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Animal testing or animal experimentation is a necessary evil. At least that is what some say. Others believe animal testing should cease as society evolves past the need to experiment on living creatures. The topic remains a hot button issue.
It rings especially true for those who adopt a vegan lifestyle and believe animals should have the same rights as people in terms of value of life and so forth. Although animal testing has ceased in some cosmetic companies and label their goods as not animal tested, most companies, especially pharmaceutical companies, rely on animals to test drugs and vaccines in order to promote evolution of medicine but refrain from putting human lives at risk. This essay will show the pro and con sides of animal testing/animal experimentation. Does it remain as unavoidable or can society move past animal testing and find new ways to test products and medicines?
Background…… [Read More]
By using animals in research, and through animal research science learns how certain chemicals "interact with living systems"; this knowledge can be "translated into protection of humans, animals, and the environment from toxic levels of natural -- as well as man-made -- exposures (SOT, 6).
Legal and professional accountability
In Canada there are Research Ethics Boards (REBs) that have the power to authorize or reject funding for experiments with animals; when animal research proposals do not meet with proper ethical requirements, the REBs can put a halt to the experiments (Tremayne-Lloyd, et al., 2007, p. 56-57). The law in Canada -- which should be imitated in other countries that do not now have laws protecting animals -- allows that an overseeing regulatory agencies like the College of Chiropractors of Ontario (CCO) can "reprimand members and/or suspend or revoke licenses to practice" (Tremayne-Lloyd, 57). Cruelty to animals, assault on animals, or…… [Read More]
Negatives of Animal Testing Outweigh Its Positives and Therefore Should Not be Allowed
Many cures and treatments have been developed in the last three hundred years due to advances in medical technology. These developments are sometimes attributed partly to the fact that scientists and researchers have been able to use animals as "guinea pigs" for testing new medications or treatment methods before passing them to human volunteers. There is strong evidence supporting this claim though technology today allows scientists to bypass animal testing in many cases. Moreover, animal testing has led to many horrible abuses and misleading results due to the fact that animals' organism does not match the complexity of human bodies. Ultimately, when the benefits and harms of using animals for testing purposes, it is evident that animals should not be used for experiments. In this paper, I will present both sides of the argument and…… [Read More]
Animal Testing: Cosmetics and Toiletries
Animal testing is the use of non-human animals in a variety of experiments (Wikipedia, 2005)
Many experiments aim to test certain substances to determine their effect on humans, or to test medical or psychological hypotheses. Animal testing is a very controversial and well-researched topic. Proponents and opponents constantly argue over both ethical concerns and the effectiveness of the practice of using animals for scientific research.
The term "vivisection" is now used as a blanket term for all animal experiments, although it originally only referred to those that involved cutting the animals (Wikipedia, 2005)
Many dictionaries and encyclopedias now use the term "vivisection" to describe any type of animal experiment that causes suffering, whether it involves cutting or not, although those animal experimentors dislike this trend as they feel that "vivisection" is a term that spurs emotion (Croce, 1991).
For many years, people have debated on…… [Read More]
Animal testing is not only for the benefit of the humans but is also beneficial to the animals themselves. "The research of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences benefits animals because NIEHS research contributes to protecting the environment for all the life that shares the earth - companion animals, farm animals, wildlife, marine life - and plant life as well" (Anonymous). Much more animals are consumed as a food source by humans and only a small percentage are used for animal testing. Some of these animals are also the ones that are abandoned and are kept in pounds or shelters (Kate Kristoff). Animal testing has been proved to be beneficial regarding a lot of diseases and this cannot be denied by anyone. Scientists do not love to put animals to testing for no reason whatever. There are legislations that prevent any cruelty and thus animals are kept under humane…… [Read More]
These experiments are done to see how the humans fair on with the treatment or the diseases without putting much consideration to whether it would survive or die FRAME Reduction Committee, 2005()
Some other ways in which animals are unethically used for scientific purposes include in cases where Genetically modification is done on animals where some of their genes are added or removed as per type of experiment done, use to test for product safety such as in agricultural chemicals, food additives, cosmetic and industrial chemicals, where animals subjected to gas chambers, substances forced into their eyes, stomach or skin EMP, 2004()
Even after subjecting these animals to such harsh test, the success rate for predicting the harmful side effect is still lagging at 5-25%, which is way, below as compared to what the animals have to go through EMP, 2004(; Flint C, 2005)
. Therefore, scientist can also pay…… [Read More]
However, it is also characteristic for them to be in total agreement with the procedure when it involves their well-being or the welfare of someone close to them. Ed Owen's (2005) testimony regarding his daughter and how she manages to stay alive due to the large amount of medicine that she takes is certainly breathtaking. Even more amazing is the fact that most of the medicine that she uses had been created with the help of animal testing (Owen).
The fact that that many animals suffer as a result of animal testing is indisputable. Nevertheless, their suffering is not in vain, as even more people (and even animals) benefit from the exploit. As long as people do not come up with a serious alternative to animal testing, humankind is forced by its very condition to perform tests on animals.
1. Gallagher, M. Rapp, P.R. The Use of Animal…… [Read More]
Animal Testing: Pros and Cons
Animal testing is when animals are used in scientific experiments (ichards). Most animal testing is done by universities, pharmaceutical companies, and medical schools. Most animals used for research are breed for the specific purpose of testing and few animals used for testing are captured from the wild. Some animal testing is done for basic research such as behavior studies and genetics while other animal testing is done for the benefit of humans. This research includes drug testing, surgical procedures, medical equipment, and somewhat inconsequential applications like; cosmetics, and other household products. Most animals that are used for researched are euthanized once the experiment is finished.
Opinions about the ethics of animal testing have shifted greatly through the end of the 20th century and into the 21st century (Dixon). Some question the accuracy of animal testing and if animal testing can be done humanely. Others argue…… [Read More]
" [Peter Tatchell]. Thus it is clear that animal models provide unreliable and often contradictory results for pharmaceutical research experiments and also delay the development of vital drugs that could potentially save millions of humans.
New Testing Methods
Advancements in biotechnology have drastically impacted our understanding of diseases and the development of appropriate pharmacological interventions. 'Science-ased Toxicology' (ST) enables us to study toxicity at the cellular level. There is definitive hope that ST
would replace cumbersome and often misleading animal studies in the near future. The ability to use parallel screening methods imply that ST research can expedite drug synthesis by avoiding the long delay involved with the animal testing phase. The use of 'Structure Activity relationship Models' makes it possible to accurately predict toxicity of the test drugs.[Animal Aid] in vitro testing methods such as EYTEX, Skintex can replace painful and cruel animal tests such as the Draize test.…… [Read More]
Science and the sub-science of chemistry has provided some significant advances to society and the health and welfare of society. Throughout this history, animals have been used as components of these chemical tests and there is much debate about the ethics and effectiveness of this practice. The purpose of this essay is to describe how animal testing is no longer a viable option in many cases of scientific experiment and should be used sparingly if at all. This argument will incorporate differing attitudes about the complex nature of this problem and synthesize these ideas with a relevant link towards further understanding of science and chemistry.
History of Animal Testing
The problem can be difficult because it appears that throughout the history of animal testing, great advances were made in chemistry and other sciences. Scutti (2013) added that "n ancient times, scientists made use of animals principally to satisfy…… [Read More]
Animal Testing Debate
Animal testing as well as experimenting, is a practice that has been there from the fifteenth century, even though the activity become more popular in the 1800's. Ever since individuals that realized animals could feel pain, a debate on animal testing became an issue as well as a controversial topic.
Every year scientists experiment with around 100 million monkeys, rats, dogs mice, and fish in the name of medical discoveries. The animals are exposed to medicines and therapies, which could be the next drug for cancer treatment. The majority of animals involved in the study are rats as well as mice. Animal testing is significant in the medical world as animal experimentation plays a vital role in numerous medical advances (Gahlmann, 1993). These include development of vaccines, surgical techniques and antibiotics.
Great discoveries have been by using animal testing in transplants of kidneys, disease treatment…… [Read More]
Animal Testing Statistics
In research, reports, and activism efforts, statistics are often used to strengthen a specific cause or viewpoint. The challenge, particularly from the viewpoint of the reader, is that many of these statistics, while not inaccurately quoted, tend to be taken out of context. This creates an inaccurate focus that was unintended when the statistics were created in the first place. This phenomenon is clear in the guest post by obin Lovell-Badge (2013) where the author makes a claim about the accuracy of quoting animal testing statistics to strengthen the cause against such testing on animals.
What particularly surprised me about the post is the explanation of the usefulness of animal testing in developing medicines. There appears to be a fundamental misunderstanding of the purpose of animal testing among animal activists who would have these terminated. While most drugs tested on animals fail to make it to the…… [Read More]
animal testing. The writer argues that animal testing is a necessity and that alternative testing is not as effective. There were four sources used to complete this paper.
Throughout the years there have been many groups who have protested using animals for the purpose of testing products. These products include medical products, consumer products and research for cures and discoveries about illnesses and disorders. The groups who protest the use of animals say that it is cruel to use them for the tests when alternative methods could be found. While alternative methods have been developed for many types of testing the use of animals for testing must still be embraced. Alternative testing methods have not proven themselves to be as reliable as animal testing.
Those who oppose animal testing believe that it is inhumane treatment of living things. Over the years there have been hotly debated arguments over the use…… [Read More]
UK legislation requires that researchers refine their procedures to keep suffering to the minimum, ensure the number of animals is reduced to the minimum required for meaningful results, and seek to replace the use of animals with non-animal alternatives where appropriate" (the oyal Society, 2004). This argument is valid from the point-of-view of the necessity of animal testing. The attempts to reduce the pain and discomfort of animals are significant for their added value to science. That is to say that even the research conducted to limit the discomfort can provide important information for scientists.
Some of the most common animals on which tests are being conducted are the monkeys that are considered to be relatively close in terms of structure and behavior to humans. Therefore, the question is often related to the ethical and moral nature of testing on monkeys. However, in terms of the added value provided by…… [Read More]
controversy with regard to preclinical testing on animals, as society has reached a point where the ethics behind testing drugs on animals makes it difficult and almost impossible for researchers to continue to perform their studies. Institutions such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration agency are unhesitant about supporting testing in animals because this is in most cases the most effective way to find out more about a drug's potential effects on a human. Even though testing on animals can be considered cruel by some, the reality is that it is one of the principal reasons why society as a whole was able to produce some of the drugs that helped mankind evolve rapidly during recent decades.
In order to see the topic of animal testing in a context enabling a person to understand why it is significant, one would have to consider the numerous cases when drugs that…… [Read More]
Today, there is hardly any product, from shampoo to pharmaceutical drugs that has not undergone animal testing before reaching the public marketplace. ithout this research, many of the life-saving therapies available today would not exist.
Human use of animals for experimental purposes dates from pre-Christian times, and Alexandrian physicians Herophilus and Erasistratus were the first to use living animals during the 3rd century B.C. (Animal Pp). Andreas Verslius created the modern science of anatomy by systematic dissection of and experimentation on living animals during the mid-1500's, and illiam Harvey's demonstration of the circulation of the blood in 1628, relied on a combination of dissection and animal experimentation as well (Animal Pp). During the 1820's and 1830's, Francois Magendie conducted extensive animal experiments that led to notable advance in neuro-physiology (Animal Pp). In the 1880's, the emergence of bacteriology and immunology hinged on experiments on living animals (Animal Pp).…… [Read More]
This is what makes drug testing on animals so very important in the pharmaceutical industry.
Cami, Jordi. (1991). Perspectives and future on testing for abuse liability in humans. British Journal of Addiction. 86(12), p1529-1531.
De Boer, Bonita. (2009). IV Drugs, Vaccines and Animal Testing. Retrieved March 19, 2010,
from Avert Web site: http://www.avert.org/hiv-animal-testing.htm
Greaves, Peter, Williams, Andrew and Eve, Malcolm. (2004). First dose of potential new medicines to humans: how animals help. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 3(3), p226-
oudebine, L.-M. (2005). Use of Transgenic Animals to Improve uman ealth and Animal
Production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 40(4), p269-281.
Wanjek, Christopher. (2008). Why Lab Animals are Still Used. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Live Science Web site: http://www.livescience.com/health/080212-bad-animal-testing.html… [Read More]
Q1. List ten real-world common property resources with which you are familiar. Describe an example of one of these common property resources that is not (tragically) overexploited (use the term “institution/s” in your discussion).
The so-called tragedy of the commons is defined as the fact that people tend to exploit common resources to the maximum degree possible for their own benefit, thus indirectly harming other or future people who could benefit from the resource (“Tragedy of the Commons,” 2018). Examples of common property include public parks, fish in the ocean, public monuments, highways, clean water, clean air, public bathrooms, trees, schools, and public playing fields. Although some of these resources are, indeed, exploited, this is not the case with all of them.
For example, public monuments are usually relatively respected by individuals (although there is a risk of them being defaced). But one of the reasons for this may be…… [Read More]
Should Animals Be Used in Scientific Testing for Medical Research or Commercial Products?
The fear and dread of you will fall on all the beasts of the earth, and on all the birds in the sky, on every creature that moves along the ground, and on all the fish in the sea; they are given into your hands. – Genesis 9:2 (c. 1450 BCE)
Studies published in prestigious medical journals have shown time and again that animal experimentation wastes lives—both animal and human—and precious resources by trying to infect animals with diseases that they would never normally contract. -- People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (2019)
As the epigraphs above clearly show that humankind’s views about using animals for their own purposes have changed significantly over the past several millennia, but despite increasing condemnation by animal rights advocates, animal testing for medical research or commercial products continues around the…… [Read More]
Mignini, Pradeep Jayaram, and Khalid S. Khan
BMJ 2007 334: 97. Online available at http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/extract/334/7588/274
Perel, et al. (2007) states that only immediate preclinical testing of new drug therapies, but animal research aids medical science in many more ways Animal studies play a part in the initial development of candidate drugs, and the development and testing of medical devices and surgical procedures. Even more crucial, animal research informs clinical research by building the foundation of biological knowledge." (2007)
6. Study on Long-Term Effects of Chemicals on the Environment
Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. 22 Mar 2007. Online available at http://www.rcep.org.uk/chemicals/chemscop.htm
This work states that diverse organizations including the 'Chemical Industries Association', CEFIC, the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions as well as the Department of Health and Friends of the Earth "...raise the impact of chemicals assessment policy on animal testing. Most of the Department of the Environment,…… [Read More]
Animal Advocacy Organizations
There are many local, national, and international organizations that advocate for the rights and welfare of animals, domestic and wild. Two of those organisations are PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) and the ASPCA (American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals). In this paper, the two will be compared and contrasted.
PETA & ASPCA
The ASPCA was the very first humane society to exist in North America, according to their website. Henry Bergh founded the ASPCA in 1866, who believed that animals have the right to be respected by humans, and to be treated kindly, and to be protected under the law. In fact the ASPCA was the first humane organization that has been granted "legal authority to investigate and make arrests for crimes against animals… [although the ASPCA] fulfills its mission through nonviolent approaches" (ASPCA).
PETA was founded in 1980, and their…… [Read More]
Animal ights & Testing
The author of this report has been asked to contrast, compare and analyze three articles that all relate to basically the same thing, that being the status and rights of animals. As part of the analysis, there will be an agreement on the points with which the author of this report agrees, a critical thinking of how the authors attempt to refute each other, the key elements of those refutations, the significant connections that exist between the three texts, what those connections mean to the author of this report in terms of framing the author of this report's views and a gist of the synthesis conducted will bring up the proverbial rear of the analysis. This report will conclude with a setting up, but not a full execution, of the author's own potential argument that might or might not happen on future reports. While animals are…… [Read More]
Herman, Pack and Hoffman-Kuhnt performed relatively rigorous experiments to determine the source of dolphin recognition of objects; they wanted to discover, among other things, whether "dolphins attained the shape discriminations (of objects) through associative learning or direct perception" (Herman et al. 1998 292). Fukuzawa, Mills and Cooper sought to determine the mechanism by which domestic dogs responded to commands. Greenberg wanted to discover the facts about depth perception in two species of Asian rodents, the Mongolian Gerbil and two varieties of Spiny Mice.
The experiments run by Herman et al. involved a single dolphin, a female named Elele, and were designed to determine whether echolocation or visual cues were central to dolphin recognition of objects that appeared in their environment. The researchers were extremely rigorous in setting up each experiment, avoiding contamination between visual and echolocation fields; the objects used for the dolphin's recognition tests were never…… [Read More]
Society at large does not and would not permit risking harm to humans in order to avoid using animals for research (Animals pp).
The pharmaceutical industry uses animals only when research cannot be accomplished in other ways, and always with care (Animals pp). If society wants to relieve conditions such as epilepsy, asthma, multiple sclerosis, and heart disease, then animals will continue to be need for research (Animals pp).
Although it is important and morally right to minimize the use of animals for research, it would be morally wrong to place the concern for animals above the concerns and needs of people who are dying from and/or living with incurable and untreatable conditions that could benefit from such research (Animals pp).
Animals in Medicines Research Information Centre - AMRIC. http://www.abpi.org.uk/amric/introduction.asp… [Read More]
against experimentation on animals, and some are more compelling than others. Some people suggest that the practice is immoral because choosing to experiment upon animals is directly analogous to racial or sexual discrimination; or more closely related to discrimination on the basis of mental capacity. Others contend that it is wrong because, by their estimations, no clear advances in medical research have been made through animal experimentation, and alternative modes of research are emerging. Doubtlessly, animal experimentation is a delicate moral issue, but asserting that animals should enjoy the same rights as humans within a society is a weak claim. Arguments have been formed differentiating animals from humans depending upon both their moral status and biological status. Yet, the most obvious line of reasoning is associated with the fact that granting animals the same rights as humans within society leads to many logical contradictions.
One question that needs to be…… [Read More]
Management Strategy to Utilize Meta-Analysis Technique for Nuclear Energy and Waste Disposal and Create Social Sustainability
This research proposal explores the link between public perceptions of nuclear power, how those perceptions are formed, and what influence those opinions have on energy policy. These issues are important in light of two realities. First, nuclear energy is declining in its share of global energy. Second, nuclear energy offers what might well be the best solution to climate change. Given the threat posed by climate change, it makes sense that nuclear power would be increasing in share, not decreasing. This esearch proposal seeks to look at some of the issues facing nuclear power, and how it can overcome these issues to increase share going forward.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents v
List of Tables viii
List of Figures vii
Chapter One: Introduction 1
Topic Overview 7…… [Read More]
The same variables of the cranial and caudal sacs would be observed in order to determine if the sounds being produced where indeed coming from these organs or not. It may be that these two organs are either the source of the sound or are in someway related to the sound that these researchers heard during the tank experiment coming from the swimbladder.
Did the newspaper article describe the research article correctly? Explain.
The newspaper article "Hearing the Repertoire of a Very Fearsome Fish" by Bhanoo (2011) did a good job in describing the research article correctly. It described how the researchers used piranhas to study and how they used a hydrophone to record underwater sounds coming from the piranhas. It described how the sounds made were recorded during fighting, charging and frontal display. The author explained how it was previously believed that piranhas produced only a single barking sound,…… [Read More]
Indictment of the Moral Offense of Animal Cruelty
Animals think. Animals feel emotion. Animals experience pain. Yet there are members of our human society that find these facts irrelevant. In fact there are many people that have no problem disregarding these facts entirely as long as they are able to reap some type of personal reward or benefit from an animal. hether that benefit is in the form of food, clothing, or testing the latest new lipstick, it is always at the expense of the animal's well-being. In this paper I argue that the abuse of animals is morally wrong and therefore animals ought to be afforded rights which place the same consideration on their sentience as is placed on human beings.
Sentience is a term used to describe the fact that animals feel pain and emotions in much the same fashion as human beings. It is also used as…… [Read More]
Welfae in Captive Wild Animals
The Holy Bible gets the elationship between humankind and wild animals out of the way ealy on in Genesis 1:26 when God said, "Let us make mankind in ou image, in ou likeness, so that they may ule ove the fish in the sea and the bids in the sky, ove the livestock and all the wild animals, and ove all the ceatues that move along the gound." Humanity clealy took this divine gift seiously, and the elationship between humankind and wild animals has been lagely one-sided since people climbed to the top of the food chain. Since the second half of the 20th centuy, though, thee have been gowing calls fo impoving the manne in which humans teat animals in geneal and wild animals maintained in captivity in paticula. The ecent closue of Ringling and Banum and Bailey's "Geatest Show on Eath" due to…… [Read More]
American writers from both the antebellum South and the North commented on the great differences between the white people in the two regions (Ibid; Samuda).
Note though, the table data below regarding the percentage of males who completed high school by race, 1940-1980, which will provide data for further discussion regarding utilization of testing to stratify recruits:
Table 1 -- Males 18-21 Who Completed High School By Percentile
(Source: Binkin, p.94)
How is it that tests designed to measure information that was given in school could be administered to populations who did not even attend school? And, when one takes population and demographic statistics into account, this historical bias deepens. At the outbreak of World War I, for instance, African-Americans were about 11% of the general population, and the Selective Service draft…… [Read More]
As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.
Aims and Objectives
To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.
esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.
Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.
1.2 Objective…… [Read More]
The opposing side, which sports a more eclectic set of disciplinary backgrounds and prides itself on a more sophisticated and inclusive perspective, divides human abilities into broad classes -- logical, spatial, interpersonal, verbal, etc. -- and labels each class an "intelligence." The two sides then proceed to talk past each other. (Casse, 1998, p. 33)
The resulting controversy then falls back to the idea of socio-cultural differences, and race/gender/culture/environment. (Skidmore & Aagaard, 2004, p. 304) Casse claims that by differing on core definitions of intelligence scientists are not good at comparing anything but data or defining concepts,
Scientists make bad dictionary writers and worse philosophers. Their main skills are in constructing experiments and generating explanations for what they observe. Neither of these endeavors requires agreement on what the words involved "mean" in any deep or absolute sense, only on ways of converting the elements of the theory at issue into…… [Read More]
For many people, prenatal testing has opened many opportunities to treat potential illnesses and to save lives. Administering tests that involve visualization, ultrasounds and amniocentesis allow physicians and parents to identify illnesses and disabilities in children even before birth. More advanced surgical techniques have been used to treat babies even before they are born.
Many others, however, have expressed concern over the ethical implications of prenatal testing. hile the treatment of diseases is a noble cause, many ethicists worry that prenatal testing will lead to a de facto form of eugenics. In these cases, prenatal testing could be used to screen out mild disabilities and other non-life threatening conditions.
This paper looks at the social implications of prenatal testing, with a particular emphasis on the definitions of disability and preferred genetic makeup. The first part is a look at the reasons why parents avail of prenatal testing techniques.…… [Read More]
The concept of intelligence and the pactice (and pacticality) of testing fo intelligence has been one of the moe contovesial aeas of psychology and psychometics since the fist tests wee developed and administeed a centuy ago. Fa fom thee being a consensus in the scientific community on exactly what makes up intelligence, the list of chaacteistics that compise intelligence has instead been a matte of exteme and ongoing debate. Measuing intelligence in individuals has found an even geate shae of disageement and contovesy. Even when eseaches ae able to agee on what aspects should be measued to develop an accuate pictue of intelligence, the methods poposed and implemented fo testing these aeas have often been widely disputed. The contovesy suounding intelligence testing eached new heights in the ea of cultual divesity, as it became clea that the standad intelligence tests in use fo the bette pat of the…… [Read More]
The First Nuclear Test
Of course, the first nuclear test occurred before the 1950s and was part of the United States' effort to develop an atomic weapon during World War II. This test occurred at 5:30 A.M. On July 16, 1945, at a missile range outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico. Even that test was enough to convince a large group of scientists that the atomic weapon was a dangerous and powerful weapon. "The Franck Report," a petition issued by Leo Szilard and 68 other scientists urged President Truman to first demonstrate the capabilities of the atomic bomb before using it as a weapon against the Japanese, because of the mass destruction that came with the bomb.
This test, known as the Trinity Test, was a tremendous success. "The energy developed in the test was several times greater than that expected by scientific group. The cloud column mass and top reached…… [Read More]
Functional motivation suggests that psychological factors, such as a need to feel useful, a need for a sense of purpose, motivate volunteerism (Widjaja, 2010). Therefore, volunteerism can be framed within the tenets of basic behaviorism and cognitive-behavioral principles. If volunteering feels good, then a person will be increasingly motivated to volunteer. Volunteering is not always selfless and altruistic; it can be ego-driven. In some situations, the motivation to volunteer comes from concrete extrinsic variables such as receiving credit in school or one's place of employment (Widjaja, 2010). Social motives for volunteering include social pressure or even shaming (Widjaja, 2010). Individuals can be pushed into volunteering from a sense of obligation or guilt, or pulled into it based on factors like boredom, curiosity, or an altruistic desire to promote the well being of others.
Self-determination theory takes individual differences into account, and differentiates between autonomous motivation and controlled motivation (Oostlander, Guntert,…… [Read More]
Drug Development (From Nature to the Market)
The process of drug development is a complex one. The pharmaceutical industry is required to adhere to strict governmental regulations, set out by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which involve numerous phases of testing and clinical trials, close monitoring of the drug's effects on users, its stability, dosage forms (the preparation), and so on. This paper will describe the drug development process, as it proceeds from nature to the market.
Drugs that eventually make it to the marketplace can come from a variety of sources -- plants, animals, microbes, synthetic chemistry, biotechnology, and even modified molecules. Years of research and billions of dollars are invested by pharmaceutical companies as they seek out new, potential drugs for the market. All of this effort has resulted in the FDA's approval of 1,200 drugs for the marketplace since 1950 (Munos 960). The "recipes" that have…… [Read More]
Rise of the Planet of the Apes
The interaction of human beings and the natural world has always been one of conflict because of the inhumane way that people can behave. Animal have been used by human beings as pets, as entertainment, and in the course of scientific research. Fictional depictions of this interaction have reflected the nature of this relationship between man and animal. Some people value animal research as a means of curing human ailments and others decry it as animal cruelty. This is not a clear cut issue, but rather one of many different viewpoints. This document will show various attitudes toward these interactions; the positive aspects of animal testing, the negative attitudes towards testing, and finally how both these attitudes are fitted into the context of the film Rise of the Planet of the Apes, a film which shows exactly how society feels about this complicated…… [Read More]
"Using animals this way is morally right. efusing to use them because to do so is thought as an infringement of the 'rights' of rats and mice is morally wrong." It is inhumane, to the majority of Americans.
It is possible to find a middle ground in the issues of such animal rights groups as PETA, and list several points of agreement regarding what is ethically humane and for the animal's positive welfare. That is, the two opposing sides should be able to agree to the following without abandoning their basic positions: 1) Animals do have sensations, such as pain, and emotional states, such as fear or suffering. esearch is growing for the proposition that at least vertebrate animals are very likely sentient (ose and Adams); 2) Numerous animals, at the very least mammals, have the capacity a variety of other mental states, such as distress and discomfort. This is…… [Read More]
negative group roles and how I dealt with the negative group member
My very first encounter with negative group roles was when I was seventeen years old and while working part-time at a local electronics store. At the electronics store, we were divided into various groups that were headed by different group leaders. Our salary was based on a basic pay as well as commission. This means that our earnings depended much on our push for more sales. The sales force of every individual was highly dependent on the amount of group cohesion and strategy which we put in place in attracting more clients to our stand as well as to our groups. In regard to the sales and promotion functions, we were allowed to engage potential clients via email, phone calls and direct conversations. This means that we had to work together in ensuring that our sales and marketing…… [Read More]
pronounced differences between the habitats in which the scientists that wrote, respectively, In the Shadow of Man and the Wolves of Isle oyale: A Broken Balance, studied. The author of the former, Jane Goodall, was located relatively close to the equator in the Tanzanian jungles of Africa. Her counterpart, olf Peterson, was in the midlands of the United States near the Great Lakes in Michigan. Whereas Goodal was fairly close to the equator, Peterson was much more close to the North Pole. As a result, one of the immense points of variation in the habitats in which these researchers studied was in the climate. Peterson experienced immense temperature extremes in his work, whereas for the most part, the temperature remained fairly consistent where Goodall was -- meaning it was regularly hot. This difference in climate, as well as the degree in which human intervention was found in both of these…… [Read More]
Lastly, I would just like to know what approaches are out there. Everybody has his or her own idea, but I want to know what works for other people. Some will argue against any serious ethical principles at all, some will make ethics a central part of their company. For me, I know that I have to choose a market-based approach, so I am definitely curious to learn about the different theories and models that can help me not only know more, but contextualize that knowledge better.
Kwek, G. (2010). Google Street View controversy takes a bizarre twist. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved April 16, 2012 from http://www.smh.com.au/technology/technology-news/google-street-view-controversy-takes-a-bizarre-twist-20101125-18814.html
Carmody, T. (2012). Google co-founder: China, Apple, Facebook threaten 'open web'. ired/CNN. Retrieved April 16, 2012 from http://edition.cnn.com/2012/04/16/tech/web/google-sergey-brin/
Entrepreneur. (2008). Anita Roddick. Entrepreneur Magazine. Retrieved April 16, 2012 from http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/197688
Entrepreneur. (2008). Larry Page and Sergey Brin. Entrepreneur Magazine. Retrieved April…… [Read More]
There are a number of stakeholders in this situation. Procter & Gamble, Iams, their employees and their shareholders represent one set of stakeholders, oriented primarily towards defusing or deflecting the criticism in order to protect their market share, profits and shareholder value. The animals are another direct stakeholder, and they have little voice here. PETA's stakes are unclear. They position themselves as speaking for and defending the animals, but they might well have other motives. We know that PETA thrives on publicity, and seeks it out for a number of reasons. Consumers are a further stakeholder, as pet lovers are unlikely to be attracted to a pet food company known for cruelty to cats and dogs. Supply chain partners are stakeholders, and their interest falls somewhere in between the interests of the company and the interests of the consumers. Regulators are a stakeholder because there are laws governing the…… [Read More]
Known Flaws & Potential Dangers:
One issue which became apparent with this device in particular was the possibility for the lights which indicate the length and frequency of ventilation were prone to malfunctions. This issue has been addressed by the manufacturer and has been reasonably rectified to a standard of being able to be used confidently in emergency situations (Thayne et al., 2005). The potential danger of such a malfunction is apparent in a high risk situation. Though emergency personnel are trained in the correct technique of CP method, in such high stress situations it is not uncommon for the adrenaline of the situation to result in over ventilation leading to a significant decrease not only in blood pressure but also in the efficacy of CP itself.
The device since the manufacturing adjustment has been implemented in a number of real world emergency services. It has functioned since…… [Read More]
All these charters that have clearly defined the boundaries of what both the positive i.e. natural rights and negative i.e. The unjust exploitative rights of the people are and how no institution or research domains have the right or power to violate them (Dierkes, Hoffmann and Marz, 1996).
Based on the above fact, we have to consider all the concerns related towards security of an individual as well as his rights, societal principles and considerations, national strategies, the financial system and market of the country as well as the social-educational-traditional structure that might be put in jeopardy due to a scientific research of nanomedicine. Hence we have to carefully consider that the researchers who are investing their time and effort in to the nano-medical research are treated with value while still securing the human rights of the society i.e. awareness of and protection against the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on…… [Read More]
Sanctity of Life Argument Against Euthanasia
Some of the most difficult ethical questions of our age concern the definition of life -- when it begins, what it means, when and how it should end. Many of the arguments surrounding these questions concern the right of others to end someone's life. This problem lies at the heart of debates about abortion, capital punishment, and even animal testing. It is particularly relevant to the controversy surrounding euthanasia. Does anyone have the right to end another's life, even to relieve suffering or as a result of the express wish of the sufferer?
Central to the argument against euthanasia is the concept of the "sanctity of innocent human life." James Rachels breaks down the components of this concept in his chapter on the Sanctity of Life. He points out that, while some Eastern philosophies espouse the sanctity of all biological life, more mainstream Western…… [Read More]
FDA Drug Approval Process
In order for a pharmaceutical company to obtain FDA approval for a new drug, a long sequence of detailed testing and clinical trials must be administered. The approximate cost of putting a new drug through the approval is $500 million, and it takes an average of fifteen years for a drug to make it from initial testing to being available for patients. Furthermore, of every 5000 compounds that go through pre-clinical testing, only five advance to the human testing phase, and only one of these compounds will actually be approved. There are six key phases of testing that potential drugs go through on the path to FDA approval. These phases are early research / pre-clinical testing, clinical trials (phase I, phase II and phase III), FDA approval, and post-marketing testing.
The first phase of the drug approval process is pre-clinical testing. This consists of laboratory and…… [Read More]
Marketing Communication Programme for the New Product
"The Body Shop" offers a wide range of naturally inspired cosmetics and toiletry products. The brand, originally created in the United Kingdom, distributes its products and expresses its values through a large multi-channel network of exclusive retail shops (1,088 company owned and 1,517 franchisees) in more than 60 countries, as well as through home and online sales. The purpose of this report is developing an international marketing plan for a new product; a special shampoo which mitigates the hair loss problem of people, particularly for men, to be added to the range for international market in Asia for the Body Shop.
An international marketing plan including an analysis of marketing potential and target segment of the new product, a marketing communication programme for the new product is indicated in this report.
This report also provides a SWOT analysis for The Body Shop and…… [Read More]
diet and cancer. The orks Cited five sources in MLA format.
Food, Diet and Cancer
Diet is fuel for our body. On the same account a balanced nutritious intake is what a human body needs more than anything. Hence food is one of the most cardinal factors that determine the quality of our healthy as well as the longevity of our lives. Knowing which food to eat in what quantity and how food helps us in building our defence mechanisms is essential.
This argumentative essay based on thorough analysis as well as extensive research revolves around and proves the following thesis statement:
There is a correlation between diet and cancer
Correlation between milk as well as other dairy products and Cancer
There are several forms of cancer killing thousands of people worldwide. One of the most common types of cancer is breast cancer affecting women under the age of 50…… [Read More]
While both domestic and international terrorism pose a threat to America the threat of domestic groups is more serious.
The individuals in the domestic groups already live here and are able to mingle, plot, plan and carry out acts of violence with very little scrutiny until the act occurs.
International groups must deal with visa issues, customs and other things that make it more difficult to get into and attack the U.S.
There will never be a complete eradication of terrorism either on the domestic or the international level.
Each of them will live on and the nation is going to have to learn to live with the fact that they exist. Law enforcement and government will work together to minimize the threat of terrorist groups in America but they will never completely rid the nation of the threat because of the rights the U.S. constitution provides, the fact that…… [Read More]
S. Food and Drug Administration, because they were in wide use before the 1938 Act (grandfathered in, as it were). (Dunn 1938)
The problem was that Act contained a definition for a "new drug" (one in need of prior approval to market), as any drug "the composition of which is such that such drug is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs, as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling." FDCA § 201(p) (1). The manufacturers set out to establish then, that anything GRAS/GRAE therefore was not a new drug, and needed no FDA blessing.
Many medicines are ancient, and the active ingredients of many drugs on were first introduced before 1938. To make matters worse, between 1938 and 1962, the FDA considered drugs that were identical, related, or similar…… [Read More]
Their pricing is relatively high due to high product differentiation.
The Body Ship has almost 2, 500 stores in 61 countries. Started in the late 1970s to appeal to a market that has been increasingly enamored with natural ingredients and products, this market has only grown whilst trends for holistic and organic items have, if not stayed constant, certainly increased. In this way, the Body Shop not only managed to carve a niche for itself when inclination for natural products was just beginning but it has gained a reputation and foothold in this field, that a rare few have been able to beat.
The Body Shop is a mature market and a long-established company having a niche in the field. It has high entry barriers making for tough competition and little opportunity for new entrants. Their key strength is, therefore, their name, experience, and image. They also…… [Read More]
International Clinical Harmonisation
PROPER SYSTEMS IN PLACE
The International Congress Harmonisation
WHO Principles of Good Clinical Practice
Clinical research is conducted to insure the safety and efficacy of health and medical products and practices (WHO 2002). In the past, randomized controlled trials gave most of the information about the safety and efficacy of these products and treatments. Randomized clinical trials were considered the foundation of evidence-based medicine but reliably only when conducted according to principles and standards. These principles and standards comprise good clinical research or GCP. The guidelines were created to help national regulatory authorities, sponsors, investigators and ethics committees to implement GCP for overall clinical research. These were based on the guidelines provided by major international organizations, such as the International Conference on Harmonization or ICH GCP, and used as reference (WHO).
GCP incorporates accepted and established ethical and scientific quality standards complied with for the design, conduct,…… [Read More]
BODY SHOP INTENATIONAL, LTD.
The Body Shop International, Plc.
A Situation Analysis of Corporate esponsibility
Early to the contemporary trend of corporate responsibility in business management practices, Anita oddick's innovative UK-based corporation responded to a niche in the hair and skin beauty product market when no one else had even conceived of combining activism with ecological product development and social cause networks. Offering consumers a complete social responsibility package as stakeholders in support of free trade and planetary resource management, The Body Shop® International, Plc and its global network of online and franchise retailers continues in its timeless appeal to the now several generations of conscious consumers seeking "Nature's Way to Beautiful."
Combining activism with marketing and the culture of beauty, entrepreneur Anita oddick's The Body Shop International, Plc retail corporation sells organic-based hair and skin products infused with the brand's promotion of "self-esteem as well as social and environmental…… [Read More]
K. The advertising campaign does not differ from that in other countries, since it is integrated in the company's global marketing strategy.
egarding the consumer behavior strategy, it is recommended that The Body Shop implements a marketing approach that is more centered on competitive advantage. The company did not manage to distinguish its competitive advantage. The Body Shop is not sufficiently differentiated from other cosmetics producers that also address the South Korean market.
It is also recommended that the company analyzes consumers' needs that have not yet been addressed by their competitors. Such situations present opportunities that can be exploited by the company in order to gain more customers.
egarding the website strategy and its relation with the localization theory, it is recommended that the company's website is active enough in educating and informing consumers about the company's social values and campaigns. In addition to this, the website should…… [Read More]
The original farm was a seasonal operation with periods of no production in the winter months. The ability to dry and produce value-added products will allow the business to smooth its income and realize revenue all year round. The new production facility will change the nature of the business from seasonal to year-round. The business will be able to stockpile product during the busy season and sell it on a continual year round basis.
The owners of the business will be directly responsible for the daily operation of the business. They will make joint decision as a body of shareholders, but each will have their own division to manage and operate. Each of the owners will have a stake and a role in the ability to make this new enterprise a success. They will have knowledge of what is happening on the production floor and will have a view of…… [Read More]
In other words, the higher the price, the higher the status they confer.
The active products are developed for customers interested in the products' medical properties.
In conclusion, L'Oreal's target customers are sophisticated, educated, beauty oriented people, with medium to high incomes, that appreciate the company's products' quality.
egarding the company's earnings, 54.8% of the cosmetics sales come from consumer products, 25.1% come from luxury products, 13.9% come from professional products, and 5.5% come from active products. More than half of the company's sales incomes, 52.7% come from Western Europe, 27.6% come from North America, and 19.7% come from the rest of the world.
Even if L'Oreal is the worldwide leader in the cosmetics industry, competition is very harsh in this line of business. L'Oreal's most important competitors are Procter & Gamble's Max Factor International, Clinique, Estee Lauder, but also "niche players such as Los Angeles-based cosmetics maker Stila."
All…… [Read More]
Companies talk a lot about "corporate social responsibility," but quite frankly nobody really knows what the term means. Every company seems to interpret the idea a little bit differently. There is nothing inherently wrong with that, but it raises challenges for managers trying to understand the concept and what relevance it has to their organizations. The best approach has to be to analyze the different elements of CSR individually, and see how they apply. This approach also allows for the organization to integrate each element with its strategy -- trying to shoehorn a notoriously vague concept into strategy either results in it not really happening, or it happens but distracts the company from what it really wants to achieve.
The first part of this paper will explore the different conceptions of CSR. This is absolutely essential. The "social" is CSR is the key term, and it implies an external…… [Read More]
Occupational Health and Safety
The objective of this study is to examine the issues surrounding the need for occupational health and safety.
Occupational health and safety specialists work conducting analysis of various types of "work environment and work procedures." (ureau of Labor Statistics, 2012, p.1) In addition, occupational health and safety specialists "inspect workplaces checking for compliance to safety, health, and environmental regulations. Occupational health and safety specialists further design programs that serve to prevent injury or disease to workers and environmental damage." (ureau of Labor Statistics, 2012, p.1)
Aims and Objectives of Occupational Health and Safety
Occupational health and safety has as its aim the following:
the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations; the prevention among workers of adverse effects on health caused by their working conditions; the protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting…… [Read More]
Ethical esponsibility of Corporate America
Many organizations strive to increase their profit margins by doing everything possible (including unethical practices) to increase their revenues. Nevertheless, the past three decades have seen some organizations embracing CS (Corporate Social responsibility). This idea has become significantly important to almost every organization that seeks to increase revenues. Corporate social responsibility is also referred to as community responsibility, stewardship, corporate sustainability, corporate responsibility, accountability and corporate ethics among others. In essence, CS enable organizations to bring in people and the environment into their decisions, strategies and plans (Anyango Ooko, 2014).
In this paper, the use of the term corporate social responsibility will mean a set of actions by enterprises that are geared towards meeting the legal, ethical, economic, and discretional responsibilities that the stakeholders expect them to fulfill. They should undertake the economic obligations of producing profits, and meeting the consumption requirements of the people;…… [Read More]