Anxiety Essays Examples

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Anxieties of White Mississippians Concerning the Institution of Slavery

Words: 1777 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95207939

Anxieties of White Mississippians Regarding Slavery

In Bradley G. Bond's book Mississippi: A Documentary History, the author describes in great detail the restlessness and anxiety that white folks in Mississippi felt with reference to the institution of slavery. Bond describes the growth of slavery, what crops made it necessary for Southern landowners to purchase more slaves, the laws that pertained to the behavior of slave owners and slaves, and more. This paper reviews and critiques the Antebellum Slavery chapter (4) in Bond's book.

Antebellum Slavery

The Code Noir was a law that was enacted in Louisiana in 1724, likely the first such law that was designed to lay out in particulars as to what was expected of slave owners and slaves. At that time in Mississippi, there was a great deal of tobacco and indigo being grown but not a lot of cotton. When landowners began to realize that cotton was more profitable and in greater need in Europe and elsewhere, they started planting cotton in much greater quantities; and that, in turn, required more hands to do the labor. Hence, the demand for slaves increased as the boom in cotton growing began in the 1790s (Bond, 65).

Bond provides…… [Read More]

Bond, Bradley G. Mississippi: A Documentary History. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi. 2005.
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Women's Mental Health

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72399655

Anxiety Disorders

In Chapter 11 "Anxiety Disorders," author Teresa Pigott provides an in-depth review of the definitions and types of anxiety disorders. Additionally, she provides discussions on the types of anxiety disorders that exist, and possible relationships to not only gender, but to the female reproductive cycle as well. Inferences are drawn to possible differences between reported rates of anxiety disorders between males and females, with some insight given to the psychosocial arena relating to prevalence rates among women. Further, Pigott touches upon the nature vs. nurture argument, by explaining the genotype/phenotype concept.

Pigott's descriptions, while accurate, are academic, medicinal, even sterile. It is great reading if you are studying for an exam, or attempting to self-diagnose, or even if you just want to be able to hold your own in a high-brow conversation on the topic. However, some concepts in the reading elucidate personal feelings of inadequacy. These feelings come from the very fact that gender differences in anxiety disorders are discussed at all, that 'women' are more prone overall, that perhaps that is because of hormones, etc. Discussions like these are reminiscent of the quote by baseball great Yogi Berra "it's deja vu all over again…," meaning that…… [Read More]

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Pharmacologic Treatment of Fear and

Words: 4199 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2973543

e., they became helpless). Furthermore, other behaviors of the dogs were adversely affected (e.g., the dogs appeared apathetic and had poor appetites) (Hitzemann, 2000). In his essay, "Animal Models of Psychiatric Disorders and Their Relevance to Alcoholism," Hitzemann (2000) reports that, "Both fear and anxiety are alerting signals that warn the individual against impending danger and enable the individual to take defensive measures. For animals, the distinctions between fear and anxiety are vague" (p. 149). The distinctions between fear and anxiety are clearly irrelevant for humans who encounter such stressed animals, though.

According to Hodge and Stull (2000), dog bites cause an average of 17 human deaths, 6,000 hospitalizations, and 330,000 emergency room visits every year in the Untied States and a like number of people probably do not seek treatment or report the incident, but may nevertheless experience psychological trauma, anxiety, and missed work or school. Furthermore, dog bites continue to be a potential source of rabies infection that requires postexposure prophylaxis (Chang, Cohen, Hennon, LaPorte, & McMahon, 1997, cited in Hodge & Stull, 2000, p. 17). Dog bites, of course, are just one of a wide range of behavioral disorders that can result from fear and anxiety in…… [Read More]

Becker, M.G., Chew, G.L., Correa, J.C., Hoepner, L.A., Jusino, C.M., Kinney, P.L., Miller, R.L., & Perzanowski, M.S. (2003). Distribution and determinants of mouse allergen exposure in low-income New York City apartments. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(10), 1348.

Boone, J.S., & Tyler, J.W. (2001). Transferable residues from dog fur and plasma cholinesterase inhibition in dogs treated with a flea control dip containing chlorpyrifos. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(11), 1109.
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Single Case Study of an Individual

Words: 2750 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12755281

Client Description.

The client is a 19-year-old single male who was referred for treatment by his parents who are concerned that his use of alcohol is interfering with his grades in college. The client reportedly had all A grades in high school and had been placed in a program for gifted students. However, he has reportedly flunked out of college in his first year. Following this he was also recently arrested for his second DUI offense, the first offense occurring when he was a senior in high school.

According to his parents, the client was born at full term with no complications occurring in the pregnancy and delivery of the baby. He met all of his developmental milestones ahead of expectation and has experienced no major health issues although his last physical examination was several years ago. He excelled in school and was placed in a program for gifted and talented students. According to his parents the client maintained an A average throughout high school even while being in a more challenging gifted program. He went to college with ambitions to go into chemical engineering, but "flunked out" after his first year, an event totally uncharacteristic of his past. His…… [Read More]

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.-text revision). Washington, DC: Author.

Beck, A.T., Epstein, N., Brown, G., & Steer, R.A. (1988). An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 56(6), 893-903.
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Facilitating an Individual Session With

Words: 986 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71238808

Not all patient expectations will be realistic, but a mental health professional needs to be honest with a client about which expectations are reasonable and which ones are unreasonable.

Another issue to investigate in each meeting with a patient with depression and anxiety, particularly uncontrolled depression and anxiety, is whether the disorders are impairing function and otherwise negatively impacting quality of life. If so, then the facilitator needs to direct attention towards improvement of real-life skills during the counseling session. This may mean less client-directed interaction than a therapist would otherwise seek in a one-on-one counseling session, but maintaining a baseline level of functioning and quality of life is critical.

In addition, the therapist must be aware that anxiety, unlike depression, can actually be a productive and helpful emotion. Therefore, a patient manifesting some level of anxiety might not be seeking treatment for that anxiety; on the contrary, eradicating anxiety can sometimes lead to greater problems. This is difficult because many people are under the impression that all anxiety is maladaptive, so that they have learned to fear or avoid all situations that produce anxiety. Interestingly enough, this can actually lead to disproportionate anxiety in normal situations. Anxiety can also…… [Read More]

National Guideline Clearinghouse. (2012). Summary: Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder, third edition. Retrieved May 8, 2012 from NGC website:
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High-Fat High Calorie Diet on

Words: 1426 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60596162

In the STAI, the researcher asks the subjects how they feel at the moment and in the recent past, and how they anticipate feeling in the future (Benazon & Coyne, 2000). This test is designed to overlap between depression and anxiety scales by measuring the most common anxiety symptoms which are minimally shared with depression (American, 1994). Both physiological and cognitive components of anxiety are addressed in the 21 items describing subjective, somatic, or panic-related symptoms (Kingsbury & Williams, 2003).

Once those tests are completed, the volunteers will be asked to cycle on an ergometer for 30 minutes. The Talk Test, Target Heart Rate Evaluation, and the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale will all be administered while the volunteer is cycling. This is done to determine the energy level - or the perceived energy level - of the volunteer. All of these tests and this same specific pattern will be repeated throughout the entire study, which is eight weeks in length.

Independent Variable

The independent variable in this study will be the diet measurement. While the volunteers get all three meals at the clinic, there is some concern that this does not constitute their entire diet. There is no…… [Read More]

American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Benazon, N.R., & Coyne, J.C. (2000). Living with a depressed spouse. Journal of Family Psychology, 14 (1), 71-79.
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Herbs as Treatment Treating Depression

Words: 589 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29754448

Another clinical study was done on the effectiveness of Kava extract for treating anxiety. This study analysis was aimed at assessing the evidence for or against the effectiveness of Kava extract as a symptomatic treatment for anxiety. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of oral Kava extract for the treatment of anxiety were analyzed. Superiority of Kava extract over placebo was suggested by all seven reviewed trials. The meta-analysis of three trials suggests a significant difference in the reduction of the total score on the Hamilton Rating Scale for anxiety in favor of Kava extract. So, according to the study, Kava extract is an herbal treatment option for anxiety that is worthy of consideration (Pittler & Ernst, 2000).

Kava -- is truly one of the strongest anti-anxiety herbs in the world. Kava also has one of the best safety profiles of any anti-anxiety / anti-depression herb (Borne, 2003).

Other Natural Herbs

SAM-e -- has been identified as another effective natural substance for helping to relieve depression related symptoms. Clinical studies show SAM-e to be up to 40% more effective in treating depression than placebo (Borne, 2003).

Valerian -- is regarded as one of the most powerful herbs for depression and anxiety. Commonly…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Borne, J.V. (2003, Sept 15). Treating depression. Real solutions. Retrieved May 18, 2009, from Insight Journal:

Pittler, M., & Ernst, E. (2000). Efficacy of kava extract for treating anxiety. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 84-89.
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Pediatric Nursing Interventions for Separation

Words: 1158 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77079010

Distracting a child while their parent is treated may lessen stress for a SAD child (Hillard, 2006).

Nurses may also want to incorporate preventative methods into their routines, especially if they are pediatric nurses. Encouraging work in this area has been done at Mount Sinai Hospital, where nursing departments participated in the incorporation of supportive methodology in handling children who are in treatment (Justus et al., 2006). If a child may need long-term care requiring extended or overnight stays in hospital, nurses can use Comfort Theory methods and other means of familiarizing the hospital environment. If a child feels at ease with nurses and the hospital environment they are less likely to cling to parents and exacerbate medical conditions through anxiety (Justus et al., 2006). General stress reduction techniques apply to children with SAD, and may include aromatherapy, deep breathing, and relaxed lighting or music may help (Hillard, 2006).

SAD may disappear without any long-term treatment (Fontain, 2003). However, ongoing problems with anxiety may necessitate treatment. Pincus et al. (2005) express concern that no interventions have been tested to specifically address SAD in young children. Yet, other treatments proven for common anxiety often help SAD patients. Nurses involved with treatment…… [Read More]

Fontain, K.L. (2003). Mental Health Nursing (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Hillard, D. (2006). Course: Treating anxiety. Retrieved November 15, 2006, from Advance for Nurses Online:
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Psychological Disorder

Words: 576 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92100674

Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Film

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), as defined by the American Psychiatric Association (AMA), involves excessive worry and anxiety for a six-month period or longer (AMA 429). GAD is not typically associated with the more intense expressions of anxiety, such as panic attacks or panic disorder (Shelton S2), yet the degree of worry and anxiety experienced is easily recognized as disproportionate for the reality of the situation (AMA 473-475). A diagnosis depends in part on eliminating contributions from an underlying medical condition or the effects of a substance such as drugs or excessive caffeine, and the focus of the anxiety is not limited to a single concern, such as experiencing a panic attack or becoming deathly ill. The anxiety experienced therefore involves wide swaths of the patient's life.

Patients often report experiencing muscle tension, trembling, twitching, feeling shaky, muscle aches, soreness, sudden fatigue, irritability, and difficulty concentrating and sleeping (AMA 473, 476). Clinical symptoms may include sweating profusely, nausea, and diarrhea, but rapid heart rate, shortness of breath, and dizziness tend to be less prominent than in other anxiety disorders. Patients may also suffer from depression. These symptoms have to be present for most of a six-month…… [Read More]

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. New York: American Psychiatric Association, 2000. Print.

Analyze this. Dir. Harold Ramis. Perf. Robert De Niro, Billy Crystal, and Lisa Kudrow. Warner Brothers, 1999. Film.
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Sleepy Hollow American Gothic

Words: 899 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46876996

Sleepy Hollow: American Anxiety Via American Gothic

The early Americans lived in an America that many are unfamiliar with in this day. Early America was a fierce wilderness rife with uncharted territories and much uncertainty. Thus, there was no doubt that early Americans felt a great deal of anxiety: anxiety about their futures and anxiety about their decision to leave England. Published in 1820, the story, "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" by Washington Irving is a classic example of American gothic fiction and is a strong representation of the anxiety of the early colonists. Many of the supernatural elements of the short story "Sleepy Hollow" demonstrate a sense of fear about what is, and a fear about the environment, along with an aggravated apprehension about what was to come.

The sense of grimness and gloom is present throughout Irving's story and are tools which he uses to set the tone for the supernatural elements. However, these environmental tones are largely used as literary tools to help manifest the palpable anxiety of these early Americans. Irving clearly distinguishes himself from European Gothic writers who use castles, monasteries and comparable places as settings for their stories, by choosing a dark forest as…… [Read More]

Anthony, David. "Gone Distracted": "Sleepy Hollow," Gothic Masculinity, and the Panic of 1819." Early American Literature (2005): p.111-131.

Irving, W. The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. New York: Createspace Independent Pub, 2009. Print.
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Ineffective Coping Mechanisms for Stress

Words: 2583 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98704663

The nursing professional must be adept at dealing with these kinds of conversations, and without increasing the guilt that the family member or patient might be experiencing, and keeping in mind the patient's probable depression; it is the responsibility of the nursing professional to take the conversation back to the treatment and therapies that within the realm of the legal and ethical practices in delivering medical nursing care.

Jacquie Peden, Darlene Grantham, and Marie-Josee Paquin (2005) say that nursing standards in palliative care are based on the values of the nursing profession, and are developed by provincial and territorial regulatory bodies in Canada to guide the professional practice of nursing professionals (p. 2). The hospice palliative nurse, they write:

Believes in the intrinsic worth of others, the value of life, and that death is a natural process.

Establishes a therapeutic connection (relationship) with the person and family through making, sustaining, and closing the relationship.

Provides care in a manner that is empowering for the person and family.

Provides care based on best practice and/or evidence-based practice.

Assists the person and family to find meaning in their lives and their experience of illness.

Preserves the integrity of self, person, and family…… [Read More]

Adali, E., Merkouris a., Manoussou, E., and Priami, M. (2004). The Attitudes of General and Oncological Hospital Personnel toward Euthanasia, ICUS and Nursing Web Journal, 17:1-9, found online at, retrieved 7 October 2009.

Canadian Nurses Association (2008). Position Statement: Providing Nursing Care at the End of Life, Canadian Nurses Association.
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Immune System How Negative Emotions

Words: 1016 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42275835

Thus, continued chronic stress can lead to a variety of health issues, and one of those is cancer, because the weakened immune system cannot fight off the cancerous cells, allowing them to grow more rapidly and unchecked.

This build up of the immune system to chronic stress can also lead to many other conditions, such as tolerance and dependency on many types of drugs. For example, a person under chronic stress who relies on aspirin or other pain relievers may develop a tolerance to the drugs, requiring more drugs to gain the same affect as fewer drug dosages before. Thus, the immune system in high gear can build up tolerances to drugs and other medications in its continued effort to protect the body and fight stress and anxiety. This is also dangerous, because the patient must take more drugs to gain the same result, and some drugs may simply become useless, leading the patient to need new drugs, or perhaps to a situation where no drugs will work against the problem. Continued stress, then, can lead to a wide variety of health problems, all concerning how the immune system reacts and what it does to manage the body in times…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Brown, Doris. "Stress & Immune System." Howard Hughes Medical Institute. 2007. 3 Dec. 2007.

Counseling Improves Immune System." USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education) Feb. 2005: 7.
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Vincent Vega From Pulp Fiction in Quentin

Words: 1777 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45872315

Vincent Vega From Pulp Fiction

In Quentin Tarantino's classic film Pulp Fiction many of the characters seem to be stock "types" with which one might be familiar from other movies or forms of fiction. Therefore, the appearance of one of them needs no introduction in the movie, but they are also expected to be somewhat one-dimensional characters that experience very little growth or development during the progression of the film. When Vincent and Jules appear at the beginning of the movie, they are clearly identified as thugs, so that one expects them to break laws, intimidate people, and be involved in illegal dealings. That they are so involved does not require any explanation in the movie. However, while the characters may be types, there is also a deeper meaning running through Pulp Fiction. The characters, though involved in the sometimes superficial, sometimes deadly, business of daily life, are experiencing the existential problems that are common to mankind. This essay will focus on Vincent Vega. As portrayed by John Travolta, Vincent seems to be a not-very-bright drug-addicted thug who develops a crush on his boss' wife, accidentally kills a man, and dies while on the toilet. However, the superficial view of…… [Read More]

Tarantino, Q. (1994). Pulp Fiction. Los Angeles: Miramax Films.
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Clinical Supervision Tony Bush Wrote an Article

Words: 925 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27583298

Clinical Supervision:

Tony Bush wrote an article regarding overcoming the hindrances to effective clinical supervision, which was published in Nursing Times website. Bush's publication was influenced by the fact that clinical supervision is one of the most commonly misunderstood practices in contemporary nursing. However, clinical supervision provides a supportive and nurturing service to nurse practitioners by assisting them to critically reflect on the actions during the delivery of patient care. As a result, the author seeks to examine and explore the existing role and status of clinical supervision in the Nursing Health Service.

Clinical supervision is basically described as a complex activity with multi-faceted functions that seeks to provide emotional support to counselors receiving supervision and providing them with extra education. This concept can also be described as a means of evaluating and monitoring counselors' professional performance and enhancing the quality of their respective duties. In the nursing field, clinical supervision primarily focuses on enhancing nursing practice, enhancing the responsibility of nurse practitioners, and improving patient care Bush, 2005, p.36). This concept should seek to address several challenges that emerge from the feelings of loneliness that nurses experience in the modern nursing environment as they work towards abiding by standards…… [Read More]

Bush, T. (2005, January). Overcoming the Barriers to Effective Clinical Supervision. Nursing Times, 101(2), 38-41. Retrieved from 

Guindon, M.H. (2002). Toward Accountability in the Use of the Self-Esteem Construct. Journal of Counseling & Development, 80, 204-215.
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Omnivores Dilemma

Words: 1218 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22362695

Omnivore's Dilemma

In recent years social historians have began to delve into more and more minute topics about the way humans interact within their social and natural world, and most especially how certain everyday objects and actions have had a grand affect upon the way society and culture changes. In The Omnivore's Dilemma, Michael Pollan uses the tools of both history and anthropology to uncover that it is that concerns humans on a daily basis -- eating -- and why that seemingly innocent choice has ramifications far beyond any single meal. What then, is the omnivore's dilemma? Briefly, humans, being omnivorous, can eat a number of things -- meat, grain, vegetables, many plants and animals, and numerous things nature has to offer. Deciding what to eat becomes a challenge in that cuisine is a part of physical culture, geographic area, societal pressures, and individual availability -- yet inevitably causes continual anxiety (p.3). This anxiety, though, has a profound effect upon the natural world since the decisions that are now made within the modern world have dramatic effects upon the ecology of the planet, and indeed, the potential continuation of the species. To do this, Pollan reviews three principle food chains:…… [Read More]

Levine, Ketzel. Interview with Michael Pollan on A Plant's Eye View of the World.

Morning Edition, National Public Radio, 6/4/2001. Retrieved from:
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Christian Counseling

Words: 818 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80045954

Christian Counseling Scenario

What are the client's most prominent presenting issues (that is, what seems to take priority as being wrong)?

In the case of Leon, a 52-year-old man with a dysfunctional childhood who has been unable to experience life in typical fashion, the most prominent presenting issue is definitely the individual's lack of emotional capacity and general apathy, both of which are obviously symptoms of a deeply repressed psychological trauma. The circumstances described in the introduction to Leon's case, wherein his eventually divorced parents both suffered from chemical dependency and addiction, while the father inflicted sever emotional and physical abuse, is extremely typical in terms of being connected to later symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV Text Revision (DSM-IV TR), "diagnostic criteria for PTSD include a history of exposure to a traumatic event that meets specific stipulations and symptoms from each of four symptom clusters: intrusion, avoidance, negative alterations in cognitions and mood, and alterations in arousal and reactivity," (DSM -- IV, 1994, 4th ed.) and Leon's current symptoms are closely aligned with this diagnostic template. Intrusion comes in the form of Leon's deeply seated resentment towards his…… [Read More]

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders

(4th ed., text rev.). Washington, D.C.