Anxiety Essays (Examples)

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Anxieties of White Mississippians Concerning the Institution of Slavery

Words: 1777 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95207939

Anxieties of hite Mississippians Regarding Slavery

In Bradley G. Bond's book Mississippi: A Documentary History, the author describes in great detail the restlessness and anxiety that white folks in Mississippi felt with reference to the institution of slavery. Bond describes the growth of slavery, what crops made it necessary for Southern landowners to purchase more slaves, the laws that pertained to the behavior of slave owners and slaves, and more. This paper reviews and critiques the Antebellum Slavery chapter (4) in Bond's book.

Antebellum Slavery

The Code Noir was a law that was enacted in Louisiana in 1724, likely the first such law that was designed to lay out in particulars as to what was expected of slave owners and slaves. At that time in Mississippi, there was a great deal of tobacco and indigo being grown but not a lot of cotton. hen landowners began to realize that cotton…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bond, Bradley G. Mississippi: A Documentary History. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi. 2005.
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Women's Mental Health

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72399655

Anxiety Disorders

In Chapter 11 "Anxiety Disorders," author Teresa Pigott provides an in-depth review of the definitions and types of anxiety disorders. Additionally, she provides discussions on the types of anxiety disorders that exist, and possible relationships to not only gender, but to the female reproductive cycle as well. Inferences are drawn to possible differences between reported rates of anxiety disorders between males and females, with some insight given to the psychosocial arena relating to prevalence rates among women. Further, Pigott touches upon the nature vs. nurture argument, by explaining the genotype/phenotype concept.

Pigott's descriptions, while accurate, are academic, medicinal, even sterile. It is great reading if you are studying for an exam, or attempting to self-diagnose, or even if you just want to be able to hold your own in a high-brow conversation on the topic. However, some concepts in the reading elucidate personal feelings of inadequacy. These feelings…… [Read More]

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Pharmacologic Treatment of Fear and

Words: 4199 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2973543

e., they became helpless). Furthermore, other behaviors of the dogs were adversely affected (e.g., the dogs appeared apathetic and had poor appetites) (Hitzemann, 2000). In his essay, "Animal Models of Psychiatric Disorders and Their elevance to Alcoholism," Hitzemann (2000) reports that, "Both fear and anxiety are alerting signals that warn the individual against impending danger and enable the individual to take defensive measures. For animals, the distinctions between fear and anxiety are vague" (p. 149). The distinctions between fear and anxiety are clearly irrelevant for humans who encounter such stressed animals, though.

According to Hodge and Stull (2000), dog bites cause an average of 17 human deaths, 6,000 hospitalizations, and 330,000 emergency room visits every year in the Untied States and a like number of people probably do not seek treatment or report the incident, but may nevertheless experience psychological trauma, anxiety, and missed work or school. Furthermore, dog bites…… [Read More]

References

Becker, M.G., Chew, G.L., Correa, J.C., Hoepner, L.A., Jusino, C.M., Kinney, P.L., Miller, R.L., & Perzanowski, M.S. (2003). Distribution and determinants of mouse allergen exposure in low-income New York City apartments. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(10), 1348.

Boone, J.S., & Tyler, J.W. (2001). Transferable residues from dog fur and plasma cholinesterase inhibition in dogs treated with a flea control dip containing chlorpyrifos. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(11), 1109.

Chang, Y., Cohen, J.H., Hennon, D.L., LaPorte, R.E., & McMahon, J.E. (1997). Dog bite incidence in the City of Pittsburgh: A capture-recapture approach. American Journal of Public Health, 87(10), 1703-5.

Duke, M.L., & Swain, J.L. (2001). Recommendations for research on ethics in public policy from a public administration perspective: Barking dogs and more. International Journal of Public Administration, 24(1), 125.
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Single Case Study of an Individual

Words: 2750 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12755281

Client Description.

The client is a 19-year-old single male who was referred for treatment by his parents who are concerned that his use of alcohol is interfering with his grades in college. The client reportedly had all A grades in high school and had been placed in a program for gifted students. However, he has reportedly flunked out of college in his first year. Following this he was also recently arrested for his second DUI offense, the first offense occurring when he was a senior in high school.

According to his parents, the client was born at full term with no complications occurring in the pregnancy and delivery of the baby. He met all of his developmental milestones ahead of expectation and has experienced no major health issues although his last physical examination was several years ago. He excelled in school and was placed in a program for gifted and…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.-text revision). Washington, DC: Author.

Beck, A.T., Epstein, N., Brown, G., & Steer, R.A. (1988). An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 56(6), 893-903.

Covin, R., Ouimet, A.J., Seeds, P.M., & Dozois, D.J. (2008). A meta-analysis of CBT for pathological worry among clients with GAD. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22(1), 108-116.

Dutra, L., Stathopoulou, G., Basden, S.L., Leyro, T.M., Powers, M.B., & Otto, M.W. (2008). A meta-analytic review of psychosocial interventions for substance use disorders. American Journal Psychiatry, 165 (2) 179-187.
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Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Hong Kong

Words: 988 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81195353

Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Hong Kong

The prevalence of mental health problems in people with disabilities is estimated at between thirty and fifty percent, in Hong Kong (Vasa & oy, 2013). Anxiety disorders are the most common mental problems occurring during adolescent and childhood, at least one in ten people having anxiety disorders. In addition, anxiety disorders are the most common manifestations of psychological distress among people with autism. People with autism are much likely to be anxious than their non-autistic peers. Oftentimes, they are described as highly anxious. The co-morbidity of separation anxiety is frequent in people with autism. Similarly, epidemiological studies indicate that approximately eighty percent of people with autism have separation anxieties. This study concentrates on discussing the treatment method or way of Autism and Separation Anxiety Disorder among children and adolescents in Hong Kong.

isk factors owing autism

Young people with autism are more prone…… [Read More]

References

Mash, E.J., & Barkley, R.A. (2013). Child psychopathology. New York: Guilford Press.

Ozonoff, S., Rogers, S.J., & Hendren, R.L. (2013). Autism spectrum disorders: A research review for practitioners. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Pub.

Saklofske, DH, & Schwean, V.L. (2009). Handbook of psychosocial characteristics of exceptional children. New York [u.a.: Kluwer [u.a..

Vasa, R.A., & Roy, A.K. (2013). Pediatric anxiety disorders: A clinical guide. New York, NY: Humana Press.
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Facilitating an Individual Session With

Words: 986 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71238808

Not all patient expectations will be realistic, but a mental health professional needs to be honest with a client about which expectations are reasonable and which ones are unreasonable.

Another issue to investigate in each meeting with a patient with depression and anxiety, particularly uncontrolled depression and anxiety, is whether the disorders are impairing function and otherwise negatively impacting quality of life. If so, then the facilitator needs to direct attention towards improvement of real-life skills during the counseling session. This may mean less client-directed interaction than a therapist would otherwise seek in a one-on-one counseling session, but maintaining a baseline level of functioning and quality of life is critical.

In addition, the therapist must be aware that anxiety, unlike depression, can actually be a productive and helpful emotion. Therefore, a patient manifesting some level of anxiety might not be seeking treatment for that anxiety; on the contrary, eradicating anxiety…… [Read More]

References

National Guideline Clearinghouse. (2012). Summary: Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder, third edition. Retrieved May 8, 2012 from NGC website: http://guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=24158
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High-Fat High Calorie Diet on

Words: 1426 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60596162

In the STAI, the researcher asks the subjects how they feel at the moment and in the recent past, and how they anticipate feeling in the future (enazon & Coyne, 2000). This test is designed to overlap between depression and anxiety scales by measuring the most common anxiety symptoms which are minimally shared with depression (American, 1994). oth physiological and cognitive components of anxiety are addressed in the 21 items describing subjective, somatic, or panic-related symptoms (Kingsbury & Williams, 2003).

Once those tests are completed, the volunteers will be asked to cycle on an ergometer for 30 minutes. The Talk Test, Target Heart Rate Evaluation, and the org Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale will all be administered while the volunteer is cycling. This is done to determine the energy level - or the perceived energy level - of the volunteer. All of these tests and this same specific pattern will…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Benazon, N.R., & Coyne, J.C. (2000). Living with a depressed spouse. Journal of Family Psychology, 14 (1), 71-79.

Dietz, W., MD, Ph.D. (2002). The obesity epidemic: Causes, consequences and solutions. Retrieved from University of Michigan, School of Public Health Web site: http://www.sph.umich.edu/symposium/2002/keynote.html.

Hewitt, P.L., et al. (2001). Death from anorexia nervosa: Age span and sex differences. Aging and Mental Health, 5(1), 41-46.
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Herbs as Treatment Treating Depression

Words: 589 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29754448



Another clinical study was done on the effectiveness of Kava extract for treating anxiety. This study analysis was aimed at assessing the evidence for or against the effectiveness of Kava extract as a symptomatic treatment for anxiety. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of oral Kava extract for the treatment of anxiety were analyzed. Superiority of Kava extract over placebo was suggested by all seven reviewed trials. The meta-analysis of three trials suggests a significant difference in the reduction of the total score on the Hamilton Rating Scale for anxiety in favor of Kava extract. So, according to the study, Kava extract is an herbal treatment option for anxiety that is worthy of consideration (Pittler & Ernst, 2000).

Kava -- is truly one of the strongest anti-anxiety herbs in the world. Kava also has one of the best safety profiles of any anti-anxiety / anti-depression herb (orne, 2003).

Other Natural Herbs

SAM-e…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Borne, J.V. (2003, Sept 15). Treating depression. Real solutions. Retrieved May 18, 2009, from Insight Journal: http://www.anxiety-and-depression-solutions.com/wellness_concerns/community_depression/treating_depression.php

Pittler, M., & Ernst, E. (2000). Efficacy of kava extract for treating anxiety. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 84-89.

Woelk, H. (2000). Comparison of st. john's wort and imipramine for treating depression: randomized controlled trial. BMJ, 321:536-539.
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Pediatric Nursing Interventions for Separation

Words: 1158 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77079010

Distracting a child while their parent is treated may lessen stress for a SAD child (Hillard, 2006).

Nurses may also want to incorporate preventative methods into their routines, especially if they are pediatric nurses. Encouraging work in this area has been done at Mount Sinai Hospital, where nursing departments participated in the incorporation of supportive methodology in handling children who are in treatment (Justus et al., 2006). If a child may need long-term care requiring extended or overnight stays in hospital, nurses can use Comfort Theory methods and other means of familiarizing the hospital environment. If a child feels at ease with nurses and the hospital environment they are less likely to cling to parents and exacerbate medical conditions through anxiety (Justus et al., 2006). General stress reduction techniques apply to children with SAD, and may include aromatherapy, deep breathing, and relaxed lighting or music may help (Hillard, 2006).

SAD…… [Read More]

References

Fontain, K.L. (2003). Mental Health Nursing (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Hillard, D. (2006). Course: Treating anxiety. Retrieved November 15, 2006, from Advance for Nurses Online: https://nursing.advanceweb.com/Common/CE/Content.aspx?CourseID=4&CreditID=1&CC=7816&sid=602

Justus, R., Wyles, D., Wilson, J., Rode, D., Walther, V, & Lim-Sulit, N. (2006). Preparing children and families for surgery: Mount Sinai's multidisciplinary perspective. Pediatric Nursing, 32(1), 35-43. Retrieved Wednesday, November 15, 2006 from the EBSCO Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition database.

Pincus, D.D., Eyberg, S.M., & Choate, M.L. (2005). Adapting parent-child interaction therapy for young children with separation anxiety disorder. Education and Treatment of Children, 28(2), 163-181. Retrieved Wednesday, November 15, 2006 from the EBSCO Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition database.
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Psychological Disorder

Words: 576 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92100674

Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Film

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), as defined by the American Psychiatric Association (AMA), involves excessive worry and anxiety for a six-month period or longer (AMA 429). GAD is not typically associated with the more intense expressions of anxiety, such as panic attacks or panic disorder (Shelton S2), yet the degree of worry and anxiety experienced is easily recognized as disproportionate for the reality of the situation (AMA 473-475). A diagnosis depends in part on eliminating contributions from an underlying medical condition or the effects of a substance such as drugs or excessive caffeine, and the focus of the anxiety is not limited to a single concern, such as experiencing a panic attack or becoming deathly ill. The anxiety experienced therefore involves wide swaths of the patient's life.

Patients often report experiencing muscle tension, trembling, twitching, feeling shaky, muscle aches, soreness, sudden fatigue, irritability, and difficulty concentrating…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. New York: American Psychiatric Association, 2000. Print.

Analyze this. Dir. Harold Ramis. Perf. Robert De Niro, Billy Crystal, and Lisa Kudrow. Warner Brothers, 1999. Film.

Shelton, Charles I. Diagnosis and Management of Anxiety Disorders. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 104.3 (2004): S2-S5. Web.
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Sleepy Hollow American Gothic

Words: 899 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46876996

Sleepy Hollow: American Anxiety Via American Gothic

The early Americans lived in an America that many are unfamiliar with in this day. Early America was a fierce wilderness rife with uncharted territories and much uncertainty. Thus, there was no doubt that early Americans felt a great deal of anxiety: anxiety about their futures and anxiety about their decision to leave England. Published in 1820, the story, "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" by ashington Irving is a classic example of American gothic fiction and is a strong representation of the anxiety of the early colonists. Many of the supernatural elements of the short story "Sleepy Hollow" demonstrate a sense of fear about what is, and a fear about the environment, along with an aggravated apprehension about what was to come.

The sense of grimness and gloom is present throughout Irving's story and are tools which he uses to set the tone…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anthony, David. "Gone Distracted": "Sleepy Hollow," Gothic Masculinity, and the Panic of 1819." Early American Literature (2005): p.111-131.

Irving, W. The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. New York: Createspace Independent Pub, 2009. Print.

Narod.ru. American Gothic: Washington Irving. 2013.   http://www.americangothic.narod.ru/lsh.htm  . March 2014.
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Ineffective Coping Mechanisms for Stress

Words: 2583 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98704663

The nursing professional must be adept at dealing ith these kinds of conversations, and ithout increasing the guilt that the family member or patient might be experiencing, and keeping in mind the patient's probable depression; it is the responsibility of the nursing professional to take the conversation back to the treatment and therapies that ithin the realm of the legal and ethical practices in delivering medical nursing care.

Jacquie Peden, Darlene Grantham, and Marie-Josee Paquin (2005) say that nursing standards in palliative care are based on the values of the nursing profession, and are developed by provincial and territorial regulatory bodies in Canada to guide the professional practice of nursing professionals (p. 2). The hospice palliative nurse, they rite:

Believes in the intrinsic orth of others, the value of life, and that death is a natural process.

Establishes a therapeutic connection (relationship) ith the person and family through making, sustaining,…… [Read More]

works cited here support the need for continued and expanded research involving the different specialties in nursing and oncology to better serve patients and their families. Also, there is little nursing information that is found in the professional peer reviewed journals that speak directly to the issue of pancreatic patients and depression. There is much more literature on the subject from the physician and researcher perspectives, but there is a void in nursing literature. At this point in time, the depression of pancreatic patients as it concerns nursing, has received little attention. Both the nursing profession and pancreatic patients would benefit from further research in this area.

The conclusion from the study of the literature available is that not only is pancreatic patient depression not well understood, it is also lacking in research that would help professionals to address depression in these patients. Also, because it is directly linked to pancreatic cancer, and because the research does support the fact that patients suffering depression and pancreatic cancer do not enjoy the quality of life as those patients who do not suffer from depression, then pancreatic cancer patients and depression should be a distinct and separate therapeutic intervention from other groups of depression.

References

Adali, E., Merkouris a., Manoussou, E., and Priami, M. (2004). The Attitudes of General and Oncological Hospital Personnel toward Euthanasia, ICUS and Nursing Web Journal, 17:1-9, found online at http://www.nursing.gr/index1.html, retrieved 7 October 2009.

Canadian Nurses Association (2008). Position Statement: Providing Nursing Care at the End of Life, Canadian Nurses Association.
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Immune System How Negative Emotions

Words: 1016 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42275835

Thus, continued chronic stress can lead to a variety of health issues, and one of those is cancer, because the weakened immune system cannot fight off the cancerous cells, allowing them to grow more rapidly and unchecked.

This build up of the immune system to chronic stress can also lead to many other conditions, such as tolerance and dependency on many types of drugs. For example, a person under chronic stress who relies on aspirin or other pain relievers may develop a tolerance to the drugs, requiring more drugs to gain the same affect as fewer drug dosages before. Thus, the immune system in high gear can build up tolerances to drugs and other medications in its continued effort to protect the body and fight stress and anxiety. This is also dangerous, because the patient must take more drugs to gain the same result, and some drugs may simply become…… [Read More]

References

Brown, Doris. "Stress & Immune System." Howard Hughes Medical Institute. 2007. 3 Dec. 2007. http://www.hhmi.org/cgi-bin/askascientist/highlight.pl?kw=&file=answers%2Fimmunology%2Fans_011.html

Counseling Improves Immune System." USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education) Feb. 2005: 7.

Social Stress May Cause Severe Damage." USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education) Oct. 2002: 9.
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Abnormal Psychology Many Women Are Afraid of

Words: 1405 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87866701

Abnormal Psychology

Many women are afraid of getting older and are willing to do right about anything to appear always young. infarct many people perceive it is rude to ask a woman her age since the society has no room to accommodate old women and the changes that their bodies go through. It is not possible for women in the society not to struggle with issues of their appearance .this has resulted to many women trying to change how they look as they age so that they can be accepted in the society. They go to an extent of denying themselves food and applying anti-wrinkle cream so that they maintain their states of their bodies and faces.

Aging is always a taboo subject with women as compared to their male counterparts. Women are afraid of the aging factor due to the perceptions in the society. The society tends to create…… [Read More]

References

American Psychological Association. (2012). Aging and Depression. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/aging-depression.aspx

United Nations. (1999). Gender and ageing: problems, perceptions and policies. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from  http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/csw/aging.htm 

REHAB ASIA. (2011).Gender and substance abuse.Retreieved November 29, 2012 from http://alcoholrehab.com/alcohol-rehab/gender-and-substance-abuse/

CalmClinic. (2012).Destructive Anxiety Habits. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.calmclinic.com/anxiety/destructive-habits
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Clinical Supervision Tony Bush Wrote an Article

Words: 925 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27583298

Clinical Supervision:

Tony Bush wrote an article regarding overcoming the hindrances to effective clinical supervision, which was published in Nursing Times website. Bush's publication was influenced by the fact that clinical supervision is one of the most commonly misunderstood practices in contemporary nursing. However, clinical supervision provides a supportive and nurturing service to nurse practitioners by assisting them to critically reflect on the actions during the delivery of patient care. As a result, the author seeks to examine and explore the existing role and status of clinical supervision in the Nursing Health Service.

Clinical supervision is basically described as a complex activity with multi-faceted functions that seeks to provide emotional support to counselors receiving supervision and providing them with extra education. This concept can also be described as a means of evaluating and monitoring counselors' professional performance and enhancing the quality of their respective duties. In the nursing field, clinical…… [Read More]

References:

Bush, T. (2005, January). Overcoming the Barriers to Effective Clinical Supervision. Nursing Times, 101(2), 38-41. Retrieved from  http://www.nursingtimes.net/Journals/2013/02/15/j/v/s/050111GLsupervision.pdf 

Guindon, M.H. (2002). Toward Accountability in the Use of the Self-Esteem Construct. Journal of Counseling & Development, 80, 204-215.

Marley, E. (2011, December). Self-help Strategies to Reduce Emotional Distress: What Do

People Do and Why? A Qualitative Study. Counseling and Psychotherapy Research, 11(4), 317-324.
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Christian Counseling

Words: 818 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80045954

Christian Counseling Scenario

What are the client's most prominent presenting issues (that is, what seems to take priority as being wrong)?

In the case of Leon, a 52-year-old man with a dysfunctional childhood who has been unable to experience life in typical fashion, the most prominent presenting issue is definitely the individual's lack of emotional capacity and general apathy, both of which are obviously symptoms of a deeply repressed psychological trauma. The circumstances described in the introduction to Leon's case, wherein his eventually divorced parents both suffered from chemical dependency and addiction, while the father inflicted sever emotional and physical abuse, is extremely typical in terms of being connected to later symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV Text evision (DSM-IV T), "diagnostic criteria for PTSD include a history of exposure to a traumatic event that meets specific stipulations and…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders

(4th ed., text rev.). Washington, D.C.
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Inverted U Hypothesis

Words: 1647 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97562588

INVERTED U. HYPOTHESIS

It has been established that competitive state-anxiety normally follows a certain pattern of one-sided feelings of anxiety as well as inadequacy that combines with increased arousal of automatic nervous system (Fazey, 2008). Accordingly, the theory of Inverted U. hypothesis was formulated to explain this aspect, and it is widely applied in sports psychology. Inverted U. hypothesis a theory that suggest that there is a relative amount of anxiety and arousal that triggers one to perform higher- extremely little arousal or anxiety and too much arousal or anxiety will lead to poorer performance. This present paper briefly discusses the Inverted U. hypothesis in sports psychology.

Discussion

Until presently, the traditional Inverted theory had been the key model employed by sports psychologists to explain the arousal-performance relationship. Nevertheless, various sport psychology researchers have criticized this relationship, and the modern trend is a change towards a higher multidimensional perspective of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Fazey, J. (2008). The inverted-U hypothesis: a catastrophe for sport psychology? Leeds, British Association of Sports Sciences.

Pascuzzi, D.L. (2005). The effects of anxiety on gross motor performance a test of the inverted-U hypothesis. Thesis (M.S.) -- Western Illinois University, 1975.

Reeve, J. (2000). Understanding motivation and emotion. Fort Worth, TX, Harcourt College Publishers.

Schnabel, C., & Wagner, J. (2008). Union membership and age: the inverted u-shape hypothesis under test. Luneburg, Univ., Inst. fur Volkswirtschaftslehre.
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Human Emotional Patterns There Are

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49398696

Since survey data relies on self-reported information, and since the levels of anxiety in a patient can increase and decrease based on the experience of the patient, it is possible that lack of care in working the question can actually increase the patient's anxiety. For example, a question that states "If the radiology department finds cancer in your bones....," the patient may be forced to think about issues which increase their anxiety levels, thus inaccurately raising the levels of reported anxiety in the radiology department.

The other major limitation to the survey design is that, in any self-report, there is a possibility for patients to answer in a way that is contrary to reality (Snaith, 2003). In the case of anxiety research, the subject may not be aware of his or her levels of anxiety, or may choose to answer in such a way that denies the anxiety. s mentioned…… [Read More]

A study by Rachman in 1974 determined that, since fear and anxiety are closely related, subjects have a difficult time determining which is which. Thus, subjects in a fearful situation such as a radiology lab may have a tendency to over-estimate their levels of anxiety, due to their inability to distinguish fear from anxiety. On the other hand, smaller levels of anxiety may be undetectable to the subject, if the corresponding feeling of fear is absent (Ewert, 1986).

Additionally, survey research has been consistently been doubted due to the inability to prove a subjects response. Since surveys rely on the input of subjects, there are always slight possibilities that the subjects will lie, or be otherwise inaccurate in their responses. A study by Epstein in 1976 suggested that anxiety in humans is related to ideas of ego, self-esteem, and are associated with a weakness or inability to cope. Certain subjects who feel this way may inadvertently deny their own feelings of anxiety in a radiology department, because admitting the anxiety exists would threaten their self-concept (Ewert, 1986). In any of the above cases, the answers would be used in data collection, but would not be a true representation of anxiety levels.

A second type of research design is that of the experiment. In this design, the researcher manipulates an independent variable in
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Student Is Dependent Upon Numerous

Words: 1238 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49076238



Of the sample, 60% of them had had some sort of intervention therapy in the past. Eight of the children, or 20% of the sample, exhibited a school refusal, in which they missed over 40% of the past month as a result of emotional stress.

Of the 40 children referred to the study, 38 of them followed through with the study's intervention therapy, 24 boys and 14 girls. Parents were also included in the study, of which 87.5% of them were women, 87.5% of them were married, and 65% of them were college educated. A variety of ethnicities were represented with 60% Caucasian, 22.5% multiracial, 10% Hispanic, 2.5% African-American, and 2.5% Asian.

Results/indings

The main hypothesis proposed was that CBT intervention therapy for anxiety disorders in children would result in a reduction in overall anxiety and therefore lead to increased school performance. Using the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule for DSM-IV…… [Read More]

Finally, the sample size creates limitations on the generability of the results. Although the results did have overwhelming numbers, a sample size of 38 is inadequate to appropriate to other populations. However, it does raise awareness for educators and parents alike that school and social problems may have a root with an anxiety disorder and that it should not be discounted before an official diagnosis can discount such a cause.

Source Used

Wood, Jeffrey (March 2006) "Effect of anxiety reduction on children's school performance and social adjustment," Developmental Psychology, 42(2), 345-349.
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Roots of Psychopathology

Words: 588 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97410854

Freud was ight, Peter Muris discusses Freud's analysis of abnormal behavior. He acknowledges that Freud's research methods were flawed because he focused on case studies rather than empirical analysis to try to determine causation. Despite that, Muris suggests that Freud's theories about the etiology of psychological disorders and abnormal behavior being rooted in childhood and showing emerging behavior in children and adolescents may be supported by what is known of abnormal psychology. This does not mean that Muris believes that Freud's explanations for abnormal behavior, specifically his Oedipal theories, explain abnormal behavior; he does not believe that abnormal behavior is necessarily rooted in sexual impulses towards parents as Freudian theories would explain. However, he does believe that Freud's studies began to explain the origins of abnormal human behavior and may provide insight into helping those who engage in abnormal behavior.

Muris believes that many patterns of abnormal adult behavior have…… [Read More]

References

Muris, P. (2006). Freud was right…about the origins of abnormal behavior. Journal of Child

and Family Studies, 15(1), pp.1-12. doi: 10.1007/s10826-005-9006-9.
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Pressure on Performance the Effects of Time

Words: 1907 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25137965

Pressure on Performance

The Effects of Time Pressure and Performance Pressure on the Ability to Solve Anagrams in College Students.

Anxiety and stress have been demonstrated to affect test performance and cognitive performance. Previous research has suggested that anxiety interferes with test performance by means of cognitive interference. Often, especially in individuals with high levels of test anxiety, stress leads to anxiety which leads to inattention, self-absorption, and focus on self-evaluation rather than on task-relevant behaviors. Stress is most often induced by a high pressure environment and can vary from situation to situation. The purpose the current study is to examine whether stress induced from a high pressure environment negatively affects testing performance. The current study investigated the effects of time pressure (being timed) and performance pressure (being evaluated) on the ability of college students to solve anagrams. It was hypothesized that pressure would lead to stress that would result…… [Read More]

References

Holroyd, K.A., Westbrook, T., Wolf, M., & Badorn, E. (1978). Performance, cognition, and physiological responding in test anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 4, 442-451.

Morris, L.W., & Liebert, R.M. (1969). Effects of anxiety on timed and untimed intelligence tests: another look. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,

33, 240-244.

Sarason, I.G. (1984). Stress, anxiety, and cognitive interference: reactions to tests. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4, 929-938.
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Isabella a 29-Year-Old Woman Presents

Words: 2281 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56243656

318. However, in this and other studies, it seems that lack of effectiveness may be due to a cessation of the CBT and not due to its lack of effectiveness while in treatment (Belleville, 2011, p. 318). egardless, there are very few, if any, studies that show evidence of negative effects of CBT.

An additional factor that should be taken into account in Isabella's case is that substance use may be involved. Neither the DSM nor the DASS questionnaires address the theory that substance use may exacerbate or may be premorbid to anxiety/depression/stress disorders. Perhaps additional questionnaire(s) regarding substance use should have been presented to her. The Cannabis Expectancy Questionnaire is an example of a questionnaire that directly addresses substance use by assessing use by the patient (Connor, 2010).

An important additional consideration regarding Isabella's case is that in her verbal report she states that her inability to relax and…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

Disorders (4th Ed.) Text Revision. Washington D.C.: American Psychiatric

Association.

Belleville G., Guay S., Marchand a. (2011). Persistence of sleep disturbances following cognitive-behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Psychosomatic
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Psychological Sequelae of Childhood Sexual

Words: 6079 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85748070

It is also interesting to note that the correlation between depression and childhood sexual abuse was found to be higher among females in many studies.

However, the issue of the relationship between depression and sexual abuse may not be as clear-cut as the above studies suggest. Recent research has begun to question this correlation and has produced findings that suggest that there are many other parameters and variables that should be considered. This is especially the case with regard to the view that childhood sexual abuse necessarily leads to depression in adulthood. As one report claims, "...there is accumulating evidence to contradict these claims" (Roosa,

Reinholtz, (Angelini, 1999). However the majority of studies indicate that there is a strong possibility that children who are sexually abused experience symptoms of depression that can extend into adulthood.

PTSD

3.1. What is PTSD?

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a disorder that has shown…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abused Children Face Depression Risk as Adults. Retrieved March 3, 2009 at http://www.healthyplace.com/abuse/abuse-and-depression/abused-children-face-depression-risk-as-adults/menu-id-52/

Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Adverse

Psychosocial Outcomes in controlled studies. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at  http://www.leadershipcouncil.org/1/res/csa.html 

Barker J. Adult Sequelae of Child Sexual Abuse. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.medicineau.net.au/clinical/psychiatry/SexualAbuse.html
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Egan Model Counseling and the

Words: 2589 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86014145

Sara expresses significant concern regarding finding a job, leaving her family and leaving her friends. While she enjoyed her studies in business she is not exactly sure how she can apply this to her daily life. She is also somewhat ambivalent about wanting to work in the business world, and wonders if she should try to find a position that she would find more emotionally and personally fulfilling. Sara is not involved in a romantic relationship at this time but does have a small but very close circle of friends, all of whom are moving to different places. Sara expresses sadness at the thought of leaving her friends, and concern that she will be able to keep up with them after college is over. She is also concerned that she will not be able to make friends in her new setting. Sara is an intelligent woman who appears to have…… [Read More]

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Creative Case Identifying Information Lisa

Words: 961 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93153295

Lisa finds it hard to meet other kids her age who are like her. Most of her peers "do not care about school" and don't understand anything about the issues she cares about such as environmentalism and Tibet. Lisa worries excessively about external, global events such as global warming and wars in Africa. Many of the people she refers to as "friends" are much older than she is, although she admits most of them are mentors.

A person with generalized anxiety disorder finds it difficult to control worry. Lisa has been unable to control her worry successfully via Buddhist meditation or tai chi. She writes regularly in a journal and claims that this does help but not enough. Although she finds temporary relief in music and schoolwork, her feelings of worry and anxiety creep back into her consciousness as soon as she is doing something else. She experiences the most…… [Read More]

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DSM-IV Classifications the Diagnostic and

Words: 882 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65050322



Generally, mood disorders are influenced by both biological and environmental factors. In order words, these disorders can be inherited. The bipolar and cyclothmic disorders generally include both euphoric and depressive feelings, while the dysthymic and major depressive disorders only include depressive feelings. The bipolar and major depressive disorders have received most attention in terms of research. These disorders are generally treated by a combination of medication and psychotherapy. Being more severe than the other two mood disorders, they may also at times require hospitalization to ensure the safety of the patient.

The cyclothmic and dysthymic disorders are both less severe than the other two, but can also be disruptive if not appropriately treated. The prognosis for both of these are good in terms of functioning effectively in society. The more severe disorders may hamper functioning effectively in social and workplace situations, although the correct combination of psychotherapy and medication can…… [Read More]

Sources

AllPsych. (2003). Psychiatric disorders. http://allpsych.com/disorders/index.html

Hsiung, Robert. (2008, March 3). DSM-IV Diagnoses and Codes.  http://www.dr-bob.org/tips/dsm4a.html 

Psychnet.uk. (2009). Complete List of DSM-IV Codes. http://www.psychnet-uk.com/dsm_iv/_misc/complete_tables.htm
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Emotions What Is an Emotion

Words: 1197 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37957571

However, anxiety, like all emotions, is not the same for every person who experiences that emotion. One person may value the relationship more than the other person who is engaged in a conflict. Thus, the stakes are higher in the conflict, and one party has more motivation to instigate resolution.

There is also the potential for different levels of post-resolution anxiety to vary between individual to individual. A highly suspicious person may still experience intense anxiety, even after the conflict has been resolved, and continue to feel the heightened sense of awareness that goes along with the physical changes induced by conflict resolution.

Living in a social group presents conflicts of interest but is the result of interests in common. Explain how social interactions can result in positive emotional responses and influence the strength of a social bond. How is physical contact important for maintaining relationships and facilitating conflict resolution?…… [Read More]

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Psychodynamic Model the Model's Developmental Processes and

Words: 2966 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1938969

Psychodynamic Model, The Model's Developmental Processes, And Use In Assessment And Treatment Psychodynamic Model

A large proportion of this research relied on historical data. Most of the data originated from institutions that take care of the aged, books, and journal articles. The views of health experts and professionals in mental health also shaped the judgement of this paper. The paper focused on extracting information from the four models under its analysis. Most of the findings originated from the four frameworks. ( The psychodynamic, the cognitive behavior, the stress and coping model, and the family systems model).

Given the demographics of the present age, almost all adult mental shape practice will certainly include older adults. As people grow older, various changes occur, more valuable is the vulnerability to stress and illnesses. The challenges one faces through the years like the death of loved ones, loneliness and others exposes one to the…… [Read More]

ReferencesTop of For

Top of F

Blaikie, A. (2009). Ageing And Popular Culture. Cambridge U.A.: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Kerry Kelly, N., & Jack, N. (n.d). A New Model of Techniques for Concurrent Psychodynamic

Work with Parents of Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy Patients. Child And
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Aromatherapy Has Been a Controversial

Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5672098

Secondly, they will complete a digit span test associated with the 'Anxiety-triad'. Each group will then receive a different treatment, with one group receiving the 'ylang-ylang' a frequently used aromatherapy, the second group receiving another pleasant smell without the supposed effects of 'ylang-ylang' and the control group which will receive no therapy at all, instead they will be given a placebo. The third group will be informed that the room they are entering is fragranced with aromatherapuetic smells.

The proposal is designed to confirm the effects of aromatherapy. Because the study will be conducted using a double-blind methodology the effects, or non-effects, will be either substantiated or not. The benefits of the study will be to conclude whether further use of a specific aromatherapy in regard to lowering stress and anxiety is conducive to continued usage.

Works Cited

Diamond, B., (2004) Complementary and Alternative Medicines in the Treatment of Dementia:…… [Read More]

Rho, K., Han, S., Kim, K., Lee, M., (2006) Effects of Aromatherapy Massage on Anxiety and Self-Esteem in Korean Elderly Woman: A Pilot Study, International Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 116, No. 12, pp 1447-1455

Shelly, T. et al. (2007) Aromatherapy on a Large Scale: Exposing Entire Adult Holding Rooms to Ginger Root oil Increases the Mating Competitiveness of Sterile Males of the Mediterranean Fruit fly in Field Cage Trials, Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, Vol 123, No. 2, pp 193-201, Blackwell Publishing

Williams, T.I., (2006) Evaluating Effects of Aromatherapy Massage on Sleep in Children With Autism: A Pilot Study, Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 3, No 3, Oxford University Press, pp 373-377
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy CBT Techniques for Combat Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder PTSD

Words: 5327 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85865281

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Combat Veterans With Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Although not limited to veterans, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) may be the single most significant mental health risk to veterans, particularly to those veterans that have seen combat. PTSD is an anxiety disorder, which occurs after a person has seen or experienced a traumatic event including, but not limited to: assault, domestic abuse, prison stay, rape, terrorism, war, or natural disaster (Vorvick et al., 2011). In fact, PTSD is unique among psychiatric diagnosis in that it "requires a specific type of event to occur from which the person affected does not recover" (esick et al., 2008). Veterans are at high risk of PTSD because they experience war, but they also experience many of the other traumatic events that can trigger PTSD in the course of the war. PTSD can have serious lifelong effects for veterans. It can impair…… [Read More]

References

Byers, M.G., Allison, K.M., Wendel, C.S., & Lee, J.K. (2010). Pra-zosin vs. quetiapine for nighttime posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in veterans: An assessment of long-term comparative effectiveness and safety. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 30, 225-229.

Chard, K., Schumm, J., Owens, G., & Cottingham, S. (2010). A comparison of OEF and OIF

veterans and Vietnam veterans receiving cognitive processing therapy. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23(1), 25-32.

Hassija, C.M., & Gray, M.J. (2010). Are cognitive techniques and interventions necessary? A
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Articles Seem to Be Saying Same Thing

Words: 1418 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29870806

articles seem to be saying same thing or do they contradict each other? Is the tone similar in each article, meaning can you tell what the researchers feel about the subject? Do they support the same idea, did they hypothesize similar ideas?

The following are two research essays on the burden of caregivers. The similarities of both essays are that both demonstrate the huge responsibility and unmitigated onus that caregivers carry that consequent in causing them stress and hardship. Differences include the fact that one was carried out on a population in Italy, whilst the other was carried out on a sample in America.

It is striking, too, to note, that although both concluded that caregivers needed more support, the American study recommended ways that individuals could create this for themselves, whilst the Italians-based study placed the responsibility on the community and social work profession. The tone of the articles,…… [Read More]

Sources

Sansoni, J et al. (2004) Anxiety and depression in community-dwelling, Italian Alzheimer's disease caregivers, retrieved from International Journal of Nursing Practice: 10: 93-100.

Hayslip, B et al. (2008) Predictors of Alzheimer's disease caregiver depression and burden: what noncaregiving adults can learn from active caregivers. Educational Gerontology, 34: 945-969, 2008
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Aapt Level IV Cert Written Test

Words: 4244 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14350480

AAPT Level IV Cert / Written Test

Anxiety

Anxiety is fear that interferes with normal, daily functioning (Akiskal & enazzi, 2006). There are several different categories, including generalized anxiety, panic disorder, and phobias. While these all present themselves in different ways, they are similar in the problems they can cause in daily life. Theories of anxiety and the psychopathology related to feeling anxious include issues with biological, cognitive, and learning perspectives. The biological perspective addresses the receptors in the brain and how the chemicals there work with one another. Cognitive theories deal more with the way people perceive issues, such as feeling as though they do not have control over something. The learning perspective focuses on how people actually learn to be anxious about something, and the changes they learn to make in their lives in order to lower the levels of anxiety they feel (Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 2004; Kato,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Akiskal, H.S., & Benazzi, F. (2006). The DSM-IV and ICD-10 categories of recurrent major depressive and bipolar II disorders: Evidence that they lie on a dimensional spectrum. Journal of Affective Disorders, 92(1): 45 -- 54.

Alonso, J., Angermeyer, M.C., Bernert, S., Bruffaerts, R., Brugha, T.S., Bryson, H., Girolamo, G., Graaf, R., et al. (2004). Prevalence of mental disorders in Europe: Results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 109(420): 21 -- 7.

Berrios, G.E. (1999). Classifications in psychiatry: A conceptual history. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 33(2): 145 -- 60.

Clarke, G.N., Hawkins, W., Murphy, M. & Sheeber, L. (1993). School-based primary prevention of depressive symptomatology in adolescents: Findings from two studies. Journal of Adolescent Research, 8(2): 183 -- 204.
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Psychological Statistics a Study Sought

Words: 565 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34889959

What is the null and alternate hypothesis?

3. What is the correlation between student anxiety scores and number of study hours? Select alpha and interpret your findings. Make sure to note whether it is significant or not and what the effect size is.

4. How would you interpret this?

5. What is the probability of a type I error? What does this mean?

6. How would you use this same information but set it up in a way that allows you to conduct a t-test? An ANOVA?

Assignment 1 Grading Criteria

Explain why a correlation is the most appropriate statistic.

List the null and alternate hypothesis.

Compute and correctly present the correlation between student anxiety scores and number of study hours.

List the alpha, statistical significance of the results and the effect size. Provide an interpretation of the results.

List the probability of a type I error and explain what…… [Read More]

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19-Year-Old Caucasian Female With Panic Attack

Words: 3055 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27276026

B.S.

DOB: 12/25/1992

GENDE: Female

ace: Caucasian

ELIGION: Catholic

MAITAL STATUS: Single

OCCUPATION: College Student

CHIEF COMPLAINT: "I am scared. I feel like I can't catch my breath and my chest hurts."

Differential Diagnosis: There are a number of differential diagnoses for these presenting symptoms. The major ones will be explored here.

Possible Diagnosis

Myocardial infarction (MI), angina, acute coronary syndrome

Prodromal symptoms include fatigue, chest discomfort, or malaise in the days before the MI. A typical STEMI may occur without warning. Onset is not directly associated with severe exertion but concomitant with exertion. Other symptoms include: anxiety, light-headedness with or without syncope, nausea or indigestion, cough, diaphoresis, and/or wheezing.

Physical Exam: Physical symptoms can be variable. The typical chest pain of an acute MI is intense and continuous for 30-60 minutes, retrosternal, and may radiate up to the neck, shoulder, and jaw and down to the ulnar aspect of…… [Read More]

References:

Afifi, T.O., Asmundson, G.J.G., Taylor, S., & Jang, K.L. (2010). The role of genes and environment on trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: a review of twin studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 101-112.

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition, text revision. Washington, DC: Author.

Andersson, G. (2011). Panic disorder. In W.T. O'Donohue & C. Draper (Eds.) Stepped Care and e-Health (pp. 61-76). New York: Springer.

Barlow, DH (Ed.). (2008). Clinical handbook of psychological disorders (4th ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
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Relationships That Influence Relationship Functioning

Words: 1372 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94989498

Other techniques are those listed as:

Opening space for recovery and taking it slow

Compliments and statements of affection

Writing positive requests for the future

It is important that the couple become able to schedule pleasant times in spite of the depression cycle such as higher activity task of cycling, walking, etc. Furthermore challenging the belief systems in the depression are vital and then to fill that void with ": positive constructions and narratives" about the situation. The CTR or "Challenge Test Reward" is a technique utilized for transforming through challenge of a self-critical belief through generation of an alternative positive belief to replace the old negative belief with self-rewarding dialogue resulting from this technique when accomplished. (Author of Ibid p. 431)

Communication and Problem Solving:

It is imperative that the therapist provide the client with communication and problem solving skills for dealing with the depression. These skills may be…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Beach, S et al. (1990) Depression in Marriage a Model to Etiology and Treatment. New York: Guilford.

Carr, Alan

Family Therapy: Concepts, Process and Practice. Wiley Publishers

Dishion, Thomas and Patterson, Gerald (1999) Model Building in Developmental Psychopathology: A Pragmatic Approach to Understanding and Intervention. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology Vol. 28 No. 4, 502-512.
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Introductory College Psychology

Words: 3620 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88161373

psychological concepts. In some questions, specific scenarios were also given and we had to analyse them with reference to psychological concepts. Over all, this assignment broadened our knowledge of psychology and improved our thinking skills.

To answer this question, first we have to understand the meaning of gender. While sex refers to the biological differences between males and females, gender refers to the sociological differences between males and females. Gender however can be influenced by biological differences but it basically is a social phenomena. Gender differences can vary in different cultures and societies. For e.g. most of the females work in the U.S. But many women in Asian countries do not go to work. So if women and men were classified on basis of going to work, then women in U.S. would be very different from women in the Asian countries.

Let us now talk about gender roles. Gender roles…… [Read More]

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Traditional Healing Often in the Healing Arts

Words: 846 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63227645

Traditional Healing

Often in the healing arts them most simple and obvious cures lie right in front of us, exposed and waiting to be utilized. The purpose of this literature review is to examine the specific ailment of anxiety and review the traditional sources of knowledge that can specifically apply to the treatment of this condition. The use of the individual's own psycho-spiritual faculties will be highlighted as the method in which these sources remedy the effects of anxiety and its sometimes debilitating symptoms.

The Yellow Emperor's Inner Canon includes the many esoteric human tools such as mood, idea and spirit as important aspects of health and immunity from disease. This collection is the earliest and most important written work of traditional Chinese healing arts. The narrative of the story reveals the secrets of keeping a clear and sound mind and hence eliminating the anxious behavior that so often rises.…… [Read More]

References

Culpeper: The Complete Herbal. Viewed at Bibliomania.com, 15 Nov 2013. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/search?q=Culpeper%E2%80%99s+Herbal&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-U.S.:official&client=firefox-a&channel=rcs

The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Medicine. Translated by Parago, P, (1995). Retrieved from  http://www.five-element.com/graphics/neijing.pdf 

The Holy Bible- King James Version. Viewed 16 Nov 2013. Retrieved from  http://www.bartleby.com/108/ 

The Tao Te Ching. Translate Legge, J. (1891). Retrieved from  http://www.sacred-texts.com/tao/taote.htm
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17th and 18th Century Europe

Words: 859 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49770450

Not only was this theme fully explored within the historical context, but thoroughly analyzed within Europe as well. The teachings of such notable thinker as Sigmund Freud points to this direction of development. He concluded that there modernism within Europe had become characterized by the disorder of the mind. More precisely, there was a lack of any fixed system of reference for living and thinking. Europe, which had formerly been the center of intellectual development and revolutionary thinking now suffered under the burden of a weak political infrastructure. As a result, many of their greatest talents and knowledge now flowed away from Europe to other developing nations such as the United States.

The Age of Anxiety was coined not by historian but by Europeans of the age themselves. They reflected upon the disturbing trends that were occurring within European nation-states. It gave rise to radical social, political and scientific ideas…… [Read More]

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Drug Profile

Words: 1740 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26459243

Drug Profile

Drug addiction is a human issue that cultivates biological, psychological, and social consequences, among others. The manifestation of addiction itself is characterized by physical dependence, and is defined by the uncontrollable, compulsive urge to seek and use drugs despite harmful repercussions (Fernandez, odriguez & Villa, 2011). Philologically, drug use affects the reward center, where dopamine receptors are over-stimulated. Ultimately, the repetition of drug use is encouraged to achieve the same, heightened, pleasure response (U.S. DHHS, 2007). Psychological responses to drug use may reflect motivations caused by positive pleasure, anxiety, or protection. The bodily effects of drugs often reflect the drug's class: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogen, and cannabis. Each class represents various drugs and causes distinct biochemical responses. In addition to illicit drugs, prescription drugs are also highly abused and are categorized within the drug classes. Drug addiction does not discriminate between gender, race, sexual orientation or creed, and…… [Read More]

References

Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services (CDMHAS). (n.d.). Drugs with addictive potential. Retrieved 08 March 2012 from: http://www.ctclearinghouse.org/topics/customer-files/Drugs-with-Addictive-Potential-071105.pdf

Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. (2009). Psychology: A journey. (1st ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Fernandez, G., Rodriguez, O., & Villa, R. (2011). Neuropsychology and drug addiction. Papeles del Psicologo, 32(2), 159-165.

Hyman, S., & Malenka, R. (2001). Addiction and the brain: The neurobiology of compulsion and its persistence. Neuroscience, 2, 695-703.
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Psychological and Physiological Effects of Exercise on the Mind and the Body

Words: 1900 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97000787

Exercise has been described as the best medicine for depression. It can help a person get through rough times. Physical exercise is very important for a person's mental and physical health. Exercise helps in pumping more blood through the veins. This results in the increase in size of the arteries and it prevents fats from clogging the arteries. It also prevents blood clots. A person who exercises regularly is protected from a variety of diseases and it helps in curbing cholesterol. Exercise benefits a human body as it lowers blood pressure and conditions the lungs. Exercise has its various advantages. It successfully counters stress, depression and anxiety. It has been named as the best fighting force for all these problems. Exercise is also instrumental in improving a person's nervous, cardiovascular and immune system. It also increases our metabolism, digestion and stimulation. (University of Michigan Health System) (http://www.med.umich.edu/1libr/primry/fit02.htm)

Sometimes people feel…… [Read More]

Bibliography

http://www.med.umich.edu/1libr/primry/fit02.htm

Marissa Beck, Relieving Stress Through Exercise, The Tufts Daily, 2003

Richard Harvey, The Physician and Sports Medicine - September 1995

Harvard Health Publications Special Health Report, Depression Report, 2002
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Theoretical Analysis of Obsessive Compulsive

Words: 3218 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49908541

Clinically meaningful differences between juvenile and adult participants were also found. Compared to adults, juveniles were more likely to be male, recall an earlier age at OCD onset, and have different lifetime comorbidity patterns. Significant outcomes were that children were less likely than either adolescent or adults to report aggressive obsessions and mental rituals.

The glaring - and possibly only -- distractions that I see with this study are that groups are ill matched. There is a large range of ages even amongst each group (children ranged between 6-12 whilst adolescents ranged between 13-18); they were ill-matched in OCD symptoms too; there were far less children than adolescents; and adults more than doubled the size of the juvenile and children group combined. Self-reported OCD symptom could have been produced by an alternate factor (another determinant) that was not taken into account. What could have been taken then as start of…… [Read More]

References

Abramowitz, J. (1997) Effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a quantitative review Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 1-35

Fineberg, N.A. & Gale, T.M. (2005). Evidence-based pharmacotherapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Int J. Neuropsychopharmacol; 8, 107-29.

Foa, E.B. & Goldstein, a. (1978) Continuous exposure and complete response prevention in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive neurosis. Behav Ther; 9, 821-9.

Freeman, J.B. et al. (2008). Early Childhood OCD: Preliminary Findings From a Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Approach J. Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 47, 593 -- 602
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Moore & Kearsley The Nature

Words: 875 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66188569

Among the research findings in this regard was the view that field independent student are often more successful in the distance learning environment. Other factors such as introversion and extroversion were discussed and introverted personality types were seen to be more successful in the distance teaching environment. It was also found that extracurricular concerns can have both positive and negative course completion outcomes. Support from family or employer was also found to be a very significant variable that had a positive effect.

Another relevant area of discussion was study skills. It was generally found that good study skills and habits were a central determining factor for the distance students. Furthermore, procrastination was found to be a very negative factor, especially if one takes into account the demands of the distance education.

The difference between the classrooms and the distance learning environment was also discussed, with many students stating that they…… [Read More]

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Ernest Becker Victor Frankl

Words: 710 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22363062

Becker had a much darker view of life than Frankl. His pessimism is reflected in the fact that, instead of focusing on the solution offered by therapy, Becker focused more upon the Denial of Death, or the cognitive fallacies and imaginative techniques human beings deploy to avoid death, such as idealizing another person, or trying to find something that they alone can uniquely excel at as a hero, even if this heroic ability is at something mundane. "The real world is simply too terrible to admit; it tells man that he is a small, trembling animal who will decay and die. Illusion changes all this, makes man seem important, vital to the universe, immortal in some way" (Becker 133).

Frankl believed that the meaning of life, for the individual could not be created, but must be authentic. Becker believed that human beings were sustained by false, invented purposes and meanings…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Frankl, Viktor E. (19997) Man's Search for Meaning. New York: Pocket

Becker, Ernest. (1973). Denial of Death. New York: The Free Press.

Williams, Clifford. (2007). "The Denial of Death." Trinity College: Philosophy. Retrieved 5 Nov 2007 at http://tiunet.tiu.edu/faculty/cwilliam/cornerstone9.html
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Neonatal Stress on Adult Stress

Words: 1381 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17051063

The human stress response is influenced by a host of personality characteristics and life experiences that cannot be duplicated in animal studies. (Anisman & Merali, 1999, p. 241)

Because stressful stimuli often elicit cortisol secretion, some researchers have proposed the use of cortisol levels as an index of the stress response. (Anisman & Merali, 1999, p. 241)

esearchers have indicated that human and animal anxiety/stress profiles differ along cognitive behavioral lines. These findings are based on the idea that anxiety is understood as an affective (emotional) state in humans (Wall & Messier, 2001). esearch was conducted regarding stress utilizing hesus monkeys. The study uses a hormone Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) which was injected into half of the pregnant hesus monkeys in the study. ACTH is secreted from the anterior pituitary in response to corticotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus. It is secreted in response to various types of stress. Blood samples were…… [Read More]

References

Anisman, H., & Merali, Z. (1999). Understanding Stress: Characteristics and Caveats. Alcohol Research & Health, 23(4), 241.

Carobez, a.P., & Bertoglio, L.J. (2005). Ethological and temporal analyses of anxiety-like behavior: The elevated plus-maze model 20 years on. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Review, 29, pp.1193-1205.

Field, T., & Field, T. (1991). Stress and Coping from Pregnancy through the Postnatal Period. In Life Span Developmental Psychology: Perspectives on Stress and Coping, Cummings, E.M., Greene, a.L., & Karraker, K.H. (Eds.) (pp. 45-57). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Field, T.M., McCabe, P.M., & Schneiderman, N. (Eds.). (1985). Stress and Coping. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.