Anxiety Disorder Essays (Examples)

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Disordered Eating in College Students

Words: 5808 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39021106

Relationships provide the key experience that connects children's personal and social worlds. It is within the dynamic interplay between these two worlds that minds form and personalities grow, behavior evolves and social competence begins." (1999) Howe relates that it is being acknowledged increasingly that "...psychologically, the individual cannot be understood independently of his or her social and cultural context. The infant dos not enter the world as a priori discrete psychological being. Rather, the self and personality form as the developing mind engages with the world in which it finds itself." (Howe, 1999) Therefore, Howe relates that there is: "...no 'hard boundary' between the mental condition of individuals and the social environments in which they find themselves. The interaction between individuals and their experiences creates personalities. This is the domain of the psychosocial." (Howe, 1999) the work of Howe additionally states that attachment behavior "...brings infants into close proximity to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ainsworth, M.D.S. (1989). Attachments beyond infancy. American Psychologist, 44, 709-716.

Allen, Jon G. (2001) a Model for Brief Assessment of Attachment and Its Application to Women in Inpatient Treatment for Trauma Related Psychiatric Disorders Journal of Personality Assessment 2001 Vol. 76. Abstract Online available at http://www.leaonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/S15327752JPA7603_05?cookieSet=1&journalCode=jpa

Armsden, G.C., & Greenberg, M.T. (1987). The inventory of parent and peer attachment: Individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 427-454.

Barrocas, Andrea L. (2006) Adolescent Attachment to Parents and Peers. The Emory Center for Myth and Ritual in American Life. Working Paper No. 50 Online available at http://www.marial.emory.edu/pdfs/barrocas%20thesisfinal.doc
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Psychological Disorder

Words: 576 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92100674

Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Film

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), as defined by the American Psychiatric Association (AMA), involves excessive worry and anxiety for a six-month period or longer (AMA 429). GAD is not typically associated with the more intense expressions of anxiety, such as panic attacks or panic disorder (Shelton S2), yet the degree of worry and anxiety experienced is easily recognized as disproportionate for the reality of the situation (AMA 473-475). A diagnosis depends in part on eliminating contributions from an underlying medical condition or the effects of a substance such as drugs or excessive caffeine, and the focus of the anxiety is not limited to a single concern, such as experiencing a panic attack or becoming deathly ill. The anxiety experienced therefore involves wide swaths of the patient's life.

Patients often report experiencing muscle tension, trembling, twitching, feeling shaky, muscle aches, soreness, sudden fatigue, irritability, and difficulty concentrating…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. New York: American Psychiatric Association, 2000. Print.

Analyze this. Dir. Harold Ramis. Perf. Robert De Niro, Billy Crystal, and Lisa Kudrow. Warner Brothers, 1999. Film.

Shelton, Charles I. Diagnosis and Management of Anxiety Disorders. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 104.3 (2004): S2-S5. Web.
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Bob Case Analysis of Anxiety

Words: 1074 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39062110

Mr. iley's agoraphobia is a matter of particular concern as this defensive response to his anxiety disorder has prevented the subject from engaging a normal, health, active, productive life. According to A.D.A.M. (2010), "panic disorder with agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder in which there are repeated attacks of intense fear and anxiety, and a fear of being in places where escape might be difficult, or where help might not be available. Agoraphobia usually involves fear of crowds, bridges, or of being outside alone." (A.D.A.M., p. 1) The fear of the outside world has inclined the subject in this case to increasingly shut himself off from others and from opportunities to experience life. The result, A.D.A.M. (2010) reports, is a deepening sense of isolation and a further descent into the irrational response mechanisms that have come to control Mr. iley's life.

Demographic Implications:

One major demographic concern for Mr. iley might…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. (2010). Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia. PubMed Health.

DSM IV. (2010). DSM IV Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Criteria. Biological Unhapiness.com.

Malinckrodt, B.; Porter, M.J. & Kivlighan, D.M. (2005). Client Attachment to Therepist: Depth of In-Session Exploration, and Object Relations in Brief Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 42(1), 85-100.
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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Is

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80932247

While there are approximately 5 million people suffering from the illness at any one time in America, women are twice as likely to develop PTS as compared to men. In relation to children and teens, more than 40% has endured at least a single traumatic incident contributing the development of the disorder. However, PTS has occurred in nearly 15% of girls as compared to the 6% of boys.

Causative Factors of the isorder:

As previously discussed, the main cause of post traumatic stress disorder is exposure to a life-threatening, hugely unsafe, and frightening traumatic experience. These experiences are likely to contribute to the development of the disorder if the victim feels a constant sense of danger and painful experiences (Smith & Segal, 2012). As a result of this constant feeling of painful and frightening experience, the individual remains relatively unable to overcome the incident or feel normal again. Some of…… [Read More]

Diagnosis of the Disorder:

While post traumatic stress disorder has existed for as long as human beings have endured trauma, the illness was only recognized as a formal diagnosis in the 1980s (Dryden-Edwards & Stoppler, 2010). The diagnosis of PTSD is often comorbid with eating disorders, depression and substance abuse, anxiety disorders, and manic depression. The assessment of PTSD sometimes involves the use of rating scale or controlled psychiatric interview to test the disease. Some of the standardized screening tools for diagnosis of the disease include Trauma Screening Questionnaire and PTSD Symptom Scale.

Based on the DSM-IV-TR criteria for diagnosing PTSD, there are several necessary factors in this process including the patient's view of the trauma and duration and effect of associated symptoms (Grinage, 2003, p.2401). For this diagnosis to be conducted, the symptoms must exist for a minimum of one month and disrupted normal activities considerably. During this process, clinicians look for three major types of symptoms i.e. re-experiencing, avoidant, and increased arousal symptoms. The re-experiencing ones are those associated with recurrence of the traumatic event while avoidant are means in which the patient attempts to avoid the event and increased arousal symptoms are those associated with panic or anxiety attacks. The identification of
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy CBT Techniques for Combat Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder PTSD

Words: 5327 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85865281

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Combat Veterans With Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Although not limited to veterans, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) may be the single most significant mental health risk to veterans, particularly to those veterans that have seen combat. PTSD is an anxiety disorder, which occurs after a person has seen or experienced a traumatic event including, but not limited to: assault, domestic abuse, prison stay, rape, terrorism, war, or natural disaster (Vorvick et al., 2011). In fact, PTSD is unique among psychiatric diagnosis in that it "requires a specific type of event to occur from which the person affected does not recover" (esick et al., 2008). Veterans are at high risk of PTSD because they experience war, but they also experience many of the other traumatic events that can trigger PTSD in the course of the war. PTSD can have serious lifelong effects for veterans. It can impair…… [Read More]

References

Byers, M.G., Allison, K.M., Wendel, C.S., & Lee, J.K. (2010). Pra-zosin vs. quetiapine for nighttime posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in veterans: An assessment of long-term comparative effectiveness and safety. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 30, 225-229.

Chard, K., Schumm, J., Owens, G., & Cottingham, S. (2010). A comparison of OEF and OIF

veterans and Vietnam veterans receiving cognitive processing therapy. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23(1), 25-32.

Hassija, C.M., & Gray, M.J. (2010). Are cognitive techniques and interventions necessary? A
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Realm of Psychological Disorder Through the Use

Words: 2202 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14333578

realm of psychological disorder through the use of a character assessment. The character in question is fictional and the data used to evaluate the psychological profile derives from a movie. Melvin Udall, the main character in the movie "As Good as It Gets" serves as the character used in this assessment. Ultimately, I find and explore specific links to Melvin's condition in the movie to that of one suffering from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD).

In order to discuss the relationships previously mentioned, I needed to perform several steps in order to logically conclude that Melvin represents someone suffering from OCD symptoms. In order to accomplish this task, I first watched the film and examined many of the traits that Melvin demonstrated. Next, I used a set of ten questions which provided a baseline assessment formula. These questions are each answered separately within the body of this essay. This character assessment…… [Read More]

References

Atkins, L. (2009). A radical treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder patients. The Guardian, 14 Dec 2009. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2009/dec/15/obsessive-complusive-disorder- gamma-knife

Brooks, J.L. (1998) As Good As It Gets. Jack Nicholson, Helen Hunt, Greg Kinnear. Tristar Pictures.

Bouchard, C. Rheaume, J. Landouceru, R. (1998). Responsibility and perfectionism in OCD. Behavior Research Therapy 37 (1999). 239-248. Retrieved from http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/Homepage/Class/Psy394Q/Research%20Design%20Clas s/Assigned%20Readings/Experimental%20Psychopathology/Bouchard99.pdf

Eddy, M.F., & Walbroehl, G.S. (1998, April 1). Recognition and treatment of obsessive- compulsive disorder. American Family Physician, p. 1623-1632.  http://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0401/p1623.html
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Economic Burden Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder The

Words: 1410 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8852312

economic burden Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The research arguable issue yield a 1000-1200 words. All work local (USA) global.

The economic burden of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder has been discovered relatively recently, meaning as such that progress has yet to be made in terms of treatment and management. Additionally, research is also yet to be exhaustive, as numerous aspects of the affection remain uncharted.

One important aspect of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is represented by the economic cost of the affection, revealed at multiple levels, such as the cost for the healthcare system, as well as the costs for the family. The current project assesses this issue through the lenses of the research that has already been conducted on the topic, in an effort to centralize and conclude upon the matter. The means in which this endeavor would be addressed is that of the Toulmin Method.…… [Read More]

References:

Bernfort, L., Nordfeldt, S., Persson, J., 2007, ADHD from a socio-economic perspective, Foundation Acta Paediatrtica

Daley, D., Birchwood, J., 2009, ADHD and academic performance: why does ADHD impact on academic performance and what can be done to support ADHD children in the classroom, Child: care, health and development

Matza, L.S., Paramore, C., Prasad, M., 2005, A review of the economic burden of ADHD, http://www.resource-allocation.com/content/3/1/5 last accessed on March 30, 2012

Weida, S., Stolley, K., Organizing your argument, Owl Purdue, http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/588/03 / last accessed on March 30, 2012
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Panic Disorder Counseling Panic Disorder

Words: 4240 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27767876

Apparent health can be generally positive or negative; in spite of how it links with the real health; it may be significant to comprehend its function in certain kinds of psychopathology. Negatively apparent health has been anticipated to symbolize a cognitive risk factor for panic disorder (PD), detached from elevated anxiety feeling. As a result, PD may be more likely to take place on a background of negative perceptions of one's health. A negatively perceived health may also have predictive implications for PD patients, bearing in mind that negatively perceived health has been found to be a considerable predictor of mortality in general and that individuals with panic-like anxiety indications, panic attacks, and PD have elevated mortality rates, mostly due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular illnesses (Starcevick, Berle, Fenech, Milicevic, Lamplugh and Hannan, 2009).

Psychological

Studies have suggested that panic attacks (PA) are widespread and connected with an augmented occurrence of…… [Read More]

References

Carrera, M.; Herran, a.; Ramirez, M.L.; Ayestaran, a.; Sierra-Biddle, D.; Hoyuela, F.;

Rodriguez-Cabo, B.; Vazquez-Barquero, J.L..(2006). Personality traits in early phases of panic disorder: implications on the presence of agoraphobia, clinical severity and short-

term outcome. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 114(6), p.417-425.

Craske, Michelle G., Kircanski, Katharina, Phil., C., Epstein, Alyssa, Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich,
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Psychological Diagnosis Related Children Topic Generalized Anxiety

Words: 3739 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71398487

psychological diagnosis related children. TOPIC: GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER. Topics selected Diagnostic Statistical Manual Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR). The research paper discuss: a.

Anxiety disorders are presently responsible for interfering in people's lives and preventing them from being able to successfully integrate society. hen considering the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), matters are particularly intriguing as a result of the fact that many people have trouble identifying it and actually go through their lives thinking that their thinking is perfectly normal. In spite of the fact that there are no motives to provoke the exaggerated worry seen in people with GAD, they are unable to realize that they are overstressed. Millions of people from around the world are currently suffering from GAD, with the malady affecting virtually everything about their lives.

hile some individuals actually acknowledge the fact that their worries are unfounded, it is very difficult for them to put across rational…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Gliatto, M.F. "Generalized Anxiety Disorder." American Family Physician. October 1, 2000.

Kendall, Philip C. Pimentel, Sandra Moira Rynn, A. Angelosante, Aleta and Webb, Alicia "12 Generalized Anxiety Disorder," Phobic and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Clinician's Guide to Effective Psychosocial and Pharmacological Interventions, ed. Thomas H. Ollendick andJohn S. March (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004)

Murray, Megan "Treading Water: Self-reflections on Generalized Anxiety Disorder," Human Architecture 2.1 (2003)

Nutt, David; Bell, Caroline; Masterson, Christine and Short, Clare Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Psychopharmacological Approach (London: Martin Dunitz, 2001)
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Panic Disorder During Pregnancy and

Words: 1880 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57684873

The authors state, "underlying mechanism through which exposure to childhood abuse is associated with increased risk of panic cannot be determined based on these data alone" (p. 888). They offer several possible explanations. Exposure to abuse as a child may result in an extreme and realistic fear of threat to survival. This may be how panic disorder starts. Later, it may persist, or recur spontaneously, even without abusive conditions. In the face of a real life threat, panic is not pathological, but in childhood panic may make the child more vulnerable to panic later. Exposure to abuse may lead to biochemical changes that increase the risk of a disorder. Because the study was based on interviews with 18 to 21-year-olds, who were asked to recall past experiences, the findings could be contaminated by recall bias in which young people with mental instability might be more likely to report abuse in…… [Read More]

References

Bandelow, B., Sojka, F. et al. (2006). Panic disorder during pregnancy and postpartum period. European Psychiatry, 21, 495-500.

Biederman, J., Petty, C., Faraone, S.V. et al. (2006). Effects of parental anxiety disorders in children at high risk for panic disorder: A controlled study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 94, 191-197.

Goodwin, R.D., Fergusson, D.M. And Horwood, L.J. (2004). Childhood abuse and familial violence and the risk of panic attacks and panic disorder in young adulthood. Psychological Medicine, 35, 881-890.

Warren, S.L., Racu, C., Gregg, V. And Simmens, S.J. (2006). Maternal panic disorder: Infant prematurity and low birth weight. Anxiety Disorders, 20, 342-352.
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Clinical Disorder Clinical Psychology and

Words: 3626 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49707748

This leaves many veterans prone to the condition known as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This may be characterized as "an anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to a terrifying event or ordeal in which grave physical harm occurred or was threatened. Traumatic events that may trigger PTSD include violent personal assaults, natural or human-caused disasters, accidents, or military combat." (NIMH, 1) in the particular case of this discussion, military combat is a cause of PTSD that can have devastating long-term outcomes. Indeed, "studies estimate that as many as 500,000 troops serving in Iraq and Afghanistan will suffer from some form of psychological injury, with PTSD being the most common." (Eliscu, 58) the outcomes of this condition will run a wide range of symptoms that impact the ability of individuals to cope with the pressures of everyday life, to relate to those who have not experienced the traumas of war,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Blanco, C.; Laje, G.; Olfson, Marcus, S.C. & Pincus, H.A. (2002). Trends in the treatment of bipolar disorder by outpatient psychiatrists. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(6), 1005-1011.

Craddock, N.; O'Donovan, M.C. & Owen, M.J. (2005). The genetics of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: dissecting psychosis. Journal of Medical Genetics, 42, 193-204.

Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS)1. (2006). Anorexia Nervosa. Women's Health.gov

Ellenberger, H. (1970). Discovery of the Unconscious. New York: Basic Books.
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Neurotransmission OCD and the Psychotropic

Words: 2322 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76916718



Discussion

Though a great deal more is known about neurotransmission today than was known at the beginning of the research associated with the initial biological discoveries of neurotransmitters and the neurotransmission process there is still a great deal to be discovered. Neurotransmission disorganization and impairment is clearly identified as a pervasive aspect of many psychological disorders. This is particularly true of the anxiety disorders and OCD. There is no doubt that increased understanding of the various mechanisms of OCD and normal neurotransmission will add to a greater research understanding of the biological causalities and modalities of OCD.

Though the most simplistic and earliest neurotransmission disturbance theories have been largely discounted the research has created ample evidence of disturbances in neurotransmission function (in more complex terms) as the root cause of several psychological disorders including various forms of anxiety disorders the subgroup which OCD falls into.

…this research has revealed the…… [Read More]

References

Goodman, W.K., Rudorfer, M.V., & Maser, J.D. (Eds.). (2000). Obsessive-compulsive disorder contemporary issues in treatment. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hollander, E. Allen, A. Steiner, M. Wheadon, D.E. Oakes, R. Burnham, D.B. (September 2003) Acute and long-term treatment and prevention of relapse of obsessive-compulsive disorder with paroxetine. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 64(9) 1113-1121.

Howland, R.H. (2005). Chapter 6 Biological bases of psychopathology. In Psychopathology: Foundations for a Contemporary Understanding, Maddux, J.E. & Winstead, B.A. (Eds.) (pp. 109-119). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Liebowitz, M.R. Turner, S.M. Piacentini, J. Beidel, D.C. Clarvit, S.R. Davies, S.O. Graae, F. Jaffer, M. Lin, S. Sallee, F.R. Schmidt, A.B. Simpson, H.B. (December 2002) Fluoxetine in Children and Adolescents With OCD: A Placebo-Controlled Trial Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 41(12) 1431-1438.
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Avoidant Personality Disorder

Words: 4280 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14227618

Avoidant Personality Disorder

As per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), a certain case of avoidant personality disorder (APD) is featured by the existent sign of social inhibition, feeling of being short of requirement, and hypersensitivity to negative valuation. (American Psychiatric Association, 1994, p.1) Even though personality disorders are not often discovered in persons below age 18, children who come within the condition of APD are recurrently portrayed as being aloof to the core, fearful in arising circumstances, and afraid of dissention and social boycott. The proportion of the signs and the inability is way behind the practice of inhibition that is prevalent in as much as 40% of the populace. Hence it is of great relevance of examining the disorder as it relates to professional counseling.

Exploration of disorder

Bearing a semblance to other personality disorders, the state of Avoidant Personality disorder turns out…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association: (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Beck, Aaron T; Freeman, M.D; Arthur, Ed.D. (1990). "Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders." New York: The Guilford Press.

Benjamin, Lorna Smith (1996) "An Interpersonal Theory of Personality Disorders," in Major Theories of Personality Disorder, Clarkin, John F. & Lenzenweger, Mark F (Eds.). New York: The Guilford Press

Craig, Robert J. (1995). "Interpersonal Psychotherapy and MCMI-III -- Based Assessment, Tactical Psychotherapy of the Personality Disorders An MCMI-III -- Based Approach." Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
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Difficulty of Giving Therapy to OCD Patients

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45733320

Difficulty of Treating Anxiety Disorders

Anxiety disorders are difficult to treat for a multitude of reasons; first, there is no 100% proven-to-be-effective method of therapy that acts as a one-size-fits-all treatment for patient. Behavioral therapy is used by some therapists; others utilize medical therapy, such as Zoloft, Paxil or other prescriptions. Psychosurgery is also an option for patients who do not respond well to either treatments, but such surgery requires literally burning part of the brain and is noted as only having a 50% success rate (Psych Guides, 2015). The bottom line is that anxiety disorders are a complicated manifestation of an underlying issue within the human psyche for which medical science only has a limited understanding.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the most difficult to treat primarily because it requires a strong and durable commitment to transformative behavior therapy such as cognitive behavior therapy. In cases where patients…… [Read More]

References

Psych Guides. (2015). Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Retrieved from http://www.psychguides.com/guides/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-treatment-program-options/

Sasson, Y., Zohar, J., Chopra, M., Hendler, T. (1997). Epidemiology of obsessive, compulsive disorder: A world view. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 12(12): 7-10.

Wexler, E. (2013). Clinical neurologists: behavioral management of inherited neurodegenerative disease. Neurologic Clinics, 31(4): 1121-1144.
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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism Addiction

Words: 4543 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57309421

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction

Narrative

Alcoholism and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Overview

PTSD and Co morbidity of Alcoholism: The ole of Trauma

Childhood Abuse and Gender Differences in PTSD

Association Between Alcoholism and Emotion

Genetic and Environmental Influences

Models of Assessment/Conclusions

Abstract TC "Abstract" f C l "1"

This study will examine the relationship between post traumatic stress disorder and alcoholism/addiction. The author proposes a quantitative correlation analysis of the relationship between PTSD and alcoholism be conducted to identify the influence of trauma on subsequent alcohol abuse in patients varying in age from 13-70.

A survey of the literature available on PTSD and alcohol/substance abuse on patients is conducted leading to a conclusion that a direct relationship does exist between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction. This conclusion coincides with a large body of evidence and prior studies which link the prevalence of traumatic disorders with alcohol and substance…… [Read More]

References" f C l "1":

Brady, S.; Rierdan, J. Penk, W; Losardo, M; Meschede, T. (2003). "Post traumatic stress disorder in adults with serious mental illness and substance abuse." Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 4(4): 77-90

Brown, P.J. (2001). "Outcome in female patients with both substance use and post-traumatic stress disorders." Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 18(3):127-135

Bulijan, D.; Vreek, D.; Cekic, A.A.; Karlovic, D.; Zoricic, Z; Golik-Gruber, V. (2002).

'Posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol dependence and somatic disorders in displaced persons." Alcoholism: Journal on Alcoholism and Related Addictions, 38(1-2)35-40
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Diagnosis of Client Generalized Anxiety

Words: 368 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83779107

Though there is not anything that clearly indicates that Cliff has not been through some sort of traumatic event to trigger his anxiety, it is unlikely that he suffers from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder since, again, his anxieties are not focused on any one thing and there is no indication in this vignette that he feels he is reliving any kind of event from his past. Social Phobic Disorder is highly unlikely since, again, Cliff operates out in the world with moderate success, and what is most telling to eliminate this diagnosis is the fact that Cliff does not state that he is concerned about his evaluations at work, but instead simply about arriving on time. And finally, Specific Phobic Disorder is not a consideration since, as stated before, his anxieties are not fixed on any one object, person, or situation.

eferences

American Psychological Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual…… [Read More]

References

American Psychological Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders DSM-IV-TR 4th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.

Caldwell, J.P. (2005). Anxiety disorders. Redmond Hill, ON CA: Firefly Publishers.
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Bipolar Psychiatric Disorder Bd -- Which Is

Words: 3047 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67751574

Bipolar psychiatric disorder (BD) -- which is characterized by "…cycles of depression and mania" -- is a "euphoric, high-energy state" that can produce remarkable bursts of creativity or, on the other hand, can produce erratic behavioral events that are risky and provocative (Gardner, 2011). About 2.4% of the world's population has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder (at one time or another in their lifetime) but the rate in the United States (4.4% of the population) is the highest of any nation (Gardner, p. 1). The lowest rate on record is in India, 0.1%. This paper reviews various aspects and ramifications of the effects of bipolar disorder through nine peer-reviewed research articles.

Bipolar disorder and cigarette smoking

In the journal Bipolar Disorders the authors point out that adults suffering from bipolar disorder are "…two to three times more likely" have begun a serious smoking habit, which is a "devastating addiction" and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Calkin, Cynthia, and Alda, Martin. (2012). Beyond the Guidelines for Bipolar Disorder: Practical

Issues in Long-Term Treatment with Lithium. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 57(7), 437-

Gardner, Amanda. (2011). U.S. has highest bipolar rate in 11-nation study. CNN Health.

Retrieved March 27, 2013, from  http://www.cnn.com .
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for OCD

Words: 2711 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17410429

CT/EP for OCD: Case Study

OCD & Cognitive Therapy (CT)/Exposure and esponse Prevention (EP)

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a type of anxiety disorder that is often comorbid with other anxiety disorders such as agoraphobia, panic disorders, other specific phobias (heights, water, germs, etc.), social phobias (crowds, strangers, etc.), and overall generalized anxiety disorder (Oltmanns, & Emery, 2010). The "obsessions" in OCD have to do with intrusive thoughts that sufferers cannot simply ignore or write-off as something unusual, and manifests the "compulsions," which are really a form of ritual to erase these thoughts away (Siev, Hubbert, & Chambless, 2010; Wilhelm et al., 2005). This becomes a vicious cycle known as "thought suppression," which is a way for OCD sufferers to try to stop thinking about intrusive or unwanted thoughts, and a way to suppress the emotions that come along with the thoughts, which ends in ritual and begins again when the…… [Read More]

References

Chasson, G.S. et al. (2010). Need for speed: Evaluating slopes of OCD recovery in behavior therapy enhanced with D-cycloserine. Behavior Research and Therapy, 48, 675-679.

Chosak, A., Marques, L., Fama, J., Renaud, S., & Wilhelm, S. (2009). Cognitive therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A case example. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 16, 7-17.

Oltmanns, T.F., & Emery, R.E. (2010). Abnormal psychology (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Siev, J., Huppert, J.D., & Chambless, D.L. (2010). Obsessive-compulsive disorder is associated with less of a distinction between specific acts of omission and commission. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 893-899.
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Psychiatric Disorder of Childhood Depression The Information

Words: 1390 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22681223

psychiatric disorder of childhood depression. The information will discuss how the disorder is diagnosed, the prevalence rates, theories concerning the etiology of depression and various treatments that are available for childhood depression.

hile many people may overlook this serious mental condition that occurs within some children, others are facing the reality of the disorder on a daily basis. More information is becoming readily available that offers research about depression in children and is very helpful to those seeking prognosis and treatment of their loved ones. Many times, depression in children and adolescents is overlooked or misdiagnosed. This paper will discuss symptoms and treatment of depression in children.

Depression

Depression is a mental problem that affects people of all ages, race, and economic levels. The diagnosis is becoming more acceptable and is commonly treated with antidepressant drug therapy. The patient is not only affected by treatment, but the drug and insurance…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AllPsych. "Major Depressive Disorder." 13 April 2003. http://allpsych.com/disorders/mood/majordepression.html

Mendlowitz, S., Manassis, K., Bradley, S., Scapillato, D., Miezitis, S., Shaw, B. "Cognitive Behavioral GroupTreatments in Childhood Anxiety Disorders: The Role of Parental Involvement." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, v38, p1223. 1999.

National Institute of Mental Health. (Sept 2000). "Depression in Children and Adolescents." NIH Publication No. 00-4744. Available at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/depchildresfact.cfm.

O'Conner, Richard. Undoing Depression: What Therapy Doesn't Teach You and Medication
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Panic Disorder Current Research on

Words: 1354 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6000535

(Book & andall, 2002, p. 130) Both of these lines of research are ripe for additional investigation, as they seem to clearly complicate and possibly exacerbate the social affect of the disorder to a large degree and are secondary problems shared by many who experience the disorder.

Other related disorders also give more clear insight into panic disorder, as post traumatic stress disorder has increased in severity as well as incidence, given the prolonged state of national crisis, war and other issues involving over stimulation in the fast paced society we share. One review work, demonstrates the conflicts and controversy that surrounds PTSD, often a precursor to panic disorder as the disorder leaves the individual with a cognitive reaction to normal events in an exaggerated panicked, fashion and in many ways correlates to panic disorder. The article states that victims in the past have been treated ineffectually due to preconceived…… [Read More]

References

Beamish, P.M., Granello, DH, & Belcastro, a.L. (2002). Treatment of Panic Disorder: Practical Guidelines. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24(3), 224.

Bogels, S.M., & Zigterman, D. (2000). Dysfunctional Cognitions in Children with Social Phobia, Separation Anxiety Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28(2), 205.

Book, S.W., & Randall, C.L. (2002). Social Anxiety Disorder and Alcohol Use. Alcohol Research & Health, 26(2), 130.

Cook-Cottone, C. (2004). Childhood Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Diagnosis, Treatment, and School Reintegration. School Psychology Review, 33(1), 127.
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD

Words: 6369 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74077030

Often is forgetful in daily activities

10. Often has difficulty maintaining alertness, orienting to requests, or executing directions

11. Often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat

12. Often leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected

13. Often runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate

14. Often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly

15. Often is "on the go" or often acts as if "driven by a motor"

16. Often talks excessively

17. Often blurts out answers before questions have been completed

18. Often has difficulty awaiting turn

19. Often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations/games)

20. Often has difficulty sitting still, being quiet,... inhibiting impulses in...classroom or at home

21. Often loses temper

22. Often argues with adults

23. Often actively defies or refuses adult requests or rules

24.…… [Read More]

References

The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at http://www.bartleby.com/66/3/33503.html

Cloward, Janessa. "ADHD drugs pose heart risks, federal panel says," University Wire, February 15, 2006. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1118518952.html

DeMarle, Daniel J.;Denk, Larry;Ernsthausen, Catherine S.. "Working with the family of a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.(Family Matters)," Pediatric Nursing, July 1, 2003. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1107215868.html

Edwards, Jason H.. "Evidenced-based treatment for child ADHD: "real-world" practice implications." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, April 1, 2002. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-87015306.html
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Combat Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Words: 1389 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31962980

Computer games were also effective in the treatment of people who underwent automobile accidents. Apparently, something as simple as computer games can serve as a therapy method for people suffering from PTSD. hile some might believe that such therapy techniques are not effective, patients were reported to display intense physical responses to them. Still, because therapists were quick to react to such demonstrations, matters were rapidly resolved and patients were exhibiting fewer symptoms as a result. By adapting the Health Belief Model to the needs of PTSD sufferers therapists succeeded in treating them. The patients did not show reluctance in being subjected to such methods of treatment, as they trusted that it would assist their psychological condition (Burke, Degeneffe & Olney).

Both the Social Cognitive Theory and the Health Belief Model are effective in treating people suffering from PTST. They differ through the fact that the former is applied indirectly…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Bhagar, H.A. & Schmetzer A.D. (2007). Pharmacotherapy of Combat-Related Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association 10.4.

2. Burke, H.S. & Degeneffe, C.E. & Olney, M.F. (2009). A New Disability for Rehabilitation Counselors: Iraq War Veterans with Traumatic Brain Injury and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. The Journal of Rehabilitation 75.3.

3. Stein, D.J. & Hollander E. (2002). Anxiety Disorders Comorbid with Depression: Social Anxiety Disorder, Post-Traumatiac Stress Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. London: Martin Dunitz.
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Female Substance Use Disorder Gender

Words: 2505 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21550261

..in their view, rather than promoting wholeness and recovery, the experience recreated the secrecy of abuse and fed the stigma associated with each of the three issues."

In the hopes of a more well-organized approach to providing these key services to women, the WELL project instituted a mechanism for promoting strategy and collaboration changes at the state, regional, and local levels. The WELL project also recommended an open dialogue between agencies as to better systems to put in place, and suggested giving individuals within each area of service "freedom to make change at any given moment" when a better approach can be taken by a trained professional healthcare provider.

Predominantly Female Caseloads: Identifying Organizational Correlates in Private Substance Abuse Treatment Centers, a piece in the Journal of Behavioral Health Services & esearch (Tinney, et al., 2004), speaks to the issue of the need for healthcare providers to be meeting "distinctive…… [Read More]

References

Conrad, Patricia J., Pihl, Robert O., Stewart, Sherry H., & Dongier, Maurice. (2000). Validation

Of a System of Classifying Female Substance Abusers on the Basis of Personality and Motivational Risk Factors for Substance Abuse. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 14(3),

Markoff, Laurie S., Finkelstein, Norma, Kammerer, Nina, Kreiner, Peter, & Prost, Carol a.

2005). Relational Systems Change: Implementing a Model of Change in Integrating
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Health Eating Disorders an Eating

Words: 1051 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99758213

Some doctors believe that genetic factors are the core cause of a lot of eating disorders. esearchers have found specific chromosomes that may be associated with bulimia and anorexia, specifically regions on chromosome 10 that have been linked to bulimia as well as obesity. There has been evidence that has shown that there is an association with genetic factors being responsible for serotonin, the brain chemical involved with both well-being and appetite. esearchers have also determined that certain proteins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are thought to influence a person's vulnerability to developing an eating disorder (Eating disorders -- Causes, 2010).

The advance of food in Western countries has become extremely problematic. The food that is produced in the U.S. every year is enough to supply 3,800 calories to everyone on a daily basis. This is far more than is needed for good nutrition. Obesity is a worldwide epidemic,…… [Read More]

References

Eating Disorders. (n.d.). Retrieved June 19, 2010, from National Mental Health Information

Center Web site: http://mentalhealth.samhsa.gov/publications/allpubs/ken98-

0047/default.asp

Eating Disorders. (2009). Retrieved June 19, 2010, from National Institute of Mental Health
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnosis in Children

Words: 1668 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6767069

Attention Deficit HyperactivITY Disorder DIAGNOSIS IN CHILDEN

Historical ecords

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a diverse behavioral set of symptoms described by the hub indication of impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention. Even as, these symptoms have a tendency to gather together, some individuals are for the most part hyperactive and impetuous, even as others are predominantly inattentive. This disease affects both toddlers and adults of all ages and should be taken seriously. When this disease is being diagnosed in children, doctors often make quick decisions to make a diagnosis and handing out prescriptions. This should not be the case as doctors are supposed to take enough time to well analyze the condition of the children before offering prescriptions.

About Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

There are two main diagnostic decisive factors that are currently in use. These are the International Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders uses the initials (ICD-10) and the…… [Read More]

References

Honos-Webb, L. (2010). The gift of ADHD: How to transform your child's problems into strengths. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.

Kushner, T.K. (2010). Surviving health care: A manual for patients and their families.

Cambridge England: Cambridge University Press.

Nass, R.D. & Leventhal, F.,. (2011). 100 questions & answers about your child's ADHD: From
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Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder PMDD Virtually

Words: 1553 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61999228

They also state that PMS is also normal for reproductive women.

Some critics go even farther, and blame the woman for the symptoms she is experiencing (Sellers, 2003). They suggest that the emotional and behavioral difficulties called PMDD are nothing more than basic conditioning, that the woman is rewarded for negative behavior. Sick days and other accommodations, they argue, allow the woman to skip school or work with a phony excuse, and allow them to avoid situations they find generate anxiety in them, such as difficult social interactions (Sellers, 2003).

However, the fact that the women show significant improvement during the luteal phase when taking effective medication argues against the critics' claims. In particular, the same SSRI's that work relatively rapidly in PMDD can take up to twelve weeks to help with non-PMDD depression (Steiner, 2000).

Critics also argue that "PMS provides an excuse for what would otherwise be unacceptable…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bhatia, Shashi K. 2002. "Diagnosis and treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder." American Family Physician, Oct.

Bosarge, Penelope M. 2003. "Understanding and treating PMS/PMDD." Nursing, November.

Sellers, Melissa 2003. "Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder' and 'Premenstrual Syndrome' myths." Skeptical Inquirer, May.

Sherman, Carl. 2001. "Sertraline, Venlafaxine Offer PMDD Patients Relief.(premenstrual dysphoric disorder). Clinical Psychiatry News, October.
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Assorts of Disorder Terms and Diagnose

Words: 969 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54392348

Autism is a developmental disorder, as can be seen in the fact that Peter was first diagnosed when he failed to develop speech at the rate of a normal child. Autism is also a spectrum disorder, meaning that individuals will manifest the condition in different ways and different aspects of normal speech, movement, and social interactions may be inhibited depending on the child and the condition's severity. There is no 'cure' for autism or universally-accepted treatment for the disorder although behavioral interventions such as ABA "encourages positive behaviors and discourages negative behaviors in order to improve a variety of skills" through methods such as "Discrete Trial Training (DTT) DTT is a style of teaching that uses a series of trials to teach each step of a desired behavior or response. Lessons are broken down into their simplest parts and positive reinforcement is used to reward correct answers and behaviors." (Treatment,…… [Read More]

References

Additional treatments for ADHD. (2013). Psych Central. Retrieved from:

http://psychcentral.com/lib/additional-treatments-for-adhd/0001205

Depression. (2013). NIMH. Retrieved from:

 http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/depression/index.shtml
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Bipolar I Disorder

Words: 4472 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47788968

Bipolar I disorder is an axis 1 clinical disorder in the DSM-IV and is a serious mental illness that can lead to suicidal ideation or action. The history of bipolar disorder research is a long one, and understanding of the disease has deepened considerably over the last several generations. Diagnosis of bipolar disorder 1 is complicated by its resemblance to other mood disorders, mainly major depression but also psychotic disorders like schizophrenia. esearch is revealing new treatment interventions that are targeted to the biological needs of bipolar patients, as antidepressants are often or usually contraindicated. A Christian worldview suggests that individualized treatment plans take into account the family history and patient's lifestyle when recommending a treatment plan.

History

Bipolar I disorder is a serious mental illness that affects between 1 and 2.5% of the general population in the United States (Ghaznavi & Deckersbach, 2012). The more conservative estimate, 1%, is…… [Read More]

References

"A Brief History of Bipolar Disorder," (2012). Today's Caregiver. Retrieved online:  http://www.caregiver.com/channels/bipolar/articles/brief_history.htm 

Angst, J. & Marneros, A. (2001). Bipolarity from ancient to modern times: Conception, birth, and rebirth. Journal of Affective Disorders 67(1-3): 3-19.

Angst, J. & Sellaro, R. (2000). Historical perspectives and natural history of bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry 48(6): 445-457.

Baethge, C. Salvatore, P. & Baldessarini, R.J. (2003). Cyclothymia, a circular mood disorder. Historical Psychiatry 2003/14: 377-399
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Processing Effects of Cognitive and Emotional Psychotherapy on Bipolar Disorder

Words: 6099 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3470826

BP Disorder

Bipolar disorder, originally called manic depressive disorder, is a severe mood disorder that vacillates between extreme "ups" (mania, hypomania) and "downs" (depression). The effects of having bipolar disorder can be observed across the patients social and occupational functioning. Often the patient is left isolated from work, friends, and family. Medications have become the first-line treatments for bipolar disorder; however, psychotherapy can offer additional benefits in the ongoing treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. This paper discusses the symptoms and treatment of bipolar disorder focusing on cognitive behavioral therapy and emotion focused therapy.

Bipolar Disorder

Description and differentiation

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders -- Fourth Edition -- Text evision (DSM-IV-T) one's mood is an all-encompassing and sustained feeling tone experienced internally by the person and influences the person's behavior and perception of the world. Affect is the external or outward expression of this inner…… [Read More]

References

Alloy, L.B., Abramson, L.Y., Walshaw, P.D., Keyser, J., & Gerstein, R.K. (2006). A cognitive vulnerability-stress perspective on bipolar spectrum disorders in a normative adolescence brain, cognitive, and emotional development context. Developmental Psychopathology, 18(4), 1057-1103.

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.

Beck, J.S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: Basics and beyond. New York: Guilford Press.

Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 17-31
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RAD Reactive Attachment Disorder Introduction

Words: 2088 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1563025

Seriously, a reader cannot be certain that RAD is the key problem with T, who has had prenatal exposure to alcohol, marijuana and cocaine and has experienced "abuse and neglect" (Lyon p. 644). The article brings in the possibility that FASD or PTSD may be appropriate in describing "T" -- a 12-year-old Hispanic boy. But what stands out in the intervention of T. is the litany of medications given to T. while he was institutionalized due to wild and violent behaviors: Risperidone (3 mg); clozapine (200 mg); valproic acid (750 mg); guanfacine (4 mg); and desmopressin (0.6 mg).

In addition, T received chlorpromazine (50 mg every 2 hours) and Benadryl (50 mg every 4 hours) (Lyon p. 645) to curb his aggression. hat also stands out is the disclosure that Lyon received money from Eli Lilly to conduct this research on T. How much credibility does an author have in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. (2008). Reactive Attachment Disorder.

Retrieved May 13, 2009, from http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families//reactive_attachment_disorder.

Becker-Weidman, Arthur, and Hughes, Daniel. (2008). Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy:

An evidence-based treatment for children with complex trauma and disorders of attachment.
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Assessing Anxiety and Depression in General Populations

Words: 5453 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55847602

Test Development

This research is a mixed methods study designed to explore the perceptions of self-identifying individuals with anxiety and depression regarding any relation between their conditions and their ability to access appropriate healthcare under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Five respondents completed the questionnaire constructed explicitly for this research study. A review of the literature serves as a canvas of instruments also developed for assessing Axis 1 disorders as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5). The research on instrumentation included the following: 1) The SCID, 2) the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), 3) the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), 4) the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D), and 5) Severity Measure for Generalized Anxiety Disorder -- Adult (an emerging online measure provided in association with the DSM-5).

Their responses negate the theoretical construct, however, an insufficient number of respondents in this pilot study meant…… [Read More]

Reference:

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1994.

Appendix C - Screening for Depression

If you suspect that you might suffer from depression, answer the questions below, print out the results, and share them with your health care professional.

Over the last two weeks, how often have you been bothered by any of the following problems?
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Social Anxiety

Words: 2290 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22385514

Social Anxiety Questionnaire: A New Scale to Measure Social Phobia

Social anxiety or social phobia is the most common anxiety disorder and affects millions of Americans. The effects of social anxiety can be quite devastating. There are several scales that have been developed to assess social anxiety in people, but there are few scales that consist of less than 20 items. The Social Anxiety Questionnaire, a 14-item scale to measure social anxiety, was tested on 89 college students and compared to the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (Mattick & Clarke, 1998) and Eysenck's Introversion Scale (Eysenck. 1970; 1971) for validity. The psychometric properties of the scale, future directions for research, and practical applications of the scale are discussed.

The Social Anxiety Questionnaire: A New Scale to Measure Social Phobia

Social anxiety disorder (also known as social phobia) consists of feelings of apprehension, worry, or nervousness concerning being placed in situations where…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV-TR. Arlington, VA: Author.

Anthony, M.M. (1997). Assessment and treatment of social phobia. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 42, 826 -- 834.

Brown, E.J., Turovsky, J., Heimberg, R.G., Juster, H.R., Brown, T.A., & Barlow, DH (1997). Validation of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale across the anxiety disorders. Psychological Assessment, 9, 21-27.

Campbell, D.T., & Fiske, D.W. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81-105
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Panic Disorder a Branch of

Words: 1396 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18297443

The results were found to be similar with regards to the scales of CMAS (a 37 item measure), STAIC (for the 20 item state scale measure only), CDI (a 27 item measure) and FSSC- (an 80 item measure). The trait scale of STAIC showed a few variations but was not strong enough when the Bonferroni correction was applied. The CASI scale presented a higher occurrence in the second group compared to the first, regardless of Bonferroni corrections. This amounted to at least 16 of the 18 items. The remaining two items, recorded higher in the second group can be considered to be of an external nature. The origins of these differences were obtained using t-test analysis methods (Kearney, Albano, Eisen, Allan & Barlow, 1997)

Conclusions of the research

The conclusions drawn from the study participants with panic disorder revealed nausea, shivering, difficulties in breathing and increased heart rate as the…… [Read More]

References

Kearney, C, A, Albano, A, M, Eisen, A, R, Allan, W, D & Barlow, D, H. (1997) The Phenomenology of Panic Disorders in youngsters: Empirical Study of a Clinical sample, Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 2(1), 49-62
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Self-Regulation Issues in Children and Adolescents With ADHD ODD and OCD

Words: 6305 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39399907

Self-egulation Issues in Children and Adolescence with ADHD, ODD, and OCD

Self-regulation in children and adolescence who suffer from ADHD, ODD, and OCD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder) is often evident due to several things. A lot of the issues in relation to self-regulation stem from additional anxiety the child/teen may feel from the difficulties experienced from these kinds of mental disorders. OCD is known to cause anxiety and isolationist behaviors leading to decreased emotional self-regulation. ADHD at times can cause hyperfocus, making it difficult for the child/teen to switch tasks therefore limiting their ability to handle their emotions and activities that assist in regulating themselves. ODD, connected to ADHD, is a disorder that has the child react angrily and spitefully to people in otherwise normally responsive situations. The extreme feelings of children or adolescence who manifest ODD make it hard for them to…… [Read More]

References

Barkley, R.A. (2013). Oppositional Defiant Disorder: The Four Factor Model for Assessment and Management - by Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D. Retrieved from  http://www.continuingedcourses.net/active/courses/course079.php 

Blum, K., Chen, A.L., & Oscar-Berman, M. (2008). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 4(5), 893-918. Retrieved from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2626918/ 

Campbell, S.B. (1990). Behavior problems in preschool children: Clinical and developmental issues. New York: Guilford Press.

Cheng, M., & Boggett-Carsjens, J. (2005). Consider Sensory Processing Disorders in the Explosive Child: Case Report and Review. Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 14(2), 44-48.
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Questions OCD and PTSD

Words: 702 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48316131

ABC/123 Version X

Week Five eview Worksheet

PSY/203 Version

Week Five eview Worksheet

Choose two categories of psychological disorders and outline the main symptoms associated with the disorders.

The old classification system for psychological disorders only had two kinds, neurosis and psychosis with people suffering from neurosis experiencing anxiety and people with psychosis suffering from hallucinations. Now psychological disorders are categorized even further. The two selected are from the category of anxiety disorders. The first is PTSD or post-traumatic stress disorder. The second is OCD or obsessive-compulsive disorder. There are other classifications, the somatoform disorders and dissociative disorders. The three main symptoms of PTSD revolve around re-experiencing the traumatic scenario. The afflicted person will experience nightmares, upsetting memories, flashbacks, including feels of distress (Barlow, 2001). The person will also experience intense physical reactions like nausea, sweating, and pounding heart. They will also try to avoid any remind of the trauma.…… [Read More]

References

Antony, M. & Barlow, D. (2002). Handbook of assessment and treatment planning for psychological disorders. New York: Guilford Press.

Barlow, D. (2001). Clinical handbook of psychological disorders. New York: Guilford Press.

Copyright © XXXX by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2015 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.
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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Quantitative

Words: 1934 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94683735

Similarly, researchers should be aware of the consequences of halo, prejudice to the leniency or seriousness of fundamental trend and position or propinquity of deviation from the pace that can artificially increase reliability of measure devoid of improving reaction correctness or validity. (Williams, and Poijula, 2002).

Limitations/Strength and Weaknesses

The following conditions might have affected the results of the present study:

1. The sample will not be random,

2. all demographic information will be self reported and not verified,

3. all the subjects for the study came from 3 local Kansas mental health facilities located in South Central Kansas,

4. all data for the BDI-II is self reported,

5. data is for individuals with specific DSM-IV diagnosis,

6. data is for individuals who are currently seeking treatment for the specified DSM-IV disorders (Schiraldi, 2000)

major strength is that respondents will be selected from ? number of different places for better…… [Read More]

References

Schiraldi, Glenn. (2000) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Sourcebook. McGraw-Hill; 1 edition p. 446

Williams, Mary Beth and Poijula, Soili (2002) the PTSD Workbook: Simple, Effective Techniques for Overcoming Traumatic Stress Symptoms. New Harbinger Publications; 1 edition. p. 237

Foa, Edna B. Keane, Terence and Friedman, M. Matthew J. (2000) Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. The Guilford Press; 1 edition. p. 388

Wilson, John P. And Keane, Terence M. (1996) Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD. The Guilford Press; 1st edition. p. 577
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Treating Post Traumatic Stress Disorders With Serzone

Words: 3069 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38321776

Treating Post Traumatic Stress Disorders

WITH SERZONE

WHAT IS PTSD

Many adults suffer from the mental illness of Post Traumatic Stress Disorders, otherwise known as PTSD. PTSD is an extreme anxiety mental disorder that causes excessive concern, or worry over common problems, or problems that might happen, such as automobile not starting in the morning to get to work, although it has been running smoothly, the house catching on fire during the middle of the night with no apparent reason. Various treatments for PTSD have been experimented with, producing just as many different results, although a cure has not yet been discovered. In this essay, we will be discussing PTSD, how the drug Serzone has been used in treating this illness, and other possible cures for PTSD.

PTSD is a serious mental disorder, and the seriousness of this disease should not be underestimated, however, it is not to be confused…… [Read More]

GORMAN CHRISTINE, 2002

THE SCIENCE OF ANXIETY

TIME
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Media on Eating Disorders in Sixteen to Twenty Four Demographic

Words: 2770 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98441990

Media on Eating Disorders with a Concentration of 16- to 24-year-Olds

Agency Name: ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders

Location: The ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders is located high in the ock Mountains just 15 miles from Colorado Springs, Colorado. It is located on an old camp ground that is housed inside an old student union building. The facility was once part of Colorado University and now used as treatment center for teens and young adults. Led by nine of the top full-time, board-certified psychiatrists plus other professionals that will specialize in treating eating disorders, The ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders will consist of a highly skilled treatment team that will works to address each patient nutritionally and psychosomatically, as well as to manage other medical issues common to eating disorders. The ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders provides the best contact to some…… [Read More]

References:

Derenne, J.L., & Beresin, E.V. (2006). Body image, media, and eating disorders. Academic Psychiatry, 30(3), 257-61.

Harrison, K., & Cantor, J. (2011). The relationship between media consumption and eating disorders. Journal of Communication, 47(1), 40-67.

Jane, D.M., Hunter, G.C., & Lozzi, B.M. (2009). Do Cuban American women suffer from eating disorders? Effects of media exposure and acculturation. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 21(2), 212-218.

Levine, M.P., & Murnen, S.K. (2009). "EVERYBODY KNOWS THAT MASS MEDIA ARE/ARE NOT [pick one] A CAUSE OF EATING DISORDERS": A CRITICAL REVIEW OF EVIDENCE FOR A CAUSAL LINK BETWEEN MEDIA, NEGATIVE BODY IMAGE, AND DISORDERED EATING IN FEMALES. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28(1), 9-42.
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Antisocial Behavior in Females With Comorbid Diagnoses of ADHD and Conduct Disorder

Words: 2635 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13071562

Antisocial ehavior in Females with Comorbid Diagnoses of ADHD

Detention centers and residential treatment facilities are replete with male and female youth that have been in and out of the juvenile justice system for many years. Although the majority of the populations in these facilities are male, the number of female juvenile offenders is continually increasing. Many of the children in these facilities have a history of behavioral difficulties that may or may not have been diagnosed during much of their childhood.

Antisocial behaviors are acts that violate social rules and the basic rights of others. They include conduct intended to injure people or damage property, illegal behavior, and defiance of generally accepted rules and authority, such as truancy from school. "These antisocial behaviors exist along a severity continuum (Clark, et al., 2002). When childhood antisocial behaviors exceed certain defined thresholds -- the diagnostic criteria specified in the Diagnostic and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Disgnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington DC APA.

Clark, Duncan. Vanyukov, Michael. Cornelius, Jack. (November, 2002). Childhood Antisocial Behavior and Adolescent Alcohol Use Disorders. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism: 66, 136-138.

Crawford, Nicole. (February, 2003). ADHD: a women's issue. Monitor on Psychology, APA: Volume 34, No. 2, p. 28.

Hinshaw, S.P. (2003). Preadolescent girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: I. Background characteristics, comorbidity, cognitive and social functioning, and parenting practices. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.
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Genome Wide Association Study Analysis for OCD Complications

Words: 2050 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12779863

Genome-Wide Association Study for OCD Complications

The OCD (Obsessive -- compulsive disorder) is referred as repetitive behaviors and thoughts experienced by individuals. (Visscher, Brown, McCarthy, et al. (2012). Typically, the genes' characteristics of twins and families have revealed that the OCD has the feature of multifactorial familial condition involving both environmental and polygenic factors. (Moran, 2013). Genetic studies have revealed that the interaction of the glutamatergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic systems and genes affecting them play a crucial role in functioning of the circuit. (Yang, Lee, Goddard, Mand et al. 2011). Meanwhile, the environmental factors that include psychological trauma, adverse perinatal effects and neurological trauma may modify the risk genes, which can consequently manifest the compulsive-obsessive behaviors. (Visscher, Brown, McCarthy et al. 2012). The OCD is a frequent and, relative common debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder affecting 2% of the U.S. population. (Arnold, Sicard, Burroughs, et al. (2006). Typically, the OCD is obsessions…… [Read More]

Reference

Arnold, P., Sicard, T., Burroughs, E. et al. (2006). Glutamate Transporter Gene SLC1A1 Associated With Obsessive-compulsive Disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 63(7), p.769.

Baxter, A., Scott, K., Vos, T. and Whiteford, H. (2012). Global prevalence of anxiety disorders: a systematic review and meta-regression. Psychological Medicine, 43(05), pp.897-910.

Barrett, P., Healy-Farrell, L. & March, J. S. (2004). Cognitivebehavioral family treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder: a controlled trial. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry . 43, 46-62.

Cantor, R., Lange, K. and Sinsheimer, J. (2010). Prioritizing GWAS Results: A Review of Statistical Methods and Recommendations for Their Application. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 86(1):.6-22.
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Gwas OCD and Genes

Words: 3400 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35243323

Personal Details of Student

Family Name: ooney

Given Name (s) Bridget

Student Number (SID): 312165250

Email (University email only) broo2460@uni.sydney.edu.au

GWAS OCD

Assignment number (if applicable): #1

Becker

Genetics of Brian and Mind Disorders

Academic Honesty -- all forms of plagiarism and unauthorized collusion are regarded as academic dishonesty by the university, resulting in penalties including failure of the unit of study and possible disciplinary action. A module of academic honesty and plagiarism is at http://elearning.library.usyd.edu.au/learn/plagiarism/index.php .

Declaration:

I / We have read and understood the University of Sydney Student Plagiarism: Coursework Policy and Procedure (which can be found at sydney.edu.au/senate/policies/Plagiarism.pdf).

I / We understand that failure to comply with the Student plagiarism: coursework Policy and Procedure can lead to the University commencing proceedings against me / us for potential student misconduct under Chapter 8 of the University of Sydney By-Law 1999 (as amended).

3. This work is substantially my…… [Read More]

References

Ahmari, S. E., Spellman, T., Douglass, N. L., Kheirbek, M. A., Simpson, H. B., Deisseroth, K., ... & Hen, R. (2013). Repeated cortico-striatal stimulation generates persistent OCD-like behavior. Science, 340(6137), 1234-1239.

Arnold, P., Sicard, T., Burroughs, E. et al. (2006). Glutamate Transporter Gene SLC1A1 Associated With Obsessive-compulsive Disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 63(7), p.769.

Baxter, A., Scott, K., Vos, T. and Whiteford, H. (2012). Global prevalence of anxiety disorders: a systematic review and meta-regression. Psychological Medicine, 43(05), pp.897-910.

Barrett, P., Healy-Farrell, L. & March, J. S. (2004). Cognitive behavioral family treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder: a controlled trial. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry . 43, 46-62.
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Bipolar II Disorder

Words: 2688 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79340844

Bipolar II

In the United States alone, a staggering number of people suffer from some sort of mental illness and many more are at high risk of developing a mental condition. Worldwide, the number is even greater, especially in countries without the resources to provide the care needed by such people. Some mental conditions are more prevalent and easier to develop than others. Whereas a serious disease that manifests various forms of psychosis like schizophrenia is mostly prevalent in those who inherit it from family members, those who have abused drugs long-term and consistently, or those with brain injuries, milder conditions like bipolar disorder can be developed by virtually anyone. In the United States, about 2.5% of the population has some form of bipolar disorder (WedMD, 2014). This translate to about 6 million people.

Because of this high number of sufferers, increasing research attention in the psychiatric and medical fields…… [Read More]

References

Cusin, C., Hilton, G.Q., Nierenberg, A.A., and Fava M. (2012). Long-Term Maintenance With Intramuscular Ketamine for Treatment-Resistant Bipolar II Depression. American Journal of Psychiatry. Retrieved from: http://journals.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?articleid=1268250

Mayo Clinic. (2014). Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bipolar-disorder/basics/symptoms/con-20027544

PsychCentral (2014). The Two Types of Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved from: http://psychcentral.com/lib/the-two-types-of-bipolar-disorder/000612?all=1

Sole, B., Martinez-Aran, A., Torrent, C., Bonnin, C.M., Reinares, M., Popovic, D., Sanchez-Moreno, J., and Vieta, E. (2011). Are bipolar II patients cognitively impaired? A systematic review. Psychological Medicine. Retrieved from:  http://diposit.ub.edu/dspace/bitstream/2445/52283/1/587142.pdf
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Symptom and Treatment of Psychological Disorder

Words: 965 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34146978

Treatment of Psychological Disorder

The bipolar disorder is a mental disorder and alternatively known as manic depression elevates the mood and cause depression to the affected individuals. The symptom of bipolar depression is the elevated mood, and it is the significant symptom of the affected person. During mania process, the affected individuals behaves irritably, display abnormally energetic and happy. The affected individuals often make poorly decision with little or no regard to the consequences. During the depression period, the affected individuals may have a negative outlook on life, and having poor eye contact with others. The risk of suicide is another symptom of bipolar disorder where between 30% and 40% of the victims attempt to inflict self -harm. Other mental issues include substance use disorder, and anxiety disorders. While it is difficult to establish the cause, however, the genetic and environmental factors have been responsible for the cause of bipolar…… [Read More]

Reference. Causes of Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved June 5, 2017 from http://www.webmd.com/bipolar-disorder/guide/bipolar-disorder-causes#1

Jenkins, M. M., Youngstrom, E. A., Youngstrom, J. K., Feeny, N. C., & Findling, R. L. (2012). Generalizability of Evidence-Based Assessment Recommendations for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder. Psychological Assessment, 24(2), 269 -- 281. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0025775

Kerner, B.(2014).Genetics of bipolar disorder. Appl Clin Genet. 7: 33 -- 42.
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Bi-Polar Disorder in Medical Terms

Words: 627 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90377436



Since bipolar disorder has been shown to be a major cause of suicide, a number of U.S. studies have concluded that a person affected by this condition often shows signs and symptoms that may accompany suicidal feelings, such as talking or discussing suicide, having the feeling that "nothing will ever change or get better," that "nothing one does makes any difference" and feelings that the person is "a burden to family and friends." Also, the suicidal person may begin to abuse alcohol or illegal drugs like marijuana, cocaine and even heroin and proceed to put his/her affairs in order like "organizing finances or giving away possessions to prepare for one's death." Not surprisingly, such as person may also put him/herself in "harm's way or in situations where there is a danger of being killed" (2007, "Bipolar Disorder," Internet).

Clearly, a person with bipolar disorder will exhibit outward signs and indications…… [Read More]

References

2007). "Bipolar Disorder." National Institute of Mental Health. Internet. Retrieved at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/bipolar-disorder/complete-publication.shtml.

Glanze, Walter D., Ed. (2002). Mosby's Medical, Nursing and Allied Health Dictionary.

St. Louis: C.V. Mosby Company.
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Treating Sedative Hypnotic or Anxiolytic Use Disorder

Words: 2845 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65911971

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Techniques

For Treating Sedative, Hypnotic or Anxiolytic use disorder

Sedative-Hypnotic are a Class of Medications that Includes Barbiturates.

Sedative hypnotic refers to the medication such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates and nonbenzodiazepine. All these are medications used to treat insomnia. They are referred to as Z drugs because the members consist of zaleplon, the eszopiclone and zolpiden all of which contain letter Z. Benzodiazepines are the most prescribed drugs across the globe. They are used to treat anxiety, disorder, insomnia and panic disorders. The drugs are used to treat disorders even though they are hazardous, and expose the user to other conditions such as physical dependence misuse, overdose as well as abuse (Levounis, Herron & American Psychiatric Association, 2014). When the individuals become dependent, they suffer from anxiolytic, hypnotic or sedative; a condition where one becomes dependent on the substances that cause a calming effect. They may also suffer…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ed. 5. Arlington, VA, APA Press.

Barlow, DH, Gorman, J. M., Shear, M. K., & Woods, S. W. (2000). Cognitive-behavioral therapy, imipramine, or their combination for panic disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Jama, 283(19), 2529-2536.

Doweiko, H. (2014). Concepts of chemical dependency. Nelson Education.

GonAalves, D. C., & Byrne, G. J. (2012). Interventions for generalized anxiety disorder in older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of anxiety disorders, 26(1), 1-11.
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Stress and Anxiety Common Among Perfectionists

Words: 2038 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88860031

Perfectionism: A Good Predictor of Stress and Anxiety

Personality research has revealed a number of interactions between traits and clinically-significant mental health issues. For example, neuroticism has been shown to be predictive of anxiety and depressive disorders, while introversion is a common trait among those suffering from social phobias (reviewed by Bienvenu et al., 2004). While some these traits may be refractory to clinical intervention, insights into relationships between lower-order personality dimensions and clinically-significant psychological problems may open up new avenues for treatment. Among the more interesting personality traits is perfectionism, because it has been linked to eating, anxiety, depressive, and obsessive-compulsive disorders, in addition to personal self-efficacy and achievement (Stairs, Smith, Zapolski, Combs, & Settles, 2011). To better understand the clinical relevance of perfectionism the findings of several studies will be reviewed here.

A large (N = 731) study examined the prevalence of the big five personality domains among…… [Read More]

References

Bienvenu, O.J., Samuels, J.F., Costa, P.T., Reti, I.M., Eaton, W.W., & Nestadt, G. (2004). Anxiety and depressive disorders and the five-factor model of personality: A higher- and lower-order personality trait investigation in a community sample. Depression and Anxiety, 20(2), 92-7.

Dittner, A.J., Rimes, K., & Thorpe, S. (2011). Negative perfectionism increases the risk of fatigue following a period of stress. Psychology and Health, 26(3), 253-68.

Gnilka, P.B., Ashby, J.S., & Noble, C.M. (2012). Multidimensional perfectionism and anxiety: Differences among individuals with perfectionism and tests of a coping-mediation model. Journal of Counseling & Development, 90(4), 427-36.

Lovibond, S.H., & Lovibond, P.F. (1995). Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. (2nd ed.). Sydney: Psychology Foundation.
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Childhood Developmental Disorders and Their Treatment

Words: 1165 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78204851

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the Difficulties Associated ith the Assessment and Treatment of Psychological Childhood Disorders

By any measure, childhood is a challenging period in human development where young people are forced to actively participate in the educational process while developing human relationship skills that they will need for the rest of their lives. Against this backdrop, it is not surprising that many young people experience behavioral difficulties that detract from their ability to attain their full academic and social potential including one of the most commonly diagnosed conditions, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. To gain some new insights into this condition, this paper reviews the relevant literature concerning attention deficit hyperactivity disorder followed by a discussion concerning the difficulties that are associated with assessing and treating psychological childhood disorders. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are presented in the conclusion.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Facts about ADHD." (2016). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Web.

Mash, Eric J. and Barkley, Russell A. (1999, May 1). "Treatment of Childhood Disorders, Second Edition." Behavioral Disorders 24(3): 258-261. Print.

McCabe, Paul C. (2009, Annual). "The Use of Antidepressant Medications in Early Childhood: Prevalence, Efficacy, and Risk." Journal of Early Childhood and Infant Psychology 5: 13-15. Print.

McLoone, Jordana and Hudson, Jennifer L. (2006, May). "Treating Anxiety Disorders in a School Setting." Education & Treatment of Children 29(2): 219-223. Print.
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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder the Diagnosis

Words: 1146 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77068315



Psychometric Properties

The normative sample for the DAPS included 620 participants from a stratified random sampling from Department of Motor Vehicles registries and telephone listings (Smith). Of these 620 participants, 446 reported at least one DSM-IV-T experience in the past. Smith also reports that 70 university students were sampled as well. The assessment authors conducted another sample to measure reliability. The study included 257 undergraduate students, 191 clinical patients, and 58 participants recruited through flyers and newspaper advertisements (Smith). Both samples were primarily female, 74% in the university sample and 80% in the community sample, as well as Caucasian, 84% in the university sample and 77% in the community sample (Smith). The mean age was 19.6 in the university sample and 35 in the community sample.

Boothroyd reports the following reliability and validity data for the DAPS. The majority of the 13 scales have Cronbach coefficients above .8, and internal…… [Read More]

References:

Axford, S.N.. (n.d.) Review the posttraumatic stress diagnostic scale. Mental Measurements Yearbook. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Boothroyd, R.A. (n.d.) Review of detailed assessment of posttraumatic stress. Mental Measurements Yearbook. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Courtois, C.A. (2008). Complex trauma, complex reactions: Assessment and treatment. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, (1), 86-100. doi:10.1037/1942-9681.S.1.86

Doll, B. (n.d.) Review the posttraumatic stress diagnostic scale. Mental Measurements Yearbook. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
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Disorder of Emotional Behavioral

Words: 1935 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74349818

Persons with Emotional Behavior Disorder

Importance of assessment of emotional and behavioral disorders in schools

Identifying and assessing emotional and behavioral disorders in schools (EBD) helps identify and address a number of risky behaviors among youths in good time. Students suffering from EBD experience difficulties when learning, have challenging social relationships, experience depression and anxious moments as well as exhibit inappropriate behaviors. School, administrators usually know these students, as they need a lot of support and different resources to be able to survive in a school environment (Davis, Young, Hardman & Winters, 2011).

Early identification of these problem behaviors help school administrators provide the necessary support students need before the situation gets out of hand or becomes impossible to manage. Even though students at risk of EBD have less severe characteristics and frequency than those already diagnosed, early identification is crucial in improving educational outcomes (Davis, Young, Hardman & Winters,…… [Read More]

References

Angold, A., & Costello, E. (2000). A review of issues relevant to the creation of a measure of disability in children based on the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning and Disability (ICIDH-2). https://devepi.duhs.duke.edu/pubs/who.pdf.

BASC,.BASC-2 Summary - Behavior Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition. Retrieved 2 March 2015, from http://basc-2.szapkiw.com/basc-summary/

Connecticut State Department of Education,. (2012). Guidelines for Identifying and Educating Students with Emotional Disturbance. Retrieved 2 March 2015, from http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/lib/sde/pdf/publications/edguide/ed_guidelines.pdf

Davis, S., Young, E., Hardman, S., & Winters, R. (2011). Screening for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. Nassp.org. Retrieved 2 March 2015, from http://www.nassp.org/tabid/3788/default.aspx?topic=Screening_for_Emotional_and_Behavioral_Disorders
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Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Disorder

Words: 1743 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65719540

This may consist of arising and seating in chairs securely. Following the progressive characteristics of this illness, all people gradually lose their capability simply to move and will need to advance and use a wheelchair.

eferences

Burbank, P.M. (2006). Vulnerable older adults: Health care needs and interventions. New York, NY: Springer Pub.

Donaldson, I.M., & Marsden, C.D. (2011). Marsden's book of movement disorders. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

Egerton, T., Williams, D. & Iansek, . (2009). Comparison of gait in progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson's disease and healthy older adults. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Fabio, ., Zampieri, C., Tuite, P. (2006). Gaze-shift strategies during functional activity in progressive supranuclear palsy. eceived: 20 July 2006 / Accepted: 26 September 2006 / Published online: 8 November 2006. Springer-Verlag 2006.

Fabio, ., Zampieri, C., Tuite, P. (2008). Gaze Control and Foot Kinematics During Stair Climbing: Characteristics Leading to Fall isk in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy.…… [Read More]

References

Burbank, P.M. (2006). Vulnerable older adults: Health care needs and interventions. New York, NY: Springer Pub.

Donaldson, I.M., & Marsden, C.D. (2011). Marsden's book of movement disorders. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

Egerton, T., Williams, D. & Iansek, R. (2009). Comparison of gait in progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson's disease and healthy older adults. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Fabio, R., Zampieri, C., Tuite, P. (2006). Gaze-shift strategies during functional activity in progressive supranuclear palsy. Received: 20 July 2006 / Accepted: 26 September 2006 / Published online: 8 November 2006. Springer-Verlag 2006.
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Autism Spectrum Disorders Wang K

Words: 1243 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81179913

Identifying Autism Loci and Genes by Tracing Recent Shared Ancestry. Science 321(5886): 218-23.

Introduction

This article begins with a discussion of autism spectrum disorders and the social and mental impairments that typify the disorder, setting up an approach that is inherently humanistic and person-centered. Despite the highly technical and quantified nature of the ultimate research question and data collected and analyzed in this study, this person-centered focus and tone is observable throughout this research article. Immediately following a brief description of the impacts of autism spectrum disorders on individuals that have these disorders, the authors launch into a discussion regarding the evidence for a hereditary pattern in the development of the disorder and the ability to trace the disorder and its impact through families.

The authors follow this with a discussion about one of the general methodologies they ultimately employ in this research, known as "homozygosity mapping," which essentially is…… [Read More]

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Sensorimotor Disorder

Words: 1582 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75381045

Sensorimotor Disorder

estless legs syndrome, also known as Ekbom syndrome, is the most commonly experienced sensorimotor disorder among the general population (Bassetti et al., 2011). The disorder afflicts approximately 2 to 10% of the general population and it is experienced as periodic limb movements in 80% of individuals with restless legs syndrome (Bassetti et al., 2011). The most prominent symptoms of the disorder are urges to move the legs as well as unpleasant sensations in the legs (Lee et al., 2011). The symptoms generally commence or become worse during inactivity and individuals with the disorder generally feel relief from symptoms after movement (Lee et al., 2011). Also, symptoms of the disorder are generally worse during the evening hours in comparison to the daytime. Furthermore, restless leg syndrome often results in sleep disturbances such as delayed sleep onset, multiple awakenings, and reduced sleep efficiency (Lee et al., 2011). The disorder is…… [Read More]

References

Bassetti, C.L., Bornatico, F., Fuhr, P., Schwander, J., Kallweit, U., Mathis, J. (2011). Pramipexole vs. dual release levodopa in restless leg syndrome: a double blind, randomized, cross-over trial. Swiss Medical Weekly, 141, w13274.

Bayard, M., Bailey, B., Acharya, D., Ambreen, F., Duggal, S., Kaur, T., Rahman, Z.U., Tudiver, F. (2011). Bupropian and restless leg syndrome: a randomized control trial. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 24(4), 422-8.

Lee, D.O., Ziman, R.B., Perkins, A.T., Poceta, J.S., Walters, A.S., Barrett, R.W. (2011). A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of gabapentin enacabil in subjects with restless legs syndrome. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 7(3), 282-92.

Mitchell, U.H. (2011). Nondrug-related aspect of treating Ekbom disease, formerly known as restless leg syndrome. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 7, 251-7.
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Neurological Disorder Epilepsy Neurological Disorder Epilepsy --

Words: 2610 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35563773

Neurological Disorder

Epilepsy Neurological Disorder

Epilepsy -- a Neurological Disorder

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which causes frequent seizures due to abnormal electricity activity within the brain. Epilepsy is considered a brain disorder disturbing the brain function which ultimately affects behaviour and cognition. This paper highlights some common symptoms of epilepsy. It also explains different treatments deployed for reducing seizure activity in epilepsy. Each treatment portrays a different way of taking control over the seizures and points out a path towards leading a balanced life.

Epilepsy -- A Neurological Disorder

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which is characterised by repeated spontaneous seizures of any type which cause problems with speech, vision, movement, awareness and muscle control. Epilepsy cannot be considered as an intellectual disability or mental illness. This paper explains the common symptoms associated with epilepsy. It highlights three different types of treatments for epilepsy and presents a comparative analysis…… [Read More]

References

Huffman, J. & Kosoff, E.,H. (2006). State of the Ketogenic Diet(s) in Epilepsy. Epilepsy. Pp.

332-340. Retrieved March 2, 2013, from http://www.matthewsfriends.org/jh/CurrentNNKossoff.pdf

Macrodimitris, S., Wershler, J., Hat-elda, M., Hamiltone, K., Backs-Dermott, B., Mothersill, K.,

Baxter, C. & Wiebe, S. (2011). Group Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Patients with Epilepsy and Comorbid Depression and Anxiety. Epilepsy and Behaviour. 20. Pp. 83-88. Retrieved March 4, 2013, from  http://old.epilepsyfoundation.org/epilepsyusa/yebeh/upload/Group_Therapy.pdf
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DSM IV Disorders DSM IV-TR - Anxiety

Words: 1010 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84488286

DSM IV Disorders

DSM IV-T - Anxiety, Somatoform, and Dissociative Disorders

American Psychological Association has compiled and published DSM IV-T, which is a diagnostic manual of mental disorders. This manual not only categorizes mental enormities but also provide guidance and assistance to medical practitioners about the suitable and appropriate diagnosis and treatment of the included mental illnesses. Moreover, specific codes have been assigned to each disorder in DSM IV-T with a purpose of providing an effective method for medical documentation. Additionally, this manual serves as a valuable resource for teaching the technicalities of psychopathology. DSM IV-T extensively discusses wide range of mental disorders such as anxiety, somatoform, and dissociative disorders.

The person who experiences frequent fear and panic about different things is believed to be suffering from anxiety. Acute state of anxiety is conducive to various other mental disorders such as obsessive-compulsion disorder, panic disorder, phobia, and so forth. Furthermore,…… [Read More]

References

Weiten, W, Dunn, D & Hammer, E.Y. (2010). Psychology Applied to Modern Life: Adjustments in the 21st Century. Tenth Edition. USA: Cengage Learning.
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Eating Disorder and Gender

Words: 5075 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8532186

Eating Disorders and Gender

There are medical conditions which more commonly occur in one gender over another. These conditions can be either mental or physical. Very often, they are both mental and physical conditions. Certain medical situations are extremely severe and can potentially result in serious harm to the body or perhaps even death. There are certain conditions which being with a mental impression, a false belief that has been ingrained within the mind which then manifests itself in the body of the individual. One of the most common and most disturbing types of condition is known as an eating disorder. By this term, it is meant that the patient suffers a mental conditioning which makes them either unwilling or unable to eat in a healthy manner resulting in either over or under eating and malnutrition. Eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia are the result of psychological issues on…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bates, Daniel. "Globalization of Fat Stigma: Western Ideas of Beauty and Body Size Catching

on in Developing Nations." Daily Mail. 2011. Print.

Battiste, Nikki & Lauren Effron."EDNOS: Deadliest Eating Disorder Is Quietly the Most

Common." ABC News. ABC News Network, 14 Nov. 2012. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. .
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Depressive Disorder According to the DSM --

Words: 3173 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69443539

Depressive Disorder

According to the DSM -- IV -- T (2000), Major Depressive Disorder is classified by the number of Major Depressive Episodes -- although only one is needed in order to diagnose Major Depressive Disorder -- and according to the severity, ranging from mild, moderate, severe without psychotic features, or severe with psychotic features (347). This means that, in practice, the signs or symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder are those of a Major Depressive Episode: the clinician is required to diagnose the Episode before the larger diagnosis of the Disorder is indicated. In order to diagnose a Major Depressive Episode, there must be present a mood which is obviously depressed, which can also be observed as simply the loss of interest in nearly all activities, or the absence of accustomed pleasure -- sometimes known by the more clinical term "anhedonia" -- in familiar activities (349). However, the DSM-IV-T specifies…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.