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Odysseus: The Greek conception of heroism vs. our own
The ancient Greek poet Homer's Iliad and Odyssey were considered to be two of the most important works of literature for ancient Greeks to study, particularly during the classical era of Greek civilization. However, for many modern readers, the values embodied by Odysseus are surprisingly self-interested. In modern culture, the conventional conception of a hero is someone like Superman or Luke Skywalker: he is naive, trusting, good, puts the common welfare above his own needs, and is willing to listen to those older and wiser than himself. Odysseus is none of these things. He is clever, full of guile, perfectly willing to lie and trick people to get his way, and full of a quality even the Greeks considered dangerous, that of hubris or a willingness to defy the gods. But the Greek still considered Odysseus a noble and admirable hero,…
Homer. The Odyssey. The Internet Classics Archive. Web. 2 Jun 2015.
Definition of Modernism and Three Examples
Indeed, creating a true and solid definition of modernism is exceptionally difficult, and even most of the more scholarly critical accounts of the so-called modernist movement tend to divide the category into more or less two different movements, being what is known as "high modernism," which reflected the erudition and scholarly experimentalism of Eliot, Joyce, and Pound, and the so-called "low modernism" of later American practitioners, such as William Carlos Williams. Nonetheless, despite the problems of reification involved with such a task, I will attempt to invoke a definitions of at least some traits of modernism, as culled from the Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics:
First, [in modernism] "realization" had to replace description, so that instead of copying the external world the work could render it in an image insisting on its own forms of reality... [and] Second, the poets develop…
Preminger, Alex and Brogan T.V.F. The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics.
Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1993.
Clint Eastwood’s career spans more than six decades, and is one of Hollywood’s few luminaries that is equally as renowned for his acting as his directing. Born in 1930 in San Francisco, Eastwood’s formative years were spent during the Great Depression, during which his family moved around in search of work. Eastwood has one younger sister (“Biography: Clint Eastwood” 1). Eastwood worked a series of odd jobs, mainly manual labor, until he was drafted into the army in 1950. During his time in the Army, Eastwood proudly recalls how he managed to skillfully avoid combat in the Korean War by becoming a lead swim instructor (Schickel 50). Eastwood exhibited traits of the proudly rebellious antihero that many of Eastwood’s films would later depict.
He was discharged from the Army three years later, after which he moved to Los Angeles and became interested in acting. His rugged good looks are what…
The workers of Jante are in a kind of 'perfect prison' where they self-monitor themselves, and one another's behavior for deviation. Deviance, social unrest, resistance to authority -- even challenging the factory owner who oppresses them -- is seen as getting too big for one's britches and a violation of Jante Law. A true Marxist would hope that a worker would be outraged at the behavior of the factory owner, and his actions towards Espen's family. However, a Jante resident is more apt to be angry at Espen's mother for wanting to improve her home, or daring to ask for a gift from the factory owner that others were not receiving. Despite the catastrophically low wages of all of the residents, the workers ineffectually blame one another, and make a virtue out of their own unnecessary suffering.
This focus upon the purely personal at the expense of real social change…
Sandemose, Aksel. A Fugitive Crosses His Tracks. Knopf, 1936.
Mikhail Lermontov's A Hero of Our ime places a Russian piece of literature in the Western context of literary influences without sacrificing the Russian characteristics of the writing. At the time of its first publishing in Russia the critiques of Lermontov's short stories novel were mostly controversies over the real values of such a literary undertaking. Lermontov's novel, published in the 1830s, a period of confluences in international literature, when the romanticism was slowly dying out and the realism had not yet started to make statements, led to powerful reactions, especially at home.
Lermontov's antihero was in fact creating confusion: many were not able to understand him, others were not willing to see through, while still another part of the readers and critics alike were considering him a threat to the old values they had grown fond of. Buracek, a reputed professor of science and Lermontov's contemporary "considered the novel…
Trenin, D. Getting Russia Right. Carnegie Endowment, 2007
Heier, E. The Second Hero of Our Time. Edmund Heier
The Slavic and East European Journal, Vol. 11, No. 1 (Spring, 1967), pp. 35-43
Faced with a social system that has no place for him, Tom does not rebel or repress himself, but merely creates a place for himself by dissolving into the background, becoming part of the hidden (and criminal) world that is a de facto product of any inequitable social system.
As mentioned above, Highsmith wrote for a number of comic books in the 1940s, and almost all of them were concerned with white male superheroes who had been given extraordinary powers or technology. There is a subtle joke about this fact early on, when Tom notes that his most recent victim "was a comic-book artist. He probably didn't know whether he was coming or going" (Highsmith 14). Thus, almost from the beginning Highsmith has made a connection between Tom and the world of comic books, a connection that helps explain Tom's eventual narrative journey.
hen looking at Tom's story in broad…
Haggerty, George. Queer Gothic. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2006. Print.
Highsmith, Patricia. The Talented Mr. Ripley. New York: Vintage Books, 1992. Print.
Tuss, Alex. "Masculine Identity and Success: A Critical Analysis of Patricia Highsmith's the Talented Mr. Ripley and Chuck Palahniuk's Fight Club." Journal of Men's Studies 12.2
Salinger is an American literary treasure, best known for his novella Catcher in the ye. However, Catcher in the ye is but one of many in the canon of Salinger works. Salinger's short stories have recently garnered renewed attention because several unpublished Salinger stories were leaked online in November of 2013, three years after the author's death (uncie, 2013). Salinger died a recluse, and a man of mystery who was as much an American antihero as Holden Caulfield of Catcher in the ye. There have been numerous cultural allusions of Salinger's iconic novel and its quintessentially postmodern protagonist. Although no film has ever been made directly from the story of Catcher in the ye, Morgan (2010) points out that there have been allusions to Salinger stories in films like The Collector (1965) and Six Degrees of Separation (1993). Additionally, a 2013 documentary film about J.D. Salinger promises to reveal the…
Gopnik, A. (2010). Postscript: J.D. Salinger. The New Yorker. Retrieved online: http://www.newyorker.com/talk/2010/02/08/100208ta_talk_gopnik
McGrath, C. (2010). J.D. Salinger, literary recluse, dies at 91. International New York Times. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/29/books/29salinger.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Morgan, K. (2010). Six stories: Salinger inspired cinema. The Huffington Post. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/kim-morgan/six-stories-salinger-insp_b_443099.html
Runcie, C. (2013). JD Salinger unpublished stories 'leaked online'. 28 Nov 2013. The Telegraph. Retrieved online: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/booknews/10480275/JD-Salinger-unpublished-stories-leaked-online.html
Duncombe, Stephen. 2005. The Bobbed Haired Bandit. New York: New York University Press.
Stephen Duncombe, an Associate Professor in the Department of Media, Culture and Communications at the Gallatin School of New York University, wrote a true story of a dark-haired woman in Brooklyn in January 1924. He, teaching politics of media and history wrote The Bobbed Haired Bandit to show snippets of 1924 life from the perspective of the small, dark-haired woman robber. The woman wore a fur coat with a beaded dress underneath and as she was about to pay for the eggs and took out an automatic pistol from her coat pocket to rob the grocery store worker. It was here that reader gets to see the scope of not just the story, but also the character. The character and the argument of the book shows how a woman could overcome her circumstances through daring and risky…
Though he has vowed to destroy as many vampires as he can and to protect humankind, he is faced with the paradox of destroying part of his identity while trying to save the other. Blade possesses many qualities of a hero, particularly the qualities imbued by his vampiric semi-transformation and his ability and resolve to be courageous for the betterment of humanity. Mythological heroes, much like Blade, often had a close, but conflicted, relationship with their supernatural adversaries and benefactors. Though Blade possesses characteristics of a classical hero, he is also a Byronic hero, as well as an antihero. Like the Byronic hero, Blade comes from a troubled past, is emotionally conflicted, intelligent, and mysterious, but is also considered an outcast. Because Blade is not human, nor is he demon, he struggles to find his place in the world and is forced to live on the fringe of both societies,…
death conveniently resolves the problem of the murder of the Soc and is followed within hours as Whissen puts it, "Dally is made into a tragic antihero. He 'fought for Johnny,' and when Johnny dies, Dally, too, must die. And what he dies for is the absence of fairness in the world, for as all teenagers know, life is anything but fair. Again, though, where adults may guffaw at the sentimental silliness of Dally's way of death, Hinton makes it all quite credible -- even moving" (p. 185).
These events also serve as the basis for Ponyboy redeeming himself academically with his English teacher who cautions him that, "Pony, I'll give it to you straight. You're failing this class right now, but taking into consideration the circumstances, if you come up with a good semester theme, I'll pass you with a C. grade" (p. 178). After calling his English teacher…
Bereska, T.M. (2003). The changing boys' world in the 20th century: Reality and "fiction." the
Journal of Men's Studies, 11(2), 157.
Herz, S.K. & Gallo, D.R. (1996). From Hinton to Hamlet: Building bridges between young adult literature and the classics. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Hinton, S.E. (1967). The outsiders. New York: Viking Press.
Journal Part 2
Odysseus is obviously the protagonist of the story -- seeing as how it's got his name on it -- but is he a hero? Would he be considered a hero today, based on contemporary standards? What evidence can you find to support both sides (heroic and not heroic)?
Odysseus takes revenge upon the suitors occupying his house, both the good and the bad, and he is not condemned for this by the author. Homeric Greece was a pre-Christian 'dog eat dog' society very different from our own. Odysseus is avenging the will of the gods as well as his own honor and his wife and house's honor, given that it was considered a sin to act in an inhospitable manner to a host. A hero today would likely show more mercy -- and also be physically faithful to Penelope. But Odysseus has an almost 'action hero' like…
Many critics consider the name Godot to be a hidden name for God. Godot in the end is a paradox. The dramatist described in his play the person at the end of the World War II. It is a person who can be characterized as master and victim of will. The characters have a will but their wishes destroy them. The characters are waiting for someone or something to save them.
From the aesthetic point-of-view the postmodernism movement pleads for an anti-narrative structure of the work. Tarantino's film, "Pulp Fiction," doesn't have a classic plot. Two stories that seem unrelated come together in a "non linear plot." The first story is about two thieves, Honey unny and Pumpkin who decide to rob a restaurant, and the second story of two hit men working for mob, named Vincent and Jules.
The novel "Finnegan's Wake" by James Joyce is constructed using strange…
Klages, M. 2003 "Postmodernism." University of colorado. http://www.colorado.edu/English/courses/ENGL2012Klages/pomo.html
Wikipedia The Free encyclopedia, "Posmodernism" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Postmodernism
Wikipedia The Free encyclopedia "Waiting for Godot" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waiting_for_Godot
Wickipedia The Free encyclopedia "Finnegan's Wake http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finnegans_Wake
One can almost consider that American filmmaking contains fixed ideas where Japanese motion pictures produced by Kurosawa are the result of complex concepts coming from a series of cultures being brought together. In spite of the fact that Kurosawa's film goes against some of the most respected Japanese values during the 1950s, it is nonetheless related to the general context involving Japan. It follows Japanese film-making rules in an attempt to captivate an Asian public through having viewers identify with the characters from time to time. While the fact that the ronins in the film are shown as being glorious and as generally being responsible for the fact that the situation is saved, this type of people was considered to be predisposed to performing immoral acts at the time when the motion picture was released. The Japanese had just survived an international conflict that claimed the lives of many and…
1. Dir. Akira Kurosawa. Seven Samurai. Columbia Pictures, 1956.
2. Dir. John Sturges. The Magnificent Seven. United Artists, 1960.
film and events in American history. There are five references used for this paper.
Some events in history and various aspects of the entertainment industry have been known to affect each other. It is interesting to determine whether the Great Depression affected American Comedy, as well as why newsreels were important during orld ar II, and how they influenced fictional combat film.
The Great Depression
hen the Great Depression occurred, many Americans went from living in comfortable homes with plenty to eat, to living on the streets and begging for money and food on corners. These people did not have many reasons to laugh, and therefore it was important for the entertainment industry to find ways to take their minds of their troubles.
The Screwball Comedy
Since the "earliest days of cinema, there has been the existence of clown comedy, however the screwball variety arose during the Great Depression. One…
Bresler, Robert J. "The death of Hollywood's Golden Age and the changing American character." USA Today. (1997): 01 March.
Gehring, Wes D. "Screwballs of the silver screen: a treasured comedy genre turns 70: the
1934 releases of 'It Happened One Night' and 'Twentieth Century' launched
Hollywood into an era of madcap zaniness that endures to this day." USA Today
(Catwoman: Catholic News Service)
Capital: The movie Director, Pitof has put in $100 million unceremoniously in the newest attempt at cinematic comic book franchisedom which is an ample proof that a bad idea at Hollywood must be containing nine lives like that of a cat. Hally Berry gave her performance closely an unbearable as the one she gave accepting her Oscar award, assumes the role of Patience Philips, a graphic artist for a cosmetics company managed by George Hedare and his wife who is a model Laurel played by Sharon Stone. Instilled with the mystical cat Mojo, Patience does not just takes the features of a cat- consuming cans of tuna fish, climbing up the furniture, hissing at dogs but also gains new strength, confidence and also love, in the form of Tom Lone played by Benjamin Bratt. Nearly as perplexing as the motives of Pitof what really…
Cast Crew, and Other Info: The Scores. Retrieved at http://www.bureau42.com/view/2458Accessed on 21 July, 2005
Catwoman: Movie Reviews. Retrieved at http://www.pluggedinonline.com/movies/movies/a0001833.cfm. Accessed on 22 July, 2005
Catwoman: Story. Retrieved at http://wwws.warnerbros.co.uk/movies/catwoman/story.html. Accessed on 21 July, 2005
Catwoman: Verdict. Retrieved at http://www.searchsa.com.au/review/Movie_Review.asp?id=91. Accessed on 21 July, 2005
Also, these concepts emphasize the limits associated with the American peoples, as by being as realistic as they possibly could be they made it possible for viewers to accept that a estern did not necessarily have to involve a heroic cowboy running off into the sunset consequent to killing the bad guys and saving the damsels in distress.
These films were all about presenting American values as realistically as possible with the purpose of influencing viewers to accept that there is actually much more to the American culture than one might be inclined to believe.
Campbell, Jeff, "USA 5th Edition," (Lonely Planet, 01.03.2008)
"3:10 to Yuma," Retrieved March 20, 2013, from the Reel Gouda ebsite: http://thereelgouda.blogspot.ie/2007/09/310-to-yuma.html
"Yippie ki-yay! The western's not ridden off into the sunset yet," Retrieved March 20, 2013, from the Guardian ebsite: http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/filmblog/2007/oct/29/willlawrencemonampic
Karnick, S.T. "3:10 to Yuma: Review," Retrieved March 20, 2013, from the…
Campbell, Jeff, "USA 5th Edition," (Lonely Planet, 01.03.2008)
"3:10 to Yuma," Retrieved March 20, 2013, from the Reel Gouda Website: http://thereelgouda.blogspot.ie/2007/09/310-to-yuma.html
"Yippie ki-yay! The western's not ridden off into the sunset yet," Retrieved March 20, 2013, from the Guardian Website: http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/filmblog/2007/oct/29/willlawrencemonampic
Karnick, S.T. "3:10 to Yuma: Review," Retrieved March 20, 2013, from the American Culture Website: http://stkarnick.com.previewc45.carrierzone.com/culture/?p=3309
American Academy Pediatrics publication a critique a media portrayal substance, links made AAP statement material. The password EBook: apusstudent I uploaded rest material.
American Academy of Pediatrics' Policy Statement concerning media portrayal of substance abuse touches upon several important issues that arise along with the media products' influence on America's young population at large. The article's targeted list of open-access channels associated with messages of noxious substance use include advertisements, television shows, motion pictures, social websites and music. Attention is directed specifically towards the findings of broadly conducted research in the matter of harm inflicted on children and adolescents as a result of the entertainment industry's depictions of legal and illegal substances, such as alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and heroin. Based on these findings, Pediatrics proposes a set of familial, institutional and legislative measures designed to minimize or abolish the destructive influence that media effects on a child's and teenager's development…
American Academy of Pediatrics. (2010, October). Policy Statement -- Children, Adolescents, Substance Abuse and the Media. Pediatrics, Vol. 126, No. 4, pp. 791-799.
Levinthal, C.F. (2012). Drugs, Behavior, and Modern Society, Seventh Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Macdonald, A. (Producer), & Boyle, D. (Director). (1996). Trainspotting [Motion picture]. United Kingdom: Channel Four Films.
Roberts, D.F. et al. (1999). Substance Use in Popular Movies and Music. Office of National Drug Control Policy, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (U.S.). Retrieved from www.ncjrs.gov
In addition, protests against the war were readily televised at that time and protesters became more aware of the benefits of televised protest.[footnoteRef:4] the efforts of black anti-segregationists also benefits from televised coverage and became more conversant with valuable uses of the medium.[footnoteRef:5] in addition, popular culture became more open to black citizens: a "black sitcom" called "The Jeffersons" debuted in 1975 and revolved around the lives of a prosperous, cantankerous wealthy black man, his family and an interracial couple.[footnoteRef:6] in addition, in 1977, the 7-part mini-series "Roots" -- a story of numerous generations in of a black family stretching from capture/slavery to freedom in America -- aired with approximately 130 million Americans -- more than half the U.S. population of that time, watching at least part of the series and approximately 100 million viewers watching the final episode.[footnoteRef:7] There was also increased "agitation" for women's rights, which was aided…
cinematic image of the Sabra beginning with the early Zionist films, through the national-heroic mode, and ending with the critical attitude of the late 1970s and 1980s
The 1955 film Hill 24 Doesn't Answer is one of the first products of Israeli cinema. It is meant to be a stirring portrait of the new Jewish state. It dramatizes the then-recent war of independence. The film shows the war bringing together Jews of disparate backgrounds, all united by the need to defend Israel. "In Israeli culture, the figure of the Sabra" during the time period when Hill was made was considered a kind of ideal national type, exemplifying the new Jewish attitude that was free from fear and persecution (Avisar 132). The national ideal of a state that could triumph against all odds and was strong, both spiritually and militarily, is conveyed by the film through the physical strength and determination…
Avisar, Ilan. "The national and the popular in Israeli cinema." 2005. 24.1 (2005): 125.
Charlie Ve'hetzi. Directed by Boaz Davidson. 1974
Hill 24 Doesn't Answer. Directed by T. Dickenson. 1955.
Smith, Anthony. "The formation of national identity." Identity. Oxford, 1995.
Aristotle is considered to be the philosopher of philosophers, he virtually wrote about everything, he pioneered most of the disciplines like psychology, biology, meteorology and political science. For almost a thousand years Aristotle's theories were unchallenged such was the impact of his philosophy and thought. The medieval philosophy of Scholastics and early enaissance thinkers borrowed heavily from Aristotle. At the root of Aristotle's philosophy was his doctrine of virtue and natural law. Aristotle believed that everything in life serves a purpose "telos" as he called it and distinguished "efficient" causes from "final" causes. 'Efficient causes are those things or processes that lead to the final cause, they are the means to ends, for example a painter uses paints and brush to create a work of art, the brush and paints are tools, process to make a painting. While the final cause is the end product, the painting. Similarly…
Paresh D. Bhatt Aristole on Happiness and Virtue: http://www.swaminarayan.org/essays/2002/2203.htm
Aristotle on Internet Encyclopedia: http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/a/aristotl.htm
Virtue Theory on Internet Encyclopedia: http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/v/virtue.htm
Frankenstein by Mary Shelley (chapter 1-10 only)
Frankenstein: Nature as a refuge
One of the most interesting aspects of Mary Shelley's Frankenstein: The modern Prometheus is the extent to which the monster, just like his creator Victor Frankenstein, embodies the ideal of the Romantic antihero. Victor Frankenstein uses science to challenge human limitations. However, he also finds comfort in nature when he feels depressed and desolate, realizing the mistake he has made in creating a monster. "The sight of the awful and majestic in nature had indeed always the effect of solemnizing my mind, and causing me to forget the passing cares of life" (Chapter 10). But the monster also finds comfort in nature because he is ostracized from the rest of humanity because of his ugliness. His soul is beautiful at first but because he is rejected he becomes ugly and hateful in his actions. The rejection by his…
Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. The Online Literature Library. Web 19 Dec 2014.
Crime in Literature and Film
"Red Dragon" by Thomas Harris and "Manhunter" by Michael Mann
The original version of the novel red dragon was written by Thomas Harris in 1981. In the words of est, only few authors have risen to the level of relevance and success as Thomas Harris, who authored just five novels, beginning from 1975. The Red Dragon, with other fictional works in the same series, is a famous fictional book built around a crime thriller. The book was later adapted in the 1986 Michael Mann movie, Manhunter. Some key actors that played key roles in these movie series are Brain Cox, the first ever actor to play the role of Dr. Hannibal Lecter, the manhunter antagonist, who became the Red Dragon's protagonist. However, some other actors like Anthony Hopkins in the movie, the Silence of the Lamb and Red Dragon, Hannibal's Mads Mikkelsen and Hannibal Rising's…
Vest, Jason P. "Dissecting Hannibal Lecter: Essays on the Novels of Thomas Harris." Journal of the Fantastic in the Arts (2009): 297-300.
Vlastelica, Ryan. Tracking Hannibal Lecter, from Manhunter to Red Dragon. 25 August 2015. 17 February 2016 .
Williams, Nicholas. "Eating Blake, or an essay on Taste: The Case of Thomas Harris's Red Dragon." Cultural Critique (1999): 137-162.
Theatrical Analysis of Macbeth and Antigone
The most accounted features of a tragedy are the gloominess of atmosphere, solemnity of action, mental conflicts, strain, suspense and capability of capturing the audience. Tragedy tries to stimulate the sentiments of pity and fear (Devi 1). Thus, this study is comparing the two Shakespearean and Greek tragedies, Macbeth and Antigone. This analysis will compare and contrast the two plays, their theme, comparison of main characters, conflict, plot etc. The purpose of this study is to provide a deeper understanding of the plays to the reader and to assess the similarity and differences in both the plays. Macbeth unfolds the story of a man, ambitious to become a king. He even murders King Duncan to fulfil his ambition due to the prophecy of the three witches and his wife, Lady Macbeth. However, he ends up dying because of his greediness. Antigone, on the other…
Boyd, Catherine Bradshaw. The Isolation of Antigone and Lady Macbeth. The Classical Journal, vol. 47, no. 5(Feb., 1952), 174-177+203, 2014, http://www.wwrsd.org/cms/lib04/NJ01000230/Centricity/Domain/230/Article%203.pdf . Accessed 11 Apr. 2017.
Cap, Adam. Creon as a Tragic Character in "Antigone." AdamCap.com, 16 Feb. 2016, https://adamcap.com/schoolwork/creon-as-a-tragic-character-in-antigone/ Accessed 12 Apr. 2017.
Chu, Dennis. Comparison of Macbeth and Oedipus. Prezi.com, 2010, https://prezi.com/jyrpci7hthum/comparison-of-macbeth-and-oedipus/ . Accessed 10 Apr. 2017.
Collins, J. Churton. Structure and Plot of Antigone. TheatreHistory.com, 2006, http://www.theatrehistory.com/ancient/structure_and_plot_of_antigone.html . Accessed 10 Apr. 2017.
Conflict Between Exterior and Interior Life
Kate Chopin's "The story of an Hour" offers a story behind a story. First it can be noted that this talks about Mr. And Mrs. Mallard. Mrs. Mallard received a news that her husband has just died. This prompted for a roller coaster of emotions to build inside her heart and mind.
First, she felt sadness. She was saddened by the fact that she is now alone and that her husband will no longer be with her. But the feeling of sadness did not stay for long in Mrs. Mallard's heart because she suddenly realized that she is now free. The death of her husband would mean that nobody will hurt her anymore. Because her husband is dead, nobody will discriminate her anymore. Nobody will make her feel that she is just a low or second class citizen. Nobody will prevent her from doing…
Chopin, Kate. The Complete Works of Kate Chopin. Ed. Per Seyersted. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1969.