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Human Evolution and Its Link to Bipedalism

Words: 4224 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84667927

Bipedalism – Human Evolution
Introduction
Human evolution takes into account the biotic as well as cultural development of humans. Human philosophies of the manner in which evolution of man came to be is ascertained by beliefs that have been espoused by scientists and societies dating as back as 400 decades ago. Human species, scientifically referred to as homo sapiens has extremely evolved in the last number of billion years. There have been numerous scientific developments and dissimilar events that gave rise to the ultimate evolution of mankind. One of the key changes that have taken place through evolution is bipedalism, which encompasses alterations in body features, for instance, increase in brain capacity. In particular, bipedalism is a kind of locomotion conducted on two feet and is the one aspect that that distinguishes humans from other kinds of hominoids (Ishida et al., 2006). The purpose of this paper is to examine…… [Read More]

References
Hunt, K. D. (1996). The postural feeding hypothesis: an ecological model for the evolution of bipedalism. South African Journal of Science, 92(2), 77-90.
Ishida, H., Tuttle, R., Pickford, M., Ogihara, N., & Nakatsukasa, M. (Eds.). (2006). Human origins and environmental backgrounds. New Jersey: Springer Science & Business Media.
Kinzey, W. G. (Ed.). (1987). Evolution of human behavior: primate models. SUNY Press.
Kraak, S. B. (1991). The answer: the aquatic ape theory and the savannah theory combined. Roede, M., Wind, J., Patrick, J. et al., The Aquatic Ape: Fact or Fiction, 293-296.
Ruxton, G. D., & Wilkinson, D. M. (2011). Avoidance of overheating and selection for both hair loss and bipedality in hominins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(52), 20965-20969.
Skoyles, J. R. (2006). Human balance, the evolution of bipedalism and dysequilibrium syndrome. Medical hypotheses, 66(6), 1060-1068.
Stanford, C. B. (2006). Arboreal bipedalism in wild chimpanzees: Implications for the evolution of hominid posture and locomotion. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 129(2), 225-231.
Westergaard, G. C., Kuhn, H. E., & Suomi, S. J. (1998). Bipedal posture and hand preference in humans and other primates. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 112(1), 55.
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Primitive War

Words: 526 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21996056

Anthropology

Marvin Harris on the Cultural Materialist explanation for warfare ("Primitive War" in Cows, Pigs, Wars, & Witches)

American anthropologist Marvin Harris discusses the cultural materialist perspective of anthropology in explaining the occurrence of warfare among primitive societies in "Cows, Pigs, Wars, and Witches." In his exploration and study of different cultures in the world such as India, Brazil, Venezuela, among others, he emphasizes the role the structure and mode of production plays in the prevalence of warfare and the dominance of males within these societies (that is, the development of a patriarchal society).

Cultural materialism stems from Karl Marx's study of the political economies of industrial societies. Marvin Harris, following this Marxian tradition, intends to explain cultures in the world as dependent on their respective histories and economies. Cultural materialism posits that social activity is largely derived from structures within society (of which the terms "infrastructure," "structure," and "superstructure"…… [Read More]

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Andean Indigenous Interest and Rights Regarding the Politics of the Amazon

Words: 2759 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99636182

Anthropology

Andean Indigenous Interest and Rights regarding the Politics of the Amazon

In today's society, there is a tremendous need for global initiatives to support biodiversity, conservation and the protection of nature, as well as the culture of local inhabitants, especially those living in the Amazon. In recent years, many governments and coalitions have partnered with communities and native leaders to protect biodiversity and culture.

Grass-roots organizations and scientific discoveries have increased awareness about these issues, which include democratic participation by indigenous people, intellectual property rights, and cultural and ethnic identity. Within the context of globalization, the world is shrinking, and the dominant cultures, those of Europe and the United States, are penetrating the local world, including the indigenous groups in the Amazon basin. This paper will discuss the Andean indigenous interest and rights regarding the politics of the Amazon.

Introduction

Global interest in ecological issues began in the mid-1980's.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Davis, S. (1993). Indigenous Views of Land and the Environment. World Bank Discussion Paper No. 188.

Davis, S. Partridge, W. (2002). Promoting the Development of Indigenous Peoples in Latin America. Retrieved from the Internet at http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/essd/essd.nsf/28354584d9d97c29852567cc00780e2a/03f1bda268d0989d852567cc0077f60a?OpenDocument.

Fraser, Barbara. (October 26, 2001). Indigenous groups seek self-determination. Latin America Press.

Moran, E. (1993). Through Amazonian Eyes: The Human Ecology of Amazonian Populations. Univ. Of Iowa Press.
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Old and New Words

Words: 369 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91320001

Anthropology

Domesticates in the Old and New Worlds

The point of this article, "Domesticates in the Old and New Worlds," is the difference between the Old World domesticated animals and crops, and the New World domesticated animals and crops. It seeks to discover just why so many crops and animals were domesticated in the Old. World and so many fewer species were domesticated in the New World before the advent of Europeans on the scene. It also discusses the spread of domesticated animals from the Old World to the New, and the spread of domesticated crops from the New World to the Old, and how this created new markets and tastes around the world. The point is, that domesticated crops and animals differed, but spread throughout the world as discovery and exploration increased.

The argument the author uses is that food and animals traveled around the world, and became staples…… [Read More]