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Treating Anxiety through Talk Therapy
Of the great variety of mental disorders that are recognized by our society today, generalized anxiety disorder (or GAD) is perhaps one of the more common. This type of disorder is characterized by "excessive, exaggerated anxiety and worry about everyday life events with no obvious reasons for worry" (MedicineNet, 1). People with anxiety symptoms thus tend to expect disastrous consequences for any simple life event or decision and cannot stop worrying about issues such as health, family, personal life, etc. Yet this worry is often unrealistic, and is a symptom of the disease, though the individual experiencing it may not fully realize this facet. Though GAD is sometimes mild, at other times it can affect the way in which an individual functions. The paragraphs that follow will analyze anxiety disorders of various kinds, and will also provide some treatment options for them, in order…
"Anxiety Symptoms, Causes, Types, Signs and Treatment on MedicineNet.com." Web. 16 Feb. 2012. .
Mann, Denise. "Talk Therapy May Help Treat Social Anxiety." WebMD - Better Information. Better Health. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. .
"Therapy | Anxiety Disorders Association of America, ADAA." Anxiety Disorders Association of America, ADAA | Anxiety Disorders Are Real, Serious, and Treatable. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. .
, 1998, 1134). Altogether, the study was conducted for a period of twelve weeks. After completing six, more patients responded positively to the phenelzine therapy as opposed to CBGT and the other two included in the study (Heimberg et al., 1998, p. 1137). After completing the twelve weeks assessment, CBGT and phenelzine received the same result (Heimberg et al., 1998, p. 1137). Moreover, post treatment indicated that patients who had undergone the two therapies experienced less fear and anxiety in pattern thinking and real life situations. Although response was later in regards to CBGT effectiveness, phenelzine treatment, like in many situations when medication is administered, may be less indicated as it determines the patient to become dependent. Moreover, while CBGT promotes a proactive attitude in controlling anxiety, medication may determine the patient to rely exclusively on such therapeutic interventions. Furthermore, on the long run, the outcome is more favorable for…
Blomhoff, S., Haug, T.T., Hellstrom, K., Holme, I., Humble, M., Madsbu, H.P., Wold, J.E. (2001). Randomised controlled general practice trial of sertraline, exposure therapy, and combined treatment in generalized social phobia. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, 23-30. doi: 10.1192/bjp.179.1.23
Clark, M.D. (2001). A cognitive perspective on social phobia. In W.R. Crozier & L.E. Alden (Eds.), International Handbook of Social Anxiety: Concepts, Research and Interventions Related to the Self and Shyness (pp. 405-430). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Heimberg, R.G. (Ed.). (1995). Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Heimberg, R.G., Liebowitz, M.R., Hope, D.A., Schneier, F.R., Holt, C.S., Welkowitz, L.A., Juster, H.R., Campeas, R., Bruch, M.A., Cloitre, M., Fallon, B., & Klein, D.F. (1998). Cognitive behavioral group therapy vs. phenelzine therapy for social phobia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 1133-1141. Retrieved from http://www.ebbp.org/resources/Anxiety_RCT_Heimberg.pdf
Anxiety Co-Occuring Disorder
The following paper gives information about the ailment known as anxiety and its relationship with co-occurring diseases. The paper also highlights the history of this disease and focuses on the important personalities involved in the discovery of this disease. The paper also incorporates a research on the topic and discusses the important findings of the research. The paper also gives the impacts of anxiety and co-occurring diseases on human demeanor and how do therapists deal with such people.
Human beings are faced with all sorts of stress in their lives. Anxiety is the reaction of a normal human to stress. This reaction, if in a limit, is beneficial as it helps the human brain to counter the stress. Excessive response is unnecessary and therefore it is harmful for human beings. For some people, anxiety becomes excessive and thus it is considered as anxiety disorder. Excessive anxiety…
Casa Palmera. (2009). Anxiety Disorder Symptoms and Co-Occurring Disorders. California: Casa Palmera. p. 1. http://casapalmera.com/anxiety-disorder-symptoms-and-co-occurring-disorders / [Accessed: 11 Sep 2013].
Gil-Rivas, V., Prause, J. And Grella, C. (2009). 'Substance Use following Residential Treatment among Individuals with Co-occurring Disorders: The Role of Anxiety/Depressive Symptoms and Trauma Exposure'. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 23 (2), pp. 304-314. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2753528 / [Accessed: 12 September 2013].
Hazelden Foundation (2013). What Are Co-occurring Disorders?. Center City: Hazelden Foundation, pp. 1-2.
Reuschel, L. (2011). GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER IN CHILDREN AND ADOLSCENTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH AND PRACTICE. Bloomington: Illinois State University. pp. 1-2. http://psychology.illinoisstate.edu/cc/Comps/Reuschel%20-%20GAD.pdf [Accessed: 11 Sep 2013].
Anxiety is a psychological condition that pesents physiological and psychiatic symptoms and has pofound social impacts on the lives of those who have anxiety disodes. Thee ae seveal psychological conditions that ae consideed anxiety disodes, including genealized anxiety, obsessive compulsive, panic, and post-taumatic stess disodes. These disodes can be continuous o episodic, depending upon the manifestation of a peson's symptom.
Anxiety is a tem used by the geneal public to descibe non-pathological, 'nomal' esponses to stessos, but the psychological disodes unde the umbella of anxiety involves expeiences which intefee with an individual's ability to function and may cause exteme distess. An individual expeiencing eithe continuous o episodic a nxiety might feel physiological symptoms, including muscula tension and hypeventilation, physical symptoms, including nausea and insomnia, and well as mental appehension and panic (Healy 2009).
Panic disode, which may affect up to six million Ameicans, is often chaacteized by the physical symptoms…
references and further reading you must purchase this article.
Strauss, Cyd CS
Koponen, Hannu, MD, et al. (2007). "Efficacy of Duloxetine for the Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Implications for Primary Care Physicians" Primary Care Companion: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. Vol 9, Iss. 2. 100-107
Katzelnick, David JM.D, et al. (2002). "Impact of Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder in Managed Care" American Journal of Psychiatry. Volume 63, Supplement. Pp. 24-34.
National Institute of Mental Health. (2010) Anxiety Disorder. Retrieved Fromhttp://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/anxiety-disorders.shtml
If a student feels uncomfortable with the idea that he has to follow some counselor sessions, he should think this way: "positive effects of receiving personal counseling suggest that any counselor in training would benefit from the experience, which is consistent with personal counselling requirements instituted by many programs nationwide" (Mancillas, Adriea).
The newest methods in Counselor Programs are the ones who have a technological base: "Counselor educators can promote pedagogical principles of active learning through these technological methods [...] Course website, Presentations with Graphic Software Packages, Movie Clips, Videoconferencing, Video Taping in Observation Lab (aggerly, J.)
Following the same line, a Practicum CD-Rom appeared as a guidance to an online Counselor Program: "The purpose of the Practicum CD-ROM is to help orient practicum students to the clinical practicum site, its policies and procedures, documentation and assessment, clinical training and resources, and the internship process" (Daire, a.P. & Rasmus, S).…
Anxiety and Panic Disorders, Finding Voice, University of Michigan, retrieved February 9, 2007, at http://sitemaker.umich.edu/findingvoice/anxiety
Baggerly, J., Practical technological applications to promote pedagogical principles and active learning in counsellor education, Journal of technology in counseling, Vol. 2_2, retrieved February 9, 2007, at http://jtc.colstate.edu/vol2_2/baggerly/baggerly.htm
Counseling Laboratory Manual (2005, spring), Division of Counselor Education & Psychology Counselor Education Program, Delta State University, retrieved February 9, 2007, at http://www.deltastate.edu/docs/coe/Counselor_Education_Counseling_Laboratory_Manual.pdf
Daire, a.P. & Rasmus, S., a CD-Rom supplement to practicum in counselor education, Journal of technology in counseling, Volume 4, Issue 1, retrieved February 9, 2007, at http://jtc.colstate.edu/Vol4_1/Daire/Daire.htm
The plan must also allow only reasonable time for documentation and updating (Greenwood 1996). The depth and breadth of the initial assessment and care plan, the tool format and the amount of writing required are the other factors. And the written care plan must, most importantly, be readily accessible. If not, it becomes unusable. The nurse cannot be expected to memorize data or make unrealistically frequent visits to the nurses' station to acquire information. Relying on colleagues and repeated asking for information from the patient can affect the nurse's professional credibility (Greewood).
Part 3 - Drugs and Their Side Effects
The use of drugs in the care of anxiety patients has been associated with falls. These drugs are mostly anti-psychotics and benzodiazepines and other psychoactive ones that affect patient cognition, balance and motor coordination, pulse and blood pressure (Cooper 1993). Reports said that half of nursing home patients experienced a…
Cooper, James W. Drugs that Cause Falls in the Nursing Home. Nursing Homes: Medquest Communications, LLC, Jan 2003. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3830/is_n4_v42/ai_14041258
Frazier, Susan K. Critical Care Nurses' Assessment of Patients' Anxiety. American Journal of Critical Care: American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, May 1993. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mONUB/is_1_11/ai_91087518
Critical Care Nurses' Beliefs About and Reported Management of Anxiety. Jan 2003. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mONUB/is_1_2/ai_96695972
Greenwood, Donna. Nursing Care Plans. Nursing Management: Springhouse Corporation, March 1996. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3619/is_199603/ai_n8750675
Ten percent with the short gene - and who experienced four or more life stresses - accounted for nearly 25% of the 133 cases of depression. The finding could lead to new therapies or diagnostic tests for vulnerability to depression, says Caspi (2003).
Uncontrollable life events may not only lead to depression, but to anxiety disorder as well: "Very often, we find that people have more than one condition -- both depression and anxiety disorder," says Charles Goodstein, MD a professor of psychiatry at New York University School of Medicine, with a clinical practice in Tenafly, N.J. "As a matter of fact, it's very hard to find patients who are depressed who don't also have anxiety. it's equally hard to find people with anxiety who don't have some depression." (Davis, 2006)
Sadness, depression, and anxiety are often triggered by life events. Financial pressures, relationships and family problems can trigger this…
Barrett, S., and Heubeck, B.G. (2000). Relationships between school hassles and uplifts and anxiety and conduct problems in grades 3 and 4. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 21, 537-554.
Bieling, Peter J., & Antony, Martin M. (2003)Ending the Depression Cycle: a Step-by-Step Guide for Preventing Relapse. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.
Bieling, Peter J., Antony, Martin M. (1998). The Stait/Trait Anxiety Inventory, Trait version: Structure and content re-examined. Behaviour Research and Therapy. Vol. 36(7-8) Jul-Aug 1998, 777-788.
Caspi, Avshalom, MD. (2003) Gene Doubles Risk of Depression in Some: People With Certain Gene Variation More Vulnerable to Depression. Science, 92, 310-330.
Anxiety disorders are a varied and complicated set of physical and psychological problems that affect more than twenty million Americans. The disorders, which include general anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorders, and phobias, can often exert a disabling influence upon the individual's life, and disrupt his or her personal and social interactions. Treatments focus upon helping the individual to identify and understand the irrationality of their anxiety, and to assist them in facing up to their fears.
Anxiety is, "one of the main motivating forces in much of human behavior" (eck & Emery, 1985, p. 13), and is a normal reaction to a threatening object or situation. It produces a wide range of physiological and psychological effects that are often described as preparing the body for primitive 'fight or flight'. These symptoms result from the increased amount of adrenaline that is produced by the sympathetic nervous system, which causes an…
Beck, A.T., & Emery, G. (1985). Anxiety Disorders and Phobias. New York: Harper Collins.
Anxiety disorders. (1996, July-August). Public Health Reports. 111(4), 293.
Sainsbury, M. (1980). Key to Psychiatry (3rd ed.). Brookvale: ANZ.
Anxiety, Mood and Delusional Disorders
Stress and anxiety related disorders are often derived of a complex set of overlapping symptoms and conditions. Anxiety disorders will frequently be encompassed by mood or personality related disorders and can collectively render a debilitating set of effect for the subject. The incapacity to control stress, to limit the physiological or emotional panic produced by stressful situations or to go about one's daily life with functional normalcy are all factors which can magnify and intensify an already imposing condition. However, the importance of diagnosing and managing an anxiety-related disorder transcends even the dense symptomology of these conditions. Indeed, as our research has shown, there is not only a high level of comorbidity where anxiety disorders and other more advanced psychological dysfunctions are concerned, but that a failure to reign in the conditions and symptoms of a stress disorder can actually lead directly to…
Breslau, N. (2002). Epidemiologic Studies of Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Other Psychiatric Disorders. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 47. 923-929.
Chopra, S. (2009). Delusional Disorder. MedScape.
Hersen, M., Turner, S. & Beidel, D. (2007). Adult Psychopathology and Diagnosis. John Wiley and Sons.
A person with dysthymia may not be actively suicidal or have trouble getting out of bed in the morning, but he or she is plagued by a nagging sense of despair and worthlessness that sap the joy out of life.
The other major category of mood disorder is that of bipolar disorder and cyclothymia. Bipolarity manifests itself in rapid, extreme mood shifts from mania to depression. Manic periods are often preceded by a hypomanic phase, in which the person is extremely productive, needs little sleep, and may feel extremely confident and creative. However, the risk-taking behavior grows more marked as the patient enters the fully manic phase, and the sufferer becomes increasingly distracted, grandiose, and unpredictable in his or her behavioral patterns. At its most extreme, mania may be misdiagnosed for schizophrenia because of the patient's delusions of grandeur. Depression amongst the bipolar is often more extreme and results in…
Bipolar disorder. (2008). Gale Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence.
Retrieved April 8, 2011 at http://health.yahoo.net/channel/bipolar_treatments
Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. American Psychiatric Association.
Washington, DC: Author.
Abnormal Psychology Questions
Q1. According to your text please describe how negative reinforcement increases the avoidance behaviors often associated with anxiety.
Negative reinforcement refers to the withdrawal of an unpleasant stimulus to reward behavior. Using operant conditioning in a laboratory experiment, this might be accomplished by the withdrawal of an unpleasant sound when the desired behavior is completed. However, in the real world, for someone experiencing anxiety, the usual way in which someone suffering from this psychological disorder deals with the unpleasant feelings of anxiety (pounding heart, sweating, and racing thoughts) is to withdraw from the situation and avoid the triggering stimulus. Although this, on the surface, might seem to be sensible on the one hand, on the other hand it can result in the anxious individual becoming socially withdrawn or avoiding positive life experiences because of the fear. For fears of very common things—such as driving—it can significantly impair…
I would also suggest that if the subjective anxiety were preventing me from accomplishing my wants that it would be at the level of a pathology. For example, I have no desire to go up on scaffolding, but if I were an agoraphobe who was missing my child's wedding because I could not bring myself to go into public, I believe that condition would be interfering with my wants.
Clearly, I do believe that there are some conditions where subjective distress is indicative of a disorder. However, I also fervently believe that both psychologists and psychiatrists are likely to over diagnose people, turning normal variation into illness. Normal and average are not the same thing, and they should not be treated as such by mental health professionals. I believe that simple phobias are probably the best candidate for being excluded from the DSM. Specific phobias rarely meaningfully impact quality of…
Beck Anxiety Inventory Test
The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) test was created by Dr. Aaron T. Beck and other colleagues, and is a 21-question multiple-choice self-report inventory that is used for measuring the extent and intensity of an individual's anxiety.
The items describe anxiety on four different ways:
(1) Subjective (e.g., "unable to relax"), (2) neurophysiologic (e.g., "numbness or tingling"), (3) autonomic (e.g., "feeling hot") or (4) panic-related (e.g., "fear of losing control." Individuals respond in a range that varies form "not at all" to feeling "severe anxiety"
Anxiety is known to possess various components, but Beck merely introduced two measures, cognitive and somatic. The cognitive scale evaluates impaired thoughts and cognitive processing whereas the somatic scale measures symptoms of physiologic arousal.
The BAI is mostly used in circumstances where somatic arousal is highest, such as with panic disorder, since the majority of the questions (15 out of 21) deal…
Beck, A.T., Epstein, N., Brown, G. And Steer, R.A. (1988). An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: Psychometric properties. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 893-897.
DeAyala, R.J., Vondeharr-Carlson, D.J., & Kim D. (2005). Assessing the reliability of the beck anxiety inventory scores. Educational and Psychological Measurement, Vol. 65, 5, 742-756.
Eack, S.M. & Singer, J.B. & Greeno, C.G. (2006). Screening for anxiety and depression in community mental health: The Beck anxiety and depression inventories. Community Mental Health Journal.
Grant, M. Beck Anxiety Inventory. Retrieved from:
Homeopathic emedies for Anxiety
Homeopathy is a branch of medical science which mainly deals with medicines. This system was invented by a German medical practitioner, Samuel Christian Hahnemann (1755). It is combination of Greek words Homeo and Pathos. Homeo means similar in nature and pathos means treatment or cure. Together the term Homeopathy means a branch of medical science which cures the disease through similar effect. In this system of medicines, the drug is similar to the disease in nature and the effects produced by the medicine are used to nullify the effects of the disease. Hence it follows the rule of 'like can cure like'. Homeopathy enjoys much fame among the medical practitioners and the patients because of its effective healing capacity without any harmful side effects. People believe in its harm free nature, hence, prefer to use it (as cited in Shand et al., 2005).
Connor, K.M., Payne, V. And Davidson, J.R. (2006). Kava in generalized anxiety disorder: three placebo-controlled trials. Int Clin Psychopharmacol;21:249 -- 253.
Coulter M., and Dean, M. (2007). Homeopathy for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or Hyperkinetic Disorder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev;(4).
Feingold, E. (2008). The Complete Self-Care Guide to Homeopathy, Herbal Remedies and Nutritional Supplements: Everything You Need to Know About These Essential Natural Alternatives for Health. Whitston Publishing Co. Ltd.
Frei, H., Everts, R., von Ammon, K., Kaufmann, F., Walther, D., Hsu-Schmitz, S.F., Collenberg, M., Fuhrer, K., Hassink, R., Steinlin, M., and Thurneysen, A. (2005). Homeopathic treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled crossover trial. Eur J. Pediatr., 164:758-767.
For example, a person with high anxiety over having high blood pressure may have a family history of heart attacks (Pinel, 2006).
Mood or Affective Disorders
Many people feel depressed sometimes, for example, after a tragic event, such as the death of a loved one. However, most people are able to recover from depression. Individuals with mood or affective disorders like major depression or bipolar affective disorder experience extreme sadness and/or mania throughout their entire lives.
Those with major depression are plagued with profound sadness and/or the inability to feel pleasure (Kring, et.al., 2007, 230). uch depression may be so severe that it makes it painful to keep up with everyday activities (Pinel, 2006). Those with major depression may not be able to fall or stay asleep, while others may complain of being tired even after sleeping for hours (Kring, et.al., 2007, 230). Individuals with bipolar affective disorder experience periods…
Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders
Somatoform disorders are characterized by the complaint of certain bodily symptoms that may suggest a physical defect or dysfunction, many times exaggerated, for which no physiological basis can be discovered (Kring, et.al, 2007, 159). For example, pain disorder, body dysfunction disorder, and so on. Dissociative disorders, on the other hand, are disruptions of consciousness (Kring et.al., 2007, 159). As such, a person with a dissociative disorder may lose their sense of self-awareness, memory and even identity (Kring et.al., 2007, 159). Examples of dissociative disorders include dissociative amnesia and dissociative identity disorder.
Philosophical awareness is one of the most important interventions for facing anxiety issues that pertains to an establishment of objectives that are helpful guidelines to strongly persevere all proposed plans to achieve goals and overcoming challenges that are causing anxiety related issues. The presence of art or uniqueness of an individual's performance utilizing their own strengths to show their credibility and proficiency for successfully accomplishing their tasks on a daily basis is another intervention for overcoming anxiety for the reason that this is a capability that can break the myths and challenges that are causing anxiety. Politics that are being represented from the book is a considerable intervention as being based from de Botton's "status anxiety" for the fact that it represents an effective organizational structure and management plan that contains efficient measures to efficiently implement plan of action. Strong management and organizational system in politics can build up trust…
De Botton, Allain (2004). Status Anxiety. Phillips and Nelson Media, Inc.
Golant and Golant (2007) gave an example of an 8-year-old boy's externalizing behavior after his parents went through a separation and his father's departed:
As the self-proclaimed new "man of the family," he began acting out as if he were an irate parent, bossing around his little brother, yelling at him and hitting him. He seemed to regress emotionally. & #8230;When his mother & #8230; tried to comfort him, he would push her away. But at other times he became clingy and whiny. (pp. 107-108)
How married couples can work to decrease depression and anxiety
Based on a review of the research literature, Mead (2002) observed that the first order of business is to insure that the depressed partner is maintaining an appropriate level of antidepressant medication. When that is accomplished, the couple can benefit from marital therapy that takes the depression into account. Mead suggested the following as elements…
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, (4th ed.). Washington DC: Author.
Brampton, S. (2008). Shoot the damn dog: A memoir of depression. New York: Norton.
Dehle, C. & Weiss, R. (2002). Associations between anxiety and marital adjustment. The Journal of Psychology 328(11). Expanded Academic ASAP. Retrieved April 14, 2010
Fendukian, L & Wilson, J. (Eds.). (2008). Gale encyclopedia of mental health (2nd ed., Vol. 1).
Separation Anxiety and Separation Anxiety Disorder, also known as SAD, are an acute distress that first occurs in children beginning in the first six to eight months of life (Weiten, 2005). Usually a parent will begin to notice changes in their infant when a usually confident child will show signs of distress when separated from an attachment figure, such as their mother or caregiver (Oltmanns, & Emery, 2010). Normal separation anxiety will exhibit crying and clinging if an attachment figure even leaves for a brief moment, but this anxiety usually peaks around fourteen to eighteen months of age, and then will decline (Weiten, 2005). However, SAD is a "persistent and excessive worry," where symptoms have a much great range, which include "worry for the safety of an attachment figure, fears of getting lost or being kidnapped, nightmares with separation themes, and refusal to be alone." (Oltmanns, & Emery, 2010) Other…
Doobay, A.F. (2008). School refusal behavior associated with separation anxiety disorder: A cognitive-behavioral approach to treatment. Psychology in the Schools, 45(4), 261-272. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Feigon, S.A., Waldman, I.D., Levy, F., & Hay, D.A. (2001). Genetic and Environmental Influences on Separation Anxiety Disorder Symptoms and Their Moderation by Age and Sex. Behavior Genetics, 31(5), 403. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Klein, R.G. (2009). Anxiety disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 50(1-2), 153-162. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.02061.x
Oltmans, T.F., & Emery, R.E. (2010). Abnormal psychology 6th ed.. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
I would also encourage her to cultivate the love she has for her children, since love itself is one of the primary purposes of human life. From this basis, I would then ask her about her husband or partner. If this person is still living, I would ask her about the relationship, whether it is a good one, and whether she finds it meaningful. If she is still with her husband or partner after years of raising children and after they were grown, it is likely that there is a significant bond between my friend and her partner. Even if he had died, there is still the potential to make meaning based on the relationship she had. Again, if love was the basis for this relationship, it is likely to help my friend find meaning in the love that existed between herself and her partner. I could even ask her…
geography anxiety unknown play major role determining character ancient Egyptian Greek religions?
Topic 1 Introduction Ancient Egypt historical geographical background Resource. Topic 5 Sacred Rituals Serving Gods People Topic 3 eliefs Gods Afterlife Topic 6 Greek religion beliefs Mystery religions afterlife Readings Teeter, E 2007, 'Temple cults', T Wilkinson (ed.
Religion in Ancient Egypt and Greece
Geography and anxiety about the unknown are two of the most important elements responsible for creating and shaping religions through time. People virtually used religion as a means to combat their anxieties, given that they were determined to eliminate the chaotic and irrepressible system that governed their existence until the moment. Similarly, whereas the Greeks and the Egyptians have also had their cultures influenced by their desire to explain and control what went on around them, they gradually came to associate geography with religion and actually explained the latter by relating to the former.…
Freeman, Charles Egypt, Greece, and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999) 14
Guisepi, Robert, "Egypt and Mesopotamia Compared: The Origins of Civilizations," Retrieved March, 30, 2011, from the History World Website: http://history-world.org/egypt_and_mesopotamia_compared.htm
Haught, John What is religion?: an introduction, (Paulist Press, 1990) 176
Murnane, William J. "3 Taking It with You: the Problem of Death and Afterlife in Ancient Egypt," Death and Afterlife: Perspectives of World Religions, ed. Hiroshi Obayashi (New York: Praeger, 1992) 43
manage the effects of pressure and anxiety is an essential component of successful sports competition, but many athletes have difficulty with this. For instance, previous research investigating why Olympic athletes seek the assistance of a sports psychologist reported that the majority of such consultations were related to stress or performance anxiety issues (Murphy, 1988). Sports psychology focuses on the study of the psychological factors that affect performance in athletics, physical activity, and exercise and applies these factors to improve individual and/or team performance. The major focus for increasing performance is by managing emotions and affect as well as diminishing the psychological effects of prior poor performances or injuries. Due to the complexity and impact of anxiety on sports performance there has been a great deal of research in sports psychology investigating the relationship between anxiety and athletic performance. This paper will review the issues from a cognitive-behavioral perspective as well…
Anderson, K.J., Revelle, W., & Lynch, M.J. (1989). Caffeine, impulsivity, and memory scanning: A comparison of two explanations for the Yerkes-Dodson Effect. Motivation and Emotion, 13, 1 -- 20.
Apter, M.J. (1982). The Experience of motivation: The theory of psychological reversal. London: Academic Press.
Baumeister, R.F. (1984). Choking under pressure: self-consciousness and paradoxical effects of incentives on skillful performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46(3), 610-620.
Butler R, J. (1996). Sports psychology in action. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Biological Factors in Anxiety and Mood Disorders
Anxiety and mood disorders are serious mental health and medical conditions that require professional treatment from healthcare providers to achieve a complete and lasting recovery. Given the significance of treatment in promoting full and long-term recovery, numerous advances have been made in the past three decades toward understanding and treating these conditions (Mennin, Heimberg, Fresco & Ritter, 2008). A critical component in the treatment of these conditions is understanding their underlying biological factors. Anxiety and mood disorders have a strong biological basis, which is critical in treatment approaches. An understanding of the biological basis of these conditions help in development of effective treatment approaches. This paper examines biological factors in anxiety and mood disorders and their role in preventing and treating these disorders.
Anxiety Disorders and Mood Disorders
Villaggi et al. (2015) state that anxiety disorders and mood disorders are among the most…
Response to facing Anxiety
What sorts of things bring out anxiety in you, past or present?
All individuals experience anxiety some or other time in life (for instance, when going for an interview, the birth of one's first child, or that first meeting with one's spouse's/significant other's family). Anxiety has been linked to modifications in our psychological state, in the form of uneasiness or trepidation, as well as physical signs like increased adrenaline or pulse; further, it is also understood that anxiety is a temporary state that persists till the cause of anxiety exists or till one learns to handle it. Hence, anxiety constitutes one among an array of emotions which functions to warn one of things one may have cause to be anxious about (i.e., potentially harmful things). Importantly, such emotions aid in assessing likely threats and appropriately responding to them, possibly through focusing one's attention or speeding up…
Anxieties of hite Mississippians Regarding Slavery
In Bradley G. Bond's book Mississippi: A Documentary History, the author describes in great detail the restlessness and anxiety that white folks in Mississippi felt with reference to the institution of slavery. Bond describes the growth of slavery, what crops made it necessary for Southern landowners to purchase more slaves, the laws that pertained to the behavior of slave owners and slaves, and more. This paper reviews and critiques the Antebellum Slavery chapter (4) in Bond's book.
The Code Noir was a law that was enacted in Louisiana in 1724, likely the first such law that was designed to lay out in particulars as to what was expected of slave owners and slaves. At that time in Mississippi, there was a great deal of tobacco and indigo being grown but not a lot of cotton. hen landowners began to realize that cotton…
Bond, Bradley G. Mississippi: A Documentary History. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi. 2005.
Anxiety and Learning
Anxiety impacts roughly 18% of the population in one form or another. It is particularly troubling for students in higher academics. This study aims to investigate the question: What factors outside of the classroom increase anxiety in academic performance? This paper will provide an overview of anxiety, discuss how college students are affected by it, examine the factors that cause it, and look at how parents and educators can help those who suffer from it.
What is Anxiety?
There are many different types of anxiety, but generally put anxiety refers to nervousness and a feeling of being overwhelmed by stress about something related to one’s life. There is social anxiety, panic disorder, fears and phobias, separation anxiety, and general anxiety disorder, which refers to a chronic case of anxiety that simply will not go away. The characteristics of anxiety include a feeling of apprehension, tension, restlessness, jumpiness,…
Anxiety disorder is among the most prevalent mental health disorders in the U.S>.with approximately 18 of Americans suffering from some form of anxiety (NAMI, 2017). Different types of anxiety disorders include social anxiety, panic disorder, phobias such as agoraphobia, separation anxiety, and generalized anxiety disorder (chronic worry over everyday life isues). Behavioral components of anxiety include feeling an overwhelming sense of apprehension, tense, irritable, restless, jumpy, and always anticipating the worst possible outcome. Individuals suffering from anxiety may isolate themselves from others, have difficulty communicating what’s wrong, and may have difficulty focusing on tasks, catching their breath or gaining control of their bodies during an anxiety attack. The biological components of anxiety can include headaches, upset stomach, increased heart rate, loss of breath, sweating, tremors, fatigue, insomnia and frequent urination (NAMI, 2017). It is believed that anxiety may have a genetic or environmental cause.
Treatment options for anxiety include…
Patient Education Decrease Anxiety Undergoing Invasive Cardiac Procedures
In this case, one of the main areas of topic is based on the role played by initial patient education on the anxiety of patients undergoing noninvasive cardiovascular surgery. It has been reported that the initial education provided by the nurses to the patient in relation to the noninvasive cardiac surgery helps the patient, as there is a great reduction in stress and level of anxiety in relation to the surgical procedures and the outcomes.
Riegel, B (ed). Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. Philadelphia, U.S..
The journal is a complete online source for the information needed by the nurses in accordance to the procedures that can be used to reduce anxiety levels in the patients undergoing noninvasive cardiac surgery. These days it is important that the patients be taken into complete confidence by making sure they are aware of the procedures…
Mr. iley's agoraphobia is a matter of particular concern as this defensive response to his anxiety disorder has prevented the subject from engaging a normal, health, active, productive life. According to A.D.A.M. (2010), "panic disorder with agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder in which there are repeated attacks of intense fear and anxiety, and a fear of being in places where escape might be difficult, or where help might not be available. Agoraphobia usually involves fear of crowds, bridges, or of being outside alone." (A.D.A.M., p. 1) The fear of the outside world has inclined the subject in this case to increasingly shut himself off from others and from opportunities to experience life. The result, A.D.A.M. (2010) reports, is a deepening sense of isolation and a further descent into the irrational response mechanisms that have come to control Mr. iley's life.
One major demographic concern for Mr. iley might…
A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. (2010). Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia. PubMed Health.
DSM IV. (2010). DSM IV Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Criteria. Biological Unhapiness.com.
Malinckrodt, B.; Porter, M.J. & Kivlighan, D.M. (2005). Client Attachment to Therepist: Depth of In-Session Exploration, and Object Relations in Brief Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 42(1), 85-100.
This research is a mixed methods study designed to explore the perceptions of self-identifying individuals with anxiety and depression regarding any relation between their conditions and their ability to access appropriate healthcare under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Five respondents completed the questionnaire constructed explicitly for this research study. A review of the literature serves as a canvas of instruments also developed for assessing Axis 1 disorders as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5). The research on instrumentation included the following: 1) The SCID, 2) the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), 3) the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), 4) the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D), and 5) Severity Measure for Generalized Anxiety Disorder -- Adult (an emerging online measure provided in association with the DSM-5).
Their responses negate the theoretical construct, however, an insufficient number of respondents in this pilot study meant…
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
Appendix C - Screening for Depression
If you suspect that you might suffer from depression, answer the questions below, print out the results, and share them with your health care professional.
Over the last two weeks, how often have you been bothered by any of the following problems?
psychological diagnosis related children. TOPIC: GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER. Topics selected Diagnostic Statistical Manual Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR). The research paper discuss: a.
Anxiety disorders are presently responsible for interfering in people's lives and preventing them from being able to successfully integrate society. hen considering the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), matters are particularly intriguing as a result of the fact that many people have trouble identifying it and actually go through their lives thinking that their thinking is perfectly normal. In spite of the fact that there are no motives to provoke the exaggerated worry seen in people with GAD, they are unable to realize that they are overstressed. Millions of people from around the world are currently suffering from GAD, with the malady affecting virtually everything about their lives.
hile some individuals actually acknowledge the fact that their worries are unfounded, it is very difficult for them to put across rational…
Gliatto, M.F. "Generalized Anxiety Disorder." American Family Physician. October 1, 2000.
Kendall, Philip C. Pimentel, Sandra Moira Rynn, A. Angelosante, Aleta and Webb, Alicia "12 Generalized Anxiety Disorder," Phobic and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Clinician's Guide to Effective Psychosocial and Pharmacological Interventions, ed. Thomas H. Ollendick andJohn S. March (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004)
Murray, Megan "Treading Water: Self-reflections on Generalized Anxiety Disorder," Human Architecture 2.1 (2003)
Nutt, David; Bell, Caroline; Masterson, Christine and Short, Clare Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Psychopharmacological Approach (London: Martin Dunitz, 2001)
Speech anxiety is a common term for the sense of fear or terror that comes over a person when they are called upon to speak or otherwise present in public. There are other ways to refer to it like anxiousness, anxiety, the jitters, stage fright, fear of public speaking and performance apprehension. It typically hits when someone has to deliver a presentation before a group of people. It makes little distinction whether the viewers is large or small, made up of recognizable or unfamiliar faces. Psychologists often believe speech anxiety is a particular case of what is frequently known as shyness (Colombo, n.d.).
According to the book of lists, the fear of speaking in public is the number one fear of all fears that people have. People who have this fear can experience all kinds of indications including sweaty hands, accelerated heart rate, memory loss and even trouble…
Colombo, J.R. (n.d.). Speech Anxiety: Overcoming the Fear of Public Speaking. Retreived from http://www.speechcoachforexecutives.com/speech_anxiety.html
Cuncic, A. (2009). Tips for Managing Public Speaking Anxiety. Retreived from http://socialanxietydisorder.about.com/od/copingwithsad/a/speech.htm?rd=1
Dealing with Communication Anxiety and Public Speaking. (2002). Retrieved from http://www.roch.edu/dept/spchcom/anxiety_handout.htm
Laskowski, L. (n.d.). Overcoming Speaking Anxiety in Meetings & Presentations. Retrieved from http://www.ljlseminars.com/anxiety.htm
Though there is not anything that clearly indicates that Cliff has not been through some sort of traumatic event to trigger his anxiety, it is unlikely that he suffers from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder since, again, his anxieties are not focused on any one thing and there is no indication in this vignette that he feels he is reliving any kind of event from his past. Social Phobic Disorder is highly unlikely since, again, Cliff operates out in the world with moderate success, and what is most telling to eliminate this diagnosis is the fact that Cliff does not state that he is concerned about his evaluations at work, but instead simply about arriving on time. And finally, Specific Phobic Disorder is not a consideration since, as stated before, his anxieties are not fixed on any one object, person, or situation.
American Psychological Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual…
American Psychological Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders DSM-IV-TR 4th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Caldwell, J.P. (2005). Anxiety disorders. Redmond Hill, ON CA: Firefly Publishers.
Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) and its theory, techniques, application, strengths, weaknesses or other related topics are: the article by Souza et al. (2016) that examines the effects of IPT on treatment-resistant depression in adults, and the article by Markowitz, Lipsitz and Milrod (2014) that examines the relevant literature available on the impact of IPT on anxiety disorders.
Both articles provide assessments of the theory of IPT, which is that IPT provides a short-term treatment for individuals in need of psychological treatment. Its aim is to assist the individual in regaining functioning day-to-day abilities. The application typically takes between twelve and sixteen weeks and the theory upon which it is based is the idea that how the individual relates to others has a significant impact on his mental health. Thus, the concept that guides Interpersonal Psychotherapy is that relationships and how they are perceived, interpreted, developed and maintained is of critical importance…
The definition of resistance is “he critical objections which the patient raised in order to avoid communicating the ideas which occurred to him, and against which the fundamental rule of psycho-analysis was directed, had themselves already been manifestations of this resistance” (Freud, 2017). Transference is when a patient during therapy feels emotions, expectations, and desires because of the journey through experiences and then redirects and applies it to another person. For example, a woman discussing having an affair with a man, could then want to have an affair with her therapist because of the feelings that arose discussing why she became promiscuous in the first place.
Related to resistance, transference could end up being the best way to allow someone who is resisting to come to the realization that he or she is experiencing something that is blocking their recovery. For example, if that person’s anger over his father is…
Perfectionism: A Good Predictor of Stress and Anxiety
Personality research has revealed a number of interactions between traits and clinically-significant mental health issues. For example, neuroticism has been shown to be predictive of anxiety and depressive disorders, while introversion is a common trait among those suffering from social phobias (reviewed by Bienvenu et al., 2004). While some these traits may be refractory to clinical intervention, insights into relationships between lower-order personality dimensions and clinically-significant psychological problems may open up new avenues for treatment. Among the more interesting personality traits is perfectionism, because it has been linked to eating, anxiety, depressive, and obsessive-compulsive disorders, in addition to personal self-efficacy and achievement (Stairs, Smith, Zapolski, Combs, & Settles, 2011). To better understand the clinical relevance of perfectionism the findings of several studies will be reviewed here.
A large (N = 731) study examined the prevalence of the big five personality domains among…
Bienvenu, O.J., Samuels, J.F., Costa, P.T., Reti, I.M., Eaton, W.W., & Nestadt, G. (2004). Anxiety and depressive disorders and the five-factor model of personality: A higher- and lower-order personality trait investigation in a community sample. Depression and Anxiety, 20(2), 92-7.
Dittner, A.J., Rimes, K., & Thorpe, S. (2011). Negative perfectionism increases the risk of fatigue following a period of stress. Psychology and Health, 26(3), 253-68.
Gnilka, P.B., Ashby, J.S., & Noble, C.M. (2012). Multidimensional perfectionism and anxiety: Differences among individuals with perfectionism and tests of a coping-mediation model. Journal of Counseling & Development, 90(4), 427-36.
Lovibond, S.H., & Lovibond, P.F. (1995). Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. (2nd ed.). Sydney: Psychology Foundation.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Humans have a natural response to survival, stress and fear. Such responses enable an individual to pursue pertinent objectives and respond accordingly to the presence of danger. The 'flight or fight' response in a healthy individual is provoked via a real challenge or threat and is utilized as a means of acting appropriately to the situation. However, when an anxiety disorder manifests in someone, then an inappropriate/excessive state of arousal develops. People then feel symptoms of fear, apprehension, or uncertainty. These feelings or reactions may surface even when no real threat exists.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), is a common anxiety disorder that affects roughly 5% of the United States general population. "GAD is commonly associated with psychiatric and medical comorbidities and is often chronic. GAD is associated with extensive psychiatric and medical utilization and, if left untreated, can cause impairment as severe as major depressive disorder…
Asmundson, G. J., Fetzner, M. G., DeBoer, L. B., Powers, M. B., Otto, M. W., & Smits, J. A. (2013). LET'S GET PHYSICAL: A CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THE ANXIOLYTIC EFFECTS OF EXERCISE FOR ANXIETY AND ITS DISORDERS. Depression and Anxiety, 30(4), 362-373. doi:10.1002/da.22043
Butnoriene, J., Bunevicius, A., Saudargiene, A., Nemeroff, C. B., Norkus, A., Ciceniene, V., & Bunevicius, R. (2015). Metabolic syndrome, major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and ten-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in middle aged and elderly patients. International Journal of Cardiology, 190, 360-366. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.04.122
Chokroverty, S. (2013). Sleep Disorders Medicine: Basic Science, Technical Considerations, and Clinical Aspects. Elsevier Science.
Dodhia, S., Hosanagar, A., Fitzgerald, D. A., Labuschagne, I., Wood, A. G., Nathan, P. J., & Phan, K. L. (2014). Modulation of Resting-State Amygdala-Frontal Functional Connectivity by Oxytocin in Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology, 39(9), 2061-2069. doi:10.1038/npp.2014.53
The dependent variable was a measure of stress by virtue of physiological responses. Those variables were perfectly chosen for the study topic.
The hypothesis was that exposure to music during the immediate pre-operative period would correspond to a reduction in stress in the experimental group as compared with the control group. This hypothesis is perfectly appropriate and capable of empirical testing for substantiation or non-substantiation.
Sampling, Research Design, and Data Collection Methods
The sample size was very small and acknowledged as an inherent limitation of the study. Other limitations included the use only of subjects scheduled for minor arthroscopic surgery and the fact that subjects could have changed their responses to please the researchers. The research design and collection methods were appropriate in that they utilized and collected objective physiological data that are generally relevant to stress. However, that design presumed that (1) the specific data collected necessarily corresponded…
In Chapter 11 "Anxiety Disorders," author Teresa Pigott provides an in-depth review of the definitions and types of anxiety disorders. Additionally, she provides discussions on the types of anxiety disorders that exist, and possible relationships to not only gender, but to the female reproductive cycle as well. Inferences are drawn to possible differences between reported rates of anxiety disorders between males and females, with some insight given to the psychosocial arena relating to prevalence rates among women. Further, Pigott touches upon the nature vs. nurture argument, by explaining the genotype/phenotype concept.
Pigott's descriptions, while accurate, are academic, medicinal, even sterile. It is great reading if you are studying for an exam, or attempting to self-diagnose, or even if you just want to be able to hold your own in a high-brow conversation on the topic. However, some concepts in the reading elucidate personal feelings of inadequacy. These feelings…
Anxiety and depression are the most commonly witnessed psychiatric disorders in adolescence. The prevalence of both anxiety disorder and depression increase in the adolescence period and progresses to young adulthood. The final result of these developments is low self-esteem. General prevalence measures for depression stand between 2 to 4%. Recurrence rates are placed at 70% in a span of five years. Point prevalence rates for anxiety disorders stand at 20% and show stability across one's life. Furthermore, anxiety and depression highly co-occur. They also occur along with other psychiatric complications (Lee & Hankin, 2009).
Self-Esteem, Depression and Anxiety
The CBT (2006) center describes self-image as a circus mirror which remolds the shape and size of a person into one that departs from the way one really looks like. These are perceptions of how we see and think of ourselves, how we think others see us, the beliefs about ourselves, our…
e., they became helpless). Furthermore, other behaviors of the dogs were adversely affected (e.g., the dogs appeared apathetic and had poor appetites) (Hitzemann, 2000). In his essay, "Animal Models of Psychiatric Disorders and Their elevance to Alcoholism," Hitzemann (2000) reports that, "Both fear and anxiety are alerting signals that warn the individual against impending danger and enable the individual to take defensive measures. For animals, the distinctions between fear and anxiety are vague" (p. 149). The distinctions between fear and anxiety are clearly irrelevant for humans who encounter such stressed animals, though.
According to Hodge and Stull (2000), dog bites cause an average of 17 human deaths, 6,000 hospitalizations, and 330,000 emergency room visits every year in the Untied States and a like number of people probably do not seek treatment or report the incident, but may nevertheless experience psychological trauma, anxiety, and missed work or school. Furthermore, dog bites…
Becker, M.G., Chew, G.L., Correa, J.C., Hoepner, L.A., Jusino, C.M., Kinney, P.L., Miller, R.L., & Perzanowski, M.S. (2003). Distribution and determinants of mouse allergen exposure in low-income New York City apartments. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(10), 1348.
Boone, J.S., & Tyler, J.W. (2001). Transferable residues from dog fur and plasma cholinesterase inhibition in dogs treated with a flea control dip containing chlorpyrifos. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(11), 1109.
Chang, Y., Cohen, J.H., Hennon, D.L., LaPorte, R.E., & McMahon, J.E. (1997). Dog bite incidence in the City of Pittsburgh: A capture-recapture approach. American Journal of Public Health, 87(10), 1703-5.
Duke, M.L., & Swain, J.L. (2001). Recommendations for research on ethics in public policy from a public administration perspective: Barking dogs and more. International Journal of Public Administration, 24(1), 125.
The client is a 19-year-old single male who was referred for treatment by his parents who are concerned that his use of alcohol is interfering with his grades in college. The client reportedly had all A grades in high school and had been placed in a program for gifted students. However, he has reportedly flunked out of college in his first year. Following this he was also recently arrested for his second DUI offense, the first offense occurring when he was a senior in high school.
According to his parents, the client was born at full term with no complications occurring in the pregnancy and delivery of the baby. He met all of his developmental milestones ahead of expectation and has experienced no major health issues although his last physical examination was several years ago. He excelled in school and was placed in a program for gifted and…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.-text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
Beck, A.T., Epstein, N., Brown, G., & Steer, R.A. (1988). An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 56(6), 893-903.
Covin, R., Ouimet, A.J., Seeds, P.M., & Dozois, D.J. (2008). A meta-analysis of CBT for pathological worry among clients with GAD. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22(1), 108-116.
Dutra, L., Stathopoulou, G., Basden, S.L., Leyro, T.M., Powers, M.B., & Otto, M.W. (2008). A meta-analytic review of psychosocial interventions for substance use disorders. American Journal Psychiatry, 165 (2) 179-187.
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Hong Kong
The prevalence of mental health problems in people with disabilities is estimated at between thirty and fifty percent, in Hong Kong (Vasa & oy, 2013). Anxiety disorders are the most common mental problems occurring during adolescent and childhood, at least one in ten people having anxiety disorders. In addition, anxiety disorders are the most common manifestations of psychological distress among people with autism. People with autism are much likely to be anxious than their non-autistic peers. Oftentimes, they are described as highly anxious. The co-morbidity of separation anxiety is frequent in people with autism. Similarly, epidemiological studies indicate that approximately eighty percent of people with autism have separation anxieties. This study concentrates on discussing the treatment method or way of Autism and Separation Anxiety Disorder among children and adolescents in Hong Kong.
isk factors owing autism
Young people with autism are more prone…
Mash, E.J., & Barkley, R.A. (2013). Child psychopathology. New York: Guilford Press.
Ozonoff, S., Rogers, S.J., & Hendren, R.L. (2013). Autism spectrum disorders: A research review for practitioners. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Pub.
Saklofske, DH, & Schwean, V.L. (2009). Handbook of psychosocial characteristics of exceptional children. New York [u.a.: Kluwer [u.a..
Vasa, R.A., & Roy, A.K. (2013). Pediatric anxiety disorders: A clinical guide. New York, NY: Humana Press.
Not all patient expectations will be realistic, but a mental health professional needs to be honest with a client about which expectations are reasonable and which ones are unreasonable.
Another issue to investigate in each meeting with a patient with depression and anxiety, particularly uncontrolled depression and anxiety, is whether the disorders are impairing function and otherwise negatively impacting quality of life. If so, then the facilitator needs to direct attention towards improvement of real-life skills during the counseling session. This may mean less client-directed interaction than a therapist would otherwise seek in a one-on-one counseling session, but maintaining a baseline level of functioning and quality of life is critical.
In addition, the therapist must be aware that anxiety, unlike depression, can actually be a productive and helpful emotion. Therefore, a patient manifesting some level of anxiety might not be seeking treatment for that anxiety; on the contrary, eradicating anxiety…
National Guideline Clearinghouse. (2012). Summary: Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder, third edition. Retrieved May 8, 2012 from NGC website: http://guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=24158
In the STAI, the researcher asks the subjects how they feel at the moment and in the recent past, and how they anticipate feeling in the future (enazon & Coyne, 2000). This test is designed to overlap between depression and anxiety scales by measuring the most common anxiety symptoms which are minimally shared with depression (American, 1994). oth physiological and cognitive components of anxiety are addressed in the 21 items describing subjective, somatic, or panic-related symptoms (Kingsbury & Williams, 2003).
Once those tests are completed, the volunteers will be asked to cycle on an ergometer for 30 minutes. The Talk Test, Target Heart Rate Evaluation, and the org Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale will all be administered while the volunteer is cycling. This is done to determine the energy level - or the perceived energy level - of the volunteer. All of these tests and this same specific pattern will…
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Benazon, N.R., & Coyne, J.C. (2000). Living with a depressed spouse. Journal of Family Psychology, 14 (1), 71-79.
Dietz, W., MD, Ph.D. (2002). The obesity epidemic: Causes, consequences and solutions. Retrieved from University of Michigan, School of Public Health Web site: http://www.sph.umich.edu/symposium/2002/keynote.html .
Hewitt, P.L., et al. (2001). Death from anorexia nervosa: Age span and sex differences. Aging and Mental Health, 5(1), 41-46.
Another clinical study was done on the effectiveness of Kava extract for treating anxiety. This study analysis was aimed at assessing the evidence for or against the effectiveness of Kava extract as a symptomatic treatment for anxiety. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of oral Kava extract for the treatment of anxiety were analyzed. Superiority of Kava extract over placebo was suggested by all seven reviewed trials. The meta-analysis of three trials suggests a significant difference in the reduction of the total score on the Hamilton Rating Scale for anxiety in favor of Kava extract. So, according to the study, Kava extract is an herbal treatment option for anxiety that is worthy of consideration (Pittler & Ernst, 2000).
Kava -- is truly one of the strongest anti-anxiety herbs in the world. Kava also has one of the best safety profiles of any anti-anxiety / anti-depression herb (orne, 2003).
Other Natural Herbs
Borne, J.V. (2003, Sept 15). Treating depression. Real solutions. Retrieved May 18, 2009, from Insight Journal: http://www.anxiety-and-depression-solutions.com/wellness_concerns/community_depression/treating_depression.php
Pittler, M., & Ernst, E. (2000). Efficacy of kava extract for treating anxiety. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 84-89.
Woelk, H. (2000). Comparison of st. john's wort and imipramine for treating depression: randomized controlled trial. BMJ, 321:536-539.
Distracting a child while their parent is treated may lessen stress for a SAD child (Hillard, 2006).
Nurses may also want to incorporate preventative methods into their routines, especially if they are pediatric nurses. Encouraging work in this area has been done at Mount Sinai Hospital, where nursing departments participated in the incorporation of supportive methodology in handling children who are in treatment (Justus et al., 2006). If a child may need long-term care requiring extended or overnight stays in hospital, nurses can use Comfort Theory methods and other means of familiarizing the hospital environment. If a child feels at ease with nurses and the hospital environment they are less likely to cling to parents and exacerbate medical conditions through anxiety (Justus et al., 2006). General stress reduction techniques apply to children with SAD, and may include aromatherapy, deep breathing, and relaxed lighting or music may help (Hillard, 2006).
Fontain, K.L. (2003). Mental Health Nursing (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Hillard, D. (2006). Course: Treating anxiety. Retrieved November 15, 2006, from Advance for Nurses Online: https://nursing.advanceweb.com/Common/CE/Content.aspx?CourseID=4&CreditID=1&CC=7816&sid=602
Justus, R., Wyles, D., Wilson, J., Rode, D., Walther, V, & Lim-Sulit, N. (2006). Preparing children and families for surgery: Mount Sinai's multidisciplinary perspective. Pediatric Nursing, 32(1), 35-43. Retrieved Wednesday, November 15, 2006 from the EBSCO Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition database.
Pincus, D.D., Eyberg, S.M., & Choate, M.L. (2005). Adapting parent-child interaction therapy for young children with separation anxiety disorder. Education and Treatment of Children, 28(2), 163-181. Retrieved Wednesday, November 15, 2006 from the EBSCO Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition database.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Film
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), as defined by the American Psychiatric Association (AMA), involves excessive worry and anxiety for a six-month period or longer (AMA 429). GAD is not typically associated with the more intense expressions of anxiety, such as panic attacks or panic disorder (Shelton S2), yet the degree of worry and anxiety experienced is easily recognized as disproportionate for the reality of the situation (AMA 473-475). A diagnosis depends in part on eliminating contributions from an underlying medical condition or the effects of a substance such as drugs or excessive caffeine, and the focus of the anxiety is not limited to a single concern, such as experiencing a panic attack or becoming deathly ill. The anxiety experienced therefore involves wide swaths of the patient's life.
Patients often report experiencing muscle tension, trembling, twitching, feeling shaky, muscle aches, soreness, sudden fatigue, irritability, and difficulty concentrating…
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. New York: American Psychiatric Association, 2000. Print.
Analyze this. Dir. Harold Ramis. Perf. Robert De Niro, Billy Crystal, and Lisa Kudrow. Warner Brothers, 1999. Film.
Shelton, Charles I. Diagnosis and Management of Anxiety Disorders. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 104.3 (2004): S2-S5. Web.
Sleepy Hollow: American Anxiety Via American Gothic
The early Americans lived in an America that many are unfamiliar with in this day. Early America was a fierce wilderness rife with uncharted territories and much uncertainty. Thus, there was no doubt that early Americans felt a great deal of anxiety: anxiety about their futures and anxiety about their decision to leave England. Published in 1820, the story, "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" by ashington Irving is a classic example of American gothic fiction and is a strong representation of the anxiety of the early colonists. Many of the supernatural elements of the short story "Sleepy Hollow" demonstrate a sense of fear about what is, and a fear about the environment, along with an aggravated apprehension about what was to come.
The sense of grimness and gloom is present throughout Irving's story and are tools which he uses to set the tone…
Anthony, David. "Gone Distracted": "Sleepy Hollow," Gothic Masculinity, and the Panic of 1819." Early American Literature (2005): p.111-131.
Irving, W. The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. New York: Createspace Independent Pub, 2009. Print.
Narod.ru. American Gothic: Washington Irving. 2013. http://www.americangothic.narod.ru/lsh.htm . March 2014.
The nursing professional must be adept at dealing ith these kinds of conversations, and ithout increasing the guilt that the family member or patient might be experiencing, and keeping in mind the patient's probable depression; it is the responsibility of the nursing professional to take the conversation back to the treatment and therapies that ithin the realm of the legal and ethical practices in delivering medical nursing care.
Jacquie Peden, Darlene Grantham, and Marie-Josee Paquin (2005) say that nursing standards in palliative care are based on the values of the nursing profession, and are developed by provincial and territorial regulatory bodies in Canada to guide the professional practice of nursing professionals (p. 2). The hospice palliative nurse, they rite:
Believes in the intrinsic orth of others, the value of life, and that death is a natural process.
Establishes a therapeutic connection (relationship) ith the person and family through making, sustaining,…
works cited here support the need for continued and expanded research involving the different specialties in nursing and oncology to better serve patients and their families. Also, there is little nursing information that is found in the professional peer reviewed journals that speak directly to the issue of pancreatic patients and depression. There is much more literature on the subject from the physician and researcher perspectives, but there is a void in nursing literature. At this point in time, the depression of pancreatic patients as it concerns nursing, has received little attention. Both the nursing profession and pancreatic patients would benefit from further research in this area.
The conclusion from the study of the literature available is that not only is pancreatic patient depression not well understood, it is also lacking in research that would help professionals to address depression in these patients. Also, because it is directly linked to pancreatic cancer, and because the research does support the fact that patients suffering depression and pancreatic cancer do not enjoy the quality of life as those patients who do not suffer from depression, then pancreatic cancer patients and depression should be a distinct and separate therapeutic intervention from other groups of depression.
Adali, E., Merkouris a., Manoussou, E., and Priami, M. (2004). The Attitudes of General and Oncological Hospital Personnel toward Euthanasia, ICUS and Nursing Web Journal, 17:1-9, found online at http://www.nursing.gr/index1.html , retrieved 7 October 2009.
Canadian Nurses Association (2008). Position Statement: Providing Nursing Care at the End of Life, Canadian Nurses Association.
Many women are afraid of getting older and are willing to do right about anything to appear always young. infarct many people perceive it is rude to ask a woman her age since the society has no room to accommodate old women and the changes that their bodies go through. It is not possible for women in the society not to struggle with issues of their appearance .this has resulted to many women trying to change how they look as they age so that they can be accepted in the society. They go to an extent of denying themselves food and applying anti-wrinkle cream so that they maintain their states of their bodies and faces.
Aging is always a taboo subject with women as compared to their male counterparts. Women are afraid of the aging factor due to the perceptions in the society. The society tends to create…
American Psychological Association. (2012). Aging and Depression. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/aging-depression.aspx
United Nations. (1999). Gender and ageing: problems, perceptions and policies. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/csw/aging.htm
REHAB ASIA. (2011).Gender and substance abuse.Retreieved November 29, 2012 from http://alcoholrehab.com/alcohol-rehab/gender-and-substance-abuse/
CalmClinic. (2012).Destructive Anxiety Habits. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.calmclinic.com/anxiety/destructive-habits
Tony Bush wrote an article regarding overcoming the hindrances to effective clinical supervision, which was published in Nursing Times website. Bush's publication was influenced by the fact that clinical supervision is one of the most commonly misunderstood practices in contemporary nursing. However, clinical supervision provides a supportive and nurturing service to nurse practitioners by assisting them to critically reflect on the actions during the delivery of patient care. As a result, the author seeks to examine and explore the existing role and status of clinical supervision in the Nursing Health Service.
Clinical supervision is basically described as a complex activity with multi-faceted functions that seeks to provide emotional support to counselors receiving supervision and providing them with extra education. This concept can also be described as a means of evaluating and monitoring counselors' professional performance and enhancing the quality of their respective duties. In the nursing field, clinical…
Bush, T. (2005, January). Overcoming the Barriers to Effective Clinical Supervision. Nursing Times, 101(2), 38-41. Retrieved from http://www.nursingtimes.net/Journals/2013/02/15/j/v/s/050111GLsupervision.pdf
Guindon, M.H. (2002). Toward Accountability in the Use of the Self-Esteem Construct. Journal of Counseling & Development, 80, 204-215.
Marley, E. (2011, December). Self-help Strategies to Reduce Emotional Distress: What Do
People Do and Why? A Qualitative Study. Counseling and Psychotherapy Research, 11(4), 317-324.
Christian Counseling Scenario
What are the client's most prominent presenting issues (that is, what seems to take priority as being wrong)?
In the case of Leon, a 52-year-old man with a dysfunctional childhood who has been unable to experience life in typical fashion, the most prominent presenting issue is definitely the individual's lack of emotional capacity and general apathy, both of which are obviously symptoms of a deeply repressed psychological trauma. The circumstances described in the introduction to Leon's case, wherein his eventually divorced parents both suffered from chemical dependency and addiction, while the father inflicted sever emotional and physical abuse, is extremely typical in terms of being connected to later symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV Text evision (DSM-IV T), "diagnostic criteria for PTSD include a history of exposure to a traumatic event that meets specific stipulations and…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
(4th ed., text rev.). Washington, D.C.
INVERTED U. HYPOTHESIS
It has been established that competitive state-anxiety normally follows a certain pattern of one-sided feelings of anxiety as well as inadequacy that combines with increased arousal of automatic nervous system (Fazey, 2008). Accordingly, the theory of Inverted U. hypothesis was formulated to explain this aspect, and it is widely applied in sports psychology. Inverted U. hypothesis a theory that suggest that there is a relative amount of anxiety and arousal that triggers one to perform higher- extremely little arousal or anxiety and too much arousal or anxiety will lead to poorer performance. This present paper briefly discusses the Inverted U. hypothesis in sports psychology.
Until presently, the traditional Inverted theory had been the key model employed by sports psychologists to explain the arousal-performance relationship. Nevertheless, various sport psychology researchers have criticized this relationship, and the modern trend is a change towards a higher multidimensional perspective of…
Fazey, J. (2008). The inverted-U hypothesis: a catastrophe for sport psychology? Leeds, British Association of Sports Sciences.
Pascuzzi, D.L. (2005). The effects of anxiety on gross motor performance a test of the inverted-U hypothesis. Thesis (M.S.) -- Western Illinois University, 1975.
Reeve, J. (2000). Understanding motivation and emotion. Fort Worth, TX, Harcourt College Publishers.
Schnabel, C., & Wagner, J. (2008). Union membership and age: the inverted u-shape hypothesis under test. Luneburg, Univ., Inst. fur Volkswirtschaftslehre.
Since survey data relies on self-reported information, and since the levels of anxiety in a patient can increase and decrease based on the experience of the patient, it is possible that lack of care in working the question can actually increase the patient's anxiety. For example, a question that states "If the radiology department finds cancer in your bones....," the patient may be forced to think about issues which increase their anxiety levels, thus inaccurately raising the levels of reported anxiety in the radiology department.
The other major limitation to the survey design is that, in any self-report, there is a possibility for patients to answer in a way that is contrary to reality (Snaith, 2003). In the case of anxiety research, the subject may not be aware of his or her levels of anxiety, or may choose to answer in such a way that denies the anxiety. s mentioned…
A study by Rachman in 1974 determined that, since fear and anxiety are closely related, subjects have a difficult time determining which is which. Thus, subjects in a fearful situation such as a radiology lab may have a tendency to over-estimate their levels of anxiety, due to their inability to distinguish fear from anxiety. On the other hand, smaller levels of anxiety may be undetectable to the subject, if the corresponding feeling of fear is absent (Ewert, 1986).
Additionally, survey research has been consistently been doubted due to the inability to prove a subjects response. Since surveys rely on the input of subjects, there are always slight possibilities that the subjects will lie, or be otherwise inaccurate in their responses. A study by Epstein in 1976 suggested that anxiety in humans is related to ideas of ego, self-esteem, and are associated with a weakness or inability to cope. Certain subjects who feel this way may inadvertently deny their own feelings of anxiety in a radiology department, because admitting the anxiety exists would threaten their self-concept (Ewert, 1986). In any of the above cases, the answers would be used in data collection, but would not be a true representation of anxiety levels.
A second type of research design is that of the experiment. In this design, the researcher manipulates an independent variable in
Of the sample, 60% of them had had some sort of intervention therapy in the past. Eight of the children, or 20% of the sample, exhibited a school refusal, in which they missed over 40% of the past month as a result of emotional stress.
Of the 40 children referred to the study, 38 of them followed through with the study's intervention therapy, 24 boys and 14 girls. Parents were also included in the study, of which 87.5% of them were women, 87.5% of them were married, and 65% of them were college educated. A variety of ethnicities were represented with 60% Caucasian, 22.5% multiracial, 10% Hispanic, 2.5% African-American, and 2.5% Asian.
The main hypothesis proposed was that CBT intervention therapy for anxiety disorders in children would result in a reduction in overall anxiety and therefore lead to increased school performance. Using the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule for DSM-IV…
Finally, the sample size creates limitations on the generability of the results. Although the results did have overwhelming numbers, a sample size of 38 is inadequate to appropriate to other populations. However, it does raise awareness for educators and parents alike that school and social problems may have a root with an anxiety disorder and that it should not be discounted before an official diagnosis can discount such a cause.
Wood, Jeffrey (March 2006) "Effect of anxiety reduction on children's school performance and social adjustment," Developmental Psychology, 42(2), 345-349.
Pressure on Performance
The Effects of Time Pressure and Performance Pressure on the Ability to Solve Anagrams in College Students.
Anxiety and stress have been demonstrated to affect test performance and cognitive performance. Previous research has suggested that anxiety interferes with test performance by means of cognitive interference. Often, especially in individuals with high levels of test anxiety, stress leads to anxiety which leads to inattention, self-absorption, and focus on self-evaluation rather than on task-relevant behaviors. Stress is most often induced by a high pressure environment and can vary from situation to situation. The purpose the current study is to examine whether stress induced from a high pressure environment negatively affects testing performance. The current study investigated the effects of time pressure (being timed) and performance pressure (being evaluated) on the ability of college students to solve anagrams. It was hypothesized that pressure would lead to stress that would result…
Holroyd, K.A., Westbrook, T., Wolf, M., & Badorn, E. (1978). Performance, cognition, and physiological responding in test anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 4, 442-451.
Morris, L.W., & Liebert, R.M. (1969). Effects of anxiety on timed and untimed intelligence tests: another look. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,
Sarason, I.G. (1984). Stress, anxiety, and cognitive interference: reactions to tests. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4, 929-938.
318. However, in this and other studies, it seems that lack of effectiveness may be due to a cessation of the CBT and not due to its lack of effectiveness while in treatment (Belleville, 2011, p. 318). egardless, there are very few, if any, studies that show evidence of negative effects of CBT.
An additional factor that should be taken into account in Isabella's case is that substance use may be involved. Neither the DSM nor the DASS questionnaires address the theory that substance use may exacerbate or may be premorbid to anxiety/depression/stress disorders. Perhaps additional questionnaire(s) regarding substance use should have been presented to her. The Cannabis Expectancy Questionnaire is an example of a questionnaire that directly addresses substance use by assessing use by the patient (Connor, 2010).
An important additional consideration regarding Isabella's case is that in her verbal report she states that her inability to relax and…
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders (4th Ed.) Text Revision. Washington D.C.: American Psychiatric
Belleville G., Guay S., Marchand a. (2011). Persistence of sleep disturbances following cognitive-behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Psychosomatic
It is also interesting to note that the correlation between depression and childhood sexual abuse was found to be higher among females in many studies.
However, the issue of the relationship between depression and sexual abuse may not be as clear-cut as the above studies suggest. Recent research has begun to question this correlation and has produced findings that suggest that there are many other parameters and variables that should be considered. This is especially the case with regard to the view that childhood sexual abuse necessarily leads to depression in adulthood. As one report claims, "...there is accumulating evidence to contradict these claims" (Roosa,
Reinholtz, (Angelini, 1999). However the majority of studies indicate that there is a strong possibility that children who are sexually abused experience symptoms of depression that can extend into adulthood.
3.1. What is PTSD?
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a disorder that has shown…
Abused Children Face Depression Risk as Adults. Retrieved March 3, 2009 at http://www.healthyplace.com/abuse/abuse-and-depression/abused-children-face-depression-risk-as-adults/menu-id-52/
Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Adverse
Psychosocial Outcomes in controlled studies. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.leadershipcouncil.org/1/res/csa.html
Barker J. Adult Sequelae of Child Sexual Abuse. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.medicineau.net.au/clinical/psychiatry/SexualAbuse.html
Sara expresses significant concern regarding finding a job, leaving her family and leaving her friends. While she enjoyed her studies in business she is not exactly sure how she can apply this to her daily life. She is also somewhat ambivalent about wanting to work in the business world, and wonders if she should try to find a position that she would find more emotionally and personally fulfilling. Sara is not involved in a romantic relationship at this time but does have a small but very close circle of friends, all of whom are moving to different places. Sara expresses sadness at the thought of leaving her friends, and concern that she will be able to keep up with them after college is over. She is also concerned that she will not be able to make friends in her new setting. Sara is an intelligent woman who appears to have…
Lisa finds it hard to meet other kids her age who are like her. Most of her peers "do not care about school" and don't understand anything about the issues she cares about such as environmentalism and Tibet. Lisa worries excessively about external, global events such as global warming and wars in Africa. Many of the people she refers to as "friends" are much older than she is, although she admits most of them are mentors.
A person with generalized anxiety disorder finds it difficult to control worry. Lisa has been unable to control her worry successfully via Buddhist meditation or tai chi. She writes regularly in a journal and claims that this does help but not enough. Although she finds temporary relief in music and schoolwork, her feelings of worry and anxiety creep back into her consciousness as soon as she is doing something else. She experiences the most…