Animal Testing Essays (Examples)

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Animal Rights and Experimentation Animal Rights Are

Words: 2142 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42587277

Animal Rights and Experimentation

Animal rights are being constantly violated in this day and age. They are being subjected to endless experimentation in order to ensure a healthy life for humans. This is known as vivisection. The local industries use tests, which kill around 50% of the animals during the tests. It is sad to know that tests are still being conducted on animals in spite of having results. Experts have found out that animal testing is unnecessary.

According to PETA, the FDA is to blame for animal rights violation in the U.S. They have made animal testing mandatory for testing of all pharmaceutical drugs. There are no laws to prevent animal experimentation. There are a lot of loopholes in the Animal Welfare Act, as it does not protect the rights of mice, birds and rats. The research facilities have been given a carte blanche to carry out their merciless testing. They have been allowed to make their own choices.

Animal rights activists argue that animals should not be left at the mercy of these research facilities as they feel that the only purpose for animals is that they serve as biological play toys for scientists. There are a number…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Brecher, M.D., Arie, speech given at a conference of the International Congress of Doctors Against Vivisection, Italian Parliament, November 8, 1989

2. The Independent, 18 November 2001, Millions of animals condemned to death in EU ruling on testing

3. The Earth Island Journal, January 1997

4. Lab animals die from heat', Billings Gazette13 February 2004,
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Animal Welfare Assurance Programs

Words: 1107 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4916228

Animal Welfare Assurance Organizations

Animal welfare: Assurance organizations

Organization 1: Manes and Tails Mission (Hoboken, NJ)

Manes and Tails Mission, located in Hoboken, NJ is a locally-based organization that oversees a variety of efforts to reduce cruelty against horses. Given the faltering economy, many horses have been abandoned and/or abused, as fewer and fewer people have the ability to care for their animals properly. Horses from the racetrack or who have been used in vocations like the Mounted Police often have difficulties finding good homes after they retire. This organization resolves to "rescue, rehabilitate, retrain, and re-home the most commonly slaughtered breeds of horses - Quarter horses, Thoroughbreds, and Standardbreds." (Mission statement, 2011, Manes and Tails.). It does not sell horses, although it does lease them. It also provides retirement homes for Mounted Police horses. It educates the public about equine slaughter. It also provides community service through reduced rate boarding, maintenance of rare breeds, and promotes holistic horse care education.

The program is fairly balanced in terms of how it promotes preserving horses physically and mentally, and also attempts to keep horses in as natural a state as possible, regardless of where they are housed (including promoting keeping horses…… [Read More]

References

Annual report. (2010). American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA).

Retrieved September 20, 2011 at  http://onlinedigitalpubs.com/publication/?i=76489 

Mission statement. (2011). Manes and Tails. Retrieved September 20, 2011 at http://www.manesandtailsorganization.org/mission.htm

Policy positions. (2011). American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA).
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Animal Cruelty

Words: 1087 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17265585

Animal Cruelty

Once upon a time, there was a young girl named Sarah who lived in a small house with her parents. Close to her hut was a deep thick forest that was home to many animals including Sheeba, the deer, Reno, the hippopotamus, Tania the sheep and Bounty, the Lion. Sarah knew all of them since they were her only friends in the neighborhood. Everyone else was much older than herself. Sarah would wake up early each day to feed her friends some breadcrumbs, biscuits and water. Sheeba and Tania would spend the whole day with her. Life was merrier on this side of the forest. Everyone lived happily and people were kind and compassionate. They always treated animals benevolently and not even a single soul in the animal world had ever been hurt by humans. Their rights were respected wholeheartedly in fact animals took them for granted since they had never been robbed of what they considered their privileges by birth. Freedom, right to live and right to adequate food and water were things that no animals ever gave much thought to since they were granted these rights on a silver platter. Life for them was beautiful.

But…… [Read More]

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Animal Experiments and Testing Pcrm

Words: 1765 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53241280

Mignini, Pradeep Jayaram, and Khalid S. Khan

BMJ 2007 334: 197. Online available at http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/extract/334/7588/274

Perel, et al. (2007) states that only immediate preclinical testing of new drug therapies, but animal research aids medical science in many more ways Animal studies play a part in the initial development of candidate drugs, and the development and testing of medical devices and surgical procedures. Even more crucial, animal research informs clinical research by building the foundation of biological knowledge." (2007)… [Read More]

16. Study on Long-Term Effects of Chemicals on the Environment

Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. 22 Mar 2007. Online available at http://www.rcep.org.uk/chemicals/chemscop.htm

This work states that diverse organizations including the 'Chemical Industries Association', CEFIC, the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions as well as the Department of Health and Friends of the Earth "...raise the impact of chemicals assessment policy on animal testing. Most of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions' postbag on the European Commission Chemicals Strategy concerns the huge increase in animal testing likely to result. It would seem difficult for the Commission to make recommendations on chemical assessment without addressing the issues of the acceptability of alternatives to animal testing, and the implications of the recommendations for animal testing.
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Animal Studies Relating to Neurological Disorders and

Words: 570 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82799467

animal studies relating to neurological disorders and how they are often ostensibly biased is the subject of the article covered for this brief report. The article was published earlier in 2013 and appeared in PLOS and on the internet (Tsilidis, 2013).

The article did a study of a series of prior studies that used animal testing and research to look at neurological disorder. In total, a total of nearly 4,500 data sets were looked at. The diseases that were followed the most included Alzheimer disease, experimental autoimmune encephalitis, focal ischemia, intracerebral hemorrhage, Parkinson's disease, and spinal cord injuries in general. The study focused on the significance bias of these studies. To that end, it found that 919 out of the 4,445 results were expected vs. The 1,719 that were observed. This excess significance was found across all of the disorders mentioned above and were not limited to just one or several of the disorders listed (Tsilidis, 2013).

The study continues by stating that they found eight interventions with strong and significant statistically significant benefits in animal models without corresponding evidence of small-study effects or excess significance errors in the study results. This result is important, as noted in the next…… [Read More]

References

Tsilidis, K. (2013). Evaluation of Excess Significance Bias in Animal Studies of Neurological Diseases. PLoS Biology, 11(7), 1-10.
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Rights and Welfare of Animals

Words: 754 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54812576

Animal Advocacy Organizations

There are many local, national, and international organizations that advocate for the rights and welfare of animals, domestic and wild. Two of those organisations are PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) and the ASPCA (American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals). In this paper, the two will be compared and contrasted.

PETA & ASPCA

The ASPCA was the very first humane society to exist in North America, according to their website. Henry Bergh founded the ASPCA in 1866, who believed that animals have the right to be respected by humans, and to be treated kindly, and to be protected under the law. In fact the ASPCA was the first humane organization that has been granted "legal authority to investigate and make arrests for crimes against animals… [although the ASPCA] fulfills its mission through nonviolent approaches" (ASPCA).

PETA was founded in 1980, and their mission statement explains, "…animals have rights and deserve to have their best interests taken into consideration" (PETA). PETA is far more aggressive in its philosophy than the ASPCA, and PETA takes the position that animals "…are not ours to eat, wear, experiment on, or use for entertainment." PETA firmly believes…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA). (2011). How to Recognize

Cruelty / About the ASPCA. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://www.aspca.org.

Benz, Kathy, and McManus, Michael. (2005). PETA accuses lab of animal cruelty.

CNN.com. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://articles.cnn.com.
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Are All Non Human Animals Equal

Words: 1169 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51770745

Animal Rights & Testing

The author of this report has been asked to contrast, compare and analyze three articles that all relate to basically the same thing, that being the status and rights of animals. As part of the analysis, there will be an agreement on the points with which the author of this report agrees, a critical thinking of how the authors attempt to refute each other, the key elements of those refutations, the significant connections that exist between the three texts, what those connections mean to the author of this report in terms of framing the author of this report's views and a gist of the synthesis conducted will bring up the proverbial rear of the analysis. This report will conclude with a setting up, but not a full execution, of the author's own potential argument that might or might not happen on future reports. While animals are not held in the same regard as humans in many respects by a lot of people, there are many of those that vehemently disagree with that being the case on one level or another or to one degree or another.

Analysis

As noted in the introduction, all three articles to…… [Read More]

References

Cohen, C. (1986). The Case for the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research. New England Journal Of Medicine, 315(14), 865-870. doi:10.1056/nejm198610023151405

Regan, T., & Singer, P. (1989). Animal rights and human obligations. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

Singer, P. (1989). All Animals Are Equal. Animal Rights And Human Obligations, 1(1), 162-172.
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Animal Rights Introduction Glance at

Words: 2298 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10578976

.. it's healthy, it's somebody's way of life, it's somebody's livelihood, it's somebody's business.(ibid)

This is a strongly worded statement and indictment of an uncaring humanity. However, bearing in mind the daily evidence of cruelty to animals one cannot but feel that there is an element of truth to this argument.

Commercial reasons for abuse

One of the central reasons or "justifications" for animal abuse and possibly why so many turn a blind eye to animal cruelty, is commerce and the profit motive.

The plain fact is that this country and other industrial countries are deeply dependent on animal exploitation to sustain their present economic structures. The plain fact is that we are more dependent on animal exploitation than were the states of the southern United States on human slavery. (Francione, G.)

Animals are essentially seen as property. While there are many laws designed to protect these animals these laws are also prejudiced towards the interests of the owners before the welfare of the animals. An example of the way animals are often treated only as commercial commodities is the following.

In Australia, lambs are put through a gruesome procedure called mulesing, in which huge chunks of skin are sliced…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Animals in Research. Retrieved December 20, 2004 from The Human Society of the United States. Web site: http://www.hsus.org/animals_in_research/index.html www.unitedcrueltyofbenetton.com/introduction.aspx"

ANIMAL RIGHTS FAQ FILE.Retrieved December 20, 2004 from Animal Rights Com. Web site:  http://www.animal-rights.com/arpage.htm 

Columbia University Fined for Cruel Puppy Killings. Retrieved: December 20, 2004 from Columbia University Cruelty. Web Site: http://www.columbiacruelty.com/feat-pupkillings.asp

Francione, G. Animal Rights and the Future. Retrieved December 19, 2004 from Purify Our Mind. Web site: http://www.purifymind.com/AnimalFuture.htm
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Animal Cruelty

Words: 802 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33037581

Animal Cruelty

Persuasive Argument

The purpose of this paper is to present a persuasive argument against the practice of animal cruelty:

Animal cruelty activists state that when an individual is a witness to animal cruelty that the offense should be reported to the agency in the area in which they live. There are laws against cruelty to animals and the laws differ from state to state inside the United States. Many organizations have been formed for assisting the government in stopping the practice of animal cruelty by both individuals as well as that committed by businesses and larger corporate organizations.

Animal Cruelty Reported by News:

Recently reported is the fact that animals used by companies such as "Menu Foods" regularly treat animals with cruelty in regards to the research done by the companies in testing of dog and cat food before marketing it. According to one report an investigator from PETA

was witness for many dogs with "their legs caught in bars of slated steel cage floors."

Further the report stated that the investigator for PETA found that the cats were not receiving the proper care and that several had died from lack of treatment. According to the report the…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

"Linking Animal Cruelty to Human Violence" [Online] located at: http://www.cfhs.ca/Programs/HumaneEducation/ViolenceLink/cc backgrounder4.htm

"Report Animal Cruelty" (nd) PAWS People Helping Animals [Online] located at: http://www.pas.org/help/report / 'Pain and Suffering, All in a Day's Work" (nd) "Other "Pet Food" Companies: Menu Foods [Onine] at: http://www.iamscruelty.asp 'Animal Cruelty Statutes" (nd) Animal Rights Law [Online] at: http://www.animal-law.org/statutes/

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

"Other 'Pet Food' Companies: Menu Foods" [Online] located at: http://www.iamscruelty.com/o.asp
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Animal Senses

Words: 2268 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83801674

Animal Senses

Herman, Pack and Hoffman-Kuhnt performed relatively rigorous experiments to determine the source of dolphin recognition of objects; they wanted to discover, among other things, whether "dolphins attained the shape discriminations (of objects) through associative learning or direct perception" (Herman et al. 1998 292). Fukuzawa, Mills and Cooper sought to determine the mechanism by which domestic dogs responded to commands. Greenberg wanted to discover the facts about depth perception in two species of Asian rodents, the Mongolian Gerbil and two varieties of Spiny Mice.

Dolphins

The experiments run by Herman et al. involved a single dolphin, a female named Elele, and were designed to determine whether echolocation or visual cues were central to dolphin recognition of objects that appeared in their environment. The researchers were extremely rigorous in setting up each experiment, avoiding contamination between visual and echolocation fields; the objects used for the dolphin's recognition tests were never available for both visual and echoic inspection at the same time.

When the trials had begun, Elele chose correctly in 49 of the first 50 trials at recognizing the objects introduced. The researchers noted that their results demonstrated an "impressive capability for direct cross-modal shape recognition" (Herman et al. 1998…… [Read More]

References

Fukuzawa, M.D.S. Mills and J.J. Cooper. (2005) Brief Communication: The effect of human command phonetic characteristics on auditory cognition in dogs (Canis familiaris). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 119(3), 117-130.

Greenberg, G. (1986) Depth perception in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and Spiny Mice (Comys russatus and A. cahirinus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 100(1), 81-84.

Herman, L.M., A.A. Pack and M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt. (1998) Seeing through sound: Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) perceive the spatial structure of objects through echolocation. Journal of Comparative Psychology 117(3), 292-305.
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Animal Rights - Medical Research

Words: 310 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13774084

Society at large does not and would not permit risking harm to humans in order to avoid using animals for research (Animals pp).

The pharmaceutical industry uses animals only when research cannot be accomplished in other ways, and always with care (Animals pp). If society wants to relieve conditions such as epilepsy, asthma, multiple sclerosis, and heart disease, then animals will continue to be need for research (Animals pp).

Although it is important and morally right to minimize the use of animals for research, it would be morally wrong to place the concern for animals above the concerns and needs of people who are dying from and/or living with incurable and untreatable conditions that could benefit from such research (Animals pp).… [Read More]

Works Cited

Animals in Medicines Research Information Centre - AMRIC. http://www.abpi.org.uk/amric/introduction.asp
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Animal Abuse and Crime Does

Words: 4756 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95193786

A study by the Chicago Police Department found that persons who had been arrested for animal cruelty often had a history of other crimes as well (Chicago Police Department 2008). These offenses included homicides, narcotics charges, battery, firearms charges, sex crimes, and gang related activities (Chicago Police Department 2008).

A similar study found that animal cruelty was more common among incarcerated individuals with aggressive tendencies, then for non-aggressive individuals (Keller and Felthous 1985). The study found nine distinct motivations for animal cruelty. It also found a higher incidence of family violence, particularly paternal abuse, and alcoholism (Keller and Felthous 1985). Merz-Perex, Heide, and Silverman, (2001) also found a relationship between childhood animal cruelty and later violence towards other human beings.

The graduation hypothesis contends that children who are cruel to animals progress, or "graduate," to more serious crimes towards humans (Wright and Hensley, 2003). This theory contends that animal cruelty is a link that set eventual serial killers apart from the rest of society (Wright and Hensley, 2003). That is not to say the all that are cruel to animals will become serial killers. It is just to say the serial killers have a tendency towards animal cruelty as a…… [Read More]

References

Arluke, a., Levin, J., Luke, C., Ascione, F. (1999). The relationship of animal abuse to violence and other forms of antisocial behavior. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 14, pp. 963- 975.

Ascione, F.R., Weber, C.V. Thompson, T.M., Heath, J., Maruyama, M., & Hayashi, K (2007). Battered pets and domestic violence: Animal abuse reported by women experiencing intimate violence and by non-abused women. Violence Against Women, 13: 354-373.

Carlisle-Frank, P., Frank, J., and Nielson, L. 2004. Selective battering of the family pet. www.ingentaconnect.comAnthrozoos:a Multidisciplinary Journal of the Interactions of People & Animals, 17 (1): 26-42.

Chicago Police Department (2008). Statistical Summary of Offenders Charged with Crimes against Companion Animals, July 2001-July 2004. Chicago Police Department, Chicago, IL.
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Scientific Research With Animals and

Words: 2057 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71444644



In these cases, the ethical and moral choice seems to be to find another way to test these products that is not so cruel, and to keep cruel procedures out of the labs altogether. The case of the cat sex experiments at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City in the 1960s are another case in point. Researchers maimed cats in a variety of ways, from removing parts of their brains to obliterating their sense of smell, and then noted how these procedures affected their sexual activities. The study continued for over a decade, without any clear results, and when the public learned about it, there was a huge outcry and the testing stropped (Degrazia 98). Studies like this, without a clear purpose, seem even more cruel and unusual, and they helped to give animal research such a bad reputation that laws were enacted regarding the ethical treatment of animals.

I do believe there will come a time that scientists no longer have to use animals in scientific research. I believe that we will develop other methods of study, technologies, and understanding so that we do not have to do testing on animals to achieve health and…… [Read More]

References

Carbone, Larry. What Animals Want: Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Degrazia, David. Animal Rights: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Editors. "Animal Research in Psychology." American Psychological Association. 2009. 1 March 2009. http://www.apa.org/science/animal2.html.

Katrink, Vicki. "Blinded for Beauty: Rabbits Used in Product Testing." American Anti-Vivisection Society. 2009. 1 March 2009. http://www.aavs.org/testingTypesBlinded.html.
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Against Animal Experimentation

Words: 2186 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46621391

Nineteenth century physiologist Claude Bernard first started practicing experimental medicine on animals. Bernard thought it was immoral to conduct laboratory experiments on humans, if these test were not proven first proven to be safe on animals (LaFollette and Shanks, 1994). Man, as the most intelligent species of the animal kingdom, is constantly discovering new and innovative ideas to improve his life style and the quality of life. A proof of this advancement is evident in the average increase in the life span of the man from 45 years at the turn of the 19th century to 73 years in 21st century. Although a number of medical breakthroughs in recent history are due to the intensive research using animals as test subjects for the initial clinical trials, the number of experiments that have ended in failure -- consequently, at the cost of the sacrificing the life of the animal -- far exceed the number of successful experiments.

Experimentation on animals is not morally right. It is cruel to the animals. What happens to these animals after the experiments have ended? Where do these animals go? In the article, "An embarrassment of Chimpanzees," Joseph D'Agnese looked into some of the shortcomings of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Animal Experimentation: Sadistic Scandal." 18 April 2002. http://www.peta-online.org/mc/facts/fsae1.html

Brecher, Arie. Speech at the International Congress of Doctors Against Vivisection, Italian Parliament, November 8, 1989. Reprinted in the International Foundation Report no.8, Hans Ruesch's CIVIS, Winter 1989-1990. 18 April 2002.

Coghlan, Andy. "Lab Rats Rejoice." From New Scientist, 9 December 2000. 18 April 2002. http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/animalexperiments/animalnews85.jsp

Cohen, Murry J., Kaufman, Stephen R., Ruttenberg, Rhoda, and Fano, Alix. "A Critical Look At Animal Experimentation." Medical Research Modernization Committee, 1998. 18 April 2002.  http://www.mrmcmed.org/critcv.html
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Medical Testing on Animals

Words: 952 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27055506

against experimentation on animals, and some are more compelling than others. Some people suggest that the practice is immoral because choosing to experiment upon animals is directly analogous to racial or sexual discrimination; or more closely related to discrimination on the basis of mental capacity. Others contend that it is wrong because, by their estimations, no clear advances in medical research have been made through animal experimentation, and alternative modes of research are emerging. Doubtlessly, animal experimentation is a delicate moral issue, but asserting that animals should enjoy the same rights as humans within a society is a weak claim. Arguments have been formed differentiating animals from humans depending upon both their moral status and biological status. Yet, the most obvious line of reasoning is associated with the fact that granting animals the same rights as humans within society leads to many logical contradictions.

One question that needs to be addressed is whether or not animal testing truly helps society in any measurable way. Daniel Dunbar, from Ithaca University, contends that animal experimentation is most centrally wrong because no clear benefits are brought about by its practice. He cites Ernst Boris Chain, Nobel Prize winner, as having said, "No animal…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

1. Dunbar, Daniel. "The Confinement and Use of Non-Human Animals in Scientific and Medical Experiments is Morally Unacceptable." Ithaca University, 2005. Available: http://www.ithaca.edu/faculty/cduncan/250/ddunbar.doc.

2. Mitchell, Graham. "Guarding the Middle Ground: the Ethics of Experiments on Animals." African Journal of Science, Issue 85, May 1989. Available:  http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/essays/v13p114y1990.pdf .
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Testing Hypothesis in Chapter Four

Words: 37819 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69922441

Management Strategy to Utilize Meta-Analysis Technique for Nuclear Energy and Waste Disposal and Create Social Sustainability

This research proposal explores the link between public perceptions of nuclear power, how those perceptions are formed, and what influence those opinions have on energy policy. These issues are important in light of two realities. First, nuclear energy is declining in its share of global energy. Second, nuclear energy offers what might well be the best solution to climate change. Given the threat posed by climate change, it makes sense that nuclear power would be increasing in share, not decreasing. This Research proposal seeks to look at some of the issues facing nuclear power, and how it can overcome these issues to increase share going forward.

Table of Contents

Abstract ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgements iv

Table of Contents v

List of Tables viii

List of Figures vii

Chapter One: Introduction 1

Topic Overview 7

Problem Statement 8

Purpose Statement 10

Social Dimension in Nuclear Energy 3

Political Dimension in Nuclear Energy 4

Economic Dimension in Nuclear Energy 6

Research Objectives 7

Hypothesis 9

Hypothesis #1 9

Hypothesis #2 10

Hypothesis#3 11

Hypothesis #4 11

Theoretical Perspectives 12

Assumptions and Biases 14

Significance of the…… [Read More]

References

Abokeng, A.K. (2005). Understanding Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 90, 845-848.

Alic, J. (2012). Six things to do with nuclear waste: None of them ideal. Oil Price.com. Retrieved June 17, 2015 from http://oilprice.com/Alternative-Energy/Nuclear-Power/6-Things-to-do-with-Nuclear-Waste-None-of-them-Ideal.html

Alley, W. & Alley, R. (2013). Too hot to touch: The problem of high-level nuclear waste. Review by Konikow, L. (2013). Hydrogeology Journal.

Bangert-Drowns, Robert L. & Rudner, Lawrence M. (1991).Meta-analysis in educational research.Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 2(8). Retrieved September 4, 2008 from http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=2&n=8
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Psychology Animal Behaviour the Hypothesis

Words: 614 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29486635

The same variables of the cranial and caudal sacs would be observed in order to determine if the sounds being produced where indeed coming from these organs or not. It may be that these two organs are either the source of the sound or are in someway related to the sound that these researchers heard during the tank experiment coming from the swimbladder.

Did the newspaper article describe the research article correctly? Explain.

The newspaper article "Hearing the Repertoire of a Very Fearsome Fish" by Bhanoo (2011) did a good job in describing the research article correctly. It described how the researchers used piranhas to study and how they used a hydrophone to record underwater sounds coming from the piranhas. It described how the sounds made were recorded during fighting, charging and frontal display. The author explained how it was previously believed that piranhas produced only a single barking sound, but the these researchers also recorded a drumlike sound, made when the fish fought for food, and a croak the fish's jaws produced when it snapped at another piranha. The article also discussed the fact that the researchers discovered that piranhas make the barking and drumming sounds by rapidly contracting…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bhanoo, S.N. 2011. "Hearing the Repertoire of a Very Fearsome Fish." Web. Available at:

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/18/science/18piranha.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=repert oire%20of%20fish&st=cse

Millot, S., Vandewalle, P. & Parmentier, E. 2011. "Sound production in red-bellied piranhas

(Pygocentrus nattereri, Kner): an acoustical, behavioural and morphofunctional study." The Journal of Experimental Biology, 214, 3613-3618.
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Indictment of the Moral Offense of Animal

Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89130367

Indictment of the Moral Offense of Animal Cruelty

Animals think. Animals feel emotion. Animals experience pain. Yet there are members of our human society that find these facts irrelevant. In fact there are many people that have no problem disregarding these facts entirely as long as they are able to reap some type of personal reward or benefit from an animal. Whether that benefit is in the form of food, clothing, or testing the latest new lipstick, it is always at the expense of the animal's well-being. In this paper I argue that the abuse of animals is morally wrong and therefore animals ought to be afforded rights which place the same consideration on their sentience as is placed on human beings.

Sentience is a term used to describe the fact that animals feel pain and emotions in much the same fashion as human beings. It is also used as a philosophical argument in favor of animal rights and the concern for how animals are treated in our society. Animal rights positions vary from the desire to give animals all of the same rights as humans, to the avoidance of the unnecessary infliction of pain or suffering upon animals. It…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arluke, Arnold. Just a Dog: Understanding Animal Cruelty and Ourselves. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. 2006.

Cohn, Priscilla. In John M. Kistler's People Promoting and People Opposing Animal Rights: In Their Own Words. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 2002.

Kolber, Adam. "Upright: The Moral and Legal Standing of Humans and Other Apes." Stanford Law Review, 54.1 (2001): 163-204.
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Psychological Testing of African Americans in the Army

Words: 3356 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90981843

American writers from both the antebellum South and the North commented on the great differences between the white people in the two regions (Ibid; Samuda).

Note though, the table data below regarding the percentage of males who completed high school by race, 1940-1980, which will provide data for further discussion regarding utilization of testing to stratify recruits:

Table 1 -- Males 18-21 Who Completed High School By Percentile

Race

1940

1950

1960

1970

1970

White

40

49

56

68

78

Black

11

18

33

49

60

(Source: Binkin, p.94)

How is it that tests designed to measure information that was given in school could be administered to populations who did not even attend school? And, when one takes population and demographic statistics into account, this historical bias deepens. At the outbreak of World War I, for instance, African-Americans were about 11% of the general population, and the Selective Service draft act ensured that about that proportion would be enlisted. Despite Black leaders like W.E.B. Dubois, who hoped that if Blacks served admirably in the armed services, they would be more accepted in general society afterwards, because of low test scores, most black soldiers were assigned to menial occupations and not…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Benjamin, L. (2009). "The Birth of American Intelligence Testing." Monitor on Psychology. 40(1): Cited inL

http://www.apa.org/monitor/2009/01/assessment.html

Binkin, M., et.al. (1982). Blacks in the Military. Brookings Institution Press.

Black, E. (2004). War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to Create
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Psychology Testing Psychometric Emotional Intelligence

Words: 12427 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79715879



As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.

Aims and Objectives

Aim

To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.

Research for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.

Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.

1.2 Objective

Define EQ and expand on its role in today's global world.

Each answer from EQ testing, Thibodeaux and Bond (2006) contend, reflects emotional intelligence's concept.

Emotional Intelligence embodies:

Empathy for others

An individual standing up for what he/she believe in a tactful, respectful manner

Refraining from jumping to conclusions; obtaining…… [Read More]

References

Abraham, Rebecca. "The Role of Job Control as a Moderator of Emotional Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence -- Outcome Relationships.(Statistical Data Included)," the Journal of Psychology, March 1, 2000.

Bar-on, Reuven Ph.D (2005). "The World's First Scientific Measure of Emotional Intelligence."(2006). PEN Psychodiagnostics [26 September 2006]. http://www.eqiq.nl/eqivol.htm.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008598359

Before You Start Your Fruit and Fibre Diet You Should Speak to This Man. (2005, February 9). Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), p. 12.
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Prenatal Testing

Words: 1180 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4779731

Prenatal Testing

For many people, prenatal testing has opened many opportunities to treat potential illnesses and to save lives. Administering tests that involve visualization, ultrasounds and amniocentesis allow physicians and parents to identify illnesses and disabilities in children even before birth. More advanced surgical techniques have been used to treat babies even before they are born.

Many others, however, have expressed concern over the ethical implications of prenatal testing. While the treatment of diseases is a noble cause, many ethicists worry that prenatal testing will lead to a de facto form of eugenics. In these cases, prenatal testing could be used to screen out mild disabilities and other non-life threatening conditions.

This paper looks at the social implications of prenatal testing, with a particular emphasis on the definitions of disability and preferred genetic makeup. The first part is a look at the reasons why parents avail of prenatal testing techniques. These range from non-invasive processes such as ultrasounds to fetal tissue analysis. The second part of the paper then looks at the many advantages and arguments in favor of continued prenatal testing. In the third part, the paper examines the various ethical arguments against tampering with natural genetic development, including…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allen, Garland E. "Is a New Eugenics Afoot?" Science. 2001. Proquest Database.

Anderson, Gwen. "Nondirectiveness in Prenatal Genetics: Patients Read Between the Lines." Nursing Ethics. 1999: 126-129.

Genetic Testing and Screening." Bioethics for Students: Issues in Medicine, Animal Rights, and the Environment. 4 vols. Macmillan, 1999. Reproduced in Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale Group. 2004 http://0-galenet.galegroup.com.catalog.houstonlibrary.org:80/servlet/OVRC

Suter, Sonia Mateu. "The routinization of prenatal testing." American Journal of Law and Medicine. Boston: 2002. Proquest Database.
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Psychological Testing Movement History and

Words: 2251 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1536882

The opposing side, which sports a more eclectic set of disciplinary backgrounds and prides itself on a more sophisticated and inclusive perspective, divides human abilities into broad classes -- logical, spatial, interpersonal, verbal, etc. -- and labels each class an "intelligence." The two sides then proceed to talk past each other. (Casse, 1998, p. 33)

The resulting controversy then falls back to the idea of socio-cultural differences, and race/gender/culture/environment. (Skidmore & Aagaard, 2004, p. 304) Casse claims that by differing on core definitions of intelligence scientists are not good at comparing anything but data or defining concepts,

Scientists make bad dictionary writers and worse philosophers. Their main skills are in constructing experiments and generating explanations for what they observe. Neither of these endeavors requires agreement on what the words involved "mean" in any deep or absolute sense, only on ways of converting the elements of the theory at issue into operations that can be carried out in an experiment and repeated later if necessary. Measurement is the most important such operation; as Kelvin pointed out long ago, without a way to measure something it cannot be studied scientifically. (Casse, 1998, p. 33)

The measure must be universalized for the meanings…… [Read More]

References

Casse, D. (1998, August). IQ since "The Bell Curve." Commentary, 106, 33.

Intelligence. (2004). In the Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.

Daly, W.C. (1997). Some Mentally Retarded Children Can Benefit from Placement with Peers. Education, 117(4), 553.

Figueroa, R.A. (1989). Psychological Testing of Linguistic-Minority Students: Knowledge Gaps and Regulations. Exceptional Children, 56(2), 145.
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The Concept of Intelligence and Testing for it

Words: 1485 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11227367

Intelligence/Personality Tests

The concept of intelligence and the practice (and practicality) of testing for intelligence has been one of the more controversial areas of psychology and psychometrics since the first tests were developed and administered a century ago. Far from there being a consensus in the scientific community on exactly what makes up intelligence, the list of characteristics that comprise intelligence has instead been a matter of extreme and ongoing debate. Measuring intelligence in individuals has found an even greater share of disagreement and controversy. Even when researchers are able to agree on what aspects should be measured to develop an accurate picture of intelligence, the methods proposed and implemented for testing these areas have often been widely disputed. The controversy surrounding intelligence testing reached new heights in the era of cultural diversity, as it became clear that the standard intelligence tests in use for the better part of the twentieth century had an inherent bias in favor of white, Euro-centric thinking, to the detriment of other cultural and ethnic backgrounds.

Nonetheless, there are several standard working definitions of intelligence that while not perfect by any stretch of the imagination have still proven consistent and reliable enough to produce tests…… [Read More]

references in four categories: introvert/extrovert, intuitive/sensing, thinking/feeling, and perceiving/judging. This test is closely related to both intelligence tests in certain ways, but completely unrelated in others. That is, both intelligence tests reflect the way each individual thinks -- their intellectual strengths and weaknesses -- to some degree. The Myers-Briggs personality type test reveals a great deal about the way an individual thinks and interacts with the world, but it does not predict how efficiently this occurs -- that is the realm of the intelligence tests. Both types of tests can be used to measure someone's capabilities and proclivities to aid in employment placement or in psychological testing, to determine where problems might lie or how they might best be handled.

These issues lead to what could be some major ethical issues with both types of test. Given the fact that some bias is inherent to even the most carefully designed test, the use of either (or both) intelligence or personality tests to determine suitability for employment could be viewed as ethically unacceptable in terms of discriminatory practices. Online testing is somewhat less fraught with ethical considerations, as it is (or should be) assumed that tehse tests are not fully accurate measures and are taken more for reasons of personal enjoyment. The fact that many tests try to sell you things, or claim to be incredibly accurate, does diminish the harmlessness somewhat, but our culture should know no to trust everything on the web.
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Atomic Testing Though Modern People

Words: 11346 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33269463



The First Nuclear Test

Of course, the first nuclear test occurred before the 1950s and was part of the United States' effort to develop an atomic weapon during World War II. This test occurred at 5:30 A.M. On July 16, 1945, at a missile range outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico. Even that test was enough to convince a large group of scientists that the atomic weapon was a dangerous and powerful weapon. "The Franck Report," a petition issued by Leo Szilard and 68 other scientists urged President Truman to first demonstrate the capabilities of the atomic bomb before using it as a weapon against the Japanese, because of the mass destruction that came with the bomb.

This test, known as the Trinity Test, was a tremendous success. "The energy developed in the test was several times greater than that expected by scientific group. The cloud column mass and top reached a phenomenal height, variously estimated as 50,000 to 70,000 feet. It remained towering over the northeast corner of the site for several hours." Even at that time, the government was aware of the potentially adverse affects of exposure to radioactive fallout; initial testing looked at radiation levels in houses surrounding…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adams, Cecil. 1984. "Did John Wayne die of cancer caused by a radioactive movie set?" The Straight Dope. http://www.straightdope.com/classics/a2_016.html (Accessed August 19, 2008).

American Cancer Society. 2006. "Radiation exposure and cancer." Cancer.org. http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/content/PED_1_3X_Radiation_Exposure_and_Cancer.asp?sitearea=PED (Accessed August 19, 2008).

Ball, Howard. 1996. "Downwind from the bomb." The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A0DEED61438F93AA35751C0A960948260&sec=health&spon=&pagewanted=1 (Accessed August 19, 2008).

Brodersen, Tom. 2002. "Compensation available to fallout cancer victims." Sharlot Hall
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All Animals Are Equal by Peter Singer

Words: 614 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84736512

Equality

Taylor's "A Vindication of the Rights of Brutes" was a direct satirical response to Mary Wollstonecraft's "1792 "Vindication of the Rights of Women." The title of Taylor's treatise suggests that the author is making a direct comparison between women (the subject of Wollstonecraft's work) and animals, beasts, or "brutes" (the title of Taylor's work). Therefore, Taylor's central argument against women's rights is that women are animals. If we do not give rights to cows and horses, then why would we proffer those rights to women? Taylor classifies women as an inferior species, likening them to animals. Singer points out that Taylor's argument is rooted in the assumption that animals are inferior to human beings.

Singer argues, "The extension of the basic principle of equality from one group to another does not imply that we must treat both groups in exactly the same way, or grant exactly the same rights to both groups." What he means is that because men and women are fundamentally different, their legal and ethical rights must be conceived of and applied differently. Even animals should be given "equal consideration," even if the actual "rights" they receive may be different from those given to male or…… [Read More]

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Intelligence Testing and Nature or Nurture Debate

Words: 2503 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15195067

Intelligence Testing

Intelligence -- Nature/Nurture Debate

In psychological terms, intelligence can be defined as "the general mental ability involved in calculating, reasoning, perceiving relationships and analogies, learning quickly, storing and retrieving information, using language fluently, classifying, generalizing, and adjusting to new situations" ("intelligence," 2013). However, interest in and importance of emotional intelligence has flourished in recent years because of which general and applied psychology has made emotional intelligence a standardized concept (Antonakis, Ashkanasy & Dasborough, 2009). Emotional Intelligence is, on the other hand, "the ability to perceive accurately, appraise, and express emotion; the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and the ability to reflectively regulate emotions in ways that promote emotional and intellectual growth" (Salovey & Sluyter, 1997, p. 23).

In simple words, it is an individual's ability and skill to recognize and assess his/her emotional responses when dealing with own self or others. It also includes how he/she directs and controls his/her emotions wisely and sensibly. If truth be told, the overall intelligence is based upon the emotional intelligence and IQ a person possesses. Emotional intelligence and IQ are two sides of the same coin. A positive…… [Read More]

References

America's Deep, Dark Secret. (2007, December 5). CBSNews. Retrieved November 18, 2013, from http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-18560_162-614728.html

Antonakis, J., Ashkanasy, N.M., & Dasborough, M.T. (2009). Does Leadership Need Emotional Intelligence?.The Leadership Quarterly, 20(2), 247-261. Print.

Camille, A. (2005, March). I Can See Clearly Now: How We Come into the World Is Not How We Must Remain. An Encounter with Jesus Can Be Life-Changing for the Physically and Spiritually Blind. U.S. Catholic, 70, 3. Retrieved November 18, 2013, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-129170131/i-can-see-clearly-now-how-we-come-into-the-world

Engs, R.C. (2005). The Eugenics Movement: An Encyclopedia. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. Print.
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Nuclear Weapons Testing in the United States

Words: 1147 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 166560

Nuclear Weapons Issue:

Comparing Two Articles

Nuclear Weapons are not to be trifled with. These monsters can, in fact, annihilate the Earth in minutes. Though many applaud the progress of technology in achieving such powerful weapons, most people lobby against nuclear weapon use, which can be detrimental on land, vegetation, animal life, sea life, water life, and, of course, humanity at large. From previous examinations, it is necessary to note that nuclear weapons have harmed those that were nowhere near where they were detonated, thus proving the incredible extent of damage that they can provoke. This paper will analyze two articles, both of which deal with this issue and will examine the purpose, content and goals of each author.

First Article - Content

In the first article, the author describes nuclear weapons testing in the United States. He states by stating the as the 1970's cane to an end, American that had become more and more educated started reevaluating nuclear policies, especially in the light of the Three Mile Island meltdown that had occurred, and which would soon result in a wide movement against nuclear weapons. Millson (2010) then describes the sicknesses that Americans had suffered as a result of…… [Read More]

Referenced:

Millson, C. (2010). Nuclear Weapons Testing in the United States: Sacrificing Health for National Defense. Student Pulse. < http://www.studentpulse.com/articles/535/2/nuclear-weapons-testing-in-the-united-states-sacrificing-health-for-national-defense>.

Williams, T.T. (2004). Clan of One-Breasted Women. NY: Busic Books. (resource provided by customer).
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Rise of the Planet of the Apes

Words: 1271 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49498136

Rise of the Planet of the Apes

The interaction of human beings and the natural world has always been one of conflict because of the inhumane way that people can behave. Animal have been used by human beings as pets, as entertainment, and in the course of scientific research. Fictional depictions of this interaction have reflected the nature of this relationship between man and animal. Some people value animal research as a means of curing human ailments and others decry it as animal cruelty. This is not a clear cut issue, but rather one of many different viewpoints. This document will show various attitudes toward these interactions; the positive aspects of animal testing, the negative attitudes towards testing, and finally how both these attitudes are fitted into the context of the film Rise of the Planet of the Apes, a film which shows exactly how society feels about this complicated issue.

The film series which began with The Planet of the Apes from the year 1968 tells the epic tale of a future Earth wherein primates have evolved into intelligent beings and human beings have devolved to become nothing more than pets. Subsequent entries in the series led to two…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Cohn, M. (2010). Alternatives to animal testing gaining ground: researchers, regulators develop new systems for experiments. The Baltimore Sun.

Hajar, R. (2011). Animal testing and medicine. Heart Views. (12:1). 42.

Jeffries, DH (2011). Planet of the apes and the rise of the animal rights film. The Veganomaly.

The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, Volume II (2012). Fullbooks.com
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Conciliation for the Sake of

Words: 2011 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82514145

"Using animals this way is morally right. Refusing to use them because to do so is thought as an infringement of the 'rights' of rats and mice is morally wrong." It is inhumane, to the majority of Americans.

It is possible to find a middle ground in the issues of such animal rights groups as PETA, and list several points of agreement regarding what is ethically humane and for the animal's positive welfare. That is, the two opposing sides should be able to agree to the following without abandoning their basic positions: 1) Animals do have sensations, such as pain, and emotional states, such as fear or suffering. Research is growing for the proposition that at least vertebrate animals are very likely sentient (Rose and Adams); 2) Numerous animals, at the very least mammals, have the capacity a variety of other mental states, such as distress and discomfort. This is why animal researchers must use anesthesia or analgesia to reduce or eliminate pain and suffering; 3) Government and private organizations need to invest more in finding alternatives to using animals for research, such as computer simulations, should be continuously sought to reduce if not eliminate any concerns of animal pain…… [Read More]

References:

Cohen, Carl and Regan, Tom. Animal Rights Debate. New York: Roman & Littlefield, 2001

Hayhurst, Christ. Animal testing: the animal rights debate. New York: Rosen Publishing, 2000.

Moore, David. Public Lukewarm on Animal Rights. Gallup Poll. 21 May 2003. 23 April, 2010.  http://www.gallup.com/poll/8461/public-lukewarm-animal-rights.aspx 

Mur, Cindy. Animal Experimentation. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2004
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Negative Group Roles and How I Dealt

Words: 858 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26863369

negative group roles and how I dealt with the negative group member

My very first encounter with negative group roles was when I was seventeen years old and while working part-time at a local electronics store. At the electronics store, we were divided into various groups that were headed by different group leaders. Our salary was based on a basic pay as well as commission. This means that our earnings depended much on our push for more sales. The sales force of every individual was highly dependent on the amount of group cohesion and strategy which we put in place in attracting more clients to our stand as well as to our groups. In regard to the sales and promotion functions, we were allowed to engage potential clients via email, phone calls and direct conversations. This means that we had to work together in ensuring that our sales and marketing strategy was the best. One of our group members by the name of Jack was counterproductive and exuded negative group roles. He would always complain that the group was not being rewarded well for its efforts and he always urged us to boycott our duties. He was also not happy…… [Read More]

References

Janis, I.L. (1982). Groupthink: Psychological studies of policy decisions and fiascoes (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Janis, I.L. (1989). Crucial decisions: Leadership in policymaking and crisis management. New "York: Free Press

Smith, T (2011). A Euphemism for Marginalization.The New York Times

 http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2011/09/21/under-obama-is-america-post-racial/a-euphemism-for-marginalization
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Pronounced Differences Between the Habitats in Which

Words: 1822 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68961597

pronounced differences between the habitats in which the scientists that wrote, respectively, In the Shadow of Man and the Wolves of Isle Royale: A Broken Balance, studied. The author of the former, Jane Goodall, was located relatively close to the equator in the Tanzanian jungles of Africa. Her counterpart, Rolf Peterson, was in the midlands of the United States near the Great Lakes in Michigan. Whereas Goodal was fairly close to the equator, Peterson was much more close to the North Pole. As a result, one of the immense points of variation in the habitats in which these researchers studied was in the climate. Peterson experienced immense temperature extremes in his work, whereas for the most part, the temperature remained fairly consistent where Goodall was -- meaning it was regularly hot. This difference in climate, as well as the degree in which human intervention was found in both of these habitats, produced both opportunities and challenges for each scientist.

As previously indicated, the extremes in temperatures in the habitat in which Peterson studied were highly distinct from the regularity of the temperature in which Goodall did. The cold temperatures in particular engendered some pronounced differences in the research performed. On…… [Read More]

References

Goodall, J. (2000). In the Shadow of Man. New York: Collins.

Peterson, R.O. (2007). The Wolves of Isle Royale: A Broken Balance. Barrington: Willow Creek Press.

Fouts, R. (1996). Next of Kin: My Conversations with Chimpanzees. New York: William Morrow and Company.
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Entrepreneurial Leadership the Two Entrepreneurial

Words: 1516 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43119817



Lastly, I would just like to know what approaches are out there. Everybody has his or her own idea, but I want to know what works for other people. Some will argue against any serious ethical principles at all, some will make ethics a central part of their company. For me, I know that I have to choose a market-based approach, so I am definitely curious to learn about the different theories and models that can help me not only know more, but contextualize that knowledge better.… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Kwek, G. (2010). Google Street View controversy takes a bizarre twist. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved April 16, 2012 from  http://www.smh.com.au/technology/technology-news/google-street-view-controversy-takes-a-bizarre-twist-20101125-18814.html 

Carmody, T. (2012). Google co-founder: China, Apple, Facebook threaten 'open web'. Wired/CNN. Retrieved April 16, 2012 from http://edition.cnn.com/2012/04/16/tech/web/google-sergey-brin/

Entrepreneur. (2008). Anita Roddick. Entrepreneur Magazine. Retrieved April 16, 2012 from http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/197688

Entrepreneur. (2008). Larry Page and Sergey Brin. Entrepreneur Magazine. Retrieved April 16, 2012 from http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/197848