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The social hierarchy additionally explains the reason why African-American women -- slaves in particular -- were subject to "persistent sexualization" in slave culture (77). Men of both races maintained social power over African-American women, who had little recourse if they were abused physically or sexually (est, 3). African-American men did not have the same sexualization and the very idea of a sexual relationship between a free or slave African-American man and a white women invoked violence (est, 77).
Changes in the role of African-Americans did occur in the period leading up to the Civil ar. African-Americans sought out more rights during this period. Conversely small groups of women may have been seeking out rights but most were called to support their husbands and families -- and their entire society -- as the political scene turned towards the possibility of war (Dorsey, 77). This was particularly true in the South where…
Dorsey, Bruce. "A Gendered History of African Colonization in the Antebellum United States." Journal of Social History 34.1 (2000): 77-105. Academic Search Premier. 8 May 2007. http://search.ebscohost.com .
Douglass, Frederick. "Independence Day Speech." Rochester, NY. 4 Jul. 1852. 6 May 2007 http://www.historyplace.com/speeches/douglass.htm .
Mars, James. Life of James Mars: a slave born and sold in Connecticut. Hartford, CT: Press of Case, Lockwood & Co., 1865.
West, Emily. "Tensions, Tempers, and Temptations: Marital Discord Among Slaves in Antebellum South Carolina." American Nineteenth Century History 5.2 (2004): 1-18. Academic Search Premier. 8 May 2007.
The Continental Setting
In 1815, the United States still had most of the characteristics of an underdeveloped of Third World society, although most of the world was in the same condition at that time. Its population was about 8.5 million, about triple that of 1776, but over 95% was still rural and agrarian. As late as 1860, over 80% were overall, but by then industrialization and urbanization were well underway in the North and that sections population was 40% urban. Mexico City was still the largest urban area in North America at the start of this period, while big cities were few and far between in the United States. With the exception of river ports like St. Louis and Cincinnati, almost all of them were on the ocean, since water transportation was far cheaper than overland movements before the invention of railroads. Washington, DC was still roughly the…
They are also very active in translating the Qur'an into many other languages, and creating community support including hospitals, and even institutions of higher learning.
The Sunnis also have a problem with the Ahmadi belief that Ghulam Ahmad, the founder of the religion, was the prophet that Muhammad said would could back to Earth to lead his people. Ahmad declared himself the prophet, and the Sunnis feel this is another negative aspect of the Ahmadi sect, because they do not believe the prophet has returned, yet. Perhaps even more telling are some Ahmadi customs that ban their women from marrying Sunnis, and ban them from worship when a Sunni is leading the prayers. This drives a wedge between both sects and keeps them apart in ideals and in faith. Ahmadis believe they are totally within the bounds of Islam, while Sunnis think they are not.
There is another way Ahmadis…
Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck, and Lane Idleman Smith. Mission to America: Five Islamic Sectarian Communities in North America. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1993.
Owens, Leslie Howard. This Species of Property: Slave Life and Culture in the Old South. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977.
Smith, Jane I. Islam in America. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.
Waugh, Earle H., Baha Abu-Laban, and Regula B. Qureshi, eds. The Muslim Community in North America. Edmonton, Alta.: University of Alberta Press, 1983.
Blacks in antebellum America were far from monolithic, in their personal identities or in their cultural and political status. For example, F&H point out that even among the free blacks in free states, there would be significant differences in levels of status, wealth, and power. Some had significant savings and real estate holdings not dissimilar from their white counterparts, whereas others held positions of low status such as domestic servants. Moreover, racism continued to permeate northern white society and blacks still were disallowed from participating in the political process. Yet as Parker’s Sankofa, we meet people like Shango, who represents the ways blacks and slaves subverted the systemic racism via the accumulation of specialized skills. The historical record reveals three main categories of African-American status during the antebellum period: free blacks in free states, enslaved blacks in Southern/slave states, and free blacks in Southern/slave states. Of these three, I would…
Library of Congress (2017). The African American Odyssey: A Quest for Full Citizenship. Retrieved online: https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african-american-odyssey/free-blacks-in-the-antebellum-period.html
Antebellum Period: Different Perspectives
Woman in a White Slaveholding Family in Virginia
My name is Matilda Baldwin originally of the Richmond Portmans that being my maiden name. I was born and raised outside of Richmond on my poppy's tobacco plantation. My husband's land is not very far away. I spend most of my summer afternoons with Mama. We sit fanning ourselves sipping mint-iced teas wondering if my baby sister will have a successful introduction into Richmond Society. Three years prior, my own debutante ball was glorious. It was where I met Robert Baldwin and many other suitors. He was clearly smitten with me from the start for the next day he asked Poppy for my hand in marriage. My father appreciates fine things in life; a good hand rolled cigar, two fingers of French Brandy and a man who knows what he wants but is not afraid of getting it.…
Soul by Soul: Life Inside the Antebellum Slave Market by alter Johnson (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2001) attempts to offer an alternative perspective to the history of slavery in the South. Rather than focusing on plantation life or historical accounts of the region, Johnson offers a meticulous study of the legalities of slavery and gives special attention to the marketplace of slavery. Johnson underlines the normalcy of slavery in the eyes of white Southerners and traders. To traders, the slaves were largely commodities or cargo; to the slaveholders they were potential ways to enrich their plantations or make domestic life easier. "My object is to get the most I can from the property...I care but little to whom or how they are sold, whether together or separated," said one owner, regarding breaking up families for the slave trade (Johnson 39).
alter Johnson is a professor of history and African-American…
Johnson, Walter. Soul by Soul: Life Inside the Antebellum Slave Market. Cambridge, Mass:
Harvard University Press, 2001
North America into Sub-Regions
By total area, the United States is the world's third largest country, with landscape that varies from temperate forestland and rolling hills on the East coast, mangrove in Florida, the Great Plains in the center of the country, the Mississippi and Missouri river system, the Great Lakes which are shared with Canada, the Rocky Mountains west of the plains, the deserts and temperate coastal zones west of the Rocky Mountains, the temperate rain forests in the Pacific Northwest, and the tundra of Alaska (United). Canada, the second largest country in the world, occupies the northern half of the North American continent, and is divided into six regions, the Pacific Coast, the Interior Plains, the Canadian Shield, the St. Lawrence Lowlands, the Appalachian Region, and the Arctic Lowlands (Geographic). The majority of the regions of both countries tend to correspond with one another. Aside from the South…
Canadian Shield. Retrieved November 05, 2005 from:
Exterior Form of North America. Retrieved November 05, 2005 from:
During antebellum America, the Jacksonian Democrats were created. This was a group that viewed themselves as protectors of the common people. A powerful executive whose goal was to destroy aristocracy in America, Andrew Jackson, ruled the Jacksonian Democrats. (Schlesinger)
Strangely, this group was not made up of the common people. The Jacksonian Democrats were a wealthy group that supported equality between white men, enacted radical economic policies, and disregarded any capabilities of the federal government. Many say that the group was not the introducers of democracy in America but rather users of the system for their own benefit.
During the early 1800's, the United States was growing at a rapid pace. A market revolution took place as cash-crop agriculture and capitalist manufacturing replaced the artisan economy. However, this prosperity created a split between the industrializing, urban north, agrarian, rural South, and the expanding West.
The Jacksonians passed the…
Schlesinger, Jr. The Age of Jackson. 1945.
Latner, R. The Presidency of Andrew Jackson. 1979.
Sellers, Charles. The Market Revolution: Jacksonian America, 1815-1846. 1991.
The book, 'Aren't I a Woman?' explores the challenges that women faced in the antebellum America. The author has focused to address the challenges of sexuality and racism that affected many women of this age. The author, Deborah Gray is a Professor at Scott University, who has focused her study in examining the issues of justice and social inequality in society. She is interested in this study as she attempts to explain the challenges of sexuality and racism that has affected the women from minority races in the United States. Her focus is to lead the readers of her work to begin understanding the challenges that women have faced from the antebellum America to the current day. Through a better understanding of these issues, better remedies may be developed to help the affected women in the society. Indeed, without an in-depth understanding of the issues of sexuality, and racism,…
White, Deborah, 1985, Aren't I a Woman? Female Slaves in the Plantation South. New York:
W.W. Norton and Company. Print
The fact that he chose to use real Black people in the background, but white actors in the lead roles highlights the idea that Blacks were still supposed to be subservient to whites; even lead characters who were supposed to be Black were portrayed by whites. However, it also points to one of the reasons that whites chose to employ blackface: the perpetuation of racial stereotypes. hile many minstrel shows focused on less frightening aspects of Black stereotypes, the Birth of a Nation focused on a fear that people would use to drive anti-Black sentiment in the period following Reconstruction: the image of the Black male as dangerous rapist. Although many people protested the racist elements of the movie, it became an instant success, and remains a controversial but constant member of most critics' best film lists.
Blackface persisted as a staple in American entertainment throughout the early part of…
The Center for American Music. "Blackface Minstrelsy . University of Pittsburgh. N.p. 19
Nov. 2010. Web. 23 Apr. 2013.
Deane, Pam. "Amos 'N' Andy Show." The Museum of Broadcast Communications. N.p. 2013.
Web. 23 Apr. 2013.
.....eras are too complex to reduce to a simple set of proximal causes and immediate effects. The main reason why historians disagree on critical issues like the causes of the American Civil War or the causes of the Great Depression is that there is no one cause or even one simple set of causes. It depends on point of view, theoretical viewpoint, and a host of issues related to the intersection between different causes. Historical knowledge also evolves as new facts emerge and new theories come to light. For example, Tyrrell argues that the United States was more connected to the global economy during the Antebellum years than historians have typically given the country credit for, and that these international commercial activities are linked to some of the economic underpinnings of the war. History is systemic; the Pax Brittannica might not seem to have any relevance for antebellum America but…
Inductive reasoning leads Legrand to discover an encrypted message that he sets out to painstakingly decipher. Poe's detailed analysis of the cryptogram is quintessentially romantic, encouraging rational inquiry into seemingly supernatural phenomenon. A respect for both the natural and supernatural worlds is implied by the story. Interestingly, nothing supernatural does take place in "The Gold-ug." Legrand admits to the striking coincidences that led him to the treasure, but coincidences themselves are not supernatural events. Legrand states, "it was not done by human agency. And nevertheless it was done."
The titular bug is a scarabaeus, which is a direct allusion to ancient Egypt. Like pirates, the imagery and lore of ancient Egypt has romantic, compelling connotations for readers. The reference to the scarab is coupled with the eerie image of the skull. When Jupiter finally climbs out on the "dead" limb the situation takes on an ominous tone before resolving itself…
Budding interest in the science of mind is also a key theme in Edgar Allen Poe's work. In "The Gold-Bug," Legrand is suspected to be mentally ill. In fact, the narrator is certain that his friend is going mad and urges him repeatedly to seek help. The narrator comments on Legrand's carrying the bug like a conjurer, "When I observed this last, plain evidence of my friend's aberration of mind, I could scarcely refrain from tears." Legrand later admits to teasing the narrator and deliberately acting insane just to humor him. However, Legrand also does exhibit genuine signs of mild bipolar disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder. Towards the beginning of the story, the narrator states, "I thought it prudent not to exacerbate the growing moodiness of his temper by any comment...I dreaded lest the continued pressure of misfortune had, at length, fairly unsettled the reason of my friend." Legrand even begins to take on the appearance of someone who is mentally ill: "His countenance was pale even to ghastliness, and his deep-set eyes glared with unnatural luster." Although it would be a full fifty years before Freud, Poe does suggest awareness of mental instability as a natural rather than supernatural occurrence.
Edgar Allen Poe's 1843 short story "The Gold-Bug" addresses attitudes towards race in antebellum America. The story is rooted in the Romantic literary tradition, while remaining grounded in historical fact as well. Even the Captain Kidd legend introduces readers to the real role of pirates during the colonial era. Poe mentions the combination of French, Spanish, and English loot. Legrand's Huguenot background also begs inquiry into the minor threads of European colonization.
The intended audience for Poe's story included any American curious about history, science, and the supernatural. The story is set in the same time it was written, which encourages the reader to identify fully with the narrator. Poe deliberately blanks out the last two digits of the dates in the story, too, which allowed his nineteenth century audience to project whatever date they wanted onto the story. Readers during the middle of the nineteenth century would have been curious about the natural sciences as well as the discovery of gold. After all, the California gold rush and the Wild West loomed in American consciousness. The idea that Americans had access to buried treasure and could get rich quick was as real in the 1850s as it is today.
44). She affiliated with the African Methodist Church (AME), preaching from New York State to Ohio and down South as well. She published her autobiography in 1849 and received "strong resistance and biting criticism," according to Frances Smith Foster (1993). "Lee used her alleged inferiority to emphasize the power of her message and in so doing, she…implies an authority superior to those whom she addresses" (Foster, p. 57). Indeed, Lee used the New Testament assertion that "the last shall be first" and in her autobiography she said she was an example of God's "ability to use even 'a poor coloured female instrument' to convert sinners…" (Foster, p. 57).
Another worthy source utilized for this paper is Dr. Edward R. Crowther, Professor of History at Adams State College in Colorado. Crowther published an article in the Journal of Negro History explaining how African-Americans got away from the white man's church after…
Blount, Brian K. (2005). Can I Get a Witness? Reading Revelation Through African-American
Culture. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press.
Clayton, Obie. (1995). The Churches and Social Change: Accommodation, Moderation, or Protest. Daedalus, 124(1), 101-119).
Collier-Thomas, Bettye. (1998). Daughters of Thunder: Black Women Preachers and Their
Smith may dislike the stereotype, but she cannot help internalizing it. She feels unfinished because she is regarded as unfinished, and even members of her community urge her to straighten her hair. This is completely different from the joyous, affirmative sigh "I am complete" at the end of Morales' poem. Just as Morales admits that all experiences with racism and discrimination are different, Smith's poem demonstrates how African-American women frequently lack assurance of their sense of self and that their physical qualities are regarded as alien to what is considered 'good' and 'American.' (The young Smith's wearing white to cover up one's tallness seems an attempt to mask blackness and presumed 'badness' with clothing). Morales' instability of identity lies in multiplicity of national cultures, but Smith, even as a young, black girl, but carefully balance her sense as an American and African-American with even greater care and psychological discomfort that…
Bolano, Roberto. (2000). Literature and Exile. The Nation. Retrieved August 9, 2011 at http://www.thenation.com/article/157695/literature-and-exile
Daniels, Lenore Jean. (2009). What is the image of black women today? Philly IMC.
Retrieved August 9, 2011 at http://www.phillyimc.org/en/what-image-black-women-today
Doughty, Julia. (1995). Testimonies of survival: Notes from an interview with Aurora Levins
For many reformers reform was almost like a religious conversion, satisfying their spiritual and societal needs. And most of the reformers were of younger age though in some instances they pressed for conservative reforms. Reformers of the nineteenth century were different from their predecessors in the eighteenth century in believing, unlike their predecessors, that the change could be brought about from the bottom up, that it should come form the individual. In contrast to their predecessors, reformers of the nineteenth century were anti-elitist. Therefore, many reformers championed abolitionism, women's rights, temperance, and institutional reforms for the socially disadvantaged: the poor, the insane, the uneducated, and even criminals. Walters does not suggest that all reform movements were liberating. They could be repressive too, as some reformers advocated slavery.
Walters places significant emphasis on Protestant Evangelicalism, which he puts at the heart of social forces which inspired reformers the strongest. But with…
slavery is all about power and exploitation, it makes sense that the women depicted in the 2013 Steve McQueen movie Twelve Years a Slave are systematically abused, even the white women. In the film, Eliza, Patsey, and Harriet were all sexually abused by white men, revealing the intersectionality of power. However, it is also important to point out that Mistress Epps is also abused by Master Epps, showing how white males wield power in a hierarchical social system in which women of color are at the bottom. The role of women in Twelve Years a Slave is complicated because some understand that they need to submit and even pretend to enjoy the sex in order to stay alive and protect their own children.
Question 1: Did the male slaves defend the women and children, why or why not?
This question is difficult to answer because some men do try to…
McQueen, Steve. Twelve Years a Slave. [Feature Film], 2013.
Schafer, Judith K. "Open and Notorious Concubinage": The Emancipation of Slave Mistresses by Will and the Supreme Court in Antebellum Louisiana. Louisiana History, Vol 28, No. 2, Spring 1987, pp. 165-182.
Solorzano, Daniel G. "Critical race theory, race and gender microaggressions, and the experience of Chicana and Chicano scholars." International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, Volum 11, Number 1, pp. 121-136, 1998.
For example, one of the interesting points that grabbed my attention was Dill's discussion of gender relations among African slaves. Slave men and women had a more egalitarian relationship than free white men and women. That is because slave men did not possess the power and authority of free men. So, power is inherently corrupting? At least, this is what Dill's description of gender relations in antebellum America suggest.
I wish, as a professor of sociology, Dill could have made more direct relations with the present (describing history just for the sake of history is the job of historians). I also wish, she could have allotted as much space to the story of Chinese-Americans that she does to White, African-American, and Chicano families. But I still admired this essay because it powerfully tells how society often subjects women to double or triple burdens. In colonial and antebellum America, the society…
Andersen, M.L, & Collins, P.H. (2010) Race, Class & Gender: An Anthology, 7th Edition. Wadsworth Publishing.
Economic Changes in the North and Social Reform Movements
The years between 1820 and 1860, also known as the pre-Civil War years or the antebellum years, were the most chaotic in American History (Dudley 2003). During this time, significant changes took place in the United States. The nation saw a transformation from a largely undeveloped nation of farmers and frontiersmen into an urbanized and economic powerhouse. This essay will explore how these economic changes in the North are linked to the social reform movements of the time.
The North was completely transformed by the Market Revolution, that is, a shift from an agricultural-based economy to one based on wages and the exchange of goods and services (Dudley 2003). A contributing factor was a manufacturing boom in the North which was created by the invention of the cotton gin. Infrastructure began to improve along with modes of transportation, such as the…
Dudley, William. American History by Era: Antebellum America 1784-1850. New York: Cengage Gale, 2003.
The Supreme Court ruled that the Federal government lacked constitutional authority, mandated by the Fourteenth Amendment, to outlaw racial discrimination by private individuals and organizations. The court ruling stated that the Civil ights Act of 1875 was unconstitutional. The decision was challenged by the Justice Harman as a narrow interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment, but the Court nevertheless with overwhelming majority ruled that neither the Thirteenth nor the Fourteenth Amendment granted the Federal state jurisdiction over these five cases. "This ruling," as argued by some scholars, "practically put an end to the federal government's attempt to enforce the guarantees of the Fourteenth Amendment" (Barnes and Connolly, 1999, p. 338).
In both cases, the U.S. Supreme Court recognized the rights of individual states that narrowly defined the provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment. In the Slaughterhouse Cases, the Louisiana State protected a monopoly power to the detriment of individual workers. The Supreme…
Barnes, D.A., & Connolly, C. (1999) Repression, the Judicial System, and Political Opportunities for Civil Rights Advocacy during Reconstruction. The Sociological Quarterly, 40(2): 327-345. Retrieved on February 15, 2011, from
Dupin becomes the "individual as the creature of history" (187) and the orangutan represents the "terror of a history secularized and devoid of design" (187). This pot was to usher in a new genre of plots that looked at the universe in a new way. The detective story, as a result, "responds to a new era of world history" (187). The crimes against the women can also be seen as symbols from Poe's own past as he lived through the deaths of the women he loved the most. Tragedy, of course, must make its way into Poe's fiction but the grisly murders of thee two women could easily be representations of the death of Poe's mother and cousin.
Society was all the inspiration Poe needed. Terrance halen maintains that Poe's tales "arose from within the specific conditions of capitalist development which were then emerging in antebellum America" (halen 386). Poe's…
Jordan, Cynthia. "Poe's Re-Vision: The Recovery of the Second Story." American Literature.
59.1. 1987. JSTOR Resource Database. http://www.jstor.org Information Retrieved
December 4, 2009.
Hutcherson, Dudley. "Poe's Reputation in England and America, 1850-1909." American
" Without a fundamental leg of the Southern structure taken out from underneath the Confederacy, Lincoln gained a strategic advantage. He did so using complete military preconceptions in order to carefully avoid breaking the peacetime rules and regulations set forth by the American Constitution.
Thanks to the free labor of the slaves, the South had more than enough white men willing to fight. Tons of able-bodied young men enlisted and left home, but the economy was not drastically affected due to the fact that there were still laborers available to support the war effort. Therefore, freeing the slaves in the rebellious States, Lincoln was encouraging a mass escape which would strike a crucial blow in the infrastructure of the Confederacy. Unlike other wars both before and after the Civil War, America had rarely shown the man power of a nation in war such as the South had done. The economy…
Andrus, Albert, "The Emancipation Proclamation: Speeches of the Hon. Albert
Andrus of Franklin and Hon. William H. Brand of Madison, delivered in the Assembly, on the evening of March 4th, 1863, on the Hon. James Redington's resolutions in favor of a vigorous prosecution of the war, of the proclamation of freedom, and the administration of Abraham Lincoln." Library of Congress. (accessed 13 June 1008 at ( http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r-ammem/rbaapc:@field ([email protected] (rbaapc01900div0)),1863.
Davis, Jefferson, Journal of the Confederate Congress. Volume 6. A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1875. (accessed 13 June 2008 at (http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=llcc&fileName=006/llcc006.db&recNum=18),1862.
Lincoln, Abraham, "Emancipation Proclamation." Library of Congress. (accessed 13
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain. The orks Cited two sources in MLA format.
Reading The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
For all voracious readers who have an insatiable thirst for serious, entertaining, enthralling and mature reading, popular names like illiam Shakespeare, Charles Dickens and Mark Twain are not only familiar but also all-time favorites of many. After The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, Mark Twain introduced another thought-provoking yet highly gripping sequel of the masterpiece titled The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, that is avidly taught in schools, remains on all library shelves and is a great and a fast-paced read to date. This analytical as well as an argumentative paper revolves around the following thesis statement:
The masterwork The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain is a humorous story addressing highly debatable issues and soon became an extremely controversial magnum opus. It is a scholarly piece of writing that…
Twain M., The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: The Norton Anthology of American Literature Volume C. Page 219, Penguin USA (Paper) Publishers; ISBN: 0140390464
Zwick J. Huckleberry Finn Debated. Retrieved March 9, 2003 from: http://www.boondocksnet.com/twainwww/hf_debate.html
Biological explanations, in contrast to fair and severe punishment as advocated by classical theorists, stress the need for institutionalization and psychological and medical treatment for the 'ill,' but they also offers what seems like a defeatist attitude towards the improvement of the criminal, as the criminal has no rational choice in his or her behavior. The presumption is that irrationally generated behavior cannot be conditioned out of the individual through incarceration, and criminality must be treated like an illness, although opinions differ as to the best way to go about treating the individual so the criminal is 'cured' of the crime, or if a cure is even possible.
However, biosocial theories suggest that society plays an important role in causing crime, such as social learning theory: "Some children are raised in families in which violence is used as a means to achieve desires. Abusive parents model to their children that…
Greek, Cecil. (2005). "Criminological Theory." Retrieved 17 Dec 2007 at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/lectures.htm
Keel, Robert. (12 Feb 2007). "Biological and Psychological Theories of Deviance." Retrieved 17 Dec 2007 at http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/biotheor.html
Keel, Robert. (12 Feb 2007). "Theories of Deviance." Retrieved 17 Dec 2007 at http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/devtheor.html
Betrayed by the American compatriots whom he helped, he languished in England in his climactic years, poor and lodged by a prostitute aided by a former student, until he died on a sea voyage back home. His death was mysterious in that shortly before his death he demonstrated signs of both depression and optimism.
Reasons for his depression were unclear. His optimism may have been due to the fact that he had prospects on the horizon.
Why then did he commit suicide, as details seemed to indicate? Or was he killed by his friend who was a double spy? There are numerous details of his life that will forever be unknown since they remain beyond our lens of experience.
Another story that is riddled with mystery is that of Mary Rogers.
In 1841, Mary Cecilia Rogers, a 21-year-old beautiful Connecticut-born girl disappeared from her mother's new York City boarding house.…
Davidson JW & Lytle, MH. The strange death of Silas Deane, 1992
Srebnick, Amy Gilman. The Mysterious Death of Mary Rogers. Oxford University Press, 1995.
.. They are neither man nor woman- They are neither brute nor human- They are Ghouls..."
Graham's (2003) analysis of "ells" show that Poe intentionally creates different categories of bells in order to illustrate the various emotional states individuals have had experienced in their life. She argues that the poem "not only...powerfully convey emotional effects to...readers, but also makes readers subconsciously convey those effects with facial expressions...," a characteristic found more strongly in Poe's depiction of the Iron and razen bells.
Indeed, through "ells," readers undergo what Poe identifies as 'excitements' that are "psychal necessity" or "transient." Emphasis on these point proves that shifts in emotions ultimately results to restlessness, instability of one's psyche, and ultimately, escape from this instability, which may be achieved by either succumbing to insanity or death. This is the natural state of the human mind that Poe provokes in his poem, a situation similar to…
Frank, F. (1997). The Poe Encyclopedia. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Graham, K. (2003). Poe's "The Bells." Explicator, Vol. 62, Issue 1.
Magill, F. (1998). Notable Poets. CA: Salem Press.
Magistrale, T. (2001). Student Companion to Edgar Allan Poe. Westport: Praeger.
student's position / answer question. It - (3-5) complete sentences, including thesis statement essay. The, , fourth paragraphs body paragraphs.
Slavery in the 1800-1860 time period
The slavery system was an active part of the U.S. during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, considering the large profits that the business brought to the nation. Slaves represented an essential element and as cotton production grew significantly in the South white people realized that they needed to be in possession of as many slaves as possible in order to earn large profits. hile some individuals believed that slavery was nearing its end, others believed that it would become even more cost-effective and struggled to improve their businesses using every methods that they possibly could. The south became the global center of cotton production by 1960 and this provided Southerners with the feeling that they had to protect their industry and that…
Ciment, James, "Atlas of African-American History," (Infobase Publishing, 01.01.2007)
Dattel, Eugene R. "Cotton in a Global Economy: Mississippi (1800-1860)," Retrieved October 30, 2012, from the Mississippi History Now Website: http://mshistory.k12.ms.us/articles/161/cotton-in-a-global-economy-Mississippi-1800-1860
Drug Enforcement Administration, the Controlled Substances Act, and the War on Drugs all show that drug prohibition has been framed as a federal issue. Recent state-by-state legalization of cannabis (marijuana) has challenged and undermined the efficacy of federal drug laws and anti-drug policies. Almost half the states have now legalized marijuana for either medical or recreational use (Hill, 2015). The state-by-state legalization scheme creates legal and ethical conundrums. For example, Hill points out that federal anti-drug legislation prohibits legal marijuana businesses operating in states like Colorado to use national financial institutions for banking. Without access to the usual range of financing options, cannabis dispensaries and other related businesses are driven to a cash-only business which can "attract thieves and tax cheats," (Hill, 2015, p. 597). Other problems include the inability of Americans to legally transport cannabis over state lines, even between two states that both legalized the drug. Canada recently…
Kennedy, Cohen, Piehl, Expansion and Change in America
The American Anti-Slavery Association
The early nineteenth century brought a series of changes in the newly formed United States, with people having the tendency to invest all of their resources in trying to improve conditions in the country. The slave issue in particular was provided with increasing attention from the masses, as a series of conflicts emerged as a result of people debating the morality of slavery and the degree to which this system affected thinking in the U.S. As a whole.
The American Anti-Slavery Society was founded in 1833 in an attempt to address the slave problem. Its founders wanted to raise public awareness concerning the effect that slavery as a whole had on the states. Slave uprisings also contributed to people wanting to remove slavery from the country, with white southerners in particular fearing that slaves would eventually retaliate as…
Dierks, Konstantin, "American Anti-Slavery Society, Declaration of Sentiments (December 6, 1833).." Retrieved December 7, 2014, from http://www.indiana.edu/~kdhist/H105-documents-web/week11/anti-slavery1833.html
"American Anti-Slavery Society," Retrieved December 7, 2014, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/19269/American-Anti-Slavery-Society
Finally, the two works have different purposes, so it is difficult to rate them to the same standards. McPherson has more on his mind than the institution of slavery; he is discussing an entire war and its aftermath, while Elkins is solely concerned with slavery in America and why it occurred. While the authors do share many similar views, many simply do not apply to each other.
In conclusion, both of these books play a vital role in understanding the complexities of the Civil War and race relations during and after the Civil War. One takes a more scholarly approach, while the other takes a more storytelling approach. Both use intensive research and knowledge of the Civil War period to make their cases, and both belong on the bookshelf of any serious Civil War historian. McPherson's work is a bit easier to read, simply because he gears it to a…
Elkins, S.M. (1976). Slavery: A problem in American institutional and intellectual life. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
McPherson, J.M. (2001). Ordeal by fire: The Civil War and reconstruction. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Roberts, K. African-Virginian extended kin: The prevalence of West African family forms among slaves in Virginia, 1740-1870. Retrieved 8 Feb. 2008 from the Virginia Tech Web site: http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-/unrestricted/etd.pdf .
Herein is composed a character who captures the internal conflict that would identify America on its path to Civil ar.
In Twain's work, Huck emerges as a figure whose behavior and ideology are stimulated by a discomfort with the circumstances constraining him. Though painted as a portrait of one young man, the adventures which give the novel its title are actually a series of events wherein Huck brazenly flouts the standards which had given the pre-Civil ar delta its cultural outlook. His flight to freedom is guided by the juxtaposed but equally inapt incarcerations which he endured both at the pious hands of the idow Douglas and the abusive hands of his drunken father. Certainly, his staged death and his river-raft escape here would be explicit forms of active protest to the church-going morality of the former and the violent authority of the latter. In both, we see the religious…
Chopin, Kate. (1898). The Storm. About Literature. Online at http://classiclit.about.com/library/bl-etexts/kchopin/bl-kchop-thestorm.htm
Eliot, T.S. (1917). The Love Song of Alfred J. Prufrock. The Egoist.
Robinson, E.A. (1921). Mr. Flood's Party. Web Books. Online at http://www.web-books.com/Classics/Poetry/Anthology/Robinson_E/MrFlood.htm
Twain, Mark. (1884). The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Charles L. Webster and Co.
eligion in Human Transformation of the African-American topic with a focus on the African-American Christianity experience. The writer explores the transformation to Black Christianity and uncovers some of the underlying features of its existence. The writer examines the patterns and experiences of spirituality for the Black Christian experience in North America as well as the ways that the particular historical experiences of Blacks in the United States assisted in creating distinct forms of spirituality in the communities. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
The Christian movement in North America is a large one. Millions of Christians worship in churches across the continent each week and the numbers continue to climb. African-American Christians have a faith and spiritual path that is somewhat different than white Christians follow. The terms "black church" and "black Christian" can be heard periodically in theological discussions. From the music to the underlying beliefs,…
Fulop, Timothy. African-American Religion: Interpretive Essays in History and Culture
Routledge (February 1, 1997)
Rabateau, Albert. J. Slave Religion: The Invisible Institution in the Antebellum South (Galaxy Books).Oxford University Press; New Ed edition (March 1, 1980)
Murphy, Joseph. Working the Spirit: Ceremonies of the African Diaspora
33). Slavery was an institution, and as such, it had become outmoded in modern society of the time. Elkins feels slavery could have been viewed less emotionally and more realistically as an institution, rather than an ethical or moral dilemma, and this is one of the most important arguments in his book, which sets the stage for the rest of his writing.
In his arguments for his theses, Elkins continues, "To the Northern reformer, every other concrete fact concerning slavery was dwarfed by its character as a moral evil - as an obscenity condemned of God and universally offensive to humanity" (Elkins, 1959, p. 36). Slavery was a moral evil, and it is still seen as such. Elkins indicates society was becoming disillusioned with it at the time (at least Northern society), and that the institution needed to change or disappear.
Another of the important points Elkins attempts to make…
Elkins, S.M. (1959). Slavery: A problem in American institutional and intellectual life. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Raboteau, a.B. (1978). Slave religion: The 'invisible institution' in the Antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press.
In the following passages she makes a quality argument. Those bosses, Bridges writes (123), were "militant" and "hard-fisted," and certainly "tough." Some of these emerging bosses (Joel Barker in Pittsburgh; Joel Sutherland in Philadelphia; and Henry inter Davis in Baltimore) built their organizations (and got lots of votes) by reaching out to the "gangs and fire companies" of "the dangerous classes." After all, votes are votes, no matter how grimy the person is who pulls the lever for the professional "boss" and his organization. In fact, the political boss in America during that time "...deliberately relinquishes social honor," Bridges quotes noted sociologist Max eber as saying (123).
The bosses (153) were "disciplined" who knew enough to accommodate both "the dangerous classes' and the "respectable element.'" the "primary requisite" for good jobs was not skill, but rather "political loyalty." Think about that for a moment; if a boss has enough power…
Bridges, Amy. A City in the republic: Antebellum New York and the origins of machine
Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.
University of California San Diego. "Biography for Amy Bridges." Retrieved 10 Feb. 2007 at http://dss.ucsd.edu/~abridges/biography2004.htm .
Dr. Brown write comparison contrast slavery enslaved men women antebellum period. My thesis -- I feel slavery antebellum period hard women sold family, raise master-s children, serve concubine. In addition sources listed, students utilize 2 books 3 scholarly journal articles inform research.
There is much controversy regarding slavery and how it affected men and women during the antebellum period. hile slaves were generally discriminated on account of their race, women were particularly targeted as victims as a consequence of the fact that society supported gender differentiation at the time. In addition to imposing norms that discriminated against African-Americans, slave owners also installed legislations that provided black women with harsh treatment. Their gender played an essential role in having women take on roles that African-American men could not do. omen were thus separated from their families at a young age, forced to raise children belonging to their masters, and even had…
Bridges, Khiara M. "Quasi-Colonial Bodies: An Analysis of the Reproductive Lives of Poor Black and Racially Subjugated Women," Columbia Journal of Gender and Law 18.2 (2009)
Douglas, Frederick, Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass, an American slave. Written by himself. [With] Appendix, (Oxford University, 1851).
Frances Berry, Mary and Blassingame, John W. Long Memory: The Black Experience in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982)
Stopler, Gila, "Countenancing the Oppression of Women: How Liberals Tolerate Religious and Cultural Practices That Discriminate against Women,"Columbia Journal of Gender and Law 12.1 (2003)
Plantation and Factory ules:
United States has always been the prime definition of change; however the years between 1800 and 1860 can be termed as the social revolution era for this country. Extensive evolution took place in the time period, which can be attributed to this change. Large population expansion was noted during these years, according to statistics it was 35% per decade, which to this date stands as the largest expansion rate of population in American history. This was also the time when U.S. started to experiment with technology, which complemented the continuous economic and societal transformations (Mooney, 1957). For the first time the concept of steam powered factories was being made common, also things like cargo boats and trains which were previously considered as only luxuries were now regularly being used for cargo and shipping purposes, making it easier to not only produce commodities but also move them…
Clement Eaton. 1966. A history Of The Old South (Macmillian)
Clement Eaton. 1962. The Civilization Of The Old South (Kentucky Press)
Chase C. Mooney. 1957. Slavery In Tennessee (Indiana University Press)
Altman, Andrew. 2006. The Persistent Fiction of Harm to Humanity. Ethics & International Affairs 20, no. 3: 367.
Blassingame, John W. 1979. The slave community: plantation life in the antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press.
The most overt explanation of the author's research problem is when he states: "To argue, as some scholars have, that the first slaves suffered greatly from the enslavement process because it contradicted their 'heroic' warrior tradition, or that it was easier for them because Africans were docile in nature and submissive, is to substitute mythology for history," (p. 4).
The struggles of African slaves are the topic for Blassingame's entire book, and it is impossible to indicate one page number describing all the travails that are detailed in the tome. However, the first chapter of the book does provide examples of the suffering of slaves in Africa, during the transatlantic voyages, and in the New World. Pages 6 and 7 describe in some detail the brutality of the slave boat…
Blassingame, John W. 1979. The slave community: plantation life in the antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press.
Center of the American West. "About Patty Limerick." Retrieved online: http://centerwest.org/about/patty
Duke University Libraries (n.d). Biography of John Hope Franklin. Retrieved online: http://library.duke.edu/rubenstein/franklin/bio.html
Franklin, John Hope, and Alfred A. Moss. 2000. From slavery to freedom: a history of African-Americans. New York: A.A Knopf
... further, that it would be only a question of time until the entire Pacific coast region would be controlled by the Japanese.' Yet Japan's ultimate aim was not limited to California or the Pacific Coast but was global domination achieved through a race war. 'It is the determined purpose of Japan,' the report stated, 'to amalgamate the entire colored races of the world against the Nordic or white race, with Japan at the head of the coalition, for the purpose of wrestling away the supremacy of the white race and placing such supremacy in the colored peoples under the dominion of Japan.'
The presence of sizeable numbers of persons of Japanese origin in California and other Western states was seen as but the beginnings of a Japanese attempt to not merely expand territorially into the United States, but to literally substitute the existing racial order with a new scheme…
Asumah, Seth N., and Matthew Todd Bradley. "Making Sense of U.S. Immigration Policy and Multiculturalism." The Western Journal of Black Studies 25, no. 2 (2001): 82+.
Chang, Gordon H., ed. Morning Glory, Evening Shadow: Yamato Ichihashi and His Internment Writings, 1942-1945. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1997.
African-Americans are second only to Native Americans, historically, in terms of poor treatment at the hands of mainstream American society. Although African-Americans living today enjoy nominal equality, the social context in which blacks interact with the rest of society is still one that tangibly differentiates them from the rest of America. This cultural bias towards blacks is in many notable ways more apparent than the treatment of other people of color, such as Asian immigrants, as is reflected in disparate wages and living conditions experienced by these respective groups. Common stereotypes hold the successful, college educated black man or woman as the exception rather than the rule, whereas Asians are commonly thought of as over-achievers. Although any bias undermines social interaction in that it shifts attention away from individual merit, the bias towards African-Americans can be said to be worse than most, and lies at the root of discrimination and…
Tamar Lewin. Growing Up, Growing Apart. New York Times, June 25, 2000. http://query.nytimes.com/search/article-page.html?res=9402E1DF1730F936A15755C0A9669C8B63
Thomas Dolan. Newark and its Gateway Complex. Rutgers Newark Online, September, 2002. http://www.newarkmetro.rutgers.edu/reports/2002/09/gateway/gateway2.php
George Breitman (Ed.), Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements, published in 1990 by Grove Weidenfeld: New York, NY. pp 4-17 http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/malcolmxgrassroots.htm
High Rises Brought Low at Last. The Economist: July 9, 1998. http://www.economist.com/displayStory.cfm?Story_ID=142018
Professionals involved in therapy and counseling with members of the Creole culture of New Orleans and southern Louisiana should be aware of the history and traditions of this group that make it distinctive from all others in the United States, and indeed from the French-speaking Cajun communities in the same region. In Louisiana, Creoles are not simply the white descendants of the early French and Spanish colonists, although in the post-Civil War era of Jim Crow there was a major attempt to redefine them as 100% white. This was never the case in history since they are a mixed-race people descended from Europeans, Native Americans and African slaves during the 18th Century and occupied a special caste in pre-Civil War Louisiana. They spoke their own language known as Creole French, as do tens of thousands of their descendants today, and in appearance have often been able to 'pass' as…
Ancelet, B.J. (1994). Cajun and Creole Folk Tales: The French Oral Tradition of South Louisiana. Garland Publsihing, Inc.
Dass-Bailsford, P. (2010). "Ignore the Dead: We Want the Living" in Dass-Brailsford, P., ed. Crisis and Disaster Counseling: Lessons Learned from Hurricane Katrina and Other Disasters. SAGE Publications.
Dominguez, V.R. (1997). White by Definition: Social Classification in Creole Louisiana. Rutgers University Press.
Dormon, J.H. (1996). "Ethnicity and Identity: Creoles of Color in Twentieth-Century South Louisiana" in Dormon, J.H. Creoles of Color in the Gulf South. University of Tennessee Press, pp. 166-86.
racialized slavery change in the early-19th century south? How and/or why were non-Slave holders invested in slavery? On what grounds did antebellum southerners defend slavery?
Slavery was not always a racialized category in the Americas. Many Americans emigrated to the U.S. As indentured servants: these were whites who worked without pay in exchange for learning a trade or their passage overseas. However, gradually, the plantation economy of the south fostered a system in which African-Americans toiled in bondage. It was simply more economically sustainable to employ slaves to harvest cash crops like tobacco and cotton, particularly after the invention of the cotton gin. 'hiteness' became associated with privilege and power, and even poorer whites in the south were above African-American slaves in terms of their social status. Slavery was thus always an ideological as well as an economic and political issue.
Of course, the economics of slavery cannot be overlooked.…
Major Problems in American History: Volume 1: to 1877. (3d Ed.) . Cengage, 2011.
Americans have even been moved to call the document divinely inspired, in another irony, as Constitution gives the right to every American to worship as he or she chooses, free of state influences.
Kammen convincingly shows that how Americans feel about the Constitution is often very different from what lies within the document. In doing so, he encourages the reader to take a more critical view of his or her own conception of the Constitution and to question assumptions that we have somehow always known what the Founders envisioned. e are neglectful of our duties as citizens, says Kammen, if we do not read the Constitution in light of its cultural history and grow more reflexive and self-critical as a nation about the way we view it. The Constitution is malleable in our elected and unelected officials' hands and minds, and in our own collective mind as a culture.
Rosen, Jeffrey. PBS. "The first hundred years." The Supreme Court. 2007. December 30, 2009.
"Text of John Roberts' opening statement before the Senate Judiciary Committee." USA Today.
September 12, 2005. December 30, 2009.
In fact, the American evolution may have served to assert the natural rights of some people, but those people were limited to a class of white males.
It is important to keep in mind that one of the ideological underpinnings of the evolution was a challenge to imperialist ideals, and race-based oppression and slavery had long been major parts of the imperial system. Despite that, it is unfair to characterize Britain as pro-slavery, as the British began to embrace abolitionist sentiments prior to the evolution. In fact, British Imperialists struggled with the concept of slavery, because of the fact that denying the right to own slaves was viewed as economic oppression by many white colonists, because, without slavery, the cash crops that made colonies profitable were difficult, if not impossible, to harvest (Brown, 1999). They began by attempting to limit the import of slaves into the colonies, something that they…
Appleby, J. (1976). Liberalism and the American Revolution, New England Quarterly, 49(1), 3-
Brown, C.L. (1999). Empire without slaves: British concepts of Emancipation in the age of the American Revolution, the William and Mary Quarterly, 56(2), 273-306.
Freehling, W.W. (1972). The founding fathers and slavery, the American Historical Review,
ace Discrimination Justice
ACE DISCIMINATION CIMINAL JUSTICE
ace and Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System
acial inequality has long been an issue in the American society. Despite making substantial progress in creating a more racially equal society, there are still many issues involving race and discrimination that can be found today. The criminal justice system was designed to treat all individuals equally under the law. However, covert racism and discrimination still plague the system and many minorities are adversely impacted and are not treated equally under the law. While most judges and public officials profess a strong dedication to remaining racially impartial, the evidence suggests otherwise. This literature review will focus on various points that indicate that there is a substantial amount of inequality to found within the criminal justice system in our modern society.
acial differences in the criminal justice system have been important topics since the…
Crutchfield, R., Fernandes, A., & Martinez, J. (2010). Racil and Ethnic Disparity and Criminal Justice: How Much is Too Much? The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 903-932.
Green, E. (1991). Judicial Attitudes in Sentencing - A Study of the Factors Underlying the Sentencing Practice of the Criminal Court of Philidelphia. National Criminal Justice Reference Service, 157.
Gross, S. (1997). Crime, Politics, and Race. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 405-416.
Staples, R. (2009). White Power, Black Crime, and Racial Politics. The Black Scholar, 31-41.
Instead of being a source of "organized social power" (Elkins 28) the church had "undergone a relentless process of fragmentation." People were religious, but Elkins asserts that people were seeking "individual satisfaction" rather than building "institutional needs." Elkins (150) delves into the Transcendentalists' view of the church, which was very cynical; "the church as an institution was corrupt..." The two author views are radically different one from the other.
SLAVES & MASTERS: Elkins explains that Southerners had "...a paternal affection of the good master for his blacks" and there were "warm sentiments" in southern Society for "faithful slave" (Elkins 61). However, on page 57 Elkins reports a case where a Virginia Judge in 1827 declined to punish the master who had cruelly battered his slave. Slaves had no legal rights and hence masters could take total control over their lives. Elkins does assert that a master could not kill his…
Elkins, Stanley M. (1968). Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life.
Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
McPherson, James M. (1982). Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction. New York:
Alfred a. Knopf.
United States became one of the most industrialized nations and sought to grow its industries at an alarming rate. For this purpose, the western part of United States, which had not yet been discovered, was subjected to massive development, economic growth, formation of industries and allowing settlers to move towards the west. Railroads played a significant role in contributing towards the development and urbanization of America's est. The goal of this paper is to analyze the impact of railroads on America's est in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources.
Railroads in America est
Railroads had been developed in United States during the nineteenth century and start of twentieth century. They owe their existence to Industrial Revolution. During the nineteenth century, Industrial Revolution promoted technological and industrial development and thus, laid down the foundations of railroads in United States. During this time, United States became one of…
Bain, David Haward. Empire Express; Building the first Transcontinental Railroad. Viking Penguin. 1999.
Banerjee, A.E.D. a. N.Q. "The Railroad to Success: The Effect of Infrastructureon Economic Growth," Providence, Brown University. 2006.
Beebe, Lucius. The Central Pacific & The Southern Pacific Railroads: Centennial Edition. Howell-North. 1999.
Bianculli, A.J. The American Railroad in the 19th Century: Locomotives. University of Delaware, Newark. 2001.
American History 1600-1877
In the period from 1600 to 1877, it could be argued that the United States was only basically establishing itself as an independent nation in its own right -- the period in question builds up to the climax of the Civil War, in which the contradictions inherent in the national identity would finally reach armed conflict. Who, then, could be nominated as the best of the American enterprise in that time period? For different reasons, I would nominate Benjamin Franklin, Walt Whitman, and Frederick Douglass.
Franklin is an easy choice: he established America's credibility in the eyes of Europe. Regardless of the military issues involved in the American Revolution, it was Franklin alone who showed Europe that there was a viable independent nation across the Atlantic. This is in recognition of his various accomplishments, which were scientific, technical, literary, and philanthropical (in his endowment of universities and…
Berlin is not the first to assert that slave life in the early history of the country was far from what it became before the Civil War. Another author notes, "In his study of the poor in early America, Philip D. Morgan notes that some slaves in the Chesapeake region might have had more material benefits than some destitute whites. Nonetheless, Morgan reiterates the famous observation of the scholar, Orlando Patterson, that slavery was 'social death'" (abe). Here is where Berlin and other authors differ. Berlin acknowledges the evils of slavery at times, but his book is more like an account of social and racial class formation, and it glosses over many of the harsh realities that have been often repeated in slavery. In this, he seems to do a disservice to the black community, and to those slaves who suffered during this time. He shows how slaves were free…
Berlin, Ira. Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press, 1998.
Bland, Sterling Lecater, ed. African-American Slave Narratives: An Anthology. Vol. 1. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001.
Rabe, Stephen G. "Slavery in the Development of the Americas." The Historian 67.4 (2005): 749+.
Representations of omen
The concept of slavery in America has engendered a great deal of scholarship. During the four decades following reconstruction, despite the hopes of the liberals in the North, the position of the Negro in America declined. After President Lincoln's assassination and the resulting malaise and economic awakening of war costs, much of the political and social control in the South was returned to the white supremacists. Blacks were left at the mercy of ex-slaveholders and former Confederates, as the United States government adopted a laissez-faire policy regarding the "Negro problem" in the South. The era of Jim Crow brought to the American Negro disfranchisement, social, educational and occupational discrimination, mass mob violence, murder, and lynching. Under a sort of peonage, black people were deprived of their civil and human rights and reduced to a status of quasi-slavery or "second-class" citizenship (Foner). Strict legal segregation of public facilities…
Douglass, F. The Anti-Slavery Movement. Rochester, NH: Lee, Man and Company, 1855. Print.
Douglass, F. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. Boston, MA:
Harvard University Press, 2005. Print.
Elliott, M. Color Blind Justice. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print.
Amateur Armies and Initial Advantages
Today, cliches about the valor of troops are part of the patriotic language of America. However, during the time of the Civil War, this was not always the case. The American army was relatively limited in size when the first shots were fired in the Civil War. In most states, the standing army had devolved into what effectively functioned more as social clubs than fighting units.[footnoteRef:1] This lack of concern about maintaining a standing army reflected the profound distrust so many Americans still felt for centralized authority and control. However, during the initial phases of the wartime struggle, volunteers were plentiful on the Union side, and it was the Confederate troops who were more unruly, as they had expected an easy victory against the Yankees. [footnoteRef:2] [1: Steven E. Woodworth, This Great Struggle: America's Civil War, (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2011), 44-45] [2: Woodworth,…
Woodworth, Steven E. This Great Struggle: America's Civil War. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2011.
"Their activities emphasized the sensual, pleasure-seeking dimensions of the new century's culture and brought sexuality out from behind the euphemisms of the nineteenth century (1997). This was seen in the dances of the era (e.g., the slow rag, the bunny hug, etc.) as well as the dress styles of American women. Women's appearance changed. They no longer were buried under petticoats and big skirts, restricted by their corsets. The silhouette was now slender and smaller, allowing a greater freedom of movement as well as more exposure of arms and legs. Women who worked were now considered "bachelor girls" as opposed to "homeless women" or "spinsters" (1997). By 1920, the image of the flapper girl was everywhere; this can be viewed as an example of just how far women had come.
Unit III: 1921 -- 1945:
Zelda Fitzgerald, wife of novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald, said in 1924: "I like the jazz…
Collins, G. (2009). When everything changed: the amazing journey of American women
from 1960 to the present. Little, Brown & Company; 1st edition.
Evans, S. (1997). Born for liberty: a history of women in America. Free Press.
Thus, he covers both sides of the issue effectively, and notes that while eighteen Americans died, between 500 and 1,000 Somalis died on the ground. Thus, as a journalist, he uses balance and both sides of the issue to make his points and back up his reasoning. That is the mark of a good journalist, and probably one of the reasons the book was considered for a National Book Award. It is an emotional book, but it is also balanced and fair, leading the reader to make their own conclusions about what happened in Somalia.
One of the great strengths of the book is the way the author portrays the soldiers. They are more than a group of men fighting together, they are a team, a cohesive group that care about each other and will never leave another behind. That is one of the enduring themes of the book, and…
Editors. "Mark Bowden: Biography." AtlanticMonthly.com. 2007. http://www.theatlantic.com/about/people/mbbio.htm
Mark Bowden. Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1999.
5). He notes that "the skull is large and oval, and its anterior portion full and elevated." (Morton, p.5). His pro-white bias is very evident, as he states that that "this race is distinguished for the facility with which it attains the highest intellectual endowments." (Morton, p.5). He also goes on to list the accomplishments he believes that Caucasians have attained, including populating the finest parts of the earth and having its best inhabitants. (Morton, p.6).
hen discussing Mongolians, Morton seems to find them to be second in intelligence to Caucasians. He describes Asians as being "characterized by a sallow or olive colored skin, which appears to be drawn tight over the bones of the face; long black straight hair, and thin beard. The nose is broad, and short; the eyes are small, black, and obliquely placed, and the eyebrows are arched and linear; the lips are turned, the cheek…
Facing History and Ourselves. "Samuel Morton." Race and Membership: The Eugenics
Movement. 2010. Facing History and Ourselves. 16 Feb. 2010. .
Morton, Samuel. Crania Americana; or, a Comparative View of the Skulls of Various
Aboriginal Nations of North and South America: To which is Prefixed an Essay on the Varieties of the Human Species. Philadelphia: J. Dobson, 1839.
Washington, H. (2008). Profitable wonders. From Medical Apartheid. New York: Harlem Moon.
Many of the horrors of slavery, such as whipping and beating, are well-known to contemporary readers. However, according to Harriet Washington in her essay "Profitable wonders" from her book Medical Apartheid, there is an equally ugly yet less-publicized side of the American Southern plantation system, namely the use of black slaves in medical experimentation. oday, we think of medical experimentation on persons deemed to be of inferior races as something common in Nazi society, not our own. However, as "Profitable wonders" makes clear, anytime a race is demonized, it is liable to be used in inhumane ways, much in the same way that animals are used in medical experimentation. he disparities today between African-American's state of physical health and whites are often commented upon and the article makes clear that such inequities have its roots far,…
The article makes gripping use of the narrative format, as well as presents historical data to support its contention that there was a consistent program of medical experimentation on African-Americans during the antebellum period. The article opens with an account of one 'John Brown,' a slave who was used by a certain 'Doctor Hamilton' to test cures the quack doctor wished to use on Brown's master. The treatments were more abuse than curative, with dubious medical legitimacy. Not only were slaves used in experimentation, but they were valued so little because of their race that so-called scientists felt little compunction about subjecting them to experiments of almost no medical value.
In the 19th century, there was no standard ethical protocol regarding the ethics of experimentation (Washington 2008: 55). "The experimental abuse of African-Americans was not a cultural anomaly; it simply mirrored…the economic, social and health abuses that the larger society perpetuated against people of color (Washington 2008: 56). Slaves were considered ideal 'test subjects' on which to perform everything from experimental surgeries to test cures for malaria. Although Brown's personal account opens up the piece, accounts of whites who describe matter-of-factly their use of blacks as experimental subjects are also marshaled in support of this contention. In no less than a publication than the Southern Medical and Surgical Journal, over half the articles described experiments upon blacks, who were also overrepresented in medical and surgical wards, primarily because of their 'usefulness' in experimentation. Often, procedures were performed without anesthesia. The logic of racism allowed a kind of perverse mental paradox -- on one hand, blacks were 'necessary' to use in experiments because they were human beings and were thus ideal to test out new remedies upon. On the other hand, they were also seen as innately inferior to whites and supposedly less susceptible to pain and thus could be treated cruelly in ways whites could not tolerate (Washington 2008: 58).
Even by the experimenter's own contemporary standards, many of the experiments were unscientific and when unsuccessful, blacks were blamed (such as for the high rates of infant mortality and disease caused by the conditions under which slaves were forced to live). Washington implies, however, that this blame of African-Americans for their medical problems on character flaws, versus social conditions and poor epidemiology and a lack of scientific rigor, is not something confined to the long past but can even be seen in the thinking of many scientists and public health officials today in issues where race and medicine intersect.
Racial segregation remains one of the most fundamentally perplexing questions within the body of American history. Many people erroneously believe that the racial and social structures that existed prior to the close of the civil war in 1865 resulted in both fundamental and rapid changes for those who had been subjugated by slavery, immigration and even war. The truth is far more complicated and changes were much more gradual. The reality of segregation was both social, legal and economic and to some degree still exists today, in a de jure manner. "Although de jure segregation in the United States is most commonly associated with the South, segregation could be found at one time or another in every section of the country." (Finkelman, 2003) ("South, The " Columbia Encyclopedia, 2000) Though the fundamental struggle of the civil rights movements has largely forced the eradication of de facto, or legal segregation de…
Allport, Gordon. "The Nature of Prejudice." Race, Racism and American Law. Ed.
Derek Bell. Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1973. 84-87.
Gordon Allport is a leading social scientist discussing the foundations of race and prejudice as it effect the United States. His work, "The Nature of Prejudice," is recognized as one of the most influential analysis of the reasons for the perpetuation of racial prejudice.
Bell, Derek ed. Race, Racism and American Law. Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1973.
Although President Lincoln might have overstated the importance of Uncle Tom's Cabin as being a singular cause for the war, the statement does capture the fact that literature serves as a reflection for social values and norms. Abolitionism did become a major political force in the antebellum years, which is why Lincoln and the Union were willing to wage war for so many years and sacrifice so many lives. Of course, there were economic motives for the war (Tindall). Unionists were still mostly whites with racist beliefs, and their impetus for fighting was based as much on the need to retain access to Southern wealth and resources. Abolitionist views provided a convenient political foundation for the policies shaping Union efforts to prevent Southern cession. Read as a representation of abolitionism, Uncle Tom's Cabin serves almost as a piece of political propaganda.
"The little woman who wrote the book…
Stowe, Harriet Beecher. Uncle Tom's Cabin. Retrieved online: http://web.archive.org/web/20080913231136/http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/StoCabi.html
Tindall, George Brown. America: A Narrative History. W.W. Norton.
The study will focus on the years 1967 through 1970. The study will also review the exact terms of the draft legislation at the time with a particular focus on the exemptions that were made available. The result of the study will be to show exactly how race and social economic status had an adverse impact on determining whether or not an individual was to be drafted into the Vietnam War.
Key Questions: The key question is to go beyond simply showing that statistically the draft had a larger impact on minorities and low income individuals but to also demonstrate how this makes the draft a de facto discriminatory law.
The primary sources that will be used in conducting this research include the military draft legislation and governmental records pertaining to the background information of all military draftees for the aforementioned years.
The approach to be taken is…
Appy, Christian G. Working-Class War: American Combat Soldiers and Vietnam. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.
Burgan, Michael. Witness to History: The Vietnam War. Chicago: Heinemann Library, 2004.
Goldstein, Donald M., Katherine v. Dillion and J. Michael Wenger. The Vietnam War. London: Brassey's, 1997.
Herring, George C. America's Longest War: The United States and Vietnam 1950-1975. New York: McGraw Hill, 1996.
American history includes a wide variety of women who have been involved with heroic acts. Two of these historic figures are Mary Rowlandson, a New England Puritan kidnapped by Indians in the 1700s, and Celia, an African-American slave who was hanged for killing her brutal master. Although their stories are very different, they demonstrated the personal fortitude to personally handle the worst of situations.
Rowlandson was living in a Massachusetts settlement when an Indian raid killed and wounded many of her fellow colonists. One of her children was killed in the massacre, another died soon later, and the third was taken by another raiding party. She was wounded and taken captive by the Indians. For three months until ransomed, she traveled with the tribe throughout the New England region as they hunted for food and eluded the colonists who were set on retaliation.
Rowlandson was born in England…
Hundley was more personally familiar with plantation life than with yeoman life, as he was born on a plantation. However, his familiarity with Southern ways of life enables him to write clearly about the role yeomen played in shaping American history. His document illuminates the nuances of social and economic class in the antebellum South.
1910 document attributed to Uncle Ben describes the personal, first-hand experiences of a slave. The author mentions having to work seven days a week without respite, noting that women were not exempt from hard labor. He describes the field work and the brutal discipline used to keep all slaves in line including physical but also psychological abuse. The document is one of many autobiographical accounts of the cruelty used to keep slaves in line.
The song "Go Down Moses" is one of many American folk songs borne from oppression. The lyrics allude to the Old…
In 1960, Daniel Hundley wrote about the yeomen of the South. The poor white farmers living in the South are given relatively little treatment in history texts because they were out-shadowed by their plantation- and slave-owning counterparts. Hundley was more personally familiar with plantation life than with yeoman life, as he was born on a plantation. However, his familiarity with Southern ways of life enables him to write clearly about the role yeomen played in shaping American history. His document illuminates the nuances of social and economic class in the antebellum South.
1910 document attributed to Uncle Ben describes the personal, first-hand experiences of a slave. The author mentions having to work seven days a week without respite, noting that women were not exempt from hard labor. He describes the field work and the brutal discipline used to keep all slaves in line including physical but also psychological abuse. The document is one of many autobiographical accounts of the cruelty used to keep slaves in line.
The song "Go Down Moses" is one of many American folk songs borne from oppression. The lyrics allude to the Old Testament tale about Moses and the Jews being enslaved in Egypt, aptly comparing African slaves to them. In "I Thank God," the lyrics are about liberation from slavery and show how music reflected the experience of African-Americans.
hen Jacobs was transferred to the Norcoms, the reality of slavery suddenly hit the author hard because prior to her being sold to them she enjoyed a relatively happy childhood in a secure home environment. Dr. Norcom frequently made advances on Jacobs and she was forced to find solace in the arms of a white lawyer to help resist Dr. Norcom. She had two children by the lawyer, and was separated from them. Being separated from her parents and then from her children is a poignant dimension of slavery that Jacobs explicates in the narrative. Moreover, Jacobs describes the insidious psychological abuse that many domestic servants endured.
Jacobs also explains what might be new information for many readers: the different types of slavery and different ways slavery manifested. Not all slaves were field workers and not all slaves were treated poorly. Some, like her parents at the outset of the…
Jacobs, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. In Norton Anthology of American Literature, 7th Edition, Vol. B. pp. 1809.
It will use historical evidence to examine the role of the church is a spiritual entity. It will examine the role of the church as a political entity throughout changing political landscapes. It will explore the role of the church as a social service provider with regards to the importance of this role in helping black people to redeem themselves in light of historical cultural atrocities that they have faced.
In order to examine that topics of interest un this research study the following research questions be addressed.
1. How has the black church served as redemptive force in helping the black people to heal?
2. What factors served as a redemptive force in helping the image of black people in the black church to improve?
3. How has a black church helped black communities to regain and maintain their self-sufficiency?
4. How has the black church served…
Aaron. (1845), the Light and Truth of Slavery. Aaron's History: Electronic Edition. Retrieved June 19, 2010 from http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/aaron/aaron.html#p6
Adams, John Quincy. (1872). Narrative of the Life of John Quincy Adams. Retrieved June 19,
2010 from http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/adams/adams.html#adams6