science in many more ways Animal studies play a part in the initial development of candidate drugs, and the development and testing of medical devices and surgical procedures. Even more crucial, animal research informs clinical research by building the foundation of biological knowledge." (2007)

6. Study on Long-Term Effects of Chemicals on the Environment

Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. 22 Mar 2007. Online available at http://www.rcep.org.uk/chemicals/chemscop.htm

This work states that diverse organizations including the 'Chemical Industries Association', CEFIC, the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions as well as the Department of Health and Friends of the Earth "...raise the impact of chemicals assessment policy on animal testing. Most of the Department of the Environment,…… [Read More]

16. Study on Long-Term Effects of Chemicals on the Environment

Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. 22 Mar 2007. Online available at http://www.rcep.org.uk/chemicals/chemscop.htm

This work states that diverse organizations including the 'Chemical Industries Association', CEFIC, the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions as well as the Department of Health and Friends of the Earth "...raise the impact of chemicals assessment policy on animal testing. Most of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions' postbag on the European Commission Chemicals Strategy concerns the huge increase in animal testing likely to result. It would seem difficult for the Commission to make recommendations on chemical assessment without addressing the issues of the acceptability of alternatives to animal testing, and the implications of the recommendations for animal testing.
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Rights and Welfare of Animals

Words: 754 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54812576

Animal Advocacy Organizations

There are many local, national, and international organizations that advocate for the rights and welfare of animals, domestic and wild. Two of those organisations are PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) and the ASPCA (American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals). In this paper, the two will be compared and contrasted.

PETA & ASPCA

The ASPCA was the very first humane society to exist in North America, according to their website. Henry Bergh founded the ASPCA in 1866, who believed that animals have the right to be respected by humans, and to be treated kindly, and to be protected under the law. In fact the ASPCA was the first humane organization that has been granted "legal authority to investigate and make arrests for crimes against animals… [although the ASPCA] fulfills its mission through nonviolent approaches" (ASPCA).

PETA was founded in 1980, and their…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA). (2011). How to Recognize

Cruelty / About the ASPCA. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://www.aspca.org.

Benz, Kathy, and McManus, Michael. (2005). PETA accuses lab of animal cruelty.

CNN.com. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://articles.cnn.com.
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Are All Non Human Animals Equal

Words: 1169 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51770745

Animal ights & Testing

The author of this report has been asked to contrast, compare and analyze three articles that all relate to basically the same thing, that being the status and rights of animals. As part of the analysis, there will be an agreement on the points with which the author of this report agrees, a critical thinking of how the authors attempt to refute each other, the key elements of those refutations, the significant connections that exist between the three texts, what those connections mean to the author of this report in terms of framing the author of this report's views and a gist of the synthesis conducted will bring up the proverbial rear of the analysis. This report will conclude with a setting up, but not a full execution, of the author's own potential argument that might or might not happen on future reports. While animals are…… [Read More]

References

Cohen, C. (1986). The Case for the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research. New England Journal Of Medicine, 315(14), 865-870. doi:10.1056/nejm198610023151405

Regan, T., & Singer, P. (1989). Animal rights and human obligations. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

Singer, P. (1989). All Animals Are Equal. Animal Rights And Human Obligations, 1(1), 162-172.
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Animal Senses

Words: 2268 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83801674

Animal Senses

Herman, Pack and Hoffman-Kuhnt performed relatively rigorous experiments to determine the source of dolphin recognition of objects; they wanted to discover, among other things, whether "dolphins attained the shape discriminations (of objects) through associative learning or direct perception" (Herman et al. 1998 292). Fukuzawa, Mills and Cooper sought to determine the mechanism by which domestic dogs responded to commands. Greenberg wanted to discover the facts about depth perception in two species of Asian rodents, the Mongolian Gerbil and two varieties of Spiny Mice.

Dolphins

The experiments run by Herman et al. involved a single dolphin, a female named Elele, and were designed to determine whether echolocation or visual cues were central to dolphin recognition of objects that appeared in their environment. The researchers were extremely rigorous in setting up each experiment, avoiding contamination between visual and echolocation fields; the objects used for the dolphin's recognition tests were never…… [Read More]

References

Fukuzawa, M.D.S. Mills and J.J. Cooper. (2005) Brief Communication: The effect of human command phonetic characteristics on auditory cognition in dogs (Canis familiaris). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 119(3), 117-130.

Greenberg, G. (1986) Depth perception in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and Spiny Mice (Comys russatus and A. cahirinus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 100(1), 81-84.

Herman, L.M., A.A. Pack and M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt. (1998) Seeing through sound: Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) perceive the spatial structure of objects through echolocation. Journal of Comparative Psychology 117(3), 292-305.
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Animal Rights - Medical Research

Words: 310 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13774084

Society at large does not and would not permit risking harm to humans in order to avoid using animals for research (Animals pp).

The pharmaceutical industry uses animals only when research cannot be accomplished in other ways, and always with care (Animals pp). If society wants to relieve conditions such as epilepsy, asthma, multiple sclerosis, and heart disease, then animals will continue to be need for research (Animals pp).

Although it is important and morally right to minimize the use of animals for research, it would be morally wrong to place the concern for animals above the concerns and needs of people who are dying from and/or living with incurable and untreatable conditions that could benefit from such research (Animals pp).

orks Cited

Animals in Medicines Research Information Centre - AMRIC. http://www.abpi.org.uk/amric/introduction.asp… [Read More]

Works Cited

Animals in Medicines Research Information Centre - AMRIC. http://www.abpi.org.uk/amric/introduction.asp
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Scientific Research With Animals and

Words: 2057 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71444644



In these cases, the ethical and moral choice seems to be to find another way to test these products that is not so cruel, and to keep cruel procedures out of the labs altogether. The case of the cat sex experiments at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City in the 1960s are another case in point. esearchers maimed cats in a variety of ways, from removing parts of their brains to obliterating their sense of smell, and then noted how these procedures affected their sexual activities. The study continued for over a decade, without any clear results, and when the public learned about it, there was a huge outcry and the testing stropped (Degrazia 98). Studies like this, without a clear purpose, seem even more cruel and unusual, and they helped to give animal research such a bad reputation that laws were enacted regarding the ethical…… [Read More]

References

Carbone, Larry. What Animals Want: Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Degrazia, David. Animal Rights: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Editors. "Animal Research in Psychology." American Psychological Association. 2009. 1 March 2009. http://www.apa.org/science/animal2.html.

Katrink, Vicki. "Blinded for Beauty: Rabbits Used in Product Testing." American Anti-Vivisection Society. 2009. 1 March 2009. http://www.aavs.org/testingTypesBlinded.html.
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Medical Testing on Animals

Words: 952 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27055506

against experimentation on animals, and some are more compelling than others. Some people suggest that the practice is immoral because choosing to experiment upon animals is directly analogous to racial or sexual discrimination; or more closely related to discrimination on the basis of mental capacity. Others contend that it is wrong because, by their estimations, no clear advances in medical research have been made through animal experimentation, and alternative modes of research are emerging. Doubtlessly, animal experimentation is a delicate moral issue, but asserting that animals should enjoy the same rights as humans within a society is a weak claim. Arguments have been formed differentiating animals from humans depending upon both their moral status and biological status. Yet, the most obvious line of reasoning is associated with the fact that granting animals the same rights as humans within society leads to many logical contradictions.

One question that needs to be…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

1. Dunbar, Daniel. "The Confinement and Use of Non-Human Animals in Scientific and Medical Experiments is Morally Unacceptable." Ithaca University, 2005. Available: http://www.ithaca.edu/faculty/cduncan/250/ddunbar.doc.

2. Mitchell, Graham. "Guarding the Middle Ground: the Ethics of Experiments on Animals." African Journal of Science, Issue 85, May 1989. Available:  http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/essays/v13p114y1990.pdf .
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Testing Hypothesis in Chapter Four

Words: 37819 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69922441

Management Strategy to Utilize Meta-Analysis Technique for Nuclear Energy and Waste Disposal and Create Social Sustainability

This research proposal explores the link between public perceptions of nuclear power, how those perceptions are formed, and what influence those opinions have on energy policy. These issues are important in light of two realities. First, nuclear energy is declining in its share of global energy. Second, nuclear energy offers what might well be the best solution to climate change. Given the threat posed by climate change, it makes sense that nuclear power would be increasing in share, not decreasing. This esearch proposal seeks to look at some of the issues facing nuclear power, and how it can overcome these issues to increase share going forward.

Table of Contents

Abstract ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgements iv

Table of Contents v

List of Tables viii

List of Figures vii

Chapter One: Introduction 1

Topic Overview 7…… [Read More]

References

Abokeng, A.K. (2005). Understanding Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 90, 845-848.

Alic, J. (2012). Six things to do with nuclear waste: None of them ideal. Oil Price.com. Retrieved June 17, 2015 from http://oilprice.com/Alternative-Energy/Nuclear-Power/6-Things-to-do-with-Nuclear-Waste-None-of-them-Ideal.html

Alley, W. & Alley, R. (2013). Too hot to touch: The problem of high-level nuclear waste. Review by Konikow, L. (2013). Hydrogeology Journal.

Bangert-Drowns, Robert L. & Rudner, Lawrence M. (1991).Meta-analysis in educational research.Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 2(8). Retrieved September 4, 2008 from http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=2&n=8
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Psychology Animal Behaviour the Hypothesis

Words: 614 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29486635

The same variables of the cranial and caudal sacs would be observed in order to determine if the sounds being produced where indeed coming from these organs or not. It may be that these two organs are either the source of the sound or are in someway related to the sound that these researchers heard during the tank experiment coming from the swimbladder.

Did the newspaper article describe the research article correctly? Explain.

The newspaper article "Hearing the Repertoire of a Very Fearsome Fish" by Bhanoo (2011) did a good job in describing the research article correctly. It described how the researchers used piranhas to study and how they used a hydrophone to record underwater sounds coming from the piranhas. It described how the sounds made were recorded during fighting, charging and frontal display. The author explained how it was previously believed that piranhas produced only a single barking sound,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bhanoo, S.N. 2011. "Hearing the Repertoire of a Very Fearsome Fish." Web. Available at:

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/18/science/18piranha.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=repert oire%20of%20fish&st=cse

Millot, S., Vandewalle, P. & Parmentier, E. 2011. "Sound production in red-bellied piranhas

(Pygocentrus nattereri, Kner): an acoustical, behavioural and morphofunctional study." The Journal of Experimental Biology, 214, 3613-3618.
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Indictment of the Moral Offense of Animal

Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89130367

Indictment of the Moral Offense of Animal Cruelty

Animals think. Animals feel emotion. Animals experience pain. Yet there are members of our human society that find these facts irrelevant. In fact there are many people that have no problem disregarding these facts entirely as long as they are able to reap some type of personal reward or benefit from an animal. hether that benefit is in the form of food, clothing, or testing the latest new lipstick, it is always at the expense of the animal's well-being. In this paper I argue that the abuse of animals is morally wrong and therefore animals ought to be afforded rights which place the same consideration on their sentience as is placed on human beings.

Sentience is a term used to describe the fact that animals feel pain and emotions in much the same fashion as human beings. It is also used as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arluke, Arnold. Just a Dog: Understanding Animal Cruelty and Ourselves. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. 2006.

Cohn, Priscilla. In John M. Kistler's People Promoting and People Opposing Animal Rights: In Their Own Words. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 2002.

Kolber, Adam. "Upright: The Moral and Legal Standing of Humans and Other Apes." Stanford Law Review, 54.1 (2001): 163-204.
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Evaluating the Health of Animal Species

Words: 2346 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67310078

Welfae in Captive Wild Animals

The Holy Bible gets the elationship between humankind and wild animals out of the way ealy on in Genesis 1:26 when God said, "Let us make mankind in ou image, in ou likeness, so that they may ule ove the fish in the sea and the bids in the sky, ove the livestock and all the wild animals, and ove all the ceatues that move along the gound." Humanity clealy took this divine gift seiously, and the elationship between humankind and wild animals has been lagely one-sided since people climbed to the top of the food chain. Since the second half of the 20th centuy, though, thee have been gowing calls fo impoving the manne in which humans teat animals in geneal and wild animals maintained in captivity in paticula. The ecent closue of Ringling and Banum and Bailey's "Geatest Show on Eath" due to…… [Read More]

references/phspol.htm#Introduction.

Sejian, V and Lakritz, J (2011, August), "Assessment Methods and Indicators of Animal Welfare." Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, vol 6, no. 4, pp. 301-315.

Spallone, C (2014, April 18). "Rescue groups helping former lab animals." One Green Planet. [online] available:  http://www.onegreenplanet.org/animalsandnature/5-awesome-rescue-groups-helping-former-lab-animals/ .

Wise, SM (2000). Rattling the Cage: Toward Legal Rights for Animals. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.

Yarri, D (2005). The Ethics of Animal Experimentation: A Critical Analysis and Constructive Christian Proposal. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Psychological Testing of African Americans in the Army

Words: 3356 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90981843

American writers from both the antebellum South and the North commented on the great differences between the white people in the two regions (Ibid; Samuda).

Note though, the table data below regarding the percentage of males who completed high school by race, 1940-1980, which will provide data for further discussion regarding utilization of testing to stratify recruits:

Table 1 -- Males 18-21 Who Completed High School By Percentile

ace

1940

1950

1960

1970

1970

White

40

49

56

68

78

Black

11

18

33

49

60

(Source: Binkin, p.94)

How is it that tests designed to measure information that was given in school could be administered to populations who did not even attend school? And, when one takes population and demographic statistics into account, this historical bias deepens. At the outbreak of World War I, for instance, African-Americans were about 11% of the general population, and the Selective Service draft…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Benjamin, L. (2009). "The Birth of American Intelligence Testing." Monitor on Psychology. 40(1): Cited inL

http://www.apa.org/monitor/2009/01/assessment.html

Binkin, M., et.al. (1982). Blacks in the Military. Brookings Institution Press.

Black, E. (2004). War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to Create
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Psychology Testing Psychometric Emotional Intelligence

Words: 12427 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79715879



As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.

Aims and Objectives

Aim

To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.

esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.

Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.

1.2 Objective…… [Read More]

References

Abraham, Rebecca. "The Role of Job Control as a Moderator of Emotional Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence -- Outcome Relationships.(Statistical Data Included)," the Journal of Psychology, March 1, 2000.

Bar-on, Reuven Ph.D (2005). "The World's First Scientific Measure of Emotional Intelligence."(2006). PEN Psychodiagnostics [26 September 2006]. http://www.eqiq.nl/eqivol.htm.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008598359

Before You Start Your Fruit and Fibre Diet You Should Speak to This Man. (2005, February 9). Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), p. 12.
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Prenatal Testing

Words: 1180 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4779731

Prenatal Testing

For many people, prenatal testing has opened many opportunities to treat potential illnesses and to save lives. Administering tests that involve visualization, ultrasounds and amniocentesis allow physicians and parents to identify illnesses and disabilities in children even before birth. More advanced surgical techniques have been used to treat babies even before they are born.

Many others, however, have expressed concern over the ethical implications of prenatal testing. hile the treatment of diseases is a noble cause, many ethicists worry that prenatal testing will lead to a de facto form of eugenics. In these cases, prenatal testing could be used to screen out mild disabilities and other non-life threatening conditions.

This paper looks at the social implications of prenatal testing, with a particular emphasis on the definitions of disability and preferred genetic makeup. The first part is a look at the reasons why parents avail of prenatal testing techniques.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allen, Garland E. "Is a New Eugenics Afoot?" Science. 2001. Proquest Database.

Anderson, Gwen. "Nondirectiveness in Prenatal Genetics: Patients Read Between the Lines." Nursing Ethics. 1999: 126-129.

Genetic Testing and Screening." Bioethics for Students: Issues in Medicine, Animal Rights, and the Environment. 4 vols. Macmillan, 1999. Reproduced in Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale Group. 2004 http://0-galenet.galegroup.com.catalog.houstonlibrary.org:80/servlet/OVRC

Suter, Sonia Mateu. "The routinization of prenatal testing." American Journal of Law and Medicine. Boston: 2002. Proquest Database.
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Psychological Testing Movement History and

Words: 2251 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1536882

The opposing side, which sports a more eclectic set of disciplinary backgrounds and prides itself on a more sophisticated and inclusive perspective, divides human abilities into broad classes -- logical, spatial, interpersonal, verbal, etc. -- and labels each class an "intelligence." The two sides then proceed to talk past each other. (Casse, 1998, p. 33)

The resulting controversy then falls back to the idea of socio-cultural differences, and race/gender/culture/environment. (Skidmore & Aagaard, 2004, p. 304) Casse claims that by differing on core definitions of intelligence scientists are not good at comparing anything but data or defining concepts,

Scientists make bad dictionary writers and worse philosophers. Their main skills are in constructing experiments and generating explanations for what they observe. Neither of these endeavors requires agreement on what the words involved "mean" in any deep or absolute sense, only on ways of converting the elements of the theory at issue into…… [Read More]

References

Casse, D. (1998, August). IQ since "The Bell Curve." Commentary, 106, 33.

Intelligence. (2004). In the Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.

Daly, W.C. (1997). Some Mentally Retarded Children Can Benefit from Placement with Peers. Education, 117(4), 553.

Figueroa, R.A. (1989). Psychological Testing of Linguistic-Minority Students: Knowledge Gaps and Regulations. Exceptional Children, 56(2), 145.
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The Concept of Intelligence and Testing for it

Words: 1485 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11227367

Intelligence/Pesonality Tests

The concept of intelligence and the pactice (and pacticality) of testing fo intelligence has been one of the moe contovesial aeas of psychology and psychometics since the fist tests wee developed and administeed a centuy ago. Fa fom thee being a consensus in the scientific community on exactly what makes up intelligence, the list of chaacteistics that compise intelligence has instead been a matte of exteme and ongoing debate. Measuing intelligence in individuals has found an even geate shae of disageement and contovesy. Even when eseaches ae able to agee on what aspects should be measued to develop an accuate pictue of intelligence, the methods poposed and implemented fo testing these aeas have often been widely disputed. The contovesy suounding intelligence testing eached new heights in the ea of cultual divesity, as it became clea that the standad intelligence tests in use fo the bette pat of the…… [Read More]

references in four categories: introvert/extrovert, intuitive/sensing, thinking/feeling, and perceiving/judging. This test is closely related to both intelligence tests in certain ways, but completely unrelated in others. That is, both intelligence tests reflect the way each individual thinks -- their intellectual strengths and weaknesses -- to some degree. The Myers-Briggs personality type test reveals a great deal about the way an individual thinks and interacts with the world, but it does not predict how efficiently this occurs -- that is the realm of the intelligence tests. Both types of tests can be used to measure someone's capabilities and proclivities to aid in employment placement or in psychological testing, to determine where problems might lie or how they might best be handled.

These issues lead to what could be some major ethical issues with both types of test. Given the fact that some bias is inherent to even the most carefully designed test, the use of either (or both) intelligence or personality tests to determine suitability for employment could be viewed as ethically unacceptable in terms of discriminatory practices. Online testing is somewhat less fraught with ethical considerations, as it is (or should be) assumed that tehse tests are not fully accurate measures and are taken more for reasons of personal enjoyment. The fact that many tests try to sell you things, or claim to be incredibly accurate, does diminish the harmlessness somewhat, but our culture should know no to trust everything on the web.
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Atomic Testing Though Modern People

Words: 11346 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33269463



The First Nuclear Test

Of course, the first nuclear test occurred before the 1950s and was part of the United States' effort to develop an atomic weapon during World War II. This test occurred at 5:30 A.M. On July 16, 1945, at a missile range outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico. Even that test was enough to convince a large group of scientists that the atomic weapon was a dangerous and powerful weapon. "The Franck Report," a petition issued by Leo Szilard and 68 other scientists urged President Truman to first demonstrate the capabilities of the atomic bomb before using it as a weapon against the Japanese, because of the mass destruction that came with the bomb.

This test, known as the Trinity Test, was a tremendous success. "The energy developed in the test was several times greater than that expected by scientific group. The cloud column mass and top reached…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adams, Cecil. 1984. "Did John Wayne die of cancer caused by a radioactive movie set?" The Straight Dope. http://www.straightdope.com/classics/a2_016.html (Accessed August 19, 2008).

American Cancer Society. 2006. "Radiation exposure and cancer." Cancer.org. http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/content/PED_1_3X_Radiation_Exposure_and_Cancer.asp?sitearea=PED (Accessed August 19, 2008).

Ball, Howard. 1996. "Downwind from the bomb." The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A0DEED61438F93AA35751C0A960948260&sec=health&spon=&pagewanted=1 (Accessed August 19, 2008).

Brodersen, Tom. 2002. "Compensation available to fallout cancer victims." Sharlot Hall
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Motivational Theories of animal'shelters

Words: 1580 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91594106

Functional motivation suggests that psychological factors, such as a need to feel useful, a need for a sense of purpose, motivate volunteerism (Widjaja, 2010). Therefore, volunteerism can be framed within the tenets of basic behaviorism and cognitive-behavioral principles. If volunteering feels good, then a person will be increasingly motivated to volunteer. Volunteering is not always selfless and altruistic; it can be ego-driven. In some situations, the motivation to volunteer comes from concrete extrinsic variables such as receiving credit in school or one's place of employment (Widjaja, 2010). Social motives for volunteering include social pressure or even shaming (Widjaja, 2010). Individuals can be pushed into volunteering from a sense of obligation or guilt, or pulled into it based on factors like boredom, curiosity, or an altruistic desire to promote the well being of others.
Self-determination theory takes individual differences into account, and differentiates between autonomous motivation and controlled motivation (Oostlander, Guntert,…… [Read More]

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The Process of Development and Testing for Drug Manufacturers

Words: 1613 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15315384

Drug Development (From Nature to the Market)

The process of drug development is a complex one. The pharmaceutical industry is required to adhere to strict governmental regulations, set out by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which involve numerous phases of testing and clinical trials, close monitoring of the drug's effects on users, its stability, dosage forms (the preparation), and so on. This paper will describe the drug development process, as it proceeds from nature to the market.

Drugs that eventually make it to the marketplace can come from a variety of sources -- plants, animals, microbes, synthetic chemistry, biotechnology, and even modified molecules. Years of research and billions of dollars are invested by pharmaceutical companies as they seek out new, potential drugs for the market. All of this effort has resulted in the FDA's approval of 1,200 drugs for the marketplace since 1950 (Munos 960). The "recipes" that have…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bamelis, Lotte; Evers, Silvia; Spinhoven, Philip; Arntz, Arnoud. "Results of a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial of the Clinical Effectiveness of Schema Therapy for Personality Disorders." The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 171, no. 3 (March 2014): 305-322.

Coustasse A, Kimble CA, Stanton RB, Naylor M. "Could the Pharmaceutical Industry

Benefit from Full-Scale Adoption of Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology with New Regulations?" Perspectives in Health Information Management (Fall, 2016).  http://perspectives.ahima.org/couldpharmabenefit/ 

Munos, Bernard. "Lessons from 60 Years of Pharmaceutical Innovation." Nature
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Nuclear Weapons Testing in the United States

Words: 1147 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 166560

Nuclear Weapons Issue:

Comparing Two Articles

Nuclear Weapons are not to be trifled with. These monsters can, in fact, annihilate the Earth in minutes. Though many applaud the progress of technology in achieving such powerful weapons, most people lobby against nuclear weapon use, which can be detrimental on land, vegetation, animal life, sea life, water life, and, of course, humanity at large. From previous examinations, it is necessary to note that nuclear weapons have harmed those that were nowhere near where they were detonated, thus proving the incredible extent of damage that they can provoke. This paper will analyze two articles, both of which deal with this issue and will examine the purpose, content and goals of each author.

First Article - Content

In the first article, the author describes nuclear weapons testing in the United States. He states by stating the as the 1970's cane to an end, American…… [Read More]

Referenced:

Millson, C. (2010). Nuclear Weapons Testing in the United States: Sacrificing Health for National Defense. Student Pulse. < http://www.studentpulse.com/articles/535/2/nuclear-weapons-testing-in-the-united-states-sacrificing-health-for-national-defense>.

Williams, T.T. (2004). Clan of One-Breasted Women. NY: Busic Books. (resource provided by customer).
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Rise of the Planet of the Apes

Words: 1271 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49498136

Rise of the Planet of the Apes

The interaction of human beings and the natural world has always been one of conflict because of the inhumane way that people can behave. Animal have been used by human beings as pets, as entertainment, and in the course of scientific research. Fictional depictions of this interaction have reflected the nature of this relationship between man and animal. Some people value animal research as a means of curing human ailments and others decry it as animal cruelty. This is not a clear cut issue, but rather one of many different viewpoints. This document will show various attitudes toward these interactions; the positive aspects of animal testing, the negative attitudes towards testing, and finally how both these attitudes are fitted into the context of the film Rise of the Planet of the Apes, a film which shows exactly how society feels about this complicated…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Cohn, M. (2010). Alternatives to animal testing gaining ground: researchers, regulators develop new systems for experiments. The Baltimore Sun.

Hajar, R. (2011). Animal testing and medicine. Heart Views. (12:1). 42.

Jeffries, DH (2011). Planet of the apes and the rise of the animal rights film. The Veganomaly.

The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, Volume II (2012). Fullbooks.com
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Conciliation for the Sake of

Words: 2011 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82514145

"Using animals this way is morally right. efusing to use them because to do so is thought as an infringement of the 'rights' of rats and mice is morally wrong." It is inhumane, to the majority of Americans.

It is possible to find a middle ground in the issues of such animal rights groups as PETA, and list several points of agreement regarding what is ethically humane and for the animal's positive welfare. That is, the two opposing sides should be able to agree to the following without abandoning their basic positions: 1) Animals do have sensations, such as pain, and emotional states, such as fear or suffering. esearch is growing for the proposition that at least vertebrate animals are very likely sentient (ose and Adams); 2) Numerous animals, at the very least mammals, have the capacity a variety of other mental states, such as distress and discomfort. This is…… [Read More]

References:

Cohen, Carl and Regan, Tom. Animal Rights Debate. New York: Roman & Littlefield, 2001

Hayhurst, Christ. Animal testing: the animal rights debate. New York: Rosen Publishing, 2000.

Moore, David. Public Lukewarm on Animal Rights. Gallup Poll. 21 May 2003. 23 April, 2010.  http://www.gallup.com/poll/8461/public-lukewarm-animal-rights.aspx 

Mur, Cindy. Animal Experimentation. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2004
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Negative Group Roles and How I Dealt

Words: 858 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26863369

negative group roles and how I dealt with the negative group member

My very first encounter with negative group roles was when I was seventeen years old and while working part-time at a local electronics store. At the electronics store, we were divided into various groups that were headed by different group leaders. Our salary was based on a basic pay as well as commission. This means that our earnings depended much on our push for more sales. The sales force of every individual was highly dependent on the amount of group cohesion and strategy which we put in place in attracting more clients to our stand as well as to our groups. In regard to the sales and promotion functions, we were allowed to engage potential clients via email, phone calls and direct conversations. This means that we had to work together in ensuring that our sales and marketing…… [Read More]

References

Janis, I.L. (1982). Groupthink: Psychological studies of policy decisions and fiascoes (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Janis, I.L. (1989). Crucial decisions: Leadership in policymaking and crisis management. New "York: Free Press

Smith, T (2011). A Euphemism for Marginalization.The New York Times

 http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2011/09/21/under-obama-is-america-post-racial/a-euphemism-for-marginalization
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Pronounced Differences Between the Habitats in Which

Words: 1822 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68961597

pronounced differences between the habitats in which the scientists that wrote, respectively, In the Shadow of Man and the Wolves of Isle oyale: A Broken Balance, studied. The author of the former, Jane Goodall, was located relatively close to the equator in the Tanzanian jungles of Africa. Her counterpart, olf Peterson, was in the midlands of the United States near the Great Lakes in Michigan. Whereas Goodal was fairly close to the equator, Peterson was much more close to the North Pole. As a result, one of the immense points of variation in the habitats in which these researchers studied was in the climate. Peterson experienced immense temperature extremes in his work, whereas for the most part, the temperature remained fairly consistent where Goodall was -- meaning it was regularly hot. This difference in climate, as well as the degree in which human intervention was found in both of these…… [Read More]

References

Goodall, J. (2000). In the Shadow of Man. New York: Collins.

Peterson, R.O. (2007). The Wolves of Isle Royale: A Broken Balance. Barrington: Willow Creek Press.

Fouts, R. (1996). Next of Kin: My Conversations with Chimpanzees. New York: William Morrow and Company.
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Entrepreneurial Leadership the Two Entrepreneurial

Words: 1516 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43119817



Lastly, I would just like to know what approaches are out there. Everybody has his or her own idea, but I want to know what works for other people. Some will argue against any serious ethical principles at all, some will make ethics a central part of their company. For me, I know that I have to choose a market-based approach, so I am definitely curious to learn about the different theories and models that can help me not only know more, but contextualize that knowledge better.

orks Cited:

Kwek, G. (2010). Google Street View controversy takes a bizarre twist. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved April 16, 2012 from http://www.smh.com.au/technology/technology-news/google-street-view-controversy-takes-a-bizarre-twist-20101125-18814.html

Carmody, T. (2012). Google co-founder: China, Apple, Facebook threaten 'open web'. ired/CNN. Retrieved April 16, 2012 from http://edition.cnn.com/2012/04/16/tech/web/google-sergey-brin/

Entrepreneur. (2008). Anita Roddick. Entrepreneur Magazine. Retrieved April 16, 2012 from http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/197688

Entrepreneur. (2008). Larry Page and Sergey Brin. Entrepreneur Magazine. Retrieved April…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Kwek, G. (2010). Google Street View controversy takes a bizarre twist. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved April 16, 2012 from  http://www.smh.com.au/technology/technology-news/google-street-view-controversy-takes-a-bizarre-twist-20101125-18814.html 

Carmody, T. (2012). Google co-founder: China, Apple, Facebook threaten 'open web'. Wired/CNN. Retrieved April 16, 2012 from  http://edition.cnn.com/2012/04/16/tech/web/google-sergey-brin/ 

Entrepreneur. (2008). Anita Roddick. Entrepreneur Magazine. Retrieved April 16, 2012 from http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/197688

Entrepreneur. (2008). Larry Page and Sergey Brin. Entrepreneur Magazine. Retrieved April 16, 2012 from http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/197848
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P& g There Are a Number of Stakeholders

Words: 664 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60052782

P&g

There are a number of stakeholders in this situation. Procter & Gamble, Iams, their employees and their shareholders represent one set of stakeholders, oriented primarily towards defusing or deflecting the criticism in order to protect their market share, profits and shareholder value. The animals are another direct stakeholder, and they have little voice here. PETA's stakes are unclear. They position themselves as speaking for and defending the animals, but they might well have other motives. We know that PETA thrives on publicity, and seeks it out for a number of reasons. Consumers are a further stakeholder, as pet lovers are unlikely to be attracted to a pet food company known for cruelty to cats and dogs. Supply chain partners are stakeholders, and their interest falls somewhere in between the interests of the company and the interests of the consumers. Regulators are a stakeholder because there are laws governing the…… [Read More]

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International Marketing We Are a

Words: 4272 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87044143

5 billion (a$28.2 billion) in 2008 (IK, 2009). The Germans have a long history in the business, with "eau de Cologne" being invented in Koln 210 years ago (IK, 2009). The German market is continuing to grow slowly, despite economic challenges, recording 10.5% growth since 2004 (Ibid.).

There are approximately 525 firms in the industry in Germany, ranging from large international enterprises to small boutique cosmetic and fragrance houses. The industry is centered in Frankfurt. These companies are among the world's leading exporters of cosmetics. The industry association coordinates efforts with respect to both marketing and research and development functions at German firms.

The German cosmetics market is relatively saturated with competitors. Most major international brands have a presence in the market, as do scores of boutique brands. A multitude of channels are used, with indications being that mainstream mass retailers are the preferred channel for Germans in general. These…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Gillespie, Andrew. (2007). Foundations of Economics: Additional Chapter on Business Strategy. Oxford University Press. Oxford, United Kingdom.

European Union. (2008). Bilateral Trade Relations: Australia. European Union. Retrieved September 3, 2009 from http://ec.europa.eu/trade/issues/bilateral/countries/australia/index_en.htm

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. (2009). Summary of Australia's Trade. Government of Australia. Retrieved September 3, 2009 from http://www.dfat.gov.au/PUBLICATIONS/stats-pubs/mtd/australia_trade_0906.pdf

Dougherty, Carter. (2009). Europe's Surge Signals Hope for Economic Recovery. New York Times. Retrieved September 3, 2009 from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/14/business/global/14euro.html
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Resqpod in Cardiac Arrest Resqpod

Words: 2845 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7759382

, 2008).

Known Flaws & Potential Dangers:

One issue which became apparent with this device in particular was the possibility for the lights which indicate the length and frequency of ventilation were prone to malfunctions. This issue has been addressed by the manufacturer and has been reasonably rectified to a standard of being able to be used confidently in emergency situations (Thayne et al., 2005). The potential danger of such a malfunction is apparent in a high risk situation. Though emergency personnel are trained in the correct technique of CP method, in such high stress situations it is not uncommon for the adrenaline of the situation to result in over ventilation leading to a significant decrease not only in blood pressure but also in the efficacy of CP itself.

The device since the manufacturing adjustment has been implemented in a number of real world emergency services. It has functioned since…… [Read More]

References

1. Cooper, J. & Cooper, J. (2008). New stragtegies for cardio pulmonary resuscitation. Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine, 10, 49 -- 58.

2. Rea, T., Eisenberg, S., Sinibaldi G, & White, D. (2004) Incidence of EMS-treated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the United States. Resuscitation, 63, 17 -- 24.

3. Thayne RC, Thomas DC, Neville JD, Van Dellen A. (2005). Use of an impedance threshold device improves short-term outcomes following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation,67, 103-108

4. Wiggington, J. (2005). The inspiratory impedance threshold device for treatment of patients in cardiac arrest. Business Briefing: Long-Term Healthcare, 1-5.
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Ethics in Nanomedicine the Term

Words: 10726 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76858278

All these charters that have clearly defined the boundaries of what both the positive i.e. natural rights and negative i.e. The unjust exploitative rights of the people are and how no institution or research domains have the right or power to violate them (Dierkes, Hoffmann and Marz, 1996).

Based on the above fact, we have to consider all the concerns related towards security of an individual as well as his rights, societal principles and considerations, national strategies, the financial system and market of the country as well as the social-educational-traditional structure that might be put in jeopardy due to a scientific research of nanomedicine. Hence we have to carefully consider that the researchers who are investing their time and effort in to the nano-medical research are treated with value while still securing the human rights of the society i.e. awareness of and protection against the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on…… [Read More]

References

Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. (2001). Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.

Brennan, M. et al. (2002). Communication, Cultural and Media Studies. Routledge. London.

Chambers, T. (1996). From the ethicist's point-of-view: The literary nature of ethical inquiry. Hastings Center Report 26(1): 25-32.

Chang K. (2005). Tiny is beautiful: translating 'nano' into practical. New York Times; p. A1.
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Sanctity of Life Argument Against Euthanasia Some

Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92910851

Sanctity of Life Argument Against Euthanasia

Some of the most difficult ethical questions of our age concern the definition of life -- when it begins, what it means, when and how it should end. Many of the arguments surrounding these questions concern the right of others to end someone's life. This problem lies at the heart of debates about abortion, capital punishment, and even animal testing. It is particularly relevant to the controversy surrounding euthanasia. Does anyone have the right to end another's life, even to relieve suffering or as a result of the express wish of the sufferer?

Central to the argument against euthanasia is the concept of the "sanctity of innocent human life." James Rachels breaks down the components of this concept in his chapter on the Sanctity of Life. He points out that, while some Eastern philosophies espouse the sanctity of all biological life, more mainstream Western…… [Read More]

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Understanding Drugs

Words: 632 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70171420

FDA Drug Approval Process

In order for a pharmaceutical company to obtain FDA approval for a new drug, a long sequence of detailed testing and clinical trials must be administered. The approximate cost of putting a new drug through the approval is $500 million, and it takes an average of fifteen years for a drug to make it from initial testing to being available for patients. Furthermore, of every 5000 compounds that go through pre-clinical testing, only five advance to the human testing phase, and only one of these compounds will actually be approved. There are six key phases of testing that potential drugs go through on the path to FDA approval. These phases are early research / pre-clinical testing, clinical trials (phase I, phase II and phase III), FDA approval, and post-marketing testing.

The first phase of the drug approval process is pre-clinical testing. This consists of laboratory and…… [Read More]

References

Siegfried, J. The Drug Development and Approval Process.

Class notes, Development and Marketing of Drugs.
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Marketing Communication Programme for the New Product

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73871912

Marketing Communication Programme for the New Product

"The Body Shop" offers a wide range of naturally inspired cosmetics and toiletry products. The brand, originally created in the United Kingdom, distributes its products and expresses its values through a large multi-channel network of exclusive retail shops (1,088 company owned and 1,517 franchisees) in more than 60 countries, as well as through home and online sales. The purpose of this report is developing an international marketing plan for a new product; a special shampoo which mitigates the hair loss problem of people, particularly for men, to be added to the range for international market in Asia for the Body Shop.

An international marketing plan including an analysis of marketing potential and target segment of the new product, a marketing communication programme for the new product is indicated in this report.

This report also provides a SWOT analysis for The Body Shop and…… [Read More]

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Diet and Cancer

Words: 1604 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42988149

diet and cancer. The orks Cited five sources in MLA format.

Food, Diet and Cancer

Diet is fuel for our body. On the same account a balanced nutritious intake is what a human body needs more than anything. Hence food is one of the most cardinal factors that determine the quality of our healthy as well as the longevity of our lives. Knowing which food to eat in what quantity and how food helps us in building our defence mechanisms is essential.

This argumentative essay based on thorough analysis as well as extensive research revolves around and proves the following thesis statement:

There is a correlation between diet and cancer

Correlation between milk as well as other dairy products and Cancer

There are several forms of cancer killing thousands of people worldwide. One of the most common types of cancer is breast cancer affecting women under the age of 50…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Got breast cancer. Available at: http://www.milksucks.com/breast.html (March 20,2003)

Cancer fighters for food. Available at: http://www.umdnj.edu/umcweb/hstate/fall99/cancer_f99.htm (March 20,2003)

Fried Food Link to Some Cancers Disputed. Available at: http://forum.lowcarber.org/t82676.html (March 20,2003)

Study doubts acrylamide in food causes cancer. Available at http://bhagh.nhshealth.org/HealthNews/reuters/NewsStory0128200320.htm (March 20,2003)
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L'oreal's Strategic Direction Amidst the Global Economic

Words: 2929 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14758779

L'Oreal's Strategic Direction

Amidst the global economic downturn, France's cosmetics giant L'Oreal corporation outperformed projections in the first ten months of 2010. ith the first three quarters earnings exceeding +11% in sales revenues, the L'Oreal Group continued a strong trend following € 17.5 billion consolidated sales in 2009, with 23 global brands in 130 countries, and 674 new patents. Innovation has kept L'Oreal's market position in front of its competitors, and the company has upheld its promise to stakeholders and its 64, 600 employees alike to continue as the world leader in cosmetic products. Insight into L'Oreal's rare success in a moment in crisis is revealed in the Company Mission Statement,

"At L'OREAL, we believe that everyone aspires to beauty. Our mission is to help men and women around the world realise that aspiration, and express their individual personalities to the full. This is what gives meaning and value to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Conjoint Analysis Model Demonstration, Dobney.com, 2010. Web.

Edgeman, R. et al. Six Sigma for Government IT: Strategy & Tactics for Washington, D.C. Boise: University of Idaho, nd. Web.

Baker, S. New Consumer Marketing: Managing a Living Demand System. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2003. Print.

Blattberg, R.C. And Thomas, J.C. Valuing, Analyzing and Managing the Marketing Function using Customer Equity Principles. In Iacobucci, D. Kellogg on Marketing. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 2001.
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Domestic and International Terrorists This

Words: 1688 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85180237



While both domestic and international terrorism pose a threat to America the threat of domestic groups is more serious.

The individuals in the domestic groups already live here and are able to mingle, plot, plan and carry out acts of violence with very little scrutiny until the act occurs.

International groups must deal with visa issues, customs and other things that make it more difficult to get into and attack the U.S.

There will never be a complete eradication of terrorism either on the domestic or the international level.

Each of them will live on and the nation is going to have to learn to live with the fact that they exist. Law enforcement and government will work together to minimize the threat of terrorist groups in America but they will never completely rid the nation of the threat because of the rights the U.S. constitution provides, the fact that…… [Read More]

References

Domestic terrorist groups (Accessed 4-18-07)

http://www.milnet.com/domestic/Dom-Terror.htm domestic terrorists and internet (Accessed 4-18-07) (http://209.85.165.104/search?q=cache:ScYT_)VYRcJ:ai.arizona.edu/research/terror/publications/DarkWeb-AMCIS2005_Zhou_Collection.pdf+%22domestic+terrorist+groups%22+internet&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=3&gl=us&ie=UTF-8
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Food and Drug Law in

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77408681

S. Food and Drug Administration, because they were in wide use before the 1938 Act (grandfathered in, as it were). (Dunn 1938)

The problem was that Act contained a definition for a "new drug" (one in need of prior approval to market), as any drug "the composition of which is such that such drug is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs, as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling." FDCA § 201(p) (1). The manufacturers set out to establish then, that anything GRAS/GRAE therefore was not a new drug, and needed no FDA blessing.

Many medicines are ancient, and the active ingredients of many drugs on were first introduced before 1938. To make matters worse, between 1938 and 1962, the FDA considered drugs that were identical, related, or similar…… [Read More]

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Interest Groups

Words: 1506 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13053372

Interest Groups

Describe the different types of interest groups (single issue groups and public interest groups) and the goals that each type pursues.

Single-issue interest groups are exactly that: groups concerned with one issue, and one issue only. Although the single interest might overlap with broader issues or related interests, the main goal of a single-interest group is to promote legislation related to the target area. For example, the National ifle Association (NA) can be considered a single-interest group. Its concerns range within the rubric of gun rights, but the NA lobbying effort remains solely concerned with Second Amendment issues. Although the People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) does not use political lobbying as aggressively as does the NA, it can also be considered a single-issue interest group. PETA is concerned primarily about the humane treatment of animals and advocates policies that prohibit animal testing and slaughterhouses, for…… [Read More]

References

ACLU (n.d.). Key issues. Retrieved online: http://www.aclu.org/key-issues

Edwards, G.C., Wattenberg, M.P., & Lineberry, R.L. (2006). Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy. Pearson.

"Interest Groups," (2002). Retrieved online:  http://www.tntisland.com/interestgroups.html 

Kucinich, J. (2011). Interest groups use the power of the political pledge. USA Today. June 30, 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.usatoday.com/news/politics/2011-06-29-pledge-politics-Huntsman-Romney-Tea-Party-Ron-Paul-GOP_n.htm
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Body Shop the Business Model

Words: 1355 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88452334



Their pricing is relatively high due to high product differentiation.

SWOT analysis

Strengths

The Body Ship has almost 2, 500 stores in 61 countries. Started in the late 1970s to appeal to a market that has been increasingly enamored with natural ingredients and products, this market has only grown whilst trends for holistic and organic items have, if not stayed constant, certainly increased. In this way, the Body Shop not only managed to carve a niche for itself when inclination for natural products was just beginning but it has gained a reputation and foothold in this field, that a rare few have been able to beat.

The Body Shop is a mature market and a long-established company having a niche in the field. It has high entry barriers making for tough competition and little opportunity for new entrants. Their key strength is, therefore, their name, experience, and image. They also…… [Read More]

An ageing population with motivation and the capacities to spend on premium-priced products that claim to possess natural anti-ageing properties is another factor that works in the store's favor.

Referneces

The Body Shop. (2009) Living our values. The Body Shop International PLC
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International Clinical Harmonisation Proper Systems in Place

Words: 1196 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10839935

International Clinical Harmonisation

PROPER SYSTEMS IN PLACE

The International Congress Harmonisation

WHO Principles of Good Clinical Practice

Clinical research is conducted to insure the safety and efficacy of health and medical products and practices (WHO 2002). In the past, randomized controlled trials gave most of the information about the safety and efficacy of these products and treatments. Randomized clinical trials were considered the foundation of evidence-based medicine but reliably only when conducted according to principles and standards. These principles and standards comprise good clinical research or GCP. The guidelines were created to help national regulatory authorities, sponsors, investigators and ethics committees to implement GCP for overall clinical research. These were based on the guidelines provided by major international organizations, such as the International Conference on Harmonization or ICH GCP, and used as reference (WHO).

GCP incorporates accepted and established ethical and scientific quality standards complied with for the design, conduct,…… [Read More]

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Christian Ethics

Words: 1927 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75622081

ethical investment and focuses on the investment behavior of charities. Charities have been found lacking a clear SI policy even though the public clearly says it favors the charities that invest ethically.

Ethical Investment and Charities

Ethics and business are now so closely connected that you cannot discuss the latter without referring to the former. This is because most people today believe that ethics should be a part of every business policy and the public has become more conscious of the ethical responsibilities of business houses. This awareness has come from the realization that while all businesses may improve the economic condition of the country and accelerate economic activity, they do not necessarily benefit the society and many are unaware of their responsibility towards the community.

For example, tobacco companies are probably one of the most important economic sources of income for the country. Tobacco sells well and the income…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

1. Cathy Growney DP Money: Ethical Investing - passing fad or an investment in all our futures? (Features) Date: 10/21/2002; Publication: Daily Post (Liverpool, England)

2. Bien, Melanie, Meet the moral money-makers. (European ethical investment funds) Date: 05/22/1997; Publication: The European;

3. Smith, Mat How to ruin your saintly image: are charities socially responsible? Mat Smith finds some of them strangely careless about where they invest. (Special Report: Corporate Social Responsibility). Date: 05/26/2003; Publication: New Statesman (1996);

4. Ethical Investment, The challenges, September 2001, Survey details- Accessed online on 8th March 2005, http://www.cafonline.org/research/ethical_investment.cfm
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Body Shop International LTD The Body Shop

Words: 2346 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40316299

BODY SHOP INTENATIONAL, LTD.

The Body Shop International, Plc.

A Situation Analysis of Corporate esponsibility

Early to the contemporary trend of corporate responsibility in business management practices, Anita oddick's innovative UK-based corporation responded to a niche in the hair and skin beauty product market when no one else had even conceived of combining activism with ecological product development and social cause networks. Offering consumers a complete social responsibility package as stakeholders in support of free trade and planetary resource management, The Body Shop® International, Plc and its global network of online and franchise retailers continues in its timeless appeal to the now several generations of conscious consumers seeking "Nature's Way to Beautiful."

Combining activism with marketing and the culture of beauty, entrepreneur Anita oddick's The Body Shop International, Plc retail corporation sells organic-based hair and skin products infused with the brand's promotion of "self-esteem as well as social and environmental…… [Read More]

References

Daviss, B. (1999). Profits from Principle. Futurist, 33(3), 28.

Elmer-Dewitt, P., & Lea, E. (1993). Anita the agitator. Time, 141(4), 52.

Roddick, A. (1994). Corporate responsibility. Vital Speeches of the Day, 60(7), 196.

The Body Shop International, Plc (2010). Retrieved from:  http://www.thebodyshop-usa.com/
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Body Shop Humor in the

Words: 1968 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52103925

K. The advertising campaign does not differ from that in other countries, since it is integrated in the company's global marketing strategy.

ecommendations

egarding the consumer behavior strategy, it is recommended that The Body Shop implements a marketing approach that is more centered on competitive advantage. The company did not manage to distinguish its competitive advantage. The Body Shop is not sufficiently differentiated from other cosmetics producers that also address the South Korean market.

It is also recommended that the company analyzes consumers' needs that have not yet been addressed by their competitors. Such situations present opportunities that can be exploited by the company in order to gain more customers.

egarding the website strategy and its relation with the localization theory, it is recommended that the company's website is active enough in educating and informing consumers about the company's social values and campaigns. In addition to this, the website should…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Multi-Channel Marketing. Making Bricks and Clicks Stick (2000). McKinsey Marketing Solutions. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from http://www.mckinsey.com/practices/retail/knowledge/articles/Multichannelmarketing.pdf.

2. Chaffey, D. (2009). Online revenue models and business models. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from http://www.davechaffey.com/Internet-Marketing/C2-Internet-micro-environment/Online-revenue-models.

3. Value Proposition (2009). Investopedia. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/v/valueproposition.asp .

4. Perner, L. (2009). Consumer Behavior: The Psychology of Marketing. University of Southern California. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from  http://www.consumerpsychologist.com/ .