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"The violent struggle between the two suns has spread chaos and confusion and ends in bloodshed. Nevertheless, Caesar rejects this world peopled with mutilated bodies and wishes to build his new empire on solid stony funerary monuments." (Sabatier 185) Not only have several people died because of Caesar's run for supremacy, but they have also sacrificed. Opposed ideologies or views are often met in these kinds of plays with loss and death. After the rivalry with Pompey ceased, a new conflict emerged from the loss of, what Romans perceived within the play, freedom. To further add to the Roman theme and Caesar, Caesar becomes an antagonist in Antony and Cleopatra. Along with Octavian and other characters, they provide the source of pain for the protagonists and supporting characters within the play.
What are Jacobean plays? Where does this term stem from? The term Jacobean comes from the Jacobean era. In…
Shakespeare's Antony And Cleopatra
Love and Poetic Imagery in Shakespeare's "Antony and Cleopatra."
In William Shakespeare's play, Antony and Cleopatra, some people blame Antony for jeopardizing his oman manliness for the love of Cleopatra, and some people think that the play shows that the oman world of power and martial honor is well lost for love. This paper will discuss the depictions of Antony's and Cleopatra's respective conflicts, and how those depictions portray the value of romantic love. The discussion will begin with Antony's conflict, which is a struggle between reason and emotion, mind and heart. This conflict is a central theme to the play, and is even manifest in a geographic and political sense as the struggle between the western world of ome and the eastern world of Egypt. The discussion will move to Cleopatra, and show that she is at the center of the same struggle, and is…
Craig, Hardin. Shakespeare: Revised Edition. Chicago: Scott, Foresman and Company, (1958)
____. "Antony and Cleopatra." SparkNotes. 2004. Barnes and Noble. 8 September 2004. http://www.sparknotes.com/shakespeare/antony/
Shakespeare's Antony And Cleopatra
William Shakespeare is important because, as T.S. Eliot said, Shakespeare (along with Dante) divide the world between them; there is no third."[footnoteRef:1] Eliot's point is that Shakespeare represents the height of modern drama and remains the ultimate "truth teller" for the modern world.[footnoteRef:2] Thus, Shakespeare's depiction of the classical figures of Mark Antony and Cleopatra, while not strictly historically accurate, is accurate in a more dramatic sense because they are representatives of the height and exaltation of human passion at odds with duty and the corrupting effects of the affairs of state. Antony and Cleopatra sit as though at the top of the world and may, in a sense, reflect the exultation that Shakespeare himself was feeling as a successful playwright in London, performing before the monarch, enjoying prestige and patronage, and sensing his own role in the "reshaping" or retelling of history through the lens…
Eliot, T.S. "The Waste Land." Bartleby. Web.
Greenblatt, Stephen. Will in the World. NY W.W. Norton, 2004.
Montrose, Louis. The Subject of Elizabeth. IL: University of Chicago Press, 2006.
Scott, John. Understanding Dante. IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2004.
This godlessness might initially be viewed as being cynical. However, when one looks at the social and political climate of Shakespeare's time, and the reality that England was just passing through a conversion from Catholicism to the Anglican church, driven by Henry VIII's desire to divorce and remarry, it might not be accurate to label godlessness in the play as cynical. Perhaps that is the view that Shakespeare is suggesting is idyllic, given the turmoil that organized religion had helped create in his country in recent history. This lack of a clear-cut explanation of the godlessness in the play, and of the playful way in which Cleopatra obliterates any claim Antony might actually have to self-divinity, shows how cynicism and idealism are caught in this cycle.
Nowhere in the play is the cycle of cynicism and idealism more dramatically showcased than in the play's final scenes. Caesar has conquered Egypt…
Fuller, David. "Passion and Politics: Antony and Cleopatra in Performance." Antony and Cleopatra: New Critical Essays. Ed. Sara Muson Deats. New York: Routledge, 2005.
Hirsh, James. "Rome and Egypt in Antony and Cleopatra and in Criticism of the Play." Antony
and Cleopatra: New Critical Essays. Ed. Sara Muson Deats. New York: Routledge, 2005. 175-192.
Antony and Cleopatra. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from:
Brown, Lenora Inez. "Enter the Body: omen and Representation on Shakespeare's Stage." American Theatre. May 01, 2001. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Desmet, Christy. "omen's Matters: Politics, Gender, and Nation in Shakespeare's Early History Plays." Comparative Drama. September 22, 2000. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Hunt, Maurice. "Shakespeare's Venetian paradigm: stereotyping and Sadism in The Merchant of Venice and Othello." Papers on Language & Literature. March 22, 2003. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Julius Caesar, The Life and Death of. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from:
Othello, The Moore of Venice. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from:
Starks, Lisa S. "Like the lover's pinch, which hurts and is desired: The Narrative
of Male Masochism and Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra." Literature and Psychology. December 22,…
Antony and Cleopatra. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from:
Brown, Lenora Inez. "Enter the Body: Women and Representation on Shakespeare's Stage." American Theatre. May 01, 2001. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Desmet, Christy. "Women's Matters: Politics, Gender, and Nation in Shakespeare's Early History Plays." Comparative Drama. September 22, 2000. Retrieved September 30, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Conventional literature would
come to see Cleopatra as an exploitive whore, responsible for the downfall
of virtuous men like the Ptolemies, Julius Caesar and, inevitably, Marc
Antony as well. So is this reported by historical accounts such as that by
Cassius Dio who reflected that "Indeed she so enchanted and enthralled not
only Antony but all others who counted for anything with him that she came
to entertain the hope that she would rule the Romans as well, and whenever
she took an oath, the most potent phrase she used were the words, 'So
surely as I shall one day give judgement [sic] on the Capitol.'" (Cassius
Dio, 39) The argument given here in defining her persona would be the
clear understanding of her imperialist intent, so to say that it had been
always an ambition for this ruler to extend the Egyptian influence to new
heights. The Roman perspective…
Ashmawy, A.K. (1995). Cleopatra: The Last Pharoah, B.C. 69-30. History
of Alexandria. Online at <
Burstein, S.M. (2004). The Reign of Cleopatra. Greenwood Publishing
King Herod, The Great
Quite a variety of members belonging to the royal dynasty had their names Herod being originated in Edom or Idumea after John Hyrcanus in 125 B.C was obligated to adopt the Jewish religion (1). The Herod family ruled in Palestine as vassals of the omans. Followed by Maccabees, the history of this dynasty mainly relates to the political history of Palestine during this whole era (1).
omans in 40 B.C made Herod I the Great, son of Antipater the king who managed to keep hold of his throne even during the times of changes in the government at ome (1). Herod's kingdom includes Idumea, Galilee, Judea, Batanea, Samaria and Peraea, which was more or less the same size as the kingdom of David and Solomon (1).
Though Herod had outstanding leadership skills, yet he was greatly detested by the Jews. One of the reasons for disliking…
Bible History. King Herod the great, the Servant of Rome.
Follow the Rabbi. Herod the Great.
A in millions)
Current in millions)
Provided by Federal ureau of Investigation as of September 18, 2006. www.whitehouse.gov/goodbye/3ae6b1ac94aa97e6650780f280890a7c81100e47.html"
CHART: National Correctional Populations
National Correctional Populations
The number of adults in correctional population has been increasing.
A in millions)
Current million in millions)
Provided by ureau of Justice Statistics as of November 30, 2006. (Social Statistics riefing Room, 2006)
Violence in the Media
Huston and colleagues have estimated that the average 18-year-old will have viewed 200,000 acts of violence on television (Huston, a.C., Donnerstein, E., Fairchild, H. et al. ig World, Small Screen: The Role of Television in American Society. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.)
41% percent of American households have three or more televisions (Nielsen Media Research, 2000).
56% of children ages 8-16 have a television in their rooms (Annenberg Public Policy Center, 2000. Media in the Home 2000)
Percentage of television-time children ages 2-7 spend…
Alter, Jonathan. "Moving Beyond the Blame Game. (Panel Discussion)," Newsweek, May 17, 1999.
Beyer, John. "PERSPECTIVE: How movie and TV violence hits children; Is there too much violence on television and is it time to curb it? John Beyer, director of the organization mediawatch-uk argues that media viol," Birmingham Post, March 21, 2007.
Chatfield, Joanne E.. "Influence of Media Violence on Children." American Family Physician, February 15, 2002.
Children's Hospital Boston. "Teen-Rated Video Games Loaded With Violence;
Etruscans as a monolithic group, in fact, they covered a wide geographic area with a civilization that spans many centuries from a millennium BCE to their putative dissolution a couple of decades BCE (Time International, 2001). The sculpture Etruscan warrior supporting a wounded comrade, from the early fifth century BCE, was created in about the middle of the Etruscan era.
At the time this sculpture was created, the Etruscans had begun exploring the coast of what is now known as the Italian peninsula. The Etruscans enjoyed dominion on the seas at the time, giving them "tremendous potential for trade as well as piracy" (Time International, 2001). It is obvious from the embellishment on the clothing of the two warriors that the Etruscans enjoyed their sea-based wealth. It is also easy to believe, as Time (2001) contends, that the Etruscans were a more jovial people than were the omans who supplanted…
Dillard, Annie. (2004) Etruscans, losing their edge. American Scholar, March 22. Retrieved 20 October 2004 from www.highbeam.com.
Julius Caesar Historical Background. Retrieved 20 October 2004 from www.vroma.org/~bmcmanus/caesar.html
Masters of power and pleasure: A display of Etruscan arts and crafts reveals a civilization that seemed to enjoy a good fight as much as a good party. (2001) Time International, February 12. Retrieved 20 October 2004 from www.highbeam.com.
Rehak, Paul. (2001) Aeneas or Numa? Rethinking the meaning of the Ara Pacis Augustae. The Art Bulletin, June 1. Retrieved 20 October 2004 from www.highbeam.com.
"Sonnet 130" by Shakespeare and "Sonnet 23" by Louis Labe both talk about love, as so many sonnets do. Their respective techniques however, differentiate them from each other. Shakespeare uses a rhyme scheme that became known as Shakespearean rhyme scheme or English rhyme. He writes about love in a sarcastic manner though. He is mocking the traditional love poems and the usual expressive manner in which women are often compared to. It is ironic in a way because Shakespeare himself also uses the very techniques in his previous writing when he is writing from a man's point-of-view and describing a woman. But in this sonnet he uses the technique of mocking this exaggerated comparison. Usually women are compared to having skin as white as snow, however, in reality, Shakespeare points out, women don't really fit this description, "If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun."
Indeed, they are both supporter of Communism and here we are already talking about the mature period of Communist in its fight against the Imperialists (certainly, these are the same imperialists that would have paid Rivera for painting Rockefeller Centre) and the meeting between the couple and Trotsky is defining for the late phase of their relationship.
Artistic practices and values
Ted Hughes and Sylvia Plath and Frida and Diego are extremely relevant for this category. First of all, Frida and Diego are members of the artistic community of Mexico and not only (and we are referring here to their presence in France during a time of artistic effervescence, as well as to their trip in the United States), this is the community that influences them and from where they draw their identity as artists. Additionally, it is their art that pulls them together each time the fall apart on…
1. Cleopatra VII - Ptolemaic Dynasty. On the Internet at http://www.pcf-p.com/a/m/rig/rig.html.Last retrieved on December 11, 2006
Cleopatra VII - Ptolemaic Dynasty. On the Internet at
..and it is unlikely that the military will attempt to take over the executive branch by a coup." (2007) the media is not informing the citizens of what is occurring in many cases and a recent attempt to make a citizens arrest by over 8,000 individuals in Washington of President ush relating to war crimes resulted in many of those individuals being tasered and arrested.
SUMMARY and CONCLUSION
The future of the United States, according to what is known of the history of Rome, the predecessor upon which the U.S. originally based the form of its democratic government, appears to be bleak indeed. However, there is hope that the next presidential election will progress in a democratic manner and that the newly elected president will have the stamina and integrity required to see the United States return to the democracy upon which it was based and with the least pain…
Smitha, Frank E. (1998) From Republic to Emperor Augustus:. MacroHistory Online available at http://www.fsmitha.com/h1/ch18.htm
Urbinati, Nadia (2002) the Criticism of Intellectual Critics. Online available at http://logosonline.home.igc.org/urbinati.htm
Johnson, Chalmers (2007) Republic or Empire: A National Intelligence Estimate on the United States. Harper's Magazine. Jan 2007. Online available at http://www.harpers.org/archive/2007/01/0081346
Tomgram: Chalmers Johnson on the Fall of the Republic (2003) TomDispatch.com 9 Sept. 2003. Online available at http://www.tomdispatch.com/post/938/chalmers_johnson_on_the_fall_of_the_republic/
Historians of Judaism actually date the strong Jewish emphasis on monotheism somewhat later than expected within Jewish history. The archaeological discovery of idols and artifacts indicating cultic participation from the time of Israel's presence in Canaan has seemed to indicate a relative laxity in actual practice before the Babylonian captivity, while textual criticism seems agreed that most of the Torah's foregrounded statements of strong monotheism date from textual recensions during the Babylonian captivity, and thus substantially post-date both the J-writer and the E-writer of the Old Testament (Moberly 217). But the strong emphasis on monotheism which comprises the first commandment given by Yahweh to Moses is a defining feature of Judaism in prevailing polytheistic cultures where the Jews can define their religion in opposition, so to speak. I would like to examine three separate ways in which Jewish monotheism defined itself against a kind of prevailing cultural polytheism.…
Ferrill, Arther. Caligula, Emperor of Rome. London: Thames and Hudson, 1991. Print.
Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and its Discontents. Translated with an introduction by James Strachey. New York: W.W. Norton and Co, 1962. Print.
Freud, Sigmund. Moses and Monotheism. Translated by Katherine Jones. London: Hogarth Press, 1939. Print.
Gay, Peter. Freud: A Life for Our Time. New York: Norton, 1998. Print.
Most Elizabethans believed their self-identity was wrapped up in a cosmic paradigm of fate and destiny, and were somehow controlled by the stars and planets and had a power over the baser side of man -- tools of God, but with certain amounts of free will. Thus, a very central idea in Shakespeare is this central view that an individual's identity is set by God, the Planets, the Universe, the Gods, and Nature. But in contrast, the idea of free will for the individual -- or even a single utterance or decision, can change forever the destiny of the individual. A superb example of this is in Romeo and Juliet.
Fate and chance surround the identities of the major and minor characters in RJ almost from the opening scene. Because the audience already believed that their destiny was predetermined, they saw the characters as having very little choice in their…
Myths - "The Other Side of Wonder"
Like the empty sky it has no boundaries, yet it is right in this place, ever profound and clear.2
So run the lines from Cheng Tao, describing signifying, identifying myths - always there explaining existence and every facet of life, explaining the reason behind every man's actions:
For what is a myth? Lillian Hornstein3 describes it best. "A myth is the traditional tale common to the members of a tribe, race, or nation, usually involving the supernatural and serving to explain some natural phenomena. Given as an example is the tale of Persephone, daughter of Demeter, abducted by Hades and brought to the underworld but allowed to return to earth and visit her mother for six months. Thus, we have the varied alternations of the season on earth.
Shall we consider the social-cultural effects of myths positive or negative?
13 Mervill pp. 8-9
14 Mervill on Aristotle, pp. 25-30
15 Beehler, Roger and Alan, Drengson. The Philosophy of Society. London: Methiren and Co., 1978