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How Animal Therapy Assists Various Kinds of Patients
Animals and humans have had a long and multifaceted relationship over time. There are many of us who have visited petting zoos, regular zoos, and kept pets in our homes. People who have bonded with animals know first hand how strong the connection can be between a person and an animal. It is only been in the past several decades where formal research into the advantages of animal-human companionship has been conducted. As recently as the 1960s is when this research began, and in subsequent decades, the area of Animal Assisted Therapy has been established, and a number of studies have been conducted about the numerous physiological, emotional, psychological, cognitive, and behavioral benefits there are when humans and animals spend time with each other, in the long-term and in the short-term. Animal Assisted Therapy has been implemented in a variety of…
Cirulli, Francesca, Borgi, Marta, Berry, Alessandra, Francia, Nadia, & Alleva, Enrico. "Animal-assisted interventions as innovative tools for mental health." Ann 1st Super Sanita, Vol. 47, No. 4, 341 -- 348, 2011.
Colombo, Giovanni, Della Buono, Maririsa, Smaia, Katya, Raviola, Roberta, & De Leo, Diego. "Pet therapy and institutionalized elderly: A study on 144 cognitively unimpaired subjects." Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 42, 207 -- 216, 2006.
Holen, Rachel. "The Effects of Animal Interaction on Happiness." The University of Minnesota Undergraduate Journal of Psychology, 7, 5 -- 8, 2012.
69). Petting a dog lowered blood pressure and respiratory rate -- even if the dog was somebody else's. Pet owners that have heart surgery recover faster and stand a better chance of full recovery. Touching a warm furry animal gives them relief.
Moreover, pet ownership is a predictor of survival after hospitalization for any serious illness (Gunter & Furnham, 1999).
Demello (1999) found that the "mere presence of an animal" could lower blood pressure and that the effect persisted even after the animal was gone. Visual contact with an animal, although it helped, was not as good as touching. Heart rates decreased significantly in a three-minute period of physical contact with the animal (Demello, 1999).
A story in Time magazine (2001) tells how a brain-injured man needed help to get back his sense of balance. Ginger, an Australian shepherd, liked to fetch, so physical therapy for this man was to…
Brodie, S., Biley, F.C., and Shewring, M. (2002). An exploration of the potential risks associated with using pet therapy in healthcare settings. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 11 (4), 444-456.
Demello, L. (1999). The effect of the presence of a companion-animal on physiological changes following the termination of cognitive stressors. Psychology & Health, 14 (5), 859.
Gunter, B. And Furnham, a. (1999). Are pets good for our physical well-being? In Pets and People: The Psychology of Pet Ownership, Chapter 5, 6. London: Wherr Publishing, 66-81/
Hooker, S.D., Freeman, L.H., and Stewart, P. (2002). Pet therapy research: A historical review. Holistic Nursing Practice, 16 (5), 17-23.
Conversion therapy is a topic that has both critics and supporters and has been recently in the news ever since California came out with a law banning conversion therapy for teenagers and children (Buchanan, 2012). Critics say that the therapy is an example of pseudo-science that it forcibly tries to change the gay's person's sexual tendencies and that, since this is unnatural and impossible, only eventuates in guilt and depression. Supporters, on the other hand, maintain that, as like every other therapy, conversion therapy cannot be expected to help all. More so, there are some individuals who do wish to change their sexual tendencies and, therefore, they should be enabled to sign up for conversion therapy would they so wish. Finally, the government has no right to interfere unless conversion therapy has been shown to be destructive to all clients; and this is has not yet evidenced itself to be.…
American Psychological Association, February 2008 (PDF) Answers to Your Questions: For a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality http://www.apa.org/topics/sexuality/orientation.aspx?item=8
Buchanan, W (September 29, 2012). State bans gay-repair therapy for minors. San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/State-bans-gay-repair-therapy-for-minors-3906032.php
Gans, Laura A. (1999) Inverts, Perverts, and Converts: Sexual Orientation Conversion Therapy and Liability, The Boston University Public Interest Law Journal 8
Haldeman, Douglas C. (2002), Gay Rights, Patient Rights: The Implications of Sexual Orientation Conversion Therapy, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 33 (3): 260
Mignini, Pradeep Jayaram, and Khalid S. Khan
BMJ 2007 334: 97. Online available at http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/extract/334/7588/274
Perel, et al. (2007) states that only immediate preclinical testing of new drug therapies, but animal research aids medical science in many more ways Animal studies play a part in the initial development of candidate drugs, and the development and testing of medical devices and surgical procedures. Even more crucial, animal research informs clinical research by building the foundation of biological knowledge." (2007)
6. Study on Long-Term Effects of Chemicals on the Environment
Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. 22 Mar 2007. Online available at http://www.rcep.org.uk/chemicals/chemscop.htm
This work states that diverse organizations including the 'Chemical Industries Association', CEFIC, the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions as well as the Department of Health and Friends of the Earth "...raise the impact of chemicals assessment policy on animal testing. Most of the Department of the Environment,…
16. Study on Long-Term Effects of Chemicals on the Environment
Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. 22 Mar 2007. Online available at http://www.rcep.org.uk/chemicals/chemscop.htm
This work states that diverse organizations including the 'Chemical Industries Association', CEFIC, the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions as well as the Department of Health and Friends of the Earth "...raise the impact of chemicals assessment policy on animal testing. Most of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions' postbag on the European Commission Chemicals Strategy concerns the huge increase in animal testing likely to result. It would seem difficult for the Commission to make recommendations on chemical assessment without addressing the issues of the acceptability of alternatives to animal testing, and the implications of the recommendations for animal testing.
Society Feels About Animals
As a first order primate, humans have a natural affinity with animals of all types that has contributed to their mutual relationships throughout history. In fact, animals of different types have been since the time of the ancient Greeks to improve the emotional and functional status of humans (Mccauley, 2006, p. 358). Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has grown in popularity in recent years based on its proven efficacy in treating a wide range of healthcare and mental health conditions. Although dogs and cats are most commonly used in AAT settings, horses, rabbits and even fish can also be used. For instance, according to Macauley, "The use of animals ranges from companion animals that provide camaraderie and emotional support to assistance animals that provide direct physical-functional support to therapy animals that aid with the habilitation-rehabilitation in physical, occupational, speech-language, and recreation therapy" (2006, p. 358). Moreover, some researchers…
Becker, D. (2013, August 26). "Four-Legged Therapy for Military Veterans with PTSD."
Healthy Pets. [online] available: http://healthypets.mercola.com/sites/healthypets / archive/2013/0.
Bleich, A. (2004, October 1). "Mental Disability." The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related
Sciences, 41(4), 235-237.
Evidence has been cited suggesting that ECT is particularly efficacious with psychotic depression. Experimental research and reviews of the literature tend to conclude that ECT is either equal or superior to antidepressant medication in the treatment of severe depression. In one study both depressed men and women were helped by ECT, but women tended to improve more with ECT than with imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant. Men tended to improve more with imipramine. Both men and women improved more with ECT than with phenalzine, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). It has been suggested that MAOIs and serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSIs) may be less clinically effective than heterocyclic antidepressants for severe depression. Thus, ECT's favorable comparison with imipramine is a strong endorsement.
The side effect of ECT that has received the most attention is memory loss. ECT results in two kinds of memory loss. The first involves quick forgetting of…
Breggin, P.R. (n.d.). Electroshock: Scientific, ethical, and political issues. Retrieved from http://www.sntp.net/ect/breggin1.htm
Electroconvulsive therapy. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.minddisorders.com/Del-
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). (2011). Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/electroconvulsive-therapy/MY00129
Perceptions are generally based on the present, and therefore, the need to explore the past by delving into it in great detail becomes totally unnecessary. Glasser felt that even if the person exhibited bizarre and extremely strange types of behavior at a particular time, it was because of an innate reason of trying and attempting to find the best solution in order to meet the person's needs at that particular time in his life, and therefore, it was logical and sane to him, if not to others who would sometimes label him as strange or insane. (the Use of eality Therapy in Guidance in second Level Schools) delinquent would make choices based on the best way to meet his basic needs at that time, and therefore, must not be criticized. This, in essence formed the theory of eality Therapy of William Glasser, wherein the concept of 'Choice Theory' was emphasized…
Hazelden, Paul. "Reality Therapy" Retrieved at http://www.hazelden.org.uk/gr01/art_gr003_reality_therapy.htm . Accessed on 30 November, 2004
Historic Overview of Psychiatric Care" Retrieved at http://www.jcjc.cc.ms.us/faculty/adn/jmcmillan/psychcl1.html. Accessed on 30 November, 2004
Lennon, Brian. "From Reality Therapy to Reality Therapy in Action" Retrieved at http://www.socc.ie/~wgii/articlebl.htm. Accessed on 30 November, 2004
Lennon, Brian. "The Use of Reality Therapy in Guidance in second Level Schools" Retrieved at http://www.ncge.ie/handbook_docs/Section1/Reality_Therapy_Guide_Sch.doc . Accessed on 30 November, 2004
Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet thus correspond to the seven chakras located along the spinal column." (Fuller 242) Crystal therapy is therefore based on the control and manipulation of these energies so that there is the "correct" or appropriate and balanced amount of this energy in each of the chakras.
The most touted of New Age healing techniques has been the use of crystals. Enthusiasts claim that because rock crystal is almost entirely devoid of color, it is an almost perfect capacitor of divine white light. Explanations of exactly how crystals wield their healing powers vary from practitioner to practitioner. Some maintain that the unique properties of crystals make them excellent receptors of metaphysical energies.
rief history of crystal therapy
As has already been mentioned, the history of this form of therapy is to be found in many historical documents and in myths, stories and…
Albanese, Catherine L. "Chapter 6 the Magical Staff: Quantum Healing in the New Age." Perspectives on the New Age / . Ed. James R. Lewis and J. Gordon Melton. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1992. 68-84. Questia. 11 Mar. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102478457 .
Bachelor B. Alternative therapies. 11 Mar. 2007. http://www.barcelona- metropolitan.com/Article.aspx?TabID=2&MenuID=8&ArticleID=146
Blanchard a. Alternative medicine and herbal use among university students. Journal of American College Health. 2006. 11 Mar. 2007. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-155567732.html www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108566203
Bix, Amy Sue. "Engendering Alternatives." The Politics of Healing: Histories of Alternative Medicine in Twentieth-Century North America. Ed. Robert D. Johnston. New York: Routledge, 2004. 153-180. Questia. 11 Mar. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108566390 .
Personality is very complex. Individuals can differ considerably from one another, because of the wide variety of traits possible. In addition, a person can act a certain way in one situation and completely different in another, or have internal processes that manifest themselves through very different external actions and behaviors. Because of this diversity and complexity, psychologists have developed a number of theories to explain personality phenomena, as well as suggest yet unknown possibilities. This report, based on the book Perspectives on Personality by Charles Carver will discuss these theories and how they can be applied for behavioral change through therapy.
Two theories fall under the dispositional perspectives category, which emphasize that people display consistency or continuity in their actions, thoughts and feelings: The "trait and type" theory and the "needs and motives" theory. The first concludes that people can be divided into different types or categories. Nomothetic…
" Long-term use may develop psychoses, like schizophrenia and severe depression. The use of MDMA may produce psychological difficulties, like confusion, depression, sleep problems, drug craving, severe anxiety and paranoia, even weeks after the use of the drug. MSMA develops symptoms, such as muscle tension, nausea, blurred vision, rapid eye movements, faintness, chills, sweating, and increased heart rate and blood pressure. it, therefore, poses a special risk for those with heart disease. Overuse can lead to death (Kurtzweil).
West Africans used ibogaine as a stimulant and aphrodisiac in the early 1900s (Kurtzweil 1995). Native Americans used mescaline from peyote cactus in religious rituals. LSD was first synthesized in 1938. Throughout history, it was considered a source of many types of medications. Its psychedelic effects were first discovered in 1943. Two decades after World War II, LSD was used to determine its effects on patients with schizophrenia and other mental disorders.…
Kotler, Steven. Drugs in Rehab. Psychology Today: Sussex Publishers, Inc., April 2005
Klotter, Jule. End-of-Life and Psychedelic Research. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients: The Townsend Group, July 2005
Kurtzweil, Paula. Medical Possibilities for Psychedelic Drugs. FDA Consumer: U.S. Government Printing Office, September 1995
Luke, David P. And Marrios Kottenis. A Preliminary Survey of Paranormal Experiences with Psychoactive Drugs. Journal of Parapsychology: Parapsychology Press, 2005
Cognitive Stimulation Therapy for Early Stages of Dementia
With an aging population, issues related to cognitive abilities and impairment, including dementia, are increasing in relevance to public health officials. Being able to delay the negative results of dementia can contribute to increased quality of life for a number of aging individuals and their families. At present, many health care professionals view dementia as a condition that will deteriorate over time and do not view it as something that can be effectively stalled or reversed (Hodges & Graham, 1999). Many of the programs available for individuals dealing with cognitive deterioration or dementia are designed to provide for their safety and contentedness, but do not focus much on improving or maintaining cognitive abilities. Furthermore, the emphasis of many day programs is on providing a safe place for individuals so that their caregivers can have the much-needed respite in their care routines. Caregivers…
Banks, M.R., & Banks, W.A. (2002). The effects of animal-assisted therapy on loneliness in an elderly population in long-term care facilities. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, 57(7), M428-M432.
Barker, S. & Dawson, K.S. (1998). The effects of animal-assisted therapy on anxiety ratings of hospitalized psychiatric patients. Psychiatric Services, 49, 797-801.
Breuil, V., De Rotrou, J., Forette, F., et al. (1994). Cognitive stimulation of patients with dementia: preliminary results. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 9, 211-217.
Cochran, S.D., Mays, V.M., Bown, D., Gage, S., Bybee, D., Roberts, S.J, Goldstein, R.S., Robinson, A., Rankow, E.J., & White, J. (2001). Cancer-related risk indicators and preventative screening behaviours among lesbian and bisexual women. American Journal of Public Health, 91(4), 591-597.
The two hypothetical systems working on an individual's brain during the experience of addiction are complementary within and between system changes. The first counteradaptation results in a decrease in the transmission of dopamine and serotonin release during withdrawal phases of the cycle (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively, dopamine and serotonin transmission is artificially increased beyond the normative range during drug use, then virtually stopped once the drug has left the body. This intensifies not only the "come down" feeling but also the preoccupation anxieties associated with substance abuse as well as the existing emotional, environmental, or social vulnerability which lead to the initial lapse. Sensitization is the component of addiction which compels an individual to continually seek greater quantities of the substance (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively once the brain has been exposed to a chemical which alters neural transmission, the body attempts to return to a homeostatic state.…
1. Nesse, R. (1994). An evolutionary perspective on substance abuse. Ethology and Sociobiology, 15, 339- 348.
2. Robinson, T, & Berridge, K. (2001). Mechanisms of action of addictive stimuli incentive- sensitization and addiction. Addiction, 96, 103- 114.
3. Koob, G., & Le Moal, M. (1997). Drug abuse: Hedonic homeostatic dysregulation. Science, 278, 52- 58.
4. Brown, J.M., & Miller, W.R. (1993). Impact of motivational interviewing on participation and outcome in residential alcoholism treatment. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors,7, 211-218.
Professionals involved in therapy and counseling with members of the Creole culture of New Orleans and southern Louisiana should be aware of the history and traditions of this group that make it distinctive from all others in the United States, and indeed from the French-speaking Cajun communities in the same region. In Louisiana, Creoles are not simply the white descendants of the early French and Spanish colonists, although in the post-Civil War era of Jim Crow there was a major attempt to redefine them as 100% white. This was never the case in history since they are a mixed-race people descended from Europeans, Native Americans and African slaves during the 18th Century and occupied a special caste in pre-Civil War Louisiana. They spoke their own language known as Creole French, as do tens of thousands of their descendants today, and in appearance have often been able to 'pass' as…
Ancelet, B.J. (1994). Cajun and Creole Folk Tales: The French Oral Tradition of South Louisiana. Garland Publsihing, Inc.
Dass-Bailsford, P. (2010). "Ignore the Dead: We Want the Living" in Dass-Brailsford, P., ed. Crisis and Disaster Counseling: Lessons Learned from Hurricane Katrina and Other Disasters. SAGE Publications.
Dominguez, V.R. (1997). White by Definition: Social Classification in Creole Louisiana. Rutgers University Press.
Dormon, J.H. (1996). "Ethnicity and Identity: Creoles of Color in Twentieth-Century South Louisiana" in Dormon, J.H. Creoles of Color in the Gulf South. University of Tennessee Press, pp. 166-86.
Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) Systems
Complementary and alternative medicine systems are health care approaches that are characterized by a history of use or origins that are external to mainstream medicine or health care practices. These health care systems or approaches have lasted for centuries since different kinds of complementary and alternative medicines have been reported. According to the World Health Organization, different types of complementary and alternative medicines have acted as the basic health practice in developing countries and are increasingly used in countries with predominant conventional medicine (Kramlich, 2014, p.50). CAM therapies have become common in the recent past and are used for treating various conditions including chronic pain conditions. Actually, several CAM therapies and practice interventions such as acupuncture and massage therapy are increasingly used in chronic pain management.
Naturopathic medicine, which is also known as naturopathy or alternative medicine, is a term that is…
"History of Naturopathic Medicine." (n.d.). North Carolina Association of Naturopathic Physicians. Retrieved August 17, 2015, from http://ncanp.com/about-ncanp/history-of-naturopathic-medicine/
Kramlich, D. (2014, December). Introduction to Complementary, Alternative, and Traditional Therapies. Critical Care Nurse, 34(6), 50-56.
Pongparadee et. al. (2012, August). Current Considerations for the Management of Musculoskeletal Pain in Asian Countries: A Special Focus on Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors and Non-steroid Anti-inflammatory Drugs. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases,15(4), 341-347.
Schulenburg, J. (2015). Considerations for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Interventions for Pain. AORN Journal, 101(3), 319-326.
opportunity to work at a nursing home, offering my support during physical, occupational, and speech therapy sessions. These sessions offered insight into diverse types of therapy. I worked with a range of different health care workers and specialists, lending insight into how each member of the health care team coordinates their efforts and communicates with each other as well as with patients and family. One of the types of therapy sessions that I supported at the nursing home was therapy with animals. We brought in several animals to assist with therapy, including dogs, cats, and exotic creatures. Therapy Dogs International (n.d.) provided the animals and sometimes the trainer.
The seniors responded well to these therapy sessions, and I intend to support such programs in the future by perhaps providing fund raising for organizations that offer animal therapy. I am also interested more in music and art therapy after performing and…
Brown, J.G. (1999). Physical and occupational therapy in nursing homes. Retrieved online: http://oig.hhs.gov/oei/reports/oei-09-97-00122.pdf
Therapy Dogs International (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.tdi-dog.org/OurPrograms.aspx?Page=Nursing+Homes
When processed by a transglutaminase enzyme, it can interact with immunological cells and produce cytotoxic inflammation. In autism, it is believed that peptides from gluten and casein cross the intestinal microvillus barrier and enter the blood stream. They also cross the blood-brain barrier. In the brain, certain amino acid sequences of these peptides compete with natural peptides, which bind to opioid receptors. These receptors are G-protein receptors in cell membrane surfaces of neurons. inding to these receptors disturbs the neuronal function and ultimately leads to or contributes to autism (Department of Pediatrics Staff).
Limited Reliable Scientific Evidence
UK researchers investigated more than 30 scientific articles on the effectiveness of the gluten-free, casein-free diet on autistic children (astian, 2004). They found one, which provided reliable scientific evidence that the diet works. The particular study, however, was conducted on only 20 children aged 5-10 who had high levels of protein in their…
Atwood, K.C. (2003). Naturopathy: a critical appraisal. 5 (4) Medscape General
Medicine. Retrieved on June 23, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/465994
Bastian, H. (2010). Can a diet avoiding gluten and milk proteins reduce autism?
Medicine News Today: MediLexicon International Ltd. Retrieved on June 23,
Growth of a Child from Infancy to Adolescence
When a child is born, it is virtually helpless and unable to complete any form of operational tasks. Though a superior being above many creatures, the infant will be able to grow from infancy to adulthood in areas of physical, intellectual, language, emotional, and social development. Every stage of the child's life provides milestones in which will display their growth to full development. Tools may be used to assist them to reach their full potential. Among these tools, the most significant is the knowledge and nurturing of a parent and influential adults. Within this instructional guide, babysitting staff and parents will be able to better understand which milestones will happen at what ages, examples of what they may observe in the child to prove growth, and how to assist their child to thrive.
An adult will see a great amount…
American Medical Association. (2001). For parents -- teenage growth and development: 11-14
years. Retrieved February 16, 2011 from http://www.pamf.org/teen/parents/health/growth-11-14.html
Cleveland Clinic. (2006, December 5). Social development during the teen years. Retrieved February 16, 2011 from http://www.revolutionhealth.com/healthy-living/parenting/teens-preteens/school-friends/social-development
Colson, E.R. (2006, May). Intellectual development: Preschool and school-aged children: Merck manual home edition. Retrieved February 16, 2011 from http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/sec23/ch268/ch268c.html
Toulmin-Based Argument in Support of Pet Adoptions From Shelters
More people who want pets should adopt them from shelters because many unwanted animals are being destroyed each year in favor of purebred species obtained from other sources which provide their operators with a profit. The worth of the lives of these otherwise-doomed animals, though, far outweighs the individual pet-owning preferences of owners and no animal should be destroyed in favor of one that is bred for sale. Certainly, as discussed further below, this does not mean that individual pet-owners do not have a right to choose what type of animal they want for their families, but it does mean that more emphasis needs to be placed on pet adoptions from shelters to save as many animals from destruction as possible. In fact, some American communities have gone so far as to adopt a "no kill" policy in their pet shelters…
Boks, E. (2005, May). Carrot & stick. Vegetarian Times, 331, 54.
Cherry, R. (2007, April). Puppy love. Vegetarian Times, 349, 78-79.
Fine, A.H. (2006). Handbook on animal-assisted therapy: Theoretical foundations and guidelines for practice. Boston: Elsevier/Academic Press.
Guither, H.D. (1998). Animal rights: History and scope of a radical social movement.
Out of about 40 million slaves that were transported from African to the United States, only 15 million of them could survive, however they ended up in pure hell. It was expected of the African-Americans to meet the demands of two ideas, both of which met the needs of the rich white Americans. Thus, where slaves had a disguise to serve their masters and please them, they were just not being honest to themselves in the least bit, and they were living according to the wishes of their masters to escape the beating or to avoid being scrutinized any further. Having said that, just because they had no choice but to live up to the two ideals, it did not mean that there were not any rightfully revengeful and rebellious slaves that went against the books and refused to accept being a cookie cutter cut-out. It is assumed that the…
Bensimon, Moshe, Dorit Amir and Yuval Wolf. "Drumming through trauma: Music therapy with post-traumatic soldiers." The Arts in Psychotherapy, 35. 1 (2008): 34 -- 48. Print.
Cohn, Lawrence. Nothing but the blues. New York: Abbeville Press, 1993. Print.
Floyd, Samuel a. The power of Black music. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Print.
Gussow, Adam. Seems like murder here. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Print.
American Pit Bull Terrier
What is the American Pit Bull Terrier? What are its origins and what is its history? The American Pit Bull Terrier has most often been described as the dog that is closest to the human race, in its likeness to the human race. This endearing breed of dog has the most charming and pleasing of personalities, in that it is very individualistic and independent, as well as intelligent and friendly. It has an innate strength, is extremely tenacious, and is also full of beans, and when all these traits are combined with its basically soft and charming nature, this is a breed that is very close to the human race, and it closely resembles an ordinary human being. All the character traits that have been found in the American Pit Bull Terrier not only make it an easy breed to own and train, but also make…
American Pit bull Terrier, Breed and Health Information. Retrieved From
http://www.pupcity.com/dog-breeds/american-pit-bull-terrier.asp Accessed on 2 January, 2005
American Pit Bull Terrier: Bull Dog Breeds.com. Retrieved From
http://www.bulldogbreeds.com/americanpitbullterrier.html Accessed on 2 January, 2005
e., they became helpless). Furthermore, other behaviors of the dogs were adversely affected (e.g., the dogs appeared apathetic and had poor appetites) (Hitzemann, 2000). In his essay, "Animal Models of Psychiatric Disorders and Their elevance to Alcoholism," Hitzemann (2000) reports that, "Both fear and anxiety are alerting signals that warn the individual against impending danger and enable the individual to take defensive measures. For animals, the distinctions between fear and anxiety are vague" (p. 149). The distinctions between fear and anxiety are clearly irrelevant for humans who encounter such stressed animals, though.
According to Hodge and Stull (2000), dog bites cause an average of 17 human deaths, 6,000 hospitalizations, and 330,000 emergency room visits every year in the Untied States and a like number of people probably do not seek treatment or report the incident, but may nevertheless experience psychological trauma, anxiety, and missed work or school. Furthermore, dog bites…
Becker, M.G., Chew, G.L., Correa, J.C., Hoepner, L.A., Jusino, C.M., Kinney, P.L., Miller, R.L., & Perzanowski, M.S. (2003). Distribution and determinants of mouse allergen exposure in low-income New York City apartments. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(10), 1348.
Boone, J.S., & Tyler, J.W. (2001). Transferable residues from dog fur and plasma cholinesterase inhibition in dogs treated with a flea control dip containing chlorpyrifos. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(11), 1109.
Chang, Y., Cohen, J.H., Hennon, D.L., LaPorte, R.E., & McMahon, J.E. (1997). Dog bite incidence in the City of Pittsburgh: A capture-recapture approach. American Journal of Public Health, 87(10), 1703-5.
Duke, M.L., & Swain, J.L. (2001). Recommendations for research on ethics in public policy from a public administration perspective: Barking dogs and more. International Journal of Public Administration, 24(1), 125.
Pet Ownership and Health Benefits among Older Adults
There is a general believe that owning a pet provides health and mental benefits for older people, and health benefits include psychological well-being and improved physical health. It is also assumed that pet owners have higher extraversion and lower neuroticism compared to older people without pets. However, findings on this research are still inconclusive because some group of researchers believe that owning pets deliver health benefits to older people while some researchers believe that older people derive no benefits from owing pets. The research carries out an investigation to enhance a greater understanding on whether health benefits can derived from owing pets.
The study examines the relationships between pet ownerships and health benefits among 2,511 sample older adults using the PATH (Personality and Total Health). Information obtained from participants consisted of whether or not participants own one or more pets.…
American Pet Products Association.2009. National Pet Owners Survey. www.americanpetproducts.org/pubs_survey.asp
Cherniack, E.P. & Cherniack, A.R. 2014. The Benefit of Pets and Animal-Assisted Therapy to the Health of Older Individuals. Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research.
Groves, Robert M., Floyd J. Fowler Jr., Mick P. Couper, James M. Lepkowski, Eleanor Singer, and Roger Tourangeau. 2009. Survey Methodology. 2nd ed. Wiley Series in Survey Methodology. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/753874406
National Institute of Health. 1987. The health benefits of pets. Workshop summary. Office of Medical Applications of Research.
The chemical was found to turn on quorum sensing in V. fischeri, whereas it inhibited pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Also, the slow-release was shown to be far more effective than by applying the chemical directly as an aqueous solution. Since quorum sensing is also important for pathogen establishment this application could be important for inhibiting pathogenic bacteria from colonization of internal medical devices.
In summary, the V. fischeri and squid symbiotic relationship is an important model host-bacteria system. Aspects of colonization of host-symbiont and host-pathogen have been shown, using the V. fisheri and squid model, to be the same. Therefore, understanding the mechanism and complex transcriptional regulatory systems of V. fischeri could lead to potential new therapies and pharmaceutical applications. Likewise, understanding the environmental factors necessary for successful host-bacteria interactions could lead to novel drug targets. In addition to being important in understanding other harmful host-bacteria relationships the V. fischeri and…
Breitbach, a.S., Broderick, a.H., Jewell, C.M., Gunasekaran, S., Lin, Q., Lynn, D.M., & Blackwell, H.E. 2010. Surface-mediated release of a synthetic small-molecule modulator of bacterial quorum sensing: Gradual release enhances activity. Chem Comm.
Chun, C.K, Troll, J.V., Koroleva, I., Brown, B., Manzella, L., Snir, E., Almabraz, H, Scheetz, T.E., Bonaldo, M.F., Casavant, T.L., Soares, M.B., Ruby, E.G., & McFall-Ngai, M.J. 2008. Effects of colonization, luminescence, and autoinducer on host transcription during development of the squid-vibrio association. PNAS 105(32): 11323-11328.
Lyell, N.L., Dunn, a.K., Bose, J.L., Stabb, E.V. 2010. Bright mutants of Vibrio fischeri ES114 reveal conditions and regulators that control bioluminescence and expression of the lux Operon. J. Bacteriol. 192(19): 5103-5114.
Murray, P.R., Rosenthal, K.S., Kobayashi, G.S., Pfaller, M.A. 1998. Vibrio, Aeromonas, and Plesiomonas. In M. Brown (Ed.), Medical Microbiology Third Edition (pp. 245-250). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Firstly named after its petite size, beagle was proven a sharp and swift hound, which was popular during rabbit hunting trend in Britain in the 1700s. Farmers and hunters in Europe adored the beagle's performance, and started raising it in their farms and ranch (Parr & Reid, 1998). Middle age breeder started to concentrate on polishing its hunting skills and used them to protect their properties. A British named Thomas Johnson then noticed the overlooked charm of beagle's shape and colors in the later date. Later on, European accepted beagle more than its hunting function and send the facts overseas. Beagle began the journey in America in the late 1800s. For a domesticated hound, beagle has become adorable and reliable pet with the beautiful muscles and shape, its ability to be a hunting partner and to develop close relationship with the owner.
Beagle nowadays is a long way result…
American Kennel Club. Beagle Hound Group Breed Standard. 2003. American Kennel Club. May 6, 2003. Web site: http://www.akc.org/breeds/recbreeds/beagle.cfm
Dupris, Malcolm. A History of The Beagle. BarkBytes.com. May 6, 2003. Web site: http://www.barkbytes.com/history/beagle.htm
Hubrecht, Robert C. Enrichment In Puppyhood and Its Effect on Later Behavior of Dogs. Laboratory Animal Science 45 (1995): 70-75.
Lieber, Alex. The Most Popular Dog Breeds of 2002. (2002). Pet Place.com. May 6, 2003. Web site: http://petplace.netscape.com/articles/artShow.asp?artID=5103
How does depth perception occur in a person who gains sight after being congenital blind?
Depth perception is necessary for the ability to perform many tasks including driving, and many other activities. The ability to perceive the distance of objects is a complex process. hen people are born blind in one eye, regardless of the reason, they do not develop the ability to perceive depths. Their world is flat compared to that experienced by the rest of the world. hen that person undergoes surgery or other procedures to restore sight to the blind eye many of these patients are able to perceive depth. The ability to do this defies commonly held views on the connection between visual acuity, depth perception and motor development.
This research explores current research on depth perception and the development of depth perception. Studies in this area are limited to animal studies and those involving…
Bushnell, E. & Boudreau, P. "Motor development and the mind: the role of motor abilities as a determinant of aspects of perceptual development." Child Development. August 1993.
64.4: 1005-1021. Web. 21 October 2012.
Deregowski, J. "Difficulties in Pictorial Depth Perception." Africa British Journal of Psychology. August 1968. 59.3: 195-204. Web. 21 October 2012.
Fulcher. E. "Gibson's theory of direct perception." Crucial, a division of Learning Matters Ltd.
The specific categories include the following:
4) temperature; and 5) feelings.
FINDINGS of the STUDY
The following table labeled Figure 1 in this study states the responses given by participants in both groups in this study and as well provides totals and grand totals for both groups which for the purpose of this study are labeled as follows:
Group 1 - Memory Recall Group (Outside Light)
Group 2 - Memory Recall Group (Darkened or Muted Light)
Responses of Participants in Group 1 and Group 2
FIRST GROUP Color Smell Texture Temperature Feelings TOTALS GRAND TOTAL PARTICIPANT
SECOND GROUP Color Smell Texture Temperature Feelings TOTALS GRAND TOTAL PARTICIPANT
It is clear from the findings in this study which specifically show that Group 1 - Memory Recall Group (Outside Light) Participant responses were notably higher in their descriptive content more often describing more specific…
Takao, Ito, Hiroshi, Yamadera, Ritsuko, Ito, and Shunkichi, Endo (1999) Effects of Bright Light on Cognitive Disturbances in Alzheimer-type Dementia. Journal of Nippon Medical School. Vol. 66, No. 4.
Moore, R.: Visual Pathways and the Central Neural Control of Diurnal Rhythms. The Neurosciences 3rd Study Program, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT, 1974.
Shealy, Norman: Effects of the Lumatron upon Neurochemicals. Lecture given for Dr. Shealy by Dr. Klinghardt at the 6th Int. Rehab. Med. ass. Congress, Madrid, Spain, 1990
Wurtman, Richard u.a.: The Medical and Biological Effects of Light. in: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 453, 1985
Vitamin a for Autism Spectrum Disorder
The Theory of Using Vitamin a as Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders
There is widespread linkage of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Oxytoxin. There are reports that any decrease in the pathway of Oxytocin, is a possible causative factor to the development of autistic situation (Munese-et-al., 2008). Decrease in Oxytocin comes about because of mutations in its receptors, which lead to a reduction on the amount of Oxytocin released to the body posing possible chances for the development of autistic conditions (Lerer et-al., 2008). There is partial dependency of Oxytocin secretion to a protein found, in the cellular membranes of certain red blood cells. The scientific reference of these proteins is CD38, and whenever they mutate there develops a risk of Autism. Mice engineered without the oxytocin receptor gene have been shown to display socially anomalous behavior such as a deficiency of maternal behavior…
Andari-et-al. (2009). Promoting social behavior with oxytocin in high functioning autism spectrum disorders Department of Psychiatry 1-6
Ebstein R., Mankuta D. Yirmiya N., Maravasi F. (2011). Are retonoids potential therapeutic agents in disorders of social cognitions including Autism. EEBS letters: journal homepage. 1529-1536
Campbell et-al. (2010). Association of oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene variants with multiple phenotype domains of autism spectrum disorder J. Neurodevelop Disord 101-112
Higashida H., Kikuchi M., Yokoyama S., Munesue T. (2012). CD38 and its role in Oxytocin secretion and social behavior Hormones and behavior journal homepage 351-358
Adults, especially seniors need a place where they can learn new things and express themselves. Sometimes seniors go to a senior community arts program where they learn to paint and create things for themselves and for their loved ones. Art theory in the field of physical therapy is a very helpful and useful way of integrating varied learning and complex tasks all while promoting growth and renewal. For anything to flourish, especially a program like a senior community arts program, it needs to integrate lessons and objectives that promote the growth and learning of its participants.
Therefore, it is important to understand and analyze prior and current research that not only offers a different perspective, but also assures the teacher that what they are instructing has been proven to succeed and assists the people learning, to achieve certain pre-planned objectives. This paper is a literature review of six scholarly research…
Conlan, J., Grabowski, S., & Smith, K. (2003). Adult Learning - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology. Retrieved December 10, 2013, from http://epltt.coe.uga.edu/index.php?title=Adult_Learning
Dzubinski, L., Hentz, B., Davis, K.L., & Nicolaides, A. (2012). Envisioning an Adult Learning Graduate Program for the Early 21st Century A Developmental Action Inquiry Study.Adult Learning, 23(3), 103-110. doi:10.1177/1045159512452844
Edwards, C., Gaden, C., Marchant, R., Coventry, T., Dutton, P., & Scott, J.M. (2011). Delivering extension and adult learning outcomes from the Cicerone Project by comparing, measuring, learning and adopting'. Animal Production Science, 53(8), 827-840. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/AN11322
Longenecker, C., & Abernathy, R. (2013). The eight imperatives of effective adult learning: Designing, implementing and assessing experiences in the modern workplace. Human Resource Management International Digest, 21(7), 30-33. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=17100953&show=abstract
The article summarizes the herbal medicine also known as botanical medicine to refer to the usage of plant seeds, roots, leaves and berries for the medicinal purposes. The article also indicates that use of herbal is today becoming more mainstream as improvements in the quality control with the advances in a clinical research shows the significance of the herbal medicine in treating and prevention of diseases (Herbal medicine, 2011).
How Herbs work and used
The herb contains ingredients that work together in producing a beneficial effect. For instance, the type of the environments in which the herbs plants grow may affect the herb. The use of the herbs has drastically increased over the past 40 years. Presently, the medicines are categorized as the dietary supplements by the people of United States of America (USA). This therefore means that, herbal supplements can be sold before being tested to prove that they…
Herbal medicine. (2011). University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved March 26, 2013, from http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/herbal-medicine-000351.htm
Lyon, J. (2011). Veterinary Botanical Medicine Association: Home. Retrieved March 26, 2013, from http://www.vbma.org/
Sifferlin, A. (2013). Herbal Medicines Pose Health Risk to Millions in Asia. TIME Health & Family Retrieved march 26, 2013 from http://healthland.time.com/2013/03/20/herbal-medicines-pose-health-risk-to-millions-in-asia/
Symons, J. (2013). How safe is your herbal medicine? Express. Retrieved March 26, 2013 from http://www.express.co.uk/life-style/health/385349/How-safe-is-your-herbal-medicine
Alzheimer Healthy Community
PLANNED, PERSONALIZED CARE
Alzheimer's Healthy Community
Dog-Assisted Therapy for Older People with Dementia
A review of nine studies on the subject produced loose conclusions on the value of this type of therapy (Perkins et al., 2008). They, however, established a trend, indicating increased social behavior and decreased agitation when dogs were in the company of the respondents. This improvement in social behavior was unrelated with the severity of the respondents' dementia. Six of the 9 studies were conducted in the U.S.A., 2 in Japan and 1 in Australia on 28 respondents, all with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or dementia (Perkins et al.).
The behavioral and psychological symptoms of this ailment not only cause the afflicted individuals much pain but also put them at risk of physical harm (Perkins et al., 2008). Animal-assisted therapy, on the other hand, has shown positive effects over pro-social behavior and the…
Cevizci, S. et al. (2013). Animal-assisted therapy and activities in Alzheimer's Disease.
Chapter 12. "Understanding Alzheimer's Disease," InTech:Canakkale Onsekiz Mart
Hung, J, (2012). A study on the establishment and evaluation of adult day care service centers. Vol. 6 # 5, Global Journal of Business Research: Chao-yang University of Technology.
Iecovich, E. And Biderman, A. (2013). Attendance in adult day care centers of cognitively intact older persons: reasons for use and nonuse. Journal of Applied Gerontology:
The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…
Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.
McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)
Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)
Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.
Cryptosporidium Case Study
Cryptosporidium is reported as a "coccidian protozoan parasite" and one that has received a great deal of attention over the past two decades as a "clinically important human pathogen." (Hannahs, nd, p.1) The discovery of Cryptosporidium is reported as associated with E.E. Tyzzer who described a "cell-associated organism in the gastric mucosa of mice" in 1907 as reported in the work of Keusch et al. (1995). (Hannahs, nd, p.1) Cryptosporidium was believed for several decades to be a "rare, opportunistic animal pathogen." (Hannahs, nd, p.1)
The first case of human cryptosporidiosis occurred in a three-year-old girl in rural Tennessee in 1976 suffering from severe gastroenteritis for two weeks and reported in the work of Flanigan and Soave (1993). Cryptosporidium parvum was discovered through use of an electronic microscopic examination of the intestinal mucosa. Cryptosporidium parvus was associated with AIDS cases in the 1980s and this resulted in…
Cabada, MM (2011) Cryptosporidiosis Medication. MedScape. Retrieved from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/215490-medication#2
Cabada, MM (2011) Crytosporidiosis Treatment and Management. MedScape. Retrieved from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/215490-treatment#aw2aab6b6b6
Casemore, D.P., Garder, C.A., and O'Mahony, C. "Cryptosporidial infection, with special reference to nosocomial transmission of Cryptosporidium parvum: a review." Folia Parasitol, 1994; 41 (1): 17-21.
Cryptosporidiosis in Immunocompromised Persons (2012) Illinois Department of Health. Healthbeat. Retrieved from: http://www.idph.state.il.us/public/hb/hbcrypto.htm
Ga DOA OC Radio Pharmaceutical
Neuroendocrine tumors (NE) are neoplasms characterized by tissue immunoreactivity for neuroendocrine differentiation markers, appearance as a small mass that can be off white to yellow often in submucosa and prevalence throughout the body but typically found in the intestine or lungs (Oberg2011). he tumors can be malignant and are typically detected through hormone markers in a first diagnosis (Arnold 2003). Because of the diffuse nature of this type of tumor, detecting and imaging NEs requires scanning and typically requires a contrast agent to detect the location of tumors in tissue (an 2011). Many NE cells possess an overexpression of somatostatin receptors on their surface (Kwekkeboom 2005, VenEssen 2007). Somatostatin receptors are cell surface proteins that bind to somatostatin, a growth hormone inhibiting hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation (Florio 2002). he overexpressed somatostatin receptors can be used to both…
Tan, E.H.; Tan, C. (2011). Imaging of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, World Journal of Clinical Oncology 2 (1) 28.
VanEssen, M. Krenning, EP., DeJong, M., Valkema, R., Kwekkeboom, D.J. (2007) Peptide receptor radionucleotide therapy with radiolabelled somatostatin analogues in patients with somatostatin receptor positive tumors, Acta Oncology 46, 723-734
Veliklyan, I. Xu, H. Nair, M. Hall, H. Robust labeling and comparative preclinical characterization of DOTA-TOC and DOTA TATE. Nuclear Medicine Biology 18, 123-128.
Anti-Cancer Drug Anaerobin
a) EFFECTS ON KIDNEYS, HEART AND BRAIN
Cytotoxic metabolites are created when bio-reductive drugs go through a metabolic process because they contribute to curing cancer by lowering oxygen to areas where the cancer affects the body. The local auto regulation process of the body provides the oxygen to all parts of the body where it is needed. The arterioles supplying that tissue for oxygen dilate to supply more oxygen than usual. This happens also in the case of the tumor when it demands more oxygen; it is supplied by the body and anaerobin affects the auto regulation process in all areas as it reduces the blood flow to all organs, except the lungs. It can reduce the oxygen and supply of nutrients to the tumor by up to 99%. Therefore this bio-reductive drug can help in treatment of cancer in modern therapy.
Anti-cancer drugs reduce the cell…
Linda Bren, 2005. Cancer Drugs: weighing the Risks and Benefits. FDA Consumer, 41(1), pp.10+.
Nootropic. Available at: Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nootropic#Vitamins_and_supplements (Accessed at 2 December 2011)
Paual Ravasco, Isabel Monterio-Grillo, Pedro Marques Vidal & Maria Ermelinda Camilio, 2005. Dietary Counseling Improves Patient Outcomes: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial in Colorectal Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23(7), pp. 1431-1438.
, 2011). Since hoarders are less likely to be married, it is possible that help for a hoarder who has fallen or otherwise become injured may be severely delayed. Sometimes, it can be too late. Fire is another danger faced by a hoarder. Such a large number of items can make a house more flammable, and also make it highly difficult to escape if a fire does get started (Saxena, et al., 2011). That is something that should be taken into consideration.
Impairment and Insight
The levels of impairment and insight vary with hoarders. Some of them see that they have a serious problem for which they need to get help, and some of them do not see what is wrong with the way they are living (Steketee, et al., 2010). They are generally very reluctant to part with any of their things, and they can become resentful of family…
Anderson, S.W. Domasio, H., & Domasio, A.R. (2005). A neural basis for collecting behaviour in humans. Brain, 128, 201-212
Frost, R. & Gross, R. (1993). The hoarding of possessions. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31, 367-382
Saxena, S., Ayers, C.R., Maidment, K.M., Vapnik, T., Wetherell, J.:. Brstritsky, A. (2011). Quality of life and functional impairment in compulsive hoarding. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45, 475-480
Steketee, G., Frost, R.O., Tolin, D.F., Rasmussen, J. & Brown, T.A. (2010). Waitlist-controoled trial of cognitive behavior therapy for hoarding disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 275, 476-484
ursing Annotated Bibliography
This article categorizes diabetes as an epidemic that can responds well with the adjunctive treatment of HBOT. The authors use two clinical case studies in their literature review of how oxygen plays a part in the healing of lower extremity diabetic ulcers. They argue for the necessity of further study and research into HBOT because of its efficacy and the potential to drastically lower medical costs for diabetic patients, whose numbers continue to increase steadily. There is a very clear focus on the costs of diabetic treatments on a global scale in relation to the number of diabetic patients worldwide, as part of the authors' strategy to advocate the widespread use of HBOT. Charts and color photographs contextualized the text and make the research more concrete in the mind of the reader, especially the photographs of diabetic amputees who have not had…
Neal, M.S. (2001). Benefits of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for diabetic foot lesions. Journal of Wound Care, 10(1), 507 -- 509.
This article provides a quantitative explanation for the presence of lower extremity ulcers and wounds in diabetic patients. The article additional explains how HBOT elevate the presence of circulating stem cells in diabetic patients. Their research aims to prove how HBOT stimulates the vasculogenic stem cell mobilization in the bone marrow of diabetics, which then are used to heal skin wounds. The authors explain their experience with these types of patients and HBOT treatments because at the hospital where they all work, HBOT is standard operating procedure for the qualifying patients in they study. This is another example of a highly statistical article with the presence of charts and graphs, even digital images of blood samples from the participants both in color and in black and white. Images have the potential to bring the reader closer to the content of the text. Their research shows that HBOT increases important agents in diabetics' bone marrow that lead to increased circulation and healing properties.
Thom, MD, PhD, S.R., Milovanova, MD, PhD, T.N., Yang, MD, M., Bhopale, PhD, V.M., Sorokina, E.M., Uzun, MD, G., Malay, D.S., Troiano, M.A., Hardy, MD, K.R., Lambert, MD, D.S., Logue, MD, C.J., & Margolis, MD, PhD, D.J. (2011). Vasculonic stem cell mobilization and wound recruitment in diabetic patients: Increased cell number and intracellular regulatory protein content associated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Wound Rep Reg, 19(2011), 149 -- 161.
Norton, B. et al. (2011) "Somatic Expressions of rauma in Experiential Play herapy" in International Journal of Play herapy, Vol. 20, No. 3, 138 -- 152.
Researchers have found connections between animal and human responses to trauma that are important in understanding somatic (non-verbal) cues and conditioning. Some research has been done that shows parallels between animal behaviors and child behaviors in cases of abuse and neglect, although the literature remains scant. Children act out trauma in play therapy, resulting in a building of "trauma energy," expressed through movement in the discharge, or surge, phase. Following is the "soothe phase," in which the child becomes calm as part of trauma processing. As the authors point out, some severely traumatized children must undergo the process several times during treatment.
hompson, E.H. et al. (2012) "School-Based Group Interventions for Children Exposed to Domestic Violence" in Journal of Family Violence, Vol. 27,…
The researchers videotaped twenty-three children, aged four to eight years, in individual 40 minute play sessions. Each of the children had been exposed to violent attacks. The children's play patterns were characterized in one of three ways: re-enactment with soothing, re-enactment without soothing, and overwhelming re-enactment. Further analysis of play was used to identify the contributions of play activity to healing and the factors that contribute to resilience in a child. The authors concluded that PTP is both complex and multilayered. A common factor in all three categories of PTP was the child's response to comfort. The authors call for further research into the human relationship factors that help provide the emotional balance children need as they move toward recovery.
Green, E.J. et al. (2010) "Counseling Children with Preverbal Trauma" in International Journal of Play Therapy, Vol. 19, No. 2, 95 -- 105.
According to researchers, unresolved early childhood trauma can have long-term psychological consequences manifest in problems with a child's social, emotional and academic development. Successful resolution of early trauma can help a child deal with anxieties associated with annihilation, abandonment and disintegration. For pre-verbal children, such successful resolution can be particularly problematic when their primary caretakers are the perpetrators of the trauma and do not acknowledge or recognize the link between trauma and later behavior problems. Literature on therapeutic intervention with preverbal trauma is scant. The authors briefly discuss the effects of early trauma on brain development. The positive effects of play therapy are explored. Children cannot usually use words to describe a preverbal experience, but memories can be re-enacted. Exploration of memories of positive attachment experiences in the preverbal period, when used in play therapy, can play an important part in repairmen.
Therefore, it is necessary to account for the acquisition of habits.
Due to certain limitations of the behaviorism approach, there have been revisions to the theory over the century. For example, although behaviorism helped people to forecast, alter, and change behavior over time, it did not attempt nor intend to understand how or why the theory worked. The present-day social cognitive approach asserts that behavior is results from an ongoing reciprocal three-way relationship among the individual (cognition), the environment (physical context, which consists of the organizational structure and design, social context or other people), and the person's past behavior. This broader view, called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) incorporates the cognitive in addition to the behavioral approaches to therapy and view people "as active seekers and interpreters of information, not just responders to environmental influences" (Nevid, 2007, p. 484). Many psychologists now believe that behavior is understood best by studying the…
Fall, K.A., Holden, J.M. & Marquis, A. (2004) Theoretical models of counseling and psychotherapy New York: Taylor and Francis.
Freud, Sigmund. (1926). Inhibitions, symptoms, and anxiety, SE, 20(14): 111-205.
Kohlenberg, R.J., Bolling, M.Y., Kanter, J.W. & Parker, C.R. (2002) Clinical behavior analysis: where it went wrong, how it was made good again, and why its future is so bright. Behavior Analyst Today. 3(3): 248-253
Martz, E (2002) Principles of Eastern philosophies viewed from the framework of Yalom's four existential concerns. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling. 24(1): 31-42
Sigmund Freud (1856-1949)
Sigmund Freud is the undisputed father of psychoanalysis. Should this statement seem to contradict assertions regarding the age-old status of psychology, it must be clarified that Freud was the first theorist to formalize the process of analysis, a practice that is not used in all modalities of psychology today. Analysis, specifically the psychoanalysis so often parodied in the cartoon of the tormented patient lying on the couch before the bearded quasi-Freudian father figure of the therapist, presupposes in its theoretical structure the existence of an subconscious element to the human mind, in other words, that how humans think they immediately perceive the world is not all that there is to human consciousness.
Freud used techniques such as free association to elicit reasons for his patient's behaviors. Freud began his treatment upon hysterics. He grew to believe that unresolved childhood traumas rather than physiological causes were at…
Pavlov, Ivan. (2003) Lectures and translations. http://www.ivanpavlov.com last modified: April 14, 2003. Retrieved on September 19, 2004 at http://www.ivanpavlov.com/
Ross, Kelly R. (2002) Karl Jung. Retrieved on September 19, 2004 at http://www.friesian.com/jung.htm
Thorton, Steven P. (2001) "Sigmund Freud." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved on September 19, 2004 at http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/f/freud.htm#Backdropto his Thought
Gonadectomy alters the magnitude of CCS and ICS analgesia and alters the relationship between the gender-specific effects observed in sham-treated rats. Castration significantly decreased the magnitude of CCS analgesia on the tail-flick and jump tests, and the magnitude of ICS analgesia on the jump test. Indeed castration reduced the magnitude of CCS and ICS analgesia in males to that observed for sham-treated female rats.
Given the multitude of CNS substrates and systems underlying both opioid and stress analgesia, and the likelihood that only a little differ amid sexes, we could rationally expect to come across sex differences in opioid analgesic efficacy in some occasions, depending solely on the nature of the ache incentive and opioid involved, as outlined earlier. It is important to also note that sex differences are no defined to opioid drugs in analgesia. Furthermore, commencement of endogenous pain inhibitory mechanisms in reaction to stress also produces…
Islam, Anita K., Madeline L. Cooper, and Richard J. Bodnar. "Interactions among Aging, Gender, and Gonadectomy Effects Upon Morphine Antinociception in Rats." Physiology and Behavior 54 (1993): 45-53. Print.
Romero, Maria-Teresa, et al. "Gender-Specific and Gonadectomy-Specific Effects Upon Swim Analgesia: Role of Steroid Replacement Therapy." Physiology and Behavior 44 (1988): 257-65. Print.
Romero, Maria-Teresa, et al. "Modulation of Gender-Specific Effects Upon Swim Analgesia in Gonadectomized Rats." Physiology and Behavior 40 (1987): 39-45. Print.
Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.
It is the intention of this…
Ansoff, H.I. (1957). Strategies for diversification. Harvard Business Review, 35(5), 113-124.
Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Ashour, M.F., Obeidat, O., Barakat, H., & Tamimi, A. (2004). UAE Begins Examination of Patent Applications. Tamino.com. Retrieved January 18, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.tamimi.com/lawupdate/2001-01/intprop.htm
Bain, J.S. (1954). Economies of scale, concentration, and the condition of entry in twenty manufacturing industries. American Economic Review, 44, 15-36.
There are certain interactions that may cause toxicity
The drug may be administered orally without regard to meals.
The seriousness of an overdose of Lamictal depends on the ingested amount. There are however several non-life threatening symptoms of overdosing Lamictal with symptoms raging from ataxia, dizziness, somnolence and headache. However, in certain cases of overdose, the patient would experience renal and liver failure, delirium, rash as well as coma. The lethal dosage is lower for children. All suspected cases of Lamictal overdose should be treated as a medical emergency and the patient should be taken for immediate medical attention.
Lamictal has been very effective in the treatment and management of epilepsy and depression. A review of literature however suggests that it has certain risks in its administration. It is therefore necessary to be careful when taking or prescribing this medication. There are reports that the drug Seroquel…
GlaxoSmithKline (2004). LAMICTAL®(lamotrigine) Tablets
Goa KL, Ross SR, Chrisp P. Lamotrigine.(1993)A review of its pharmacological properties and clinical efficacy in epilepsy. Drugs 1993;46:152-76
Keck, P., and McElroy, S (2003) New Approaches in Managing Bipolar Depression. J Clin Psychiatry 2003;64 (suppl 1).
In addition, a number of anti-depressants may be prescribed, such as Norpramin, Elavil and Wellbutrin.
The side effects of these medications also vary, but for the most part, they cause a slower heart rate, possible seizures, dry mouth, and constipation. Yet overall, the side effects are usually minor and when the child responds favorably to the medication, it obviously outweighs the side effects. The effectiveness of these medications produce positive results in regard to sustained attention and persistence of effort. They also reduce restlessness and overall improve behavior.
In conclusion, ADHD can be a very debilitating disorder for any child, especially in regard to activities performed at home and in school. However, the future looks bright, for breakthroughs in the treatment of ADHD are on the horizon, and over the next decade, genetic testing may be available for the disorder and could lead to safer and more effective medications for…
American Academy of Pediatrics. ADHD: A Complete and Authoritative Guide. New York: Independent Publishing Group, 2003.
Baughman, Fred a. "Hyperactivity Disorder Tied to Brain Irregularities." Internet.
ADHDFraud.com. December 11, 2004. Accessed April 19, 2005. http://www.adhdfraud.com/frameit.asp?src=commentary.htm.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder." Internet.
A fully functional tooth developed for the mouse as a result of the experiment. The authors proposed the use of such technology as a model for future organ replacement therapies. "The bioengineered tooth, which was erupted and occluded, had the correct tooth structure, hardness of mineralized tissues for mastication, and response to noxious stimulations such as mechanical stress and pain in cooperation with other oral and maxillofacial tissues" (Ikedaa 2009, p. 113475).
The ability to regenerate fully functional adult teeth could yield considerable improvement in the ease and lifestyle quality for individuals who would previously have to have dental implants.
The clinical implications for the success of the study extend far beyond that of the field of dentistry. Stem cell therapy has the potential to restore the partial loss of organ function of neural cells in patients with Parkinson's disease and to generate new organs for…
Ikedaa, Etsuko. (2009, et al.). Fully functional bioengineered tooth replacement as an organ replacement therapy. PNAS. 106 (32): 113475-113480. Retrieved November 4, 2010 at http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2009/07/31/0902944106.full.pdf+html
Even though users of light therapy are often advised not to look directly at the light source, the mechanisms of the eye focus incoming light onto the macula, the small region of the retina where vision takes place, and where age-related macular degeneration occurs. Since blue light wavelength make up only a small percentage of the light in white light, any form of light therapy using a high proportion of blue light therefore risks subverting a variety of defensive mechanisms that protect the retina against blue light hazard. These defensive mechanisms include the anatomical positioning and structure of eye and its surrounding features, as well as human posture, which makes it awkward for humans to gaze upwards for long periods of time. Sunnex iotechnologies, 2008)
The work of David H. Sliney entitled: "Ocular Hazards of Light" presented at the International Lighting in Controlled Environments Workshop states the following risks and…
Figueiro, M.G., J.D. Bullough, R.H. Parsons, and M.S. Rea. Preliminary Evidence for Spectral Opponency in the Suppression of Melatonin by Light in Humans. Neuroreport, Vol. 15, 2004, pp. 313-316 in: Figueiro, Mariana, Bullough, John D. And Rea, Mark S. (2007) Light isn't just for vision anymore: implications for transportation safety. United States Department of Transportation Lighting Research Center Region 2 University Transportation Research Center Polytechnic Institute 31 Dec 2 -- "7
Figueiro, M., et al. Demonstration of additivity failure in human circadian phototransduction. Neuro Endocrinology Letters, Vol. 26, 2005, pp. 493-498.
Ingling, C.R., E. Martinez, and a.L. Lewis. Tonic-Phasic-Channel Dichotomy and Crozier's Law. Journal of the Optical Society of America, Vol. 73, 1983, pp. 183-189 in Figueiro, Mariana, Bullough, John D. And Rea, Mark S. (2007) Light isn't just for vision anymore: implications for transportation safety. United States Department of Transportation Lighting Research Center Region 2 University Transportation Research Center Polytechnic Institute 31 Dec 2 -- "7 Report
Lack, Leon, Bramwell, Toby, Wright, Helen, and Kemp, Krystyn (2007) Morning blue light can advance the melatonin rhythm in mild delayed sleep phase syndrome
When will you begin that long journey into yourself? One of the most famous philosophers in history of mankind, Rumi emphasized on exploring or discovering one self. Self-exploration is one of the fundamentals of philosophy. efore contemplating over the wonders of universe, man asked himself the very basic questions about his own existence. Without knowing one's origin and the reason of being born, man cannot shape his beliefs and thus remain directionless. As Aristotle said that the foundation of all wisdom is based on self.
The ideas, beliefs, values and norms of a person originate from his immediate surroundings. Among them, the first encounter is with parents. Parents transmit their own beliefs and values into the child's mind. Later on, siblings, family members and close friends influence a person's self-concept. Gradually, a man's social circle expands and as he becomes able to identify and choose among things,…
Dyer, W.W. (1995). Your Sacred Self: Makin the Decision to be Free. HarperCollins Publishers.
Eccles, J.S. & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational Beliefs, Values and Goals. Annual Review of Psychology. Vol 53, 109-132. The H.W Wilson Company.
Maslow, A.H. (1987). Motivation and Personality. HaperCollins Publishers.
Pasnau, R. (2011). Philosophy of Mind and Human Nature. Epistemology of Life and Human Nature. 348-368.
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease of animals and humans. The most common causative agent of the disease is a bacterium a mycobacteria known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This bacterium was first discovered by obert Koch in 1882. The physiology of this bacterium is aerobic and hence requires very high oxygen levels. This is primarily a pathogen of the mammalian respiratory system which infects the lungs. The most common methods used to diagnose tuberculosis are acid-fast stain, tuberculin skin test and chest radiations. M. tuberculosis requires oxygen in order for it to grow. Due to the presence of mycolic acid, M.tuberculosis has an waxy coating on its surface which is unusual making the cells impervious to Gram staining It can not retain any bacteriological stain as a result of a high lipid content on its wall therefore acid-fast staining or ziehl-Neelsen staining are used. Despite this M.tuberculosis is still…
Mandal, A. (2014). History of Tuberculosis. Retrieved October 17, 2014 from http://www.news -medical.net/health/History-of-Tuberculosis.aspx' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Life can be shattering. Deception, lies, and tremendous heartache can derail the most prodigious, honest, and sincere individual. Devastation can acquiescent a beautiful and wonderful spirit into a horrendous downward spiral to where there appears to be no hope. When our 'bubble' of a world is popped, we often become disoriented, unable to ascertain the fact from fiction, and can then start having negative and harmful thoughts.
Given the circumstances to which I have had to overcome, a tremendous amount of resolve was required, which enabled me to persevere through my darkest moments. Betrayal and heartache can ruin one's perception of what life is about. Indeed, there are many who never enjoy the love or reach a pinnacle of happiness that I've enjoyed. To these individuals, I feel my empathy given my triumphs and set backs will undoubtedly enable a clear perspective, rich with insight to…
sit-down with an experience psychologist recently and a very enlightening and expansive conversation ensued. The psychologist in question did request that her name and her practice be excluded from being named within this report, but there is a bevy of great information that was gleaned during the interview and will be shared in this report. She said she wanted to be very candid and felt she should not do so if her name (or the name of her practice) are in play. At the request of the professor, topics to be mentioned in this summary include how long the psychologist has been working in the field, what orientation the psychologist was trained for and the time splits that the psychologist allocates her time to, the assessment tools she uses and the associated training engaged in to be able to use those tools, the ethical dilemmas that the psychologist has encountered…
Chimpanzees and gorillas can be taught human sign language, and sign with one another even without humans present. (MMMC, 2002) They argue that to use intelligence and compassion as a sliding scale of the right to life would cause many humans to be justified out of existence.
However, even if one accepts that too many animals are experimented upon, and researchers should use other means, it is similarly hard to justify the elimination of all animal experimentation, altogether, as this would have meant the end of such recent drug developments in AIDS research, as well as more questionable animal tests, as for instance, the use of rabbits in cosmetic testing, for which there are acceptable substitutes that do not require animals.
Bayliss, Francoise. (2004) "Our Cells/Ourselves: The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Stem Cell Network. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/research/projects/project04.php
BBC News. (Feb 12, 2004)"Q &…
Bayliss, Francoise. (2004) "Our Cells/Ourselves: The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Stem Cell Network. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/research/projects/project04.php
BBC News. (Feb 12, 2004)"Q & A: Cloned Embryos." BBC Official Website. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3481159.stm
Bird, Gloria W. And Sporkowuski, Michael J. (1992) Taking Sides. The Dushkin Publishing Group, Inc. Guilford, CT.
CNN.com. (Feb 12, 2004)" Scientists 'cloned human embryos' CNN News Website. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.cnn.com/2004/HEALTH/02/12/science.clone/
Some of the major objectives of the strategy include lessening regional alveolar distension, atelectasis, oxygen mediated injury, diaphragm injury, and inflammation. The other approaches that can be used to lessen the injury include using high frequency oscillatory ventilation, positioning, neuromascular blocking agents, fluid therapy, and immunomodulation.
Ventilator Induced Lung Injury is one of the common illnesses that occur among patients with acute lung injury. This disease is mainly attributed to the use of mechanical ventilator to save these patients though there are other risk factors that contribute to the injury.
Dreyfuss, D. & Saumon, G. (1998, January 1). Ventilator-induced Lung Injury -- Lessons from Experimental Studies. American Journal of espiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 157(1), 294-323. etrieved from http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/content/157/1/294.long
Feng et. al. (2011, July 19). Pediatric Acute espiratory Distress Syndrome Treatment and Management. etrieved September 26, 2012, from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/803573-treatment
Galvin, S. & Granton, J. (2011, March 3). educing…
Dreyfuss, D. & Saumon, G. (1998, January 1). Ventilator-induced Lung Injury -- Lessons from Experimental Studies. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 157(1), 294-323. Retrieved from http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/content/157/1/294.long
Feng et. al. (2011, July 19). Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Treatment and Management. Retrieved September 26, 2012, from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/803573-treatment
Galvin, S. & Granton, J. (2011, March 3). Reducing Ventilator Lung Injury. Retrieved September
26, 2012, from http://respiratory-care-sleep-medicine.advanceweb.com/Features/Articles/Reducing-Ventilator-Induced-Lung-Injury.aspx
The Effect of Trauma on the Brain
In John Rigg’s talk on the effect of trauma on the brain and how it impacts our behaviors, I learned that when we talk about the human brain we are actually talking about two brains—the intelligent brain and the animal brain. The intelligent brain is what allows us to reason, think and essentially “rule the world” as Rigg (2017) puts it. The animal part of the brain, which is smaller, but is still very much a part of the brain, is what reacts to the environment and controls the body’s response. So, in the example Rigg uses, if he were to challenge us to run across the street but to keep our hearts from beating, we would not be able to do it—and the reason is that our animal brain is in control of that function for us. It is not something that…
After 13 months, the rats begin to show signs of dementia including reduced cognitive ability and memory impairment (McGill University, 2010).
Amyloid B. immunotherapy
Past research on the effects of active or passive a? immunization on a? buildup and AD progression provided evidence that such immunization "protects against the progressive loss of synaptophysin in the hippocampal molecular layer and frontal neocortex of a transgenic mouse model of AD" (Buttini & al, 2005). This provided further support for the amyloid hypothesis.
Since the discovery of a? immunotherapy effectiveness in the treatment of AD in mice, the AN1792 a? vaccine was developed and tested on humans (Lemere & Masliah, 2010). Unfortunately, clinical trials were discontinued when around 6% of the subjects developed meningoencephalitis (Lemere & Masliah, 2010). However, since some subjects showed improvements in a? plaque clearance, several new a? immunotherapies have been developed and are currently undergoing…
Basi, G., & al, e. (2010). Amyloid precursor protein selective gamma-secretase inhibitors for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's Research & Therapy, 2 (36).
Buttini, M., & al, e. (2005). Amyloid Immunotherapy Prevents Synaptic Degeneration in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease. The Journal of Neuroscience, 25 (40), 9096-9101.
Ganguly, R., & al, e. (2005). Effect of Moringa Oleifera in Experimental Model of Alzheimer's Disease: Role of Antioxidants. Annals of Neurosciences, 12, 33-37.
Herrup, K. (2010). Reimagining Alzheimer's Disease -- an Age-Based Hypothesis. The Journal of Neuroscienc5y7e, 30 (50), 16755-16762.
Childhood history for Skinner is a series of learning opportunities, which may or may not facilitate healthy adult functioning.
Focus of counseling and therapy
Getting to the root of childhood traumas is at the heart of Freudian therapy. This is often done by free association, or tapping into associations that the individual might not be immediately aware of, but inhibit mature social relationships. There is also a focus on understanding how a crisis at a stage during the child's psychosexual development has lead to a regression or a fixation in one of these states, and resulted in a malformed personality, such as an antisocial personality. Therapy for Skinner is focused on reconditioning the individual to no longer perform negative behaviors, and conditioning them to perform positive behaviors.
Human learning in Freud is the imposition of the superego, or social rules and emotions (such as guilt) that curtail the…
City, ST ZIP Code]
Early Childhood Intervention
Developmentally appropriate activities
Play school using pictures, such as animals, numbers, alphabet, helps in recognition and identification of the things in the world. For example, a picture of an apple to relate to the letter A.
Reading stories from picture books.
Playing with age appropriate puzzles.
Sing-a-longs with well-known, easy to understand children's songs.
Keeping the child busy to occupy the mind with positive things.
Characteristics of effective strategies include:
Reading stories to help language, literacy, and communication.
Moving objects in sequence helps physical development and health.
Recognizing objects by sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell starts learning about science.
Counting with fingers or objects starts learning in Math.
Organizations that Offer Services
Children's Medical Services www.cms-kids.com
The Florida Center for Early Childhood
Space Coast Early Intervention Center
3790 Dairy Rd
How Children are…
Community Outreach. (n.d.). Retrieved from The Florida Center of Early Childhood: http://www.thefloridacenter.org/Community-outreach-esperanza.php
Florida's Early Step System. (2012, Aug 30). Retrieved from Children's Medical Services: http://www.doh.state.fl.us/AlternativeSteps/CMS-Kid/families/early_steps.html
Who We Are. (n.d.). Retrieved from Space Early Intervention Center: http://www.sceic.com
This would clearly be preferable to performing surgery, but may be more applicable in cases of type B than type a polydactyly. Of a total of 21 cases which were examined, this procedure resulted in a slight complication in only one case, where the digit had to be removed surgically due to failure of removal by suture ligation. The only real side effect of this simple treatment is that there was found to be a small bump remaining at the site in 43% of cases.
Although there has been some work into the genetic basis of polydactyly, advances in examination of the human genome may create a better understanding of the condition in the future. A large amount of the work done so far has been focused on animal models, and there is still room for further work to discover the genetic basis of the different types of polydactyly…
Ataru, S., Park, S. & Ryo, Y. (2005). Surgical treatment for lateral ray polydactyly of the foot: Toe selection and interdigital space reconstruction using a planter flap. Japanese Journal of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, 48(2): 155-159.
Boeing, M., Cassia F. Paiva, L., Lima Garcias, G., Graca Martino Roth, M. & Santos, I.S. (2001). Epidemiologia das polidactilias: Um estudo de casos e controles na populacao de Pelotas-RS. Journal de Pediatria, 77(2); d.o.i.: 10.1590/S0021-7557200100017.
Borisch, N., Stunitz, B. & Blauth, W. (1995). Case histories surgical treatment of polydactyl of the little toe involving proximal and middle phalanx. Orthopedics and Traumatology, 4(4): 246-253.
Gurnett, C.A., Bowcock, a.M., Dietz, F.R., Morcuende, J.A., Murray, J.C. & Dobbs, M.B. (2007). Two novel point mutations in the long-range SHH enhancer in three families with triphalangeal thumb and preaxial polydactyly. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 143(1): 27-32.
The success was remarkable, according to the researchers: Even muscles that had already lost half of its mass, recovered visible. (Leppanen et al. p5549-65) At the same time, the mice survived for several weeks longer than their untreated counterparts and also developed a healthy appetite again. (Mantovani, p296) The new study is therefore interesting in two respects: First, it demonstrates that the muscle loss at least in animal models in fact, affects the chances of survival, and secondly, it shows a way, may be how to prevent this degradation, and even reversed. (Bruera et al. p857)
Muscle atrophy is a medical term that refers to the decrease in the size of skeletal muscle, losing muscle strength because of the strength of muscle is related to its mass. (Burnfoot, p323-34)
All changes in cell morphological character may affect isolated cells or groups of them, therefore the modification of a…
Still another option is immunotherapy. In 2000, the Immunotherapy Committee of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology compared the costs of medication and the single-injection allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis. It found that the cost of medications is much greater. Allergen immunotherapy is generally safe and adverse reactions to are rare (Huggins 2004).
Opinion. - Human civilizations have tried to master nature and even modify it to a point where the body system reacts to certain substances it finds harmful to health. The reaction is an allergy. Human knowledge now has tried to look for ways to counteract the body's natural reaction to offenders or violators of its immune response. While the motivation to combat allergy in humans is always in favor of general well-being and health, a change in lifestyle and behavior may prove the easier way to health by agreeing with the body's way of sustaining…
1. Brostoff, Jonathan and Gamblin, Linda. Hay Fever. Healing Arts Press, 2002. revised edition, quality paperback
2. Huggins, Jennifer and Looney, R. John. Allergen Immunotherapy. American Family Physician, 2004. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3225/is_4_70/ai_n6171357
3. Kim, Dae and Drake-Lee, Adrian. Brief History of Allergy. ENT News, volume 11 # 5, 2002. http://www.pinpointmedical.com/ent_news/article_archive/rhinology/ND04%208net%20%Brief%20History
4. Leung, Donald Y.M. On the Forefront of Discovery. Discover: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2000. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1511/is_3_21/ai_59535418
Cellular Function and Aging
Tumor Suppression Protein 53 and Effects on Cellular Function and Aging
The concept of aging has many intrinsic and extrinsic factors that act as markers on an individual organism. Ignoring mortality associated with external environmental factors, very few organisms can be said to have cellular immortality with no decrease in cellular function or repeat division in normal diploid cells. Cellular senescence is a normal process that halts cellular division after a set of cycles of replication. Senescent cells can remain completely functional but lose the programmed process of replication. The normal pathway for senescent cells is either aging with metabolic pathways continuing for the cell or programmed cell death which is known as apoptosis that occurs when cellular function changes, a specific lifetime is reached for the cell or the cell is damaged. The multicellular cnidarians known as a Hydra has been shown to have a…
Cappisi, J. (2005) Senescent cells, tumor suppression and organisimal aging: good citizens, bad neighbors. Cell 120 1-10.
Coppe, J.P. Patil, C.K. Rodier, F. Sun, Y. Munoz, D.P. Goldstein, J. Nelson, P.S. Desprez, P. Campisi, J. (2008) Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotypes Reveal Cell-Nonautonomous functions of Oncogenic RAS and the p53 Tumor Suppressor. PLOS Biology, 6-12, 2853-2868
Faragher, R.G. (2000) Cell senescence and human aging: where's the link? Biochemical Society Transactions 28 221-226.
Kirkwood, T.B. Austad, S.N. (2000) Why do we age? Nature 408. 233-238.
RCT believes that everyone desires growth and that growth is by necessity connective in relational and cultural links. Mutual empathy and mutual empowerment foster these relationships in positive ways. (Jordan, "The role of mutual")
Sigmund Freud and Erik Erickson may arguably be two of the most influential icons in the field of human development and psychology. Their fundamental concept that human's develop over a lifetime and not just in a few stages from birth to adolescence and then are frozen into psychological patterns, revolutionized thinking in the field of developmental psychology. The term Life Span Development came to the fore as Erickson devised his eight stages of psychosocial development ranging from birth to eighty years old. Later as he himself passed eighty he realized that there is yet another stage and the count became nine. (Erikson & Erikson, 1997) One can see the striking resemblance between Erickson and Freud's stages…
Comstock, Dana L., et al. "Relational-Cultural Theory: A Framework for Bridging Relational, Multicultural, and Social Justice Competencies." Journal of Counseling and Development 86.3 (2008): 279-288.
Crethar, Hugh C., Edil Torres Rivera, and Sara Nash. "In Search of Common Threads: Linking Multicultural, Feminist, and Social Justice Counseling Paradigms." Journal of Counseling and Development 86.3 (2008): 269-276
Erikson, E.H. & Erikson, J. M . The Life Cycle Completed / Extended Version. New York:
W.W. Norton. 1997