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Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Nearly everyone deals with anxiety at some point in their lives. Anxiety is a natural response to many external stimuli and can actually be beneficial in many ways. However, there is a point in which anxiety can reach a level in which it is no longer a normal experience and can be overwhelming to an individual's life. This is how one individual explained the condition (National Institute of Mental Health, N.d.):
"I always thought I was just a worrier. I'd feel keyed up and unable to relax. At times it would come and go, and at times it would be constant. It could go on for days. I'd worry about what I was going to fix for a dinner party, or what would be a great present for somebody. I just couldn't let something go."
People with GAD cannot seem to get rid of their…
ADAA. (N.d.). Facts & Statistics. Retrieved from Anxiety and Depression Association of America: http://www.adaa.org/about-adaa/press-room/facts-statistics
National Institute of Mental Health. (N.d.). Generallized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Retrieved from National Institute of Mental Health: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/generalized-anxiety-disorder-gad/index.shtml
WebMD. (N.d.). Anxiety & Panic Disorders Health Center. Retrieved from WebMD: http://www.webmd.com/anxiety-panic/guide/generalized-anxiety-disorder
Anxiety Disorder's Impact On Individuals And Treatment
Anxiety disorder unlike a normal anxiety happens recurrently and tends to interfere with the quality of life of the persons suffering from the anxiety. In addition to the above, it may be an obstacle to the individual success in careers and relationships as well as the quality of life and happiness the individual would have achieved if they did not have the disorder. However, anxiety disorders are more and are now receiving acknowledgment as disabilities and persons with disorders get to enjoy the protection of the law under the Americans with Disabilities Act (Craske, & Waters, 2005). This research is an analysis of the types of anxiety disorders, their treatment and its effect on careers and professional relationships.
Background of research
The main reason for undertaking a psychological research on anxiety disorder is the apparent limit of scholarly research done in this area…
Torpy, J.M., M.D., & Burke, A.E., M.A. (2011). Generalized anxiety disorder. JAMA, 305(5),
Miller, V. (2011). Anxiety disorders. Australian Family Physician, 40(10), 755-755
Boydston, L., Chih-Jui Hsiao,, ., & Varley, C.K. (2012). ANXIETY DISORDERS IN
ADOLESCENTS: ASSESSMENT AND TREATMENT. Contemporary Pediatrics,
In Marge's case, we cannot immediately ascertain for certain what biological mechanisms have played a role in her episodic attacks. However, we can deduce that she is vulnerable to the general range of physiological symptoms relating to an anxiety disorder as a result of external triggers which may be socially, domestically or pressure-induced. It is also likely that her increased fear of the recurrence of her anxiety attacks is making her increasingly sensitive to their possibility.
ith respect to treatment, both biological and psychological paths are appropriate. First and foremost, it is appropriate to rule out the possibility that Marge is suffering from a heart condition. In doing due medical diligence, she should receive chest x-rays, blood tests, screening of vitals and stress tests intended to measure her heart health. In addition to elucidating any physiological causes for the symptoms she describes, greater awareness of her heart health…
Dratcu, L. (2000). Panic, Hyperventilation and Perpetuation of Anxiety. Progressive Neuropsychopharmacology Biology and Psychiatry, 24(7), 1069-1089.
Geyer, P. (2001). A Normal Psychology: C.G. Jung's Psychological Types and the MBTI. Petergeyer.com.
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). (2011). Treatment of Anxiety Disorders. NIMH.NIH.gov.
Smith, M.; Robinson, L. & Segal, J. (2012). Anxiety Attacks and Anxiety Disorders. Helpguide.org.
Anxiety disorders is a term used to refer to a group of mental illnesses that cause significant distress, which affects an individual’s ability to continue living normally. However, individuals experiencing substantial anxiety due to various factors in their lives are usually confused whether they are having normal reactions or suffering from an anxiety disorder. There are different kinds of anxiety disorders including specific phobia and adjustment disorder. Anxiety disorder refers to a mental illnesses that generate significant distress and affects an individual’s normal living while adjustment disorder refers to stress-related conditions due to difficulties coping with changes in life circumstances (Mayo Clinic, 2017). For instance, a person could suffer from an adjustment disorder after the loss of a job or death of a loved one.
Specific Phobia is an example of anxiety disorders and is characterized by intense fear of a particular situation or object. For instance, a person could…
Diagnosis of anxiety disorders
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
Ethical issues in Psychopharamacology
In this paper, we present an elaborate analysis of anxiety disorders involving symptoms, diagnosis as well as the differential diagnosis. The aim of this paper is however to discuss the Psychopharamacological of anxiety disorder with specific discussion of the medication for every case. The ethical considerations on Psychopharamacological are also presented.
Anxiety disorders are noted by Oakley-Browne (1991) as some of the most common as well as disabling disorders which affects both adult and adolescents alike. An Epidemiological Catchment Area (CA) study indicated that about a quarter of individuals will experience disability severe symptoms as well as handicap as a result of anxiety disorders at a certain instance of their lives. The anxiety disorders are generally associated with a significant level of morbidity (Markowitz et al., 1989) as well as an increase level…
Bassano, GB, Rossi, NB and PINI, S (2002).Psychopharmacology of anxiety disorders. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2002 September; 4(3): 271 -- 285.
Ballenger JC., McDonald S., No/yes R., et al. (1991) The first double-blind, placebocontrolled trial of a partial benzodiazepine agonist abecarnil in generalized anxiety disorder. Psychopharmacoi Bull.1991;27:171 -- 179
Blazer DG., Hughes DC., George LK., Swartz M., Boyar J.(1991) Generalized anxiety disorder. In: Bobus LN, Regier DA, eds. Psychiatric Disorders in America: The Epidemiological Catchment Area Study.New York, NY: Fress Press; 1991:;xx:180 -- 203.
Braun P., Greenberg D., Dasberg H.(1990) Core symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder un-improved by alprazolam treatment. V. Clin Psychiatry. 1990;51:236 -- 238.
Likewise, anxiety and depression represent the most prevalent problems facing young adults attending college, with these two conditions being ranked first and third, respectively, among college students seeking counseling services (Mccarthy, Fouladi, Juncker & Matheny, 2006).
According to Armstrong and her associates (2003), adolescence and young adulthood is a period in life when most people engage in explorative behaviors and test their limits in ways that may contribute to their propensity to develop anxiety disorders. In this regard, Armstrong and her associates note that, "From their late teens to their early twenties, young adults experience dramatic changes across all realms of development. . . . During this stage of development, young adults are more likely to engage in substance abuse, drive while intoxicated, and have unprotected sex" (p. 66). Likewise, D'Amico, Ellickson, Collins, Martino and Klein (2005) report that, "Although the majority of people have reduced their substance use by…
Twenty three percent of the studied older adults, that were available for follow up, with an anxiety disorder met the criteria for persistent anxiety.
Nearly half of the participants demonstrated subsyndromal anxiety, making up the partial remission group, while 31% were in full remission. Drawing on previous literature regarding the fluctuating nature of anxiety disorder in younger patients, the researchers surmise that too much emphasis should not be placed on the difference between persistent anxiety and those in partial remission. At the 6-year-old follow up, more than two-thirds of the subjects suffered from either partial or persistent anxiety, which the researchers note is an unfavorable outcome.
However, when compared to similar studies performed on younger adults, the results are more encouraging, as full remission rates typically only range from 12 to 38%. The results of the study suggest that the outcome of anxiety disorders are different from those of depression,…
Ayres, C., Sorrell, J., Thorp, S., & Wetherell, J. (Mar 2007). Evidence-based psychological treatments for late-life anxiety. Psychology & Aging, 22(1). Retrieved October 30, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
Holwerda, T., Schoevers, R., Dekker, J., Deeg, D., Jonker, C., Beekman, a. (Mar 2007). The relationship between generalized anxiety disorder, depression and mortality in old age. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22(3). Retrieved October 30, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
Schuurman, J., Comija, H., Beekman, a., de Beurs, E., Deeg, D., Emmelkamp, P., and van Dyak, R. (2005). The outcome of anxiety disorders in older people at 6-year follow-up results from Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Acto Psychiary, 111. Retrieved October 30, 2007, from PsycARTICLES database.
Summary of "The outcome of anxiety disorders in older people at 6-year follow-up results from Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam"
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
PTSD is a mental disorder that is mostly associated with traumatic events. When a person faces a life-threatening event to them or their loved one, they are likely to suffer from the disorder. PTSD is not a disorder that affects service members only, but it can affect anyone who experiences a traumatizing event like rape, assault, kidnapping, car accident, or torture. These events might occur directly to the person or to someone close to the person suffering from PTSD. The paper will analyze the disorder and provide some diagnosis and treatment methodologies currently in place. Based on research conducted by other scientists, one can see that there is need for further research in order to determine the effects of the various risks and resilience factors.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder a person will develop after been exposed to a traumatizing, horrific,…
Andreasen, N.C. (2011). What is post-traumatic stress disorder? Dialogues in clinical neuroscience, 13(3), 240.
Javidi, H., & Yadollahie, M. (2012). Post-traumatic Stress Disorder. International Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, 3(1).
Roberts, C.A. (2003). Coping with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Guide for Families. Jefferson NC: McFarland & Company.
Stanley C. Krippner, & Pitchford, D.B. (2012). Post-traumatic Stress Disorder. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Anxiety Disorders - Panic
Anxiety Disorder -- Panic Attacks
The study of abnormal psychology has, in the past three centuries, developed to become a science that provides understanding to professionals and laymen alike about the nature and dynamics of psychological disorders that extraordinarily affects human behavior. Among the identified psychological disorders in the field of abnormal psychology, it is anxiety disorder that can be said as the most common yet unexplored category. The reason for this is that although anxiety disorders are more frequently experienced, this area has not been thoroughly explored, especially in determining its etiology and forms of effective treatment (Barlow, 2000:2529). It is this "peculiar" nature of the disorder that the paper attempts to uncover through a thorough review of current literature on anxiety disorders, focusing specifically on panic disorder.
The texts that follow will cover the theoretical foundations of anxiety and panic disorders from the psychological…
Barlow, D. (2000). "Cognitive-behavioral therapy, Imipramine, or their combination for panic disorder." Journal of American Medical Association, Vol. 283, No. 19.
Bouton, M. (2001). "A modern learning theory perspective on the etiology of panic disorder." Psychological Review, Vol. 108, No. 1.
Hettema, J., M. Neale, and K. Kendler. (2001). "A review and meta-analysis of the genetic epidemiology of anxiety disorders." American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 158.
Young, A. (2001). "The quality of care for depressive and anxiety disorders in the United States." Arch Gen Psychiatry, Vol. 58.
Separation Anxiety Disorder is an anxiety disorder strongly connected to the idea of attachment relationship. This condition is typically associated with childhood diagnosis, as children are more vulnerable to suffering from it. Even with this, separation anxiety disorder is also likely to occur in adults who are separated from home or from individuals to whom they have a strong emotional attachment. Individuals with separation anxiety disorder are probable to put across unsuitable displays of panic and misery when they have to be separated from a place or from a person that they have a strong connection with. Developmental level and age are essential in determining whether or not a person is suffering, as symptoms might be perfectly normal in the case of young children.
It is perfectly normal for a person (a young child in particular) to experience distress as a consequence of being separated from an attachment figure or…
Altman, C. Sommer, J.L. McGoey, K.E. Anxiety in Early Childhood: What Do We Know? Journal of Early Childhood and Infant Psychology. Volume: 5. Publication date: Annual 2009. Page number: 157+
Blair Simpson, H., Neria, Y., and Lewis-Fernandez, R. (2010). Anxiety Disorders: Theory, Research and Clinical Perspectives. Cambridge University Press.
Ceyhan, A.A. Investigation of Early Separation Anxiety Symptom Levels in Turkish Young Adults. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal. Volume: 34. Issue: 3 Publication date: March 15, 2006,-Page number: 295+
Dia, D.A.Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy with a Six-Year-old Boy with Separation Anxiety Disorder: A Case Study. Health and Social Work. Volume: 26. Issue: 2 Publication date: May 2001. Page number: 125
This correlation was more pronounced among female subjects. The results showed that of the 134 test subjects, 84.3% had no comorbid condition while the rest (15.7%) had atleast one comorbid condition. These subjects also showed a higher SASI score (p = .053). The subgroup with comorbid condition also showed a history of early onset (p < .01) and poor recovery of global functioning (p < .05) when compared to the non-comorbid group. Female subjects also showed higher SASI score (p < .05). This study clearly shows a positive association between childhood separation anxiety disorder and the onset of co morbid psychological conditions in adult life. Particularly, women with childhood separation anxiety disorder were more prone to develop a continuum of disorders in adult life. [Akira et.al, 2006]
A more recent study by Karlovec et.al (2008) followed 10 Austrian students who had a previous history of separation anxiety and school refusal.…
1) Osone, Akira (A); Takahashi, Saburo (S) (Sep, 2006), 'Possible link between childhood separation anxiety and adulthood personality disorder in patients with anxiety disorders in Japan.' The Journal of clinical psychiatry, vol 67 (issue 9): pp 1451-7
2) Karl Karlovec M.D. & Kurosch Yazdi, M.D et.al (2008), ' Separation Anxiety Disorder and School refusal in Childhood: Potential Risk Factor for Developing Distinct Psychiatric Disorders?' J. Clin Psychiatry. vol 10(1): 72 -- 73.
3) Lewinsohn PM & Holm-Denoma JM et.al (May 2008), ' Separation Anxiety Disorder in Childhood as a risk factor for Future mental Illness', J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 47(5):548-55
4) Jeffery J. Wood (Sep 2006), 'Parental Intrusiveness and Children's Separation Anxiety in a Clinical Sample', Journal of Child Psychiatry and Human Development, Vol 37, No 1,
For the delayed-treatment group, significant improvement was shown after they received self-examination therapy. From this study, the LaTorre work and the work of Dia, it is reasonable to conclude that empowerment is conducive to better outcomes in those with generalized anxiety disorder.
Dia (2001) noted that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is now a respected and proven model of psychotherapy, as noted by a t ask force of the American Psychological Association. In its review, the APA found that CBT "was efficacious for depression, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, substance abuse and dependence, agoraphobia, and panic disorder" (Dia 2001).
Kendall and Flannery-Schroeder (2003) examined the issue of treatment for generalized anxiety disorders in youth. Instead of attempting to determine the efficacy of one treatment or another, they wanted instead to determine whether research models were adequate to the task of determining best treatments. They noted that the methodological and…
Anxiety disorders lead mental ills in United States. (1996). Public Health Reports, 111(4), 293+. Retrieved April 18, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Bowman, D., Scogin, F., Floyd, M., Patton, E., & Gist, L. (1997). Efficacy of self-examination therapy in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 44(3), 267-273.
Curtis, R.C., Kimball, a., & Stroup, E.L. (2004). Understanding and treating social phobia. Journal of Counseling and Development, 82(1), 3+. Retrieved April 18, 2005, from Questia database,
According to Perwien & Bernstein (2004), the results of the Kendall study indicated that those children who had received the CBT treatments showed a decrease in anxiety related symptoms and an increase in coping abilities. The results held strong during the three-year follow-up period as well.
Another therapeutic approach to Separation Anxiety Disorder in children is ational Emotive Behavior Therapy (EBT). EBT is a highly direct, action-oriented model for assessing problems and effecting change. EBT is an extension of the ET (ational Emotive Therapy) model but seeks to include behavior into the equation. The inclusion of the behavioral component is a critical and essential step in helping to redirect irrational thinking to a reasonable perspective. This transition is designed not only to effect thought patterns but behaviors as well. As is stated by its originator, Albert Ellis, "unlike many counseling methods, EBT is both postmodern and active-directive" (Ellis, 2000, p.…
Cooper, M.G. & Lesser, J.G. (2008) Clinical social work practice, Pearson Education
Ellis, A. (2000) A continuation of the dialogue on issues in counseling in the postmodern era, Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 22 (1), 97-105
First, M.B., Frances, A. & Pincus, H.A. (2004) DSM-IV-TR guidebook, American Psychiatric Publications
Perwien, A.R. & Bernstein, G.A. (2004), "Clinical manifestations of separation anxiety disorder," In Ollendick, T.H. And March J.S. Phobic and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Clinician's Guide to Effective Psychosocial and Pharmacological Interventions. New York: Oxford University Press. Pp 272-305.
Pediatric Speech and Generalized Anxiety Disorders
ecent Advances in Pediatric Speech Disorders and Anxiety
Pediatric Speech Disorders
Children suffering from childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) have problems controlling the muscular movements required to produce speech (Worthey et al., 2013). The underlying muscles and neurons are normal, so that involuntary movements of the same muscles are unaffected; therefore, only intentional speech is affected. The defect lies in the conversion of cognitive linguistic information into the correct pattern of muscular control. The age of onset is between gestation and nine years of age and the causes include comorbidity with other neurological disorders or brain trauma. Adults can also develop speech apraxia, typically incident to stroke or progressive neurological disease.
CAS and other verbal disorders tend to run in families, thereby implicating a genetic contribution to the disease (Worthey et al., 2013). A few candidate genes have been studied, such as FOXP2, FOXP1,…
Breinholst, S., Esbjorn, B.H., Reinholdt-Dunne, M.L., & Stallard, P. (2012). CBT for the treatment of child anxiety disorders: A review of why parental involvement has not enhanced outcomes. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 26, 416-424.
Silk, J.S., Sheeber, L., Tan, P.Z., Ladouceur, C.D., Forbes, E.E., McMakin, D.L. et al. (2013). "You can do it!": The role of parental encouragement of bravery in child anxiety treatment. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 27, 439-446.
Worthey, E.A., Raca, G., Laffin, J.J., Wilk, B.M., Harris, J.M., Jakielski, K.J. et al. (2013). Whole-exome sequencing supports genetic heterogeneity in childhood apraxia of speech. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 5(1), 1-16. Doi: 10.1186/1866-1955-5-29.
Integrative Approach to Psychotherapy
Social Anxiety Disorder
The film Elling presents a story of Elling, the seventh in a family of nine musically-talented children, who is only six when his and his brothers' musical talents are discovered by a visiting tycoon who then offers to sponsor the family troupe on a merry-go-round of public performances. During one of his first performances, Elling runs off-stage, afraid of the flashing lights and the audience applause. In another instance, he is asked to perform an Ella Fitzgerald song, but is unable to, and cries the entire night after his younger brother beats him to the prize. The fear of performing grows strong, and Elling continues to be paralyzed by the same while onstage; at times recalling nothing about his performance, other than the curtains being drawn. This fear perforates into other areas of his life and he soon finds himself shunning…
Hedman, E., Strom, P., Stunkel, A. & Mortberg, E. (2013). Shame and Guilt in Social Anxiety Disorder: Effects of Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Association with Social Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms. PLOS ONE, 8(4): e61713. Retrieved 15 July 2014 from http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0061713&representation=PDF
Schneier, F.R. (2013). Social Anxiety Disorder. The New England Journal of Medicine, 355 (10), 1029-1036.
Wakschlag, L.S., Briggs-Gowan, M.J., Choi, S.W., Nichols, S.R., Kestler, J., Burns, J.L., Carter, A.S. & Henry, D. (2013). Advancing a Multidimensional, Developmental Spectrum Approach to Preschool Disruptive Behavior. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(1), 82-96.
Mr. C, a 38-year-old married male recently contacted a faculty anxiety clinic seeking treatment. At the time he contacted the centre, he self-reported that he experiences social anxiety in different settings, for instance, when talking to strangers, speaking or writing in front of a group, and/or in hostile situations. Furthermore, Mr. C also reported that he often avoided settings such as the ones mentioned above because of social anxiety. Mr. C specifically pointed out that writing in front of a group of people was one of the worst experiences he had had to go through constantly due to the nature of his work (Weiss, Singh, & Hope, 2011).
According to his self-reports the client was born in Central America and immigrated to the U.S. (United States) when he was about 8 years old. Mr. C stated that he had had social anxiety since his…
Chapman K., Williams M. & Ryan D. (n.d) Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment of Social Anxiety Among Ethnic Minority Patients, Part 1: Understanding Differences. Retrieved 13 November 2015 from https://akfsa.org/research/cognitive-behavioral-treatment-of-social-anxiety-among-ethnic-minority-patients-part-1-understanding-differences/
Generalized anxiety disorder in adults - Treatment. (2014, February 25). Retrieved November 13, 2015, from http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Anxiety/Pages/Treatment.aspx
Hope, D.A., Heimberg, R.G., & Turk, C. (2010). Managing Social Anxiety: A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Approach (Client workbook, 2nd Ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
Krucik, G. (2014, September 24). Recognizing Anxiety: Symptoms, Signs, and Risk Factors. Retrieved November 13, 2015, from http://www.healthline.com/health/anxiety/effects-on-body
Final Topic: Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD)
Dryman, T., Gardner, S., Weeks, J.W. & Heimberg, R.G. (2015). Social anxiety disorder and quality of life: How fears of negative and positive evaluation relate to specific domains of life satisfaction. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 38, 1-8.
The authors of the present article point out that SAD has been associated with poor quality of life. Indeed, according to the authors, persons diagnosed with SAD appear to experience impairment in a number of facets, i.e. in on the occupational, educational, as well as social fronts. This is what ends up having a negative impact on the quality of life. It is on this basis that the authors attempt to establish the relationship between a number of quality of life inventory domains and fear of positive evaluation as well as fear of negative evaluation. The quality of life inventory domains that have been highlighted by the…
Dryman, T., Gardner, S., Weeks, J.W. & Heimberg, R.G. (2015). Social anxiety disorder and quality of life: How fears of negative and positive evaluation relate to specific domains of life satisfaction. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 38, 1-8.
Khakpoor, S., Saed, O., Shahsavar, A. & Booth, R.W. (2018). The Concept of ‘Anxiety Sensitivity’ in Social Anxiety Disorder Presentations, Symptomatology, and Treatment: A Theoretical Perspective. Cogent Psychology, 6(1), 14-19.
Leigh, E. & Clark, D.M. (2018). Understanding Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescents and Improving Treatment Outcomes: Applying the Cognitive Model of Clark and Wells (1995). Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev., 21(3), 388-414.
McCall, H.C., Helgadottir, F.D., Menzies, R.., Hadjistavropoulos, H.D., & Chen, F. (2019). Evaluating a Web-Based Social Anxiety Intervention among Community Users: Analysis of Real-World Data. Journal of Medical Research, 21(1), 79-85.
Torvic, F.A., Rosenstrom, T.H., Gustavson, K., Ystrom, E., Kendler, K.S., Bramness, J.G., Czajkowski, N. & Reichborn-Kjennerud, T. (2019). Explaining the association between anxiety disorders and alcohol use disorder: A twin study. Depress Anxiety, 36(6), 522-532.
Vilaplana-Pérez, A., Pérez-Vigil, A., Sidorchuk, A., Brander, G., Isomura, K., Hesselmark, E., . . . Fernández de la Cruz, L. (2020). Much more than just shyness: The impact of social anxiety disorder on educational performance across the lifespan. Psychological Medicine, 1-9
Zakri, H. (2015). Social Anxiety Disorder. InnovAiT, 8(11), 677-684.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
General Anxiety Disorder
Causes, Symptoms and Treatments
A generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a condition whereby a person ends up experiencing more than just normal everyday anxiety and tension, even though there might not be any apparent or evident reasons for its occurrence. Having this disorder basically means the anticipation of disaster in every aspect of life, be it health, money, family, friends, etc. The person may sometimes feel like he himself is not aware of the actual root of the problem (Books, 1997).
The sufferers of GAD may not be able to escape their concerns and worries despite the realization that it may be torturing them. It becomes almost impossible for the person to relax and calm his nerves down, they may even feel insomniac quite a lot. The mental worries soon start becoming evident in their physical actions and symptoms such as headaches, constant irritability,…
Book, W Sarah. (1997). Social Anxiety Disorder and Alcohol Use.
Botts, R Sheila. (1998). Managing Generalized Anxiety Disorder.
Erlbaum, Lawrence. (2007). Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders.
Graske, G Michelle. (1999). Anxiety Disorders: Psychological approaches to theory and treatment.
Philosophical Origins of Clinical Psychology - Psychodynamic, Cognitive-Behavioral, Humanistic, and Family Systems in elation to Generalized Anxiety Disorder
A psychodynamic approach to Generalized Anxiety Disorder takes into account childhood trauma and other fundamental experiences that shape dysfunctional responses to stressors. The underlying philosophy is based on Fruedian theory, illuminating the structure of the ego and how it develops in early childhood. Inadequate or dysfunctional parent-child interactions, such as overprotective parenting, can prevent the healthy development of ego defense mechanisms that can protect the individual from stress and provide the means to cope and overcome ("Anxiety Disorders," n.d.).
Cognitive-behavioral perspectives emphasize dysfunctional thought patterns that underlie anxiety. Those patterns might include maladaptive beliefs or assumptions about the self or the world ("Anxiety Disorders," n.d.). Those thought patterns may or may not have their roots in traumatic experiences, but the philosophy of cognitive-behavioral therapy is on pragmatic change. A cognitive-behavioral philosophy rests…
Anxiety and Depression Association of America (2016). Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Retrieved online: http://www.adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/generalized-anxiety-disorder-gad
"Anxiety Disorders," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://bcs.worthpublishers.com/WebPub/Psychology/comerabpsych8e/IRM/COMER%20IR%20055-074.pdf
"Humanistic Approach," (n.d.). Psychology Issues. Retrieved online: https://www.psychologistworld.com/issues/humanistic-approach.php
"Perspectives of Generalized Anxiety Disorder," (n.d.). Psyched on Psychology Retrieved online: http://psychedonpsychology.blogspot.ca/2009/08/perspectives-of-generalized-anxiety.html
Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) causes significant impairment in kindergarten studies, social functioning, and family relations among children. This paper is a case study of SAD in an eight-year-old African-American female child, named Chloe, under foster care. The paper includes an annotated bibliography and an evidence-based model recommending cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for the given case. The research question for this paper is: how effective is CBT in the treatment of SAD among preschool children diagnosed with SAD? Based on the findings of the annotated literature review, it is concluded that CBT is highly effective as a SAD treatment among preschool children diagnosed with anxiety disorder. Hence, it is recommended that Chloe should undergo a CBT counseling program. The initial treatment goal for Chloe is to help her recognize her anxious feelings and physical responses.
Part 3: Applying Research to a Case Study (Evidence-Based Practice)
According to the National Institute of Mental Health (2019), more than 30% of adolescents have an anxiety disorder, 8.3% of which can be classified as “severe” with corresponding impairments in social or academic functioning (p. 1). However, educators and education administrators lack the resources or tools with which to respond and help students with anxiety disorders (Bhatia & Goval, 2018). Existing leadership models in education need to be revised to include diagnostic and observational tools, and evidence-based practice interventions embedded into appropriate pedagogical and managerial strategies.
The purpose of this research will be to fill the gap in the literature on education leadership and its specific impact on helping students with anxiety disorder, and also to provide educators with evidence-based options for training teachers and administrators to implement specific interventions and assessments to improve measurable student social and academic performance outcomes.
· Does transformational…
Psychology -- Tests and Assessments
The subject is Jane Doe, Case #1234, DOB 02/05/1955. She is a 60-year-old, single white female seeking treatment for chronic anxiety disorder and chronic dysthymia.
The subject is clean and neatly dressed, though in clothing that might not be deemed age appropriate, as she is a 60-year-old woman wearing a t-shirt, cargo shorts and sneakers.
The subject's posture is appropriate, leaning toward casual and relaxed. Her body movements are expressive, though appropriate. Her attitude is appropriate in that it is friendly, assertive and cooperative. Her gait is unremarkable. She maintains eye contact that is appropriate, though leaning toward intermittent. Her speech is appropriate, well-modulated and articulate
The subject projects a somewhat anxious and depressed mood, which she pointedly articulates.
The subject is clearly highly intelligent, with appropriate attention span, abstract thinking, concrete thinking and adequacy in all areas.
Craske, M.G., Rauch, S.L., Ursano, R., Pine, D., & Zinbarg, R.E. (2009). What is an anxiety disorder? Depression & Anxiety, 26(12), 1066-1085.
Cuijpers, P., van Straten, A., Schuurmans, J., van Oppen, P., Hollon, S.D., & Andersson, G. (2010). Psychotherapy for chronic major depression and dysthymia: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychlogy Review, 30(1), 51-62.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Humans have a natural response to survival, stress and fear. Such responses enable an individual to pursue pertinent objectives and respond accordingly to the presence of danger. The 'flight or fight' response in a healthy individual is provoked via a real challenge or threat and is utilized as a means of acting appropriately to the situation. However, when an anxiety disorder manifests in someone, then an inappropriate/excessive state of arousal develops. People then feel symptoms of fear, apprehension, or uncertainty. These feelings or reactions may surface even when no real threat exists.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), is a common anxiety disorder that affects roughly 5% of the United States general population. "GAD is commonly associated with psychiatric and medical comorbidities and is often chronic. GAD is associated with extensive psychiatric and medical utilization and, if left untreated, can cause impairment as severe as major depressive disorder…
Asmundson, G. J., Fetzner, M. G., DeBoer, L. B., Powers, M. B., Otto, M. W., & Smits, J. A. (2013). LET'S GET PHYSICAL: A CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THE ANXIOLYTIC EFFECTS OF EXERCISE FOR ANXIETY AND ITS DISORDERS. Depression and Anxiety, 30(4), 362-373. doi:10.1002/da.22043
Butnoriene, J., Bunevicius, A., Saudargiene, A., Nemeroff, C. B., Norkus, A., Ciceniene, V., & Bunevicius, R. (2015). Metabolic syndrome, major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and ten-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in middle aged and elderly patients. International Journal of Cardiology, 190, 360-366. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.04.122
Chokroverty, S. (2013). Sleep Disorders Medicine: Basic Science, Technical Considerations, and Clinical Aspects. Elsevier Science.
Dodhia, S., Hosanagar, A., Fitzgerald, D. A., Labuschagne, I., Wood, A. G., Nathan, P. J., & Phan, K. L. (2014). Modulation of Resting-State Amygdala-Frontal Functional Connectivity by Oxytocin in Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology, 39(9), 2061-2069. doi:10.1038/npp.2014.53
Anxiety and Learning
Anxiety impacts roughly 18% of the population in one form or another. It is particularly troubling for students in higher academics. This study aims to investigate the question: What factors outside of the classroom increase anxiety in academic performance? This paper will provide an overview of anxiety, discuss how college students are affected by it, examine the factors that cause it, and look at how parents and educators can help those who suffer from it.
What is Anxiety?
There are many different types of anxiety, but generally put anxiety refers to nervousness and a feeling of being overwhelmed by stress about something related to one’s life. There is social anxiety, panic disorder, fears and phobias, separation anxiety, and general anxiety disorder, which refers to a chronic case of anxiety that simply will not go away. The characteristics of anxiety include a feeling of apprehension, tension, restlessness, jumpiness,…
Anxiety disorder is among the most prevalent mental health disorders in the U.S>.with approximately 18 of Americans suffering from some form of anxiety (NAMI, 2017). Different types of anxiety disorders include social anxiety, panic disorder, phobias such as agoraphobia, separation anxiety, and generalized anxiety disorder (chronic worry over everyday life isues). Behavioral components of anxiety include feeling an overwhelming sense of apprehension, tense, irritable, restless, jumpy, and always anticipating the worst possible outcome. Individuals suffering from anxiety may isolate themselves from others, have difficulty communicating what’s wrong, and may have difficulty focusing on tasks, catching their breath or gaining control of their bodies during an anxiety attack. The biological components of anxiety can include headaches, upset stomach, increased heart rate, loss of breath, sweating, tremors, fatigue, insomnia and frequent urination (NAMI, 2017). It is believed that anxiety may have a genetic or environmental cause.
Treatment options for anxiety include…
Relationships provide the key experience that connects children's personal and social worlds. It is within the dynamic interplay between these two worlds that minds form and personalities grow, behavior evolves and social competence begins." (1999) Howe relates that it is being acknowledged increasingly that "...psychologically, the individual cannot be understood independently of his or her social and cultural context. The infant dos not enter the world as a priori discrete psychological being. Rather, the self and personality form as the developing mind engages with the world in which it finds itself." (Howe, 1999) Therefore, Howe relates that there is: "...no 'hard boundary' between the mental condition of individuals and the social environments in which they find themselves. The interaction between individuals and their experiences creates personalities. This is the domain of the psychosocial." (Howe, 1999) the work of Howe additionally states that attachment behavior "...brings infants into close proximity to…
Ainsworth, M.D.S. (1989). Attachments beyond infancy. American Psychologist, 44, 709-716.
Allen, Jon G. (2001) a Model for Brief Assessment of Attachment and Its Application to Women in Inpatient Treatment for Trauma Related Psychiatric Disorders Journal of Personality Assessment 2001 Vol. 76. Abstract Online available at http://www.leaonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/S15327752JPA7603_05?cookieSet=1&journalCode=jpa
Armsden, G.C., & Greenberg, M.T. (1987). The inventory of parent and peer attachment: Individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 427-454.
Barrocas, Andrea L. (2006) Adolescent Attachment to Parents and Peers. The Emory Center for Myth and Ritual in American Life. Working Paper No. 50 Online available at http://www.marial.emory.edu/pdfs/barrocas%20thesisfinal.doc
Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Film
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), as defined by the American Psychiatric Association (AMA), involves excessive worry and anxiety for a six-month period or longer (AMA 429). GAD is not typically associated with the more intense expressions of anxiety, such as panic attacks or panic disorder (Shelton S2), yet the degree of worry and anxiety experienced is easily recognized as disproportionate for the reality of the situation (AMA 473-475). A diagnosis depends in part on eliminating contributions from an underlying medical condition or the effects of a substance such as drugs or excessive caffeine, and the focus of the anxiety is not limited to a single concern, such as experiencing a panic attack or becoming deathly ill. The anxiety experienced therefore involves wide swaths of the patient's life.
Patients often report experiencing muscle tension, trembling, twitching, feeling shaky, muscle aches, soreness, sudden fatigue, irritability, and difficulty concentrating…
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. New York: American Psychiatric Association, 2000. Print.
Analyze this. Dir. Harold Ramis. Perf. Robert De Niro, Billy Crystal, and Lisa Kudrow. Warner Brothers, 1999. Film.
Shelton, Charles I. Diagnosis and Management of Anxiety Disorders. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 104.3 (2004): S2-S5. Web.
Mr. iley's agoraphobia is a matter of particular concern as this defensive response to his anxiety disorder has prevented the subject from engaging a normal, health, active, productive life. According to A.D.A.M. (2010), "panic disorder with agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder in which there are repeated attacks of intense fear and anxiety, and a fear of being in places where escape might be difficult, or where help might not be available. Agoraphobia usually involves fear of crowds, bridges, or of being outside alone." (A.D.A.M., p. 1) The fear of the outside world has inclined the subject in this case to increasingly shut himself off from others and from opportunities to experience life. The result, A.D.A.M. (2010) reports, is a deepening sense of isolation and a further descent into the irrational response mechanisms that have come to control Mr. iley's life.
One major demographic concern for Mr. iley might…
A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. (2010). Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia. PubMed Health.
DSM IV. (2010). DSM IV Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Criteria. Biological Unhapiness.com.
Malinckrodt, B.; Porter, M.J. & Kivlighan, D.M. (2005). Client Attachment to Therepist: Depth of In-Session Exploration, and Object Relations in Brief Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 42(1), 85-100.
realm of psychological disorder through the use of a character assessment. The character in question is fictional and the data used to evaluate the psychological profile derives from a movie. Melvin Udall, the main character in the movie "As Good as It Gets" serves as the character used in this assessment. Ultimately, I find and explore specific links to Melvin's condition in the movie to that of one suffering from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD).
In order to discuss the relationships previously mentioned, I needed to perform several steps in order to logically conclude that Melvin represents someone suffering from OCD symptoms. In order to accomplish this task, I first watched the film and examined many of the traits that Melvin demonstrated. Next, I used a set of ten questions which provided a baseline assessment formula. These questions are each answered separately within the body of this essay. This character assessment…
Atkins, L. (2009). A radical treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder patients. The Guardian, 14 Dec 2009. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2009/dec/15/obsessive-complusive-disorder - gamma-knife
Brooks, J.L. (1998) As Good As It Gets. Jack Nicholson, Helen Hunt, Greg Kinnear. Tristar Pictures.
Bouchard, C. Rheaume, J. Landouceru, R. (1998). Responsibility and perfectionism in OCD. Behavior Research Therapy 37 (1999). 239-248. Retrieved from http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/Homepage/Class/Psy394Q/Research%20Design%20Clas s/Assigned%20Readings/Experimental%20Psychopathology/Bouchard99.pdf
Eddy, M.F., & Walbroehl, G.S. (1998, April 1). Recognition and treatment of obsessive- compulsive disorder. American Family Physician, p. 1623-1632. http://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0401/p1623.html
economic burden Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The research arguable issue yield a 1000-1200 words. All work local (USA) global.
The economic burden of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder has been discovered relatively recently, meaning as such that progress has yet to be made in terms of treatment and management. Additionally, research is also yet to be exhaustive, as numerous aspects of the affection remain uncharted.
One important aspect of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is represented by the economic cost of the affection, revealed at multiple levels, such as the cost for the healthcare system, as well as the costs for the family. The current project assesses this issue through the lenses of the research that has already been conducted on the topic, in an effort to centralize and conclude upon the matter. The means in which this endeavor would be addressed is that of the Toulmin Method.…
Bernfort, L., Nordfeldt, S., Persson, J., 2007, ADHD from a socio-economic perspective, Foundation Acta Paediatrtica
Daley, D., Birchwood, J., 2009, ADHD and academic performance: why does ADHD impact on academic performance and what can be done to support ADHD children in the classroom, Child: care, health and development
Matza, L.S., Paramore, C., Prasad, M., 2005, A review of the economic burden of ADHD, http://www.resource-allocation.com/content/3/1/5 last accessed on March 30, 2012
Weida, S., Stolley, K., Organizing your argument, Owl Purdue, http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/588/03 / last accessed on March 30, 2012
Apparent health can be generally positive or negative; in spite of how it links with the real health; it may be significant to comprehend its function in certain kinds of psychopathology. Negatively apparent health has been anticipated to symbolize a cognitive risk factor for panic disorder (PD), detached from elevated anxiety feeling. As a result, PD may be more likely to take place on a background of negative perceptions of one's health. A negatively perceived health may also have predictive implications for PD patients, bearing in mind that negatively perceived health has been found to be a considerable predictor of mortality in general and that individuals with panic-like anxiety indications, panic attacks, and PD have elevated mortality rates, mostly due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular illnesses (Starcevick, Berle, Fenech, Milicevic, Lamplugh and Hannan, 2009).
Studies have suggested that panic attacks (PA) are widespread and connected with an augmented occurrence of…
Carrera, M.; Herran, a.; Ramirez, M.L.; Ayestaran, a.; Sierra-Biddle, D.; Hoyuela, F.;
Rodriguez-Cabo, B.; Vazquez-Barquero, J.L..(2006). Personality traits in early phases of panic disorder: implications on the presence of agoraphobia, clinical severity and short-
term outcome. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 114(6), p.417-425.
Craske, Michelle G., Kircanski, Katharina, Phil., C., Epstein, Alyssa, Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich,
psychological diagnosis related children. TOPIC: GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER. Topics selected Diagnostic Statistical Manual Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR). The research paper discuss: a.
Anxiety disorders are presently responsible for interfering in people's lives and preventing them from being able to successfully integrate society. hen considering the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), matters are particularly intriguing as a result of the fact that many people have trouble identifying it and actually go through their lives thinking that their thinking is perfectly normal. In spite of the fact that there are no motives to provoke the exaggerated worry seen in people with GAD, they are unable to realize that they are overstressed. Millions of people from around the world are currently suffering from GAD, with the malady affecting virtually everything about their lives.
hile some individuals actually acknowledge the fact that their worries are unfounded, it is very difficult for them to put across rational…
Gliatto, M.F. "Generalized Anxiety Disorder." American Family Physician. October 1, 2000.
Kendall, Philip C. Pimentel, Sandra Moira Rynn, A. Angelosante, Aleta and Webb, Alicia "12 Generalized Anxiety Disorder," Phobic and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Clinician's Guide to Effective Psychosocial and Pharmacological Interventions, ed. Thomas H. Ollendick andJohn S. March (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004)
Murray, Megan "Treading Water: Self-reflections on Generalized Anxiety Disorder," Human Architecture 2.1 (2003)
Nutt, David; Bell, Caroline; Masterson, Christine and Short, Clare Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Psychopharmacological Approach (London: Martin Dunitz, 2001)
The authors state, "underlying mechanism through which exposure to childhood abuse is associated with increased risk of panic cannot be determined based on these data alone" (p. 888). They offer several possible explanations. Exposure to abuse as a child may result in an extreme and realistic fear of threat to survival. This may be how panic disorder starts. Later, it may persist, or recur spontaneously, even without abusive conditions. In the face of a real life threat, panic is not pathological, but in childhood panic may make the child more vulnerable to panic later. Exposure to abuse may lead to biochemical changes that increase the risk of a disorder. Because the study was based on interviews with 18 to 21-year-olds, who were asked to recall past experiences, the findings could be contaminated by recall bias in which young people with mental instability might be more likely to report abuse in…
Bandelow, B., Sojka, F. et al. (2006). Panic disorder during pregnancy and postpartum period. European Psychiatry, 21, 495-500.
Biederman, J., Petty, C., Faraone, S.V. et al. (2006). Effects of parental anxiety disorders in children at high risk for panic disorder: A controlled study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 94, 191-197.
Goodwin, R.D., Fergusson, D.M. And Horwood, L.J. (2004). Childhood abuse and familial violence and the risk of panic attacks and panic disorder in young adulthood. Psychological Medicine, 35, 881-890.
Warren, S.L., Racu, C., Gregg, V. And Simmens, S.J. (2006). Maternal panic disorder: Infant prematurity and low birth weight. Anxiety Disorders, 20, 342-352.
Though a great deal more is known about neurotransmission today than was known at the beginning of the research associated with the initial biological discoveries of neurotransmitters and the neurotransmission process there is still a great deal to be discovered. Neurotransmission disorganization and impairment is clearly identified as a pervasive aspect of many psychological disorders. This is particularly true of the anxiety disorders and OCD. There is no doubt that increased understanding of the various mechanisms of OCD and normal neurotransmission will add to a greater research understanding of the biological causalities and modalities of OCD.
Though the most simplistic and earliest neurotransmission disturbance theories have been largely discounted the research has created ample evidence of disturbances in neurotransmission function (in more complex terms) as the root cause of several psychological disorders including various forms of anxiety disorders the subgroup which OCD falls into.
…this research has revealed the…
Goodman, W.K., Rudorfer, M.V., & Maser, J.D. (Eds.). (2000). Obsessive-compulsive disorder contemporary issues in treatment. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hollander, E. Allen, A. Steiner, M. Wheadon, D.E. Oakes, R. Burnham, D.B. (September 2003) Acute and long-term treatment and prevention of relapse of obsessive-compulsive disorder with paroxetine. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 64(9) 1113-1121.
Howland, R.H. (2005). Chapter 6 Biological bases of psychopathology. In Psychopathology: Foundations for a Contemporary Understanding, Maddux, J.E. & Winstead, B.A. (Eds.) (pp. 109-119). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Liebowitz, M.R. Turner, S.M. Piacentini, J. Beidel, D.C. Clarvit, S.R. Davies, S.O. Graae, F. Jaffer, M. Lin, S. Sallee, F.R. Schmidt, A.B. Simpson, H.B. (December 2002) Fluoxetine in Children and Adolescents With OCD: A Placebo-Controlled Trial Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 41(12) 1431-1438.
Avoidant Personality Disorder
As per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), a certain case of avoidant personality disorder (APD) is featured by the existent sign of social inhibition, feeling of being short of requirement, and hypersensitivity to negative valuation. (American Psychiatric Association, 1994, p.1) Even though personality disorders are not often discovered in persons below age 18, children who come within the condition of APD are recurrently portrayed as being aloof to the core, fearful in arising circumstances, and afraid of dissention and social boycott. The proportion of the signs and the inability is way behind the practice of inhibition that is prevalent in as much as 40% of the populace. Hence it is of great relevance of examining the disorder as it relates to professional counseling.
Exploration of disorder
Bearing a semblance to other personality disorders, the state of Avoidant Personality disorder turns out…
American Psychiatric Association: (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Beck, Aaron T; Freeman, M.D; Arthur, Ed.D. (1990). "Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders." New York: The Guilford Press.
Benjamin, Lorna Smith (1996) "An Interpersonal Theory of Personality Disorders," in Major Theories of Personality Disorder, Clarkin, John F. & Lenzenweger, Mark F (Eds.). New York: The Guilford Press
Craig, Robert J. (1995). "Interpersonal Psychotherapy and MCMI-III -- Based Assessment, Tactical Psychotherapy of the Personality Disorders An MCMI-III -- Based Approach." Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Bipolar psychiatric disorder (BD) -- which is characterized by "…cycles of depression and mania" -- is a "euphoric, high-energy state" that can produce remarkable bursts of creativity or, on the other hand, can produce erratic behavioral events that are risky and provocative (Gardner, 2011). About 2.4% of the world's population has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder (at one time or another in their lifetime) but the rate in the United States (4.4% of the population) is the highest of any nation (Gardner, p. 1). The lowest rate on record is in India, 0.1%. This paper reviews various aspects and ramifications of the effects of bipolar disorder through nine peer-reviewed research articles.
Bipolar disorder and cigarette smoking
In the journal Bipolar Disorders the authors point out that adults suffering from bipolar disorder are "…two to three times more likely" have begun a serious smoking habit, which is a "devastating addiction" and…
Calkin, Cynthia, and Alda, Martin. (2012). Beyond the Guidelines for Bipolar Disorder: Practical
Issues in Long-Term Treatment with Lithium. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 57(7), 437-
Gardner, Amanda. (2011). U.S. has highest bipolar rate in 11-nation study. CNN Health.
Retrieved March 27, 2013, from http://www.cnn.com .
Difficulty of Treating Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety disorders are difficult to treat for a multitude of reasons; first, there is no 100% proven-to-be-effective method of therapy that acts as a one-size-fits-all treatment for patient. Behavioral therapy is used by some therapists; others utilize medical therapy, such as Zoloft, Paxil or other prescriptions. Psychosurgery is also an option for patients who do not respond well to either treatments, but such surgery requires literally burning part of the brain and is noted as only having a 50% success rate (Psych Guides, 2015). The bottom line is that anxiety disorders are a complicated manifestation of an underlying issue within the human psyche for which medical science only has a limited understanding.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the most difficult to treat primarily because it requires a strong and durable commitment to transformative behavior therapy such as cognitive behavior therapy. In cases where patients…
Psych Guides. (2015). Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Retrieved from http://www.psychguides.com/guides/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-treatment-program-options/
Sasson, Y., Zohar, J., Chopra, M., Hendler, T. (1997). Epidemiology of obsessive, compulsive disorder: A world view. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 12(12): 7-10.
Wexler, E. (2013). Clinical neurologists: behavioral management of inherited neurodegenerative disease. Neurologic Clinics, 31(4): 1121-1144.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction
Alcoholism and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Overview
PTSD and Co morbidity of Alcoholism: The ole of Trauma
Childhood Abuse and Gender Differences in PTSD
Association Between Alcoholism and Emotion
Genetic and Environmental Influences
Models of Assessment/Conclusions
Abstract TC "Abstract" f C l "1"
This study will examine the relationship between post traumatic stress disorder and alcoholism/addiction. The author proposes a quantitative correlation analysis of the relationship between PTSD and alcoholism be conducted to identify the influence of trauma on subsequent alcohol abuse in patients varying in age from 13-70.
A survey of the literature available on PTSD and alcohol/substance abuse on patients is conducted leading to a conclusion that a direct relationship does exist between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction. This conclusion coincides with a large body of evidence and prior studies which link the prevalence of traumatic disorders with alcohol and substance…
References" f C l "1":
Brady, S.; Rierdan, J. Penk, W; Losardo, M; Meschede, T. (2003). "Post traumatic stress disorder in adults with serious mental illness and substance abuse." Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 4(4): 77-90
Brown, P.J. (2001). "Outcome in female patients with both substance use and post-traumatic stress disorders." Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 18(3):127-135
Bulijan, D.; Vreek, D.; Cekic, A.A.; Karlovic, D.; Zoricic, Z; Golik-Gruber, V. (2002).
'Posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol dependence and somatic disorders in displaced persons." Alcoholism: Journal on Alcoholism and Related Addictions, 38(1-2)35-40
Though there is not anything that clearly indicates that Cliff has not been through some sort of traumatic event to trigger his anxiety, it is unlikely that he suffers from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder since, again, his anxieties are not focused on any one thing and there is no indication in this vignette that he feels he is reliving any kind of event from his past. Social Phobic Disorder is highly unlikely since, again, Cliff operates out in the world with moderate success, and what is most telling to eliminate this diagnosis is the fact that Cliff does not state that he is concerned about his evaluations at work, but instead simply about arriving on time. And finally, Specific Phobic Disorder is not a consideration since, as stated before, his anxieties are not fixed on any one object, person, or situation.
American Psychological Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual…
American Psychological Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders DSM-IV-TR 4th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Caldwell, J.P. (2005). Anxiety disorders. Redmond Hill, ON CA: Firefly Publishers.
psychiatric disorder of childhood depression. The information will discuss how the disorder is diagnosed, the prevalence rates, theories concerning the etiology of depression and various treatments that are available for childhood depression.
hile many people may overlook this serious mental condition that occurs within some children, others are facing the reality of the disorder on a daily basis. More information is becoming readily available that offers research about depression in children and is very helpful to those seeking prognosis and treatment of their loved ones. Many times, depression in children and adolescents is overlooked or misdiagnosed. This paper will discuss symptoms and treatment of depression in children.
Depression is a mental problem that affects people of all ages, race, and economic levels. The diagnosis is becoming more acceptable and is commonly treated with antidepressant drug therapy. The patient is not only affected by treatment, but the drug and insurance…
AllPsych. "Major Depressive Disorder." 13 April 2003. http://allpsych.com/disorders/mood/majordepression.html
Mendlowitz, S., Manassis, K., Bradley, S., Scapillato, D., Miezitis, S., Shaw, B. "Cognitive Behavioral GroupTreatments in Childhood Anxiety Disorders: The Role of Parental Involvement." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, v38, p1223. 1999.
National Institute of Mental Health. (Sept 2000). "Depression in Children and Adolescents." NIH Publication No. 00-4744. Available at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/depchildresfact.cfm .
O'Conner, Richard. Undoing Depression: What Therapy Doesn't Teach You and Medication
(Book & andall, 2002, p. 130) Both of these lines of research are ripe for additional investigation, as they seem to clearly complicate and possibly exacerbate the social affect of the disorder to a large degree and are secondary problems shared by many who experience the disorder.
Other related disorders also give more clear insight into panic disorder, as post traumatic stress disorder has increased in severity as well as incidence, given the prolonged state of national crisis, war and other issues involving over stimulation in the fast paced society we share. One review work, demonstrates the conflicts and controversy that surrounds PTSD, often a precursor to panic disorder as the disorder leaves the individual with a cognitive reaction to normal events in an exaggerated panicked, fashion and in many ways correlates to panic disorder. The article states that victims in the past have been treated ineffectually due to preconceived…
Beamish, P.M., Granello, DH, & Belcastro, a.L. (2002). Treatment of Panic Disorder: Practical Guidelines. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24(3), 224.
Bogels, S.M., & Zigterman, D. (2000). Dysfunctional Cognitions in Children with Social Phobia, Separation Anxiety Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28(2), 205.
Book, S.W., & Randall, C.L. (2002). Social Anxiety Disorder and Alcohol Use. Alcohol Research & Health, 26(2), 130.
Cook-Cottone, C. (2004). Childhood Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Diagnosis, Treatment, and School Reintegration. School Psychology Review, 33(1), 127.
Swanson, Ph.D., University of California, Irvine, CA 92715
Age: ____ Grade:
Ethnicity (circle one which best applies): African-American Asian Caucasian Hispanic
Completed by:____ Type of Class:
For each item, check the column which best describes this child:
Not at Just a Quite
1. Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork or tasks
2. Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
3. Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
4. Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties
5. Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
6. Often avoids, dislikes, or reluctantly engages in tasks requiring sustained mental effort
7. Often loses things necessary for activities (e.g., toys, school assignments, pencils, or books)
8. Often is distracted by extraneous stimuli
9. Often is forgetful in…
The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at http://www.bartleby.com/66/3/33503.html
Cloward, Janessa. "ADHD drugs pose heart risks, federal panel says," University Wire, February 15, 2006. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1118518952.html
DeMarle, Daniel J.;Denk, Larry;Ernsthausen, Catherine S.. "Working with the family of a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.(Family Matters)," Pediatric Nursing, July 1, 2003. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1107215868.html
Edwards, Jason H.. "Evidenced-based treatment for child ADHD: "real-world" practice implications." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, April 1, 2002. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-87015306.html
..in their view, rather than promoting wholeness and recovery, the experience recreated the secrecy of abuse and fed the stigma associated with each of the three issues."
In the hopes of a more well-organized approach to providing these key services to women, the WELL project instituted a mechanism for promoting strategy and collaboration changes at the state, regional, and local levels. The WELL project also recommended an open dialogue between agencies as to better systems to put in place, and suggested giving individuals within each area of service "freedom to make change at any given moment" when a better approach can be taken by a trained professional healthcare provider.
Predominantly Female Caseloads: Identifying Organizational Correlates in Private Substance Abuse Treatment Centers, a piece in the Journal of Behavioral Health Services & esearch (Tinney, et al., 2004), speaks to the issue of the need for healthcare providers to be meeting "distinctive…
Conrad, Patricia J., Pihl, Robert O., Stewart, Sherry H., & Dongier, Maurice. (2000). Validation
Of a System of Classifying Female Substance Abusers on the Basis of Personality and Motivational Risk Factors for Substance Abuse. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 14(3),
Markoff, Laurie S., Finkelstein, Norma, Kammerer, Nina, Kreiner, Peter, & Prost, Carol a.
2005). Relational Systems Change: Implementing a Model of Change in Integrating
Some doctors believe that genetic factors are the core cause of a lot of eating disorders. esearchers have found specific chromosomes that may be associated with bulimia and anorexia, specifically regions on chromosome 10 that have been linked to bulimia as well as obesity. There has been evidence that has shown that there is an association with genetic factors being responsible for serotonin, the brain chemical involved with both well-being and appetite. esearchers have also determined that certain proteins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are thought to influence a person's vulnerability to developing an eating disorder (Eating disorders -- Causes, 2010).
The advance of food in Western countries has become extremely problematic. The food that is produced in the U.S. every year is enough to supply 3,800 calories to everyone on a daily basis. This is far more than is needed for good nutrition. Obesity is a worldwide epidemic,…
Eating Disorders. (n.d.). Retrieved June 19, 2010, from National Mental Health Information
Center Web site: http://mentalhealth.samhsa.gov/publications/allpubs/ken98-
Eating Disorders. (2009). Retrieved June 19, 2010, from National Institute of Mental Health
Attention Deficit HyperactivITY Disorder DIAGNOSIS IN CHILDEN
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a diverse behavioral set of symptoms described by the hub indication of impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention. Even as, these symptoms have a tendency to gather together, some individuals are for the most part hyperactive and impetuous, even as others are predominantly inattentive. This disease affects both toddlers and adults of all ages and should be taken seriously. When this disease is being diagnosed in children, doctors often make quick decisions to make a diagnosis and handing out prescriptions. This should not be the case as doctors are supposed to take enough time to well analyze the condition of the children before offering prescriptions.
About Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
There are two main diagnostic decisive factors that are currently in use. These are the International Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders uses the initials (ICD-10) and the…
Honos-Webb, L. (2010). The gift of ADHD: How to transform your child's problems into strengths. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.
Kushner, T.K. (2010). Surviving health care: A manual for patients and their families.
Cambridge England: Cambridge University Press.
Nass, R.D. & Leventhal, F.,. (2011). 100 questions & answers about your child's ADHD: From
They also state that PMS is also normal for reproductive women.
Some critics go even farther, and blame the woman for the symptoms she is experiencing (Sellers, 2003). They suggest that the emotional and behavioral difficulties called PMDD are nothing more than basic conditioning, that the woman is rewarded for negative behavior. Sick days and other accommodations, they argue, allow the woman to skip school or work with a phony excuse, and allow them to avoid situations they find generate anxiety in them, such as difficult social interactions (Sellers, 2003).
However, the fact that the women show significant improvement during the luteal phase when taking effective medication argues against the critics' claims. In particular, the same SSRI's that work relatively rapidly in PMDD can take up to twelve weeks to help with non-PMDD depression (Steiner, 2000).
Critics also argue that "PMS provides an excuse for what would otherwise be unacceptable…
Bhatia, Shashi K. 2002. "Diagnosis and treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder." American Family Physician, Oct.
Bosarge, Penelope M. 2003. "Understanding and treating PMS/PMDD." Nursing, November.
Sellers, Melissa 2003. "Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder' and 'Premenstrual Syndrome' myths." Skeptical Inquirer, May.
Sherman, Carl. 2001. "Sertraline, Venlafaxine Offer PMDD Patients Relief.(premenstrual dysphoric disorder). Clinical Psychiatry News, October.
Autism is a developmental disorder, as can be seen in the fact that Peter was first diagnosed when he failed to develop speech at the rate of a normal child. Autism is also a spectrum disorder, meaning that individuals will manifest the condition in different ways and different aspects of normal speech, movement, and social interactions may be inhibited depending on the child and the condition's severity. There is no 'cure' for autism or universally-accepted treatment for the disorder although behavioral interventions such as ABA "encourages positive behaviors and discourages negative behaviors in order to improve a variety of skills" through methods such as "Discrete Trial Training (DTT) DTT is a style of teaching that uses a series of trials to teach each step of a desired behavior or response. Lessons are broken down into their simplest parts and positive reinforcement is used to reward correct answers and behaviors." (Treatment,…
Additional treatments for ADHD. (2013). Psych Central. Retrieved from:
Depression. (2013). NIMH. Retrieved from:
Bipolar I disorder is an axis 1 clinical disorder in the DSM-IV and is a serious mental illness that can lead to suicidal ideation or action. The history of bipolar disorder research is a long one, and understanding of the disease has deepened considerably over the last several generations. Diagnosis of bipolar disorder 1 is complicated by its resemblance to other mood disorders, mainly major depression but also psychotic disorders like schizophrenia. esearch is revealing new treatment interventions that are targeted to the biological needs of bipolar patients, as antidepressants are often or usually contraindicated. A Christian worldview suggests that individualized treatment plans take into account the family history and patient's lifestyle when recommending a treatment plan.
Bipolar I disorder is a serious mental illness that affects between 1 and 2.5% of the general population in the United States (Ghaznavi & Deckersbach, 2012). The more conservative estimate, 1%, is…
"A Brief History of Bipolar Disorder," (2012). Today's Caregiver. Retrieved online: http://www.caregiver.com/channels/bipolar/articles/brief_history.htm
Angst, J. & Marneros, A. (2001). Bipolarity from ancient to modern times: Conception, birth, and rebirth. Journal of Affective Disorders 67(1-3): 3-19.
Angst, J. & Sellaro, R. (2000). Historical perspectives and natural history of bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry 48(6): 445-457.
Baethge, C. Salvatore, P. & Baldessarini, R.J. (2003). Cyclothymia, a circular mood disorder. Historical Psychiatry 2003/14: 377-399
Bipolar disorder, originally called manic depressive disorder, is a severe mood disorder that vacillates between extreme "ups" (mania, hypomania) and "downs" (depression). The effects of having bipolar disorder can be observed across the patients social and occupational functioning. Often the patient is left isolated from work, friends, and family. Medications have become the first-line treatments for bipolar disorder; however, psychotherapy can offer additional benefits in the ongoing treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. This paper discusses the symptoms and treatment of bipolar disorder focusing on cognitive behavioral therapy and emotion focused therapy.
Description and differentiation
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders -- Fourth Edition -- Text evision (DSM-IV-T) one's mood is an all-encompassing and sustained feeling tone experienced internally by the person and influences the person's behavior and perception of the world. Affect is the external or outward expression of this inner…
Alloy, L.B., Abramson, L.Y., Walshaw, P.D., Keyser, J., & Gerstein, R.K. (2006). A cognitive vulnerability-stress perspective on bipolar spectrum disorders in a normative adolescence brain, cognitive, and emotional development context. Developmental Psychopathology, 18(4), 1057-1103.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.
Beck, J.S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: Basics and beyond. New York: Guilford Press.
Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 17-31
Seriously, a reader cannot be certain that RAD is the key problem with T, who has had prenatal exposure to alcohol, marijuana and cocaine and has experienced "abuse and neglect" (Lyon p. 644). The article brings in the possibility that FASD or PTSD may be appropriate in describing "T" -- a 12-year-old Hispanic boy. But what stands out in the intervention of T. is the litany of medications given to T. while he was institutionalized due to wild and violent behaviors: Risperidone (3 mg); clozapine (200 mg); valproic acid (750 mg); guanfacine (4 mg); and desmopressin (0.6 mg).
In addition, T received chlorpromazine (50 mg every 2 hours) and Benadryl (50 mg every 4 hours) (Lyon p. 645) to curb his aggression. hat also stands out is the disclosure that Lyon received money from Eli Lilly to conduct this research on T. How much credibility does an author have in…
American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. (2008). Reactive Attachment Disorder.
Retrieved May 13, 2009, from http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families//reactive_attachment_disorder .
Becker-Weidman, Arthur, and Hughes, Daniel. (2008). Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy:
An evidence-based treatment for children with complex trauma and disorders of attachment.
This research is a mixed methods study designed to explore the perceptions of self-identifying individuals with anxiety and depression regarding any relation between their conditions and their ability to access appropriate healthcare under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Five respondents completed the questionnaire constructed explicitly for this research study. A review of the literature serves as a canvas of instruments also developed for assessing Axis 1 disorders as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5). The research on instrumentation included the following: 1) The SCID, 2) the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), 3) the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), 4) the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D), and 5) Severity Measure for Generalized Anxiety Disorder -- Adult (an emerging online measure provided in association with the DSM-5).
Their responses negate the theoretical construct, however, an insufficient number of respondents in this pilot study meant…
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
Appendix C - Screening for Depression
If you suspect that you might suffer from depression, answer the questions below, print out the results, and share them with your health care professional.
Over the last two weeks, how often have you been bothered by any of the following problems?
The results were found to be similar with regards to the scales of CMAS (a 37 item measure), STAIC (for the 20 item state scale measure only), CDI (a 27 item measure) and FSSC- (an 80 item measure). The trait scale of STAIC showed a few variations but was not strong enough when the Bonferroni correction was applied. The CASI scale presented a higher occurrence in the second group compared to the first, regardless of Bonferroni corrections. This amounted to at least 16 of the 18 items. The remaining two items, recorded higher in the second group can be considered to be of an external nature. The origins of these differences were obtained using t-test analysis methods (Kearney, Albano, Eisen, Allan & Barlow, 1997)
Conclusions of the research
The conclusions drawn from the study participants with panic disorder revealed nausea, shivering, difficulties in breathing and increased heart rate as the…
Kearney, C, A, Albano, A, M, Eisen, A, R, Allan, W, D & Barlow, D, H. (1997) The Phenomenology of Panic Disorders in youngsters: Empirical Study of a Clinical sample, Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 2(1), 49-62
Self-egulation Issues in Children and Adolescence with ADHD, ODD, and OCD
Self-regulation in children and adolescence who suffer from ADHD, ODD, and OCD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder) is often evident due to several things. A lot of the issues in relation to self-regulation stem from additional anxiety the child/teen may feel from the difficulties experienced from these kinds of mental disorders. OCD is known to cause anxiety and isolationist behaviors leading to decreased emotional self-regulation. ADHD at times can cause hyperfocus, making it difficult for the child/teen to switch tasks therefore limiting their ability to handle their emotions and activities that assist in regulating themselves. ODD, connected to ADHD, is a disorder that has the child react angrily and spitefully to people in otherwise normally responsive situations. The extreme feelings of children or adolescence who manifest ODD make it hard for them to…
Barkley, R.A. (2013). Oppositional Defiant Disorder: The Four Factor Model for Assessment and Management - by Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D. Retrieved from http://www.continuingedcourses.net/active/courses/course079.php
Blum, K., Chen, A.L., & Oscar-Berman, M. (2008). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 4(5), 893-918. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2626918/
Campbell, S.B. (1990). Behavior problems in preschool children: Clinical and developmental issues. New York: Guilford Press.
Cheng, M., & Boggett-Carsjens, J. (2005). Consider Sensory Processing Disorders in the Explosive Child: Case Report and Review. Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 14(2), 44-48.
ABC/123 Version X
Week Five eview Worksheet
Week Five eview Worksheet
Choose two categories of psychological disorders and outline the main symptoms associated with the disorders.
The old classification system for psychological disorders only had two kinds, neurosis and psychosis with people suffering from neurosis experiencing anxiety and people with psychosis suffering from hallucinations. Now psychological disorders are categorized even further. The two selected are from the category of anxiety disorders. The first is PTSD or post-traumatic stress disorder. The second is OCD or obsessive-compulsive disorder. There are other classifications, the somatoform disorders and dissociative disorders. The three main symptoms of PTSD revolve around re-experiencing the traumatic scenario. The afflicted person will experience nightmares, upsetting memories, flashbacks, including feels of distress (Barlow, 2001). The person will also experience intense physical reactions like nausea, sweating, and pounding heart. They will also try to avoid any remind of the trauma.…
Antony, M. & Barlow, D. (2002). Handbook of assessment and treatment planning for psychological disorders. New York: Guilford Press.
Barlow, D. (2001). Clinical handbook of psychological disorders. New York: Guilford Press.
Copyright © XXXX by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2015 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.
Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) and its theory, techniques, application, strengths, weaknesses or other related topics are: the article by Souza et al. (2016) that examines the effects of IPT on treatment-resistant depression in adults, and the article by Markowitz, Lipsitz and Milrod (2014) that examines the relevant literature available on the impact of IPT on anxiety disorders.
Both articles provide assessments of the theory of IPT, which is that IPT provides a short-term treatment for individuals in need of psychological treatment. Its aim is to assist the individual in regaining functioning day-to-day abilities. The application typically takes between twelve and sixteen weeks and the theory upon which it is based is the idea that how the individual relates to others has a significant impact on his mental health. Thus, the concept that guides Interpersonal Psychotherapy is that relationships and how they are perceived, interpreted, developed and maintained is of critical importance…
Similarly, researchers should be aware of the consequences of halo, prejudice to the leniency or seriousness of fundamental trend and position or propinquity of deviation from the pace that can artificially increase reliability of measure devoid of improving reaction correctness or validity. (Williams, and Poijula, 2002).
Limitations/Strength and Weaknesses
The following conditions might have affected the results of the present study:
1. The sample will not be random,
2. all demographic information will be self reported and not verified,
3. all the subjects for the study came from 3 local Kansas mental health facilities located in South Central Kansas,
4. all data for the BDI-II is self reported,
5. data is for individuals with specific DSM-IV diagnosis,
6. data is for individuals who are currently seeking treatment for the specified DSM-IV disorders (Schiraldi, 2000)
major strength is that respondents will be selected from ? number of different places for better…
Schiraldi, Glenn. (2000) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Sourcebook. McGraw-Hill; 1 edition p. 446
Williams, Mary Beth and Poijula, Soili (2002) the PTSD Workbook: Simple, Effective Techniques for Overcoming Traumatic Stress Symptoms. New Harbinger Publications; 1 edition. p. 237
Foa, Edna B. Keane, Terence and Friedman, M. Matthew J. (2000) Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. The Guilford Press; 1 edition. p. 388
Wilson, John P. And Keane, Terence M. (1996) Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD. The Guilford Press; 1st edition. p. 577
Treating Post Traumatic Stress Disorders
WHAT IS PTSD
Many adults suffer from the mental illness of Post Traumatic Stress Disorders, otherwise known as PTSD. PTSD is an extreme anxiety mental disorder that causes excessive concern, or worry over common problems, or problems that might happen, such as automobile not starting in the morning to get to work, although it has been running smoothly, the house catching on fire during the middle of the night with no apparent reason. Various treatments for PTSD have been experimented with, producing just as many different results, although a cure has not yet been discovered. In this essay, we will be discussing PTSD, how the drug Serzone has been used in treating this illness, and other possible cures for PTSD.
PTSD is a serious mental disorder, and the seriousness of this disease should not be underestimated, however, it is not to be confused…
GORMAN CHRISTINE, 2002
THE SCIENCE OF ANXIETY
Media on Eating Disorders with a Concentration of 16- to 24-year-Olds
Agency Name: ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders
Location: The ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders is located high in the ock Mountains just 15 miles from Colorado Springs, Colorado. It is located on an old camp ground that is housed inside an old student union building. The facility was once part of Colorado University and now used as treatment center for teens and young adults. Led by nine of the top full-time, board-certified psychiatrists plus other professionals that will specialize in treating eating disorders, The ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders will consist of a highly skilled treatment team that will works to address each patient nutritionally and psychosomatically, as well as to manage other medical issues common to eating disorders. The ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders provides the best contact to some…
Derenne, J.L., & Beresin, E.V. (2006). Body image, media, and eating disorders. Academic Psychiatry, 30(3), 257-61.
Harrison, K., & Cantor, J. (2011). The relationship between media consumption and eating disorders. Journal of Communication, 47(1), 40-67.
Jane, D.M., Hunter, G.C., & Lozzi, B.M. (2009). Do Cuban American women suffer from eating disorders? Effects of media exposure and acculturation. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 21(2), 212-218.
Levine, M.P., & Murnen, S.K. (2009). "EVERYBODY KNOWS THAT MASS MEDIA ARE/ARE NOT [pick one] A CAUSE OF EATING DISORDERS": A CRITICAL REVIEW OF EVIDENCE FOR A CAUSAL LINK BETWEEN MEDIA, NEGATIVE BODY IMAGE, AND DISORDERED EATING IN FEMALES. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28(1), 9-42.
Antisocial ehavior in Females with Comorbid Diagnoses of ADHD
Detention centers and residential treatment facilities are replete with male and female youth that have been in and out of the juvenile justice system for many years. Although the majority of the populations in these facilities are male, the number of female juvenile offenders is continually increasing. Many of the children in these facilities have a history of behavioral difficulties that may or may not have been diagnosed during much of their childhood.
Antisocial behaviors are acts that violate social rules and the basic rights of others. They include conduct intended to injure people or damage property, illegal behavior, and defiance of generally accepted rules and authority, such as truancy from school. "These antisocial behaviors exist along a severity continuum (Clark, et al., 2002). When childhood antisocial behaviors exceed certain defined thresholds -- the diagnostic criteria specified in the Diagnostic and…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Disgnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington DC APA.
Clark, Duncan. Vanyukov, Michael. Cornelius, Jack. (November, 2002). Childhood Antisocial Behavior and Adolescent Alcohol Use Disorders. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism: 66, 136-138.
Crawford, Nicole. (February, 2003). ADHD: a women's issue. Monitor on Psychology, APA: Volume 34, No. 2, p. 28.
Hinshaw, S.P. (2003). Preadolescent girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: I. Background characteristics, comorbidity, cognitive and social functioning, and parenting practices. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.
Genome-Wide Association Study for OCD Complications
The OCD (Obsessive -- compulsive disorder) is referred as repetitive behaviors and thoughts experienced by individuals. (Visscher, Brown, McCarthy, et al. (2012). Typically, the genes' characteristics of twins and families have revealed that the OCD has the feature of multifactorial familial condition involving both environmental and polygenic factors. (Moran, 2013). Genetic studies have revealed that the interaction of the glutamatergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic systems and genes affecting them play a crucial role in functioning of the circuit. (Yang, Lee, Goddard, Mand et al. 2011). Meanwhile, the environmental factors that include psychological trauma, adverse perinatal effects and neurological trauma may modify the risk genes, which can consequently manifest the compulsive-obsessive behaviors. (Visscher, Brown, McCarthy et al. 2012). The OCD is a frequent and, relative common debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder affecting 2% of the U.S. population. (Arnold, Sicard, Burroughs, et al. (2006). Typically, the OCD is obsessions…
Arnold, P., Sicard, T., Burroughs, E. et al. (2006). Glutamate Transporter Gene SLC1A1 Associated With Obsessive-compulsive Disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 63(7), p.769.
Baxter, A., Scott, K., Vos, T. and Whiteford, H. (2012). Global prevalence of anxiety disorders: a systematic review and meta-regression. Psychological Medicine, 43(05), pp.897-910.
Barrett, P., Healy-Farrell, L. & March, J. S. (2004). Cognitivebehavioral family treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder: a controlled trial. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry . 43, 46-62.
Cantor, R., Lange, K. and Sinsheimer, J. (2010). Prioritizing GWAS Results: A Review of Statistical Methods and Recommendations for Their Application. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 86(1):.6-22.