Apartheid Essays (Examples)

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Freedom for Black South Africans

Words: 615 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36507083

Apartheid History

Apartheid certainly represents some of the darkest times in the history of South Africa as well as the larger world. In the several decades it existed, a white minority exploited and oppressed a black majority in a violent and suppressive manner. Indeed, the very word "apartheid" means separation and being "apart." The brutality in question lasted from just after World War II in 1948 and eventually (and finally) ended in 1994. While the scars are still healing in South Africa and many social/racial problems still exist, a full generation has passed since Apartheid fell.

Historical Summary

Apartheid was the brainchild and creation of the National Party and the Broederbond organization but was actually a continuation of what was started by the Dutch when they controlled the area. There was a significant amount of blowback and strife that followed as the black populace oppressed by Apartheid rejected and roiled…… [Read More]


Apartheid Museum. (2014, June 19). Home | Apartheid Museum. Home | Apartheid Museum. Retrieved June 19, 2014, from  http://www.apartheidmuseum.org/ 

History Channel. (2014, June 17). Apartheid. History.com. Retrieved June 17, 2014, from  http://www.history.com/topics/apartheid
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Empire an Global Race Relationships

Words: 1702 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73475654


The theme of gende and sexuality is elated to social powe. In Repoducing Empie: Race, Sex, Science, and U.S. Impeialism in Pueto Rico, Biggs shows how ace, class, gende, and powe ae inteelated and inteconnected. Pueto Rican cultue has been sexualized, and the sexualization of Pueto Rico has been lagely o exclusively the pojection of white Anglo-Saxon Potestant values placed upon a dake-skinned, Catholic populace. The esult has been the conceptualization of an exotic otheness, coupled with a simultaneous fea. Pueto Ricans have been citicized as developing a cultue of povety in the United States, and Pueto Rican families ae blamed.

Regading the theme of gende and sexuality and how it is elated to citizenship and immigation, Biggs shows that white Ameicans have pojected the cultue of povety on Pueto Rico by blaming Pueto Ricans, athe than acknowledging the sociological oots of the poblem that can be taced to…… [Read More]

references to the Cold War. However, the main gist is related to the theme of global apartheid.

The strengths of this article in relation to the theme is that it is about global apartheid, linked thematically to other analyses thereof. Moreover, this article has a strong sense of time and place, which is important for a reliable and valid historiography. The weakness of the article is that it is not inclusive of gender issues.

Analyze strengths and weaknesses for essay themes, see above each book.

gender and sexuality how is related to citizenship (violence, abuse, immigration)

2. meaning of citizenship in the U.S. Empire (immigration laws change culture)
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South African The Rise Fall

Words: 3742 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93278598

This was largely because the resistance was split along racial lines. For instance, the Afrikaans National Council wanted freedom from foreign oppression without taking into consideration the needs and demands of the Colored. Similarly, the Non-European Liberation League, another group that opposed the current practices, were the proponents of the issues of immediate concern to Colored but African people. This lack of unity proved decisive, taking into consideration the immediate rise to power of the Nationalistic Party in 1948 and the subsequent inability to immediately react to the measures that would be taken in the following years.

The South African society, following the war was left without a well-defined national identity because of the continuous struggle to face the conquering forces of the Dutch and the ritish. Consequently, the rise to power of a nationalistic party can be seen as predictable, taking into consideration the general trend existing in the…… [Read More]


Goldin, Ian. Making race, the politics and economics of colored identity in South Africa. London: Longman. 1987.

Heribert, Adam, and Kogila Moodley. South Africa without apartheid. Dismantling racial domination. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986.

Hofmayer, I., Building a nation from words: Afrikaans language, literature and ethnic identity. University of London, MA thesis, 1983.

Nowak, Michael, and Luca Antonio Ricci. Post Apartheid South Africa: the first ten years. Washington: International Monetary Fund. 2005.
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Macro Sociological Issue Being Addressed

Words: 2937 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51088516

They are words that last forever, and when we face challenges where racial inequities and inhumane horrors cause to pause in stunned silence, often times these words of inspiration come to us and move us take action for social justice. Harrell explains Mandela's gift in this regard saying:

"Mandela exhibited the characteristics that made jeremiad in South Africa social protest feasible: he combined lament and call to consciousness in sustaining South Africa's democratic mission. His ultimate success depended upon his rational appeal to those who saw his course of action would be the most sensible choice (7 of 15)."

Indeed, with words so carefully crafted as to emphasize the essences of democracy, Mandela ensured the support of those in South Africa who had long been deprived democracy. He also appealed to those who understood that the only way to bring about a world peace, was to pursue democratic principles, ensuring…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Harrell, Willie J. (2009). "We Shall Crush Apartheid: Nelson Mandela, Steve Biko, and the Rhetoric of the South African Anti-apartheid Jeremiad. Ethnicity and Race in a Changing World: A Review Journal, Vol 1 Issue 1, January 2009, found online at  http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/journals/journal.asp?id=18 , retrieved March 20, 2010.

Downing, David (2003). Apartheid in South Africa,
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Racism Race Ethnicity in the 18th

Words: 2842 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92022289

Black people have to work as hired household help or as farm labor while white people own the economic resources of production. Gordimer's mother had a black maid and it is likely that this made her sensitive to the inequality between the two communities (Gordimer et al. 1990).

On the other hand, What it's Like to be a Black Girl explores the psychological pressure and turmoil that a young black girl living in an urban society has to go through. Her identity is shaped by her consciousness of her physical appearance and how different it is from the white-skinned acceptable norm of society. She also has to deal with her developing sexuality and the responses that elicits from people in her community. The poem shows how the young black girl has to accept her fate as a passive sexual being to satisfy the needs of the male.

Compared with Thebedi,…… [Read More]

References in Black Women's Narratives of Apartheid Racism. South African Journal of Psychology, Vol. 40 (4), pp. 414-431. Accessed on 10 May 2012 from EBSCOhost database
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Gordimer's Country Lovers Issues of Race and

Words: 1056 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94441737

Gordimer's Country Lovers

Issues of race and gender have been considered to be popular subjects in literature and allow individuals to express how these issues have affected them and how they have affected society. "Country Lovers" (1975), by Nadine Gordimer, allows the reader to understand how issues of race and gender are universal. Gordimer also uses "Country Lovers" as a platform to show how these issues impacted her personally and the lasting effect that they have on people living in South Africa, where she was born and raised. "Country Lovers" (1975) analyzes how racial discrimination and gender influence how the story's female protagonist, Thebedi, is treated.

Despite the fact that Gordimer herself is not involved in politics, "her writings document, decade by decade, the impact of politics on personal lives and what an increasingly radical white South African woman felt, thought, and imaged during the rise and fall of apartheid"…… [Read More]


Bazin, N.T. And Gordimer, N. (1995). An interview with Nadine Gordimer. Contemporary Literature. 36.1 (Winter), pp. 571-587. JSTOR. Accessed 30 October 2012.

The History of Apartheid in South Africa. (n.d.) Stanford University. Accessed 30 October 2012,

from  http://www-cs-students.stanford.edu/~cale/cs201/apartheid.hist.html 

Gordimer, N. (1975). Country Lovers.
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President Reagan's Human Rights Record Was Ronald

Words: 913 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30729658


Was onald eagan a Good President?

President eagan's International Human ights ecord

President eagan's International Human ights ecord

The Cold War and Apartheid

On September 26, 1986, President onald eagan (1986) sent a message to the House of epresentatives that he would not sign into law H.. 4868 because it imposed punitive economic sanctions against South Africa as a whole. His stated rationale was that the people most affected by the sanctions would be the Black workers, not the ruling White elite. eagan agreed that apartheid needed to end, but not at the expense of those already suffering the most under White rule. On the surface this logic seems admirable, even honorable, but others have questioned eagan's motives. Although eagan did not use the exact phrase "constructive engagement," this term would come to represent his policy stance towards apartheid. eagan's message to the House followed…… [Read More]


Bruce, D. (2005). Interpreting the body count: South African statistics on lethal police violence. South African Review of Sociology, 36(2), 141-59.

Bush, R. (1985). Reagan and state terrorism in Southern Africa. Crime and Social Justice, 0 (24), i-x.

Reagan, R.W. (1986, Sep. 26). Message to the House of Representatives returning without approval a Bill concerning apartheid in South Africa. Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. Accessed 6 Feb. 2014 at http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/search/speeches/speech_srch.html.

Reagan, R.W. (1987, Jun. 12). Remarks on East-West relations at the Brandenburg Gate in West Berlin. Accessed 6 Feb. 2014 at http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/search/speeches/speech_srch.html.
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Postcolonial Ed Lit Education Death and Postcolonial

Words: 839 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85527342

Postcolonial Ed Lit

Education, Death, and Postcolonial Literature

The peculiarities of the postcolonial struggle for identity and independence are entirely unique to the historical occupation and colonization that ended, at least ostensibly, in the middle of the twentieth century. Peoples that had full histories and rich cultures prior to the arrival of Europeans or European-descended individuals from the New World found themselves largely without the foundations of these cultures to support themselves once these Europeans had departed, yet also unable to achieve the promises of the Western cultures that had arrived on their shores. Former value systems and ways of life had been eradicated, and nothing substantial was put into place to subsidize what was lost. Instead, the indigenous peoples of the world had to find methods of combining the old and the new in attempts to carve out new identities and self-directed histories in a way that had never…… [Read More]

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Real-Time Moments When it Is

Words: 1242 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25207110

In a time of modernization preceding the current-day Islamic revolution, he is looked on as a dangerous stranger, an outsider, in the country of his origin. During the story, his interactions with everything from the architecture of the Ottoman Empire, to a former/current love interest, to police spies, to a local newspaper publisher become pregnant with meaning as he searches about for meaning in an otherwise mundane existence. Though, as an exile, his heart should be with the Muslim reactionaries -- particularly since he is being shadowed by the secularist regime -- in the end he feels rootless and dissatisfied with both the changes going on around him and the promise of a return to things as they used to be. His love for his former mistress drives him to write poetry and to perform a poem entitle "Snow" at a local theatre, and it is during this event that…… [Read More]

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World War II Also Marked

Words: 2272 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99236996

The demonstration in Tiananmen Square showed that there were alrge semgnets of the population that wanted change, but Deng's response was to crush the movement with violence and to assert the supremacy ofm centalzied rule once more..

These actions show some of the difficulties of independence and of developing a new political structure when many adhere to older political structures and ideas. One response is to try to wipe out the old with violence, but regimes tend to become reactionary about their own ideas as well and to crush any opposition, real of perceived.

9. Arab unity has not materialized for a number of historical reasons related to the different ways in which the countries of the region have developed so that the leaders of some of the states are wary of other leaders, because of differences in economic structures in the various countries, and because of different reactions to…… [Read More]

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Social Category of Class

Words: 1884 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24593147

Holly Sklar writes, "the gulf between the rich and the rest of America will continue to widen, weakening our economy and our democracy. The American Dream will be history instead of poverty."

With the advent of more billions into the ranks of the Fortune 400, so it is; instead of witnessing the booming middle class that marked the Scientific and Industrial evolutions, America is undergoing a transformation that more clearly limns the demarcation between classes than ever before.

With economic segregation an ever more encroaching reality, the distinctions between race, age, and gender come increased under review as Americans are forced to examine the origins of social class, its solidification in early childhood, and its place in the national life.

In academic circles, social class describes the relationships between individual agents and groups as they struggle through social hierarchies. Weber famously defined the social stratification as a three-component theory frequently…… [Read More]


Adair, Vivian C. "Branded with Infamy: Inscriptions of Poverty and Class in the United States." Signs. Vol. 27, No. 2. (Winter, 2002.)

Collins, C. & Yeskel, F. "Economic Apartheid in America: A Primer on Economic Inequality & Insecurity." New York: The New Press, Oct. 31, 2005.

Conley, Dalton. Being Black and Living in the red: Race, Wealth, and Social Policy in America." Berkley: University of California Press, 1999.

Kotlowitz, Alex. There Are No Children Here. New York: Anchor Press, 1992.
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Sabmiller Case Study Sabmiller Breweries Company Case

Words: 1327 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9891515

Sabmiller Case Study

SABMiller Breweries Company Case Study

SABMiller Breweries Company

SABMiller Breweries Company

SABMiller breweries Company has grown since it begun over the years adopting different business strategies for its survival in the market. Surrounding environmental factors have affected its growth, and strategies that are put to counter different environmental situations. SABMiller is a South African company with its base in Johannesburg. It grew to being the second largest brewer company in the world.

Corporate logic

During the twentieth century, SABMiller's operation faced difficulties due to the apartheid regime. South Africa faced economic sanctions due to the apartheid regime which restricted them from doing business with, external international, markets. SAB moved their capital from London to their homeland Johannesburg to enable them operate with the sanctions. SAB prioritized Domesticconsumption to keep the breweries running. SAB concentrated most of its activities in southern parts of Africa hence expanding its market.…… [Read More]


Commission, U.N. (2006). Foreign Investment in Latin America and The Carribean. New York: United Nations Publications .

Demamphilis, D. (2007). Mergers Acquisitions and Other Restructuring Activities. Cape Town: Academic Press.

Robbins, P. (2011). Global Behaviour; Global Perspectives Southern African Perspectives. Johhanesburg: Pearson South Africa.

Wenner, L. (2009). Sport Beer and Gender. Atlanta: Peter Lang.
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Racism and America's Urban Cycle

Words: 1303 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87201027

Essentially, those in the lower tiers of the urban
socioeconomic hierarchy, rather than having been drawn out of despair, have
been thrust to the periphery of America's 'revitalizing' cities.

Question 2:
One of the most important points raised by the course reading
material would be that underscoring a clear proclivity toward urban design
and planning in those who would first colonize the new lands. Though
massive and ripe with natural resources and incredible frontiers, the new
land was also flowing with inherently profitable waterways, brimming with
commercial trade prospects and inhabited by a native population which,
though Chudacoff reports it to have been significantly underestimated as an
city-dwelling peoples as well, would appear ripe for exploitation. More
importantly though to this discussion would be the text's consideration of
the inherency of the European urban culture to America's development.
Indeed, according to Chudacoff's (2005) account, "the Europeans who
colonized North America…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Chudacoff H. & J.E. Smith. (2005) The Evolution of American Society,
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0-13-189824

Jacobs, Jane. (1961). The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New
York, Vintage Books. ISBN:067974195X

Massey, D. and N. Denton. (1998). American Apartheid: Segregation and the
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Multicultural Studies Indeed the Interests

Words: 3493 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41381912

One of the best examples of the mentality behind the development of the pedagogy of the oppressed, with regard to education is the evolution of the official restriction of curriculum to that which the African would need to survive in the economy of labor.

A the solutions to the "poor Whites" problem, as was indicated in the Carnegie Commission of Inquiry into Poor Whites in South Africa in 1932, were not bearing the expected fruits of "innate superiority." Thus, Verwoerd emphasized that the African "school must equip him [the African] to meet the demands which the economic life of South Africa will impose on him" (Mbere 1979, 106).The relationship between production and what is learned in schools reproduces unskilled and semiskilled labor power that allows domination and exploitation to occur. According to the CNE policy, Whites were perpetual parents who had to guide their "children," the Africans. This relationship of…… [Read More]


Chokshi, M. Carter, C. Gupta, D. Martin, T. & Allen, R. (1995) "Computers and Apartheid"

Computer Science: 201 Final Project: Stanford University Computer Science Department at:  http://www-cs-students.stanford.edu/~cale/cs201/index.html .

Hlatshwayo, S.A. (2000). Education and Independence: Education in South Africa, 1658-1988. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Seidman, G. (1999). IS SOUTH AFRICA DIFFERENT? Sociological Comparisons and Theoretical Contributions from the Land of Apartheid. 419.
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African Studies Racial Policy The

Words: 2852 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34202767

Of course, a separation of the races meant really the preservation of white superiority at the expense of those formerly enslaved. The law mandated distinct facilities for hites and Blacks. Everything from schools, to transportation, movie theaters, hotels, and even public restrooms were carefully segregated. Few Black only facilities approached white ones in quality or amount of money expended on their upkeep. Black public schools were notoriously inferior as were hospitals and other essential services. As arguments about the disparities became more apparent toward the mid-Twentieth Century, the South sought to defend its segregationist policies by - in the case of medical schools - expanding and consolidating its physician training facilities so as to avoid providing more facilities for Blacks. A plan was actually floated, not to increase Black enrollment at the South's twenty-six medical colleges, but rather to consolidate all training of Black medical personnel at a single facility.…… [Read More]

Works Cited


Boskin, Joseph. Into Slavery: Racial Decisions in the Virginia Colony. Philadelphia J.B. Lippincott, 1976.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113156830

Louw, Eric P. The Rise, Fall, and Legacy of Apartheid. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.
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Visionary Leadership of Nelson Mandela

Words: 1592 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82049498

Visionary Leadership
After being detained in prison for 27 years, Nelson Mandela walked out of Prison to lead South Africans in their quest to break free from Apartheid rule. He became the first Black president of the Republic of South Africa and led a robust reconciliation effort that helped Blacks and Whites in South Africa forgive one another and find common ground to work on to help build South Africa. For these efforts, Nelson Mandela won the Nobel Peace Prize. Nelson Mandela was born in 1918 in Transkei and went on to be a student of law at Fort Hare University. As the African National Congress (ANC) started gaining momentum in the early 1940s, he joined the movement to help resist the racist policies of the then ruling White government. The racist government policies would later be codified into Apartheid which proved to be a brutal and highly racist rule.…… [Read More]

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Afrikaners Are the Descendants of

Words: 4136 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11391645

Having been prosecuted in Europe, they were inclined to severe all ties with the continent and considered Africa their homeland. Since most other immigrants in Cape were also Calvinists -- members of the Dutch Reformed Church, the French Haguenots were readily accepted as part of a common community and were soon integrated into settler society by intermarriage. Their emphasis on a 'pure' form of Calvinism and self-sufficiency, however, influenced the development of the Afrikaner culture and way of life.

The Afrikaans Language

Afrikaans is the language of the white South Africans that was largely derived from the 17th century Dutch language. It is estimated that about seven million people in South Africa and Namibia speak some form of Afrikaans, although 'standard' Afrikaans is spoken mainly by the whites. Until the end of the "apartheid" in 1994, Afrikaans was the official language of government and education. It is now one of…… [Read More]

Works Cited


Beck, Roger B. The History of South Africa. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001835441

Grundlingh, Albert. "The Bitter Legacy of the Boer War." History Today Nov. 1999: 21.
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Xhosa People Are Black Africans

Words: 2830 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16898998

This entertainment is the ceremonial or festive taking of alcoholic drinks at events called "beer parties." Researchers noted the significance of the festive element of work among the laborers but showed beer as an essential aspect of work. The rule in these beer work parties are adjusted to the particular workers involved. It invokes the overall value and morality of helpfulness and reciprocity, which are part of beer-drinking events. It is an expression of a general interdependence between homesteads. Ordinary beer parties emphasize the general principle of mutual helpfulness and mutual relationships in homesteads. ut beer parties for harvest give thanks to ancestors for the homestead's harvest. These parties give recognition to those who plow the homestead's garden (McAllister).

A recent analyzed the relation between cooperative work and beer drinking. It found that beer drinks served as a contact point of everyday activity and ideas in the Xhosa society in…… [Read More]


CESA. The Xhosa. People Profile. Central Eastern Southern Africa, 2008. Retrieved on May 8, 2008 at http://cesa.imb.org/peoplegroups/xhosa.htm

Christian Action. The National Suicide of the Xhosa. Vol 2. The Christian Action

Magazine, 2004.

Cornwell, Jane. Sweet Sounds of Freedom. The (London) Independent: Independent
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Violence at Schools in South

Words: 4378 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58268265

..This perspective is from the U.S.A.; in Europe, violence in school and the concern about violence may not be at similar levels, but it is undoubtedly a topic of major concern (Smith, 2003, p. 1).

This article also makes the important point that school is intended as a developmental and educational environment and that violence in its various forms negatively effects and detracts from the goals of education.

Another general work that adds to the underlying body of knowledge on this topic is Stealing the Show? Crime and Its Impact in Post-Apartheid South Africa by Mark Shaw and Peter Gastrow (2001). Among others, this study makes a cogent assessment of the way that crime and violence is measured and reported in South Africa.

Most researchers assume that official crime statistics -- that is, those collected and released by the South African Police Service -- provide a poor indication of levels…… [Read More]

References www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114080610

Abbink, J. & Kessel, I.V. (Eds.). (2005). Vanguard or Vandals: Youth, Politics, and Conflict in Africa. Boston: Brill. Retrieved January 3, 2009, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114080610 

Bility K.M. (1999) School Violence and Adolescent Mental Health in South Africa: Implications for School Health Programs. "http: Sociological Practice, Vol. 01, No, 4, pp. 285-303 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002024684

Carton, B. (2003). The Forgotten Compass of Death: Apocalypse Then and Now in the Social History of South Africa. Journal of Social History, 37(1), 199+. Retrieved January 3, 2009, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002024684 

Center for Justice and Crime Prevention. Retrieved January 2, 2009, at http://www.cjcp.org.za/
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Gordimer and Walker Race and Gender Have

Words: 2900 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88137665

Gordimer and Walker

ace and gender have been shown to be major social issues throughout the world as demonstrated through short stories written by Nadine Gordimer, who writes from a South African perspective, and Alice Walker, who writes from an American perspective. Gordimer's "Country Lovers" (1975), takes a look at South African apartheid and allows the reader insight into the discrimination that was prevalent in society. Likewise, Walker's "The Welcome Table" (1970), takes a look at discrimination within American society. Gordimer and Walker's short stories analyze racial discrimination and the impacts that it has on the female protagonist in each story.

Nadine Gordimer was born in South Africa on November 20, 1923 and has lived there her entire life (Nadine Gordimer, 2005). Gordimer published her first work at 15 years old and since then, she has written numerous short story collections and novels. Although Gordimer contends that she is not…… [Read More]


Bazin, N.T. And Gordimer, N. (1995). An interview with Nadine Gordimer. Contemporary Literature. 36.1 (Winter), pp. 571-587. JSTOR. Accessed 17 June 2012.

The History of Apartheid in South Africa. (n.d.) Stanford University. Accessed 6 May 2012,

from  http://www-cs-students.stanford.edu/~cale/cs201/apartheid.hist.html 

Gordimer, N. (1975). Country Lovers. Soldier's Embrace. Chapter 3. pp. 44-50.
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Nadine Gordimer's the Moment Before

Words: 765 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39819321

Van der Vyer is repulsed by the idea of living in close proximity to blacks, as is reflected in Gordimer's physical description of his home. He is angered by the calls for freedom of blacks such as Nelson Mandela, protesting in the townships. He is also angry at himself that his accident has given anti-apartheid activists more 'ammunition' in the fight to end state-imposed segregation. He feels sad for Lucas, but it does not occur to him that Lucas may have wanted more in life than merely serving Van der Vyer. Lucas' life is a tragedy, not simply because it has ended but because it never really began, due to the fact he was denied an appropriate education and opportunities.

It is interesting that the story is entitled "The Moment Before the Gun Went Off:" surely the story is about what occurs afterwards, the reader might initially suspect. However, Gordimer's…… [Read More]

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Winnie Mandela

Words: 2699 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73090707

Winnie Mandela. The writer focuses on the Truth and econciliation hearing that she went through. Her life is presented as well as her beliefs and causes with a focus on the hearing and what it meant her followers. There were 10 sources used to complete this paper.

She is a woman who excused confidence, and she led many people to the brink of freedom as well as political activism. While she was at one time married to the great political activist Nelson Mandela, her name has become well-known because of her own fight for the causes she believes in. Winnie Mandela has spent her adult life as an activist. She knows how to stir the hearts of those who follower her as well as push the buttons of those who do not. In contrast to her ex-husband who is known for his attitude of passive resistance Winnie is far more…… [Read More]


Winnie Mandela: Fallen political heir  http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1998/10/98/truth_and_reconciliation/202516.stm   http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/2115569.stm 

Winnie Madikizela-Mandela


Tom Cohen / Associated Press, Madikizela-Mandela defends herself: But testimony angers some, raises questions about value of hearing., The Dallas Morning News, 12-05-1997, pp 1A.
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Cricket Controversy in South Africa

Words: 806 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30324671

It was often said: "Sport is a religion in South Africa…South Africa is the most sports-mad country in the world" (Anderson et al. 2004).South Africa was banned from the Olympic Games in 1964 because it would only permit whites to represent the nation, on the grounds that only whites could become citizens. FIFA (Federation of International Football Associations) suspended South Africa in 1960 and then finally expelled the national team from competition permanently in 1976. But the more rarefied sports of rugby and cricket were slower to react. These sports were often criticized by anti-apartheid activists within South Africa because unlike football, there were few examples of interracial play under apartheid, given the greater expense and the class as well as racial barriers that existed within these sports.

The end of apartheid has exhibited swift changes in South African cricket: recently, black African Makhaya Ntini recently participated in his historic…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"1970: South Africa cricket tour called off." BBC News. May 22. December 31, 2009.


Anderson, Connie M, Bielert, Troy A, & Jones, Ryan P. (2004). One country, one sport, endless knowledge: The anthropological study of sports in South

Africa. Anthropologica, 46(1), 47-55. Retrieved December 31, 2009, from Ethnic
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Gordimer's Impersonal Perspective One of the Most

Words: 1665 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55959622

Gordimer's Impersonal Perspective

One of the most fascinating aspects of Nadine Gordimer's talent as a writer is her ability to present ideas and concepts to readers without explicitly showing them. This statement is particularly true of the author's treatment of the interregnum in her novel July's People, which is a fairly insightful look at relationships between whites and blacks in apartheid South Africa. The interregnum is very much the setting in which the novel takes place; it is the source of much of the tension and mistrust that exists between its principle characters, the Smales family and their one-time servant July. Yet what Gordimer does that adds a high degree of sophistication to this book is to deal with the interregnum period -- which was imagined, at the time of the writing, since South Africa's apartheid system was still enforced when this novel was initially published in 1981 -- from…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Castro, Miguel. "July's People: South Africa's Interregnum." Scribid. No date. Web.  http://www.scribd.com/doc/4936421/Julys-People-South-Africas-Interregnum 

Erritouni, Ali. "Apartheid Inequality and Postapartheid Utopia in Nadine Gordimer's July's People." Research in African Literature. 37 (4): 68-78. 2006. Web.  http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/22882623/apartheid-inequality-postapartheid-utopia-nadine-gordimers-julys-people 

Folks, Jeffrey. "Artist in the Interregnum: Nadine Gordimer's July People." Critique. 39 (2): 115-127. 1998. Web.  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=94295153 

Gordimer, Nadine. July's People. New York: Penguin. 1981. Print.
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Multicultural Report on Peter Abraham's

Words: 1991 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55942003

The U.S.A. is known to be a host of people from varied origins like German, Scottish, Italian, Africans and so on hence the mixture of many cultures. This is the same phenomenon with South Africa as portrayed in the novel. There are the Africans, Irish, Dutch (Boers) and the English people among others (Stanford University, n.d).

The two countries also have a shared history of the segregation culture that saw one group of people given lesser preference on the major issues like governance and access to basic amenities. The societal stratification existed within the U.S.A. with the whites presumed to be superior to the rest of the Americans, and the same thing is portrayed in the novel where the whites held higher class than the rest. They were feared as they held the major offices and wealth yet the Africans there were despised, economically down and living in slums by…… [Read More]


Kwintesential, (2012). USA - Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette. Retrieved June 10, 2012 from  http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/usa.html 

Peter Abrahams, (1989). Mine Boy. Heinemann.

Prima Birungi, (2010). Mine Boy (by Peter Abrahams). Retrieved June 10, 2012 from  http://www.africabookclub.com/?p=853 

South Africa Tours and Travel, (2012). Brief history of Apartheid in South Africa. Retrieved June 10, 2012 from  http://www.south-africa-tours-and-travel.com/apartheid.html
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Minority Women in the Oil and Gas Industry

Words: 852 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45739061

Personal Introduction and Research Interests

My background is certainly not unique or even rare, at least for many South Africans. When I was born, apartheid was still the law of the land in South Africa and I was classified as "colored" (i.e., neither white nor black) and commonly referred to as "hotnots" (i.e., bastards). As a result, our family was forced to first live in a tiny apartment on the outskirts of Cape Town called Woodstock, or more commonly the "mixed slums." When Woodstock became overcrowded, our family was forcibly relocated to the desert-like Cape Flats, 25 miles further from Cape Town. Because these actions were sanctioned by the government and were therefore "legal," I simply accepted what was happening as a part of the natural course of things. Over time, however, these and other racially motivated incidents during this formative period in my life convinced me that the status…… [Read More]

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Disgrace in the Novel Disgrace

Words: 609 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67932622

Of course, Coetzee puts Soraya's disgrace into context. Her case as a Muslim woman engaging in prostitution showed that her being a native of her country did not elevate her status nor improved her everyday life. She remained a prostitute who still felt the effects of poverty. Thus, for Soraya, disgrace is but a reality reserved only for people like David, white South Africans who used to have control and power in their country.

David and Lucy, his daughter, had experienced disgrace in the most conventional manner: David was stripped of his status as a professor and member of the affluent class of society, while Lucy was sexually assaulted by the robbers who invaded their farm. Both had been disgraced, though each had different reactions to this incidence of disgrace in their lives. Surprisingly, Lucy accepted what happened to her, and in fact, did not consider what happened to her…… [Read More]

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Gender and Race in Gordimer and Smith

Words: 1473 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51201453

Gender and Race in Gordimer and Smith

In "Country Lovers" and "What It's Like to be a Black Girl (For Those of You Who Aren't)," Nadine Gordimer and Patricia Smith, respectively, demonstrate that issues of race and ethnicity are issues that are devoid of space and time. Gordimer focuses on the impact that apartheid has on Thebedi, a young, black girl, in South Africa, whereas Smith focuses on how American society has shaped her perception of herself due to a long history of racial discrimination. Both Gordimer's story and Smith's poem allow the reader to see how society shapes perceptions of others and perceptions of oneself based on race and ethnicity.

Gordimer has first-hand experience on the effects of apartheid as she grew up in South Africa and witnessed how people were discriminated against based upon the color of their skin. In South Africa, apartheid governed how society was structured…… [Read More]

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Investment in South Africa in Your Judgment

Words: 1251 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49795529

Investment in South Africa

In your judgment, were the possible utilitarian benefits of building the Caltex plant in 1977 more important than the possible violations of moral rights and of justice that may be involved? Justify your answer fully by identifying the possible benefits and the possible violations of rights and justice that you believe may be associated with the building of the plant, and explaining which you think are more important.

The possible utilitarian benefits of building the Caltex plant in 1977 were not more important than the possible -- or actual -- violations of moral rights and justice involved. The violations of moral rights and justices should have been prioritized. Looking back on the situation, of course, we have the benefit of knowing history, and the case of the South African apartheid is an exemplary case for the power of socially responsible investment movement.

In 1977, when the…… [Read More]


1. Jack Magarrell, "U.S. Adopts Stand on Apartheid: Backed on Many Campuses," The Chronicle of Higher Education, 12 March 1979.

2. See Herman Nickel, "The Case for Doing Business in South Africa," Fortune, 19 June 1968, p. 72.

3. Investor Responsibility Research Center, Analysis E-Supplment No. 9, 7 April 1977, p. E 114.

4. Texaco Proxy Statement, 1977, item 3.
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Christian Association

Words: 1543 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22215839

YMCA in South Africa

History of the YMCA in South Africa

YMCA Growth Efforts in South Africa

South African Economy

Sports in South Africa

Developing Inroads in South Africa

The YMCA in South Africa has a long history of progressive service in the country. The organization is the largest NGO and Africa and was on the forefront of combatting apartheid in South Africa. However, today the organization faces a new set of challenges; the most notable of which is a high youth unemployment rate, one of the highest in the world actually. The YMCA is in the best position to help this demographic with their history in the region as well as the infrastructure they have already built. The YMCA seeks actively seek additional funding so that they can leverage their position to positively affect youth opportunities in this region.

History of the YMCA in South Africa

George illiams founded…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cuthbert, M. (2014, September 23). One Million Voice training in Durban. Retrieved from YMCA South Africa:  http://www.saymca.org.za/content/one-million-voice-training-durban 

F, J. (2013, May 8). Why is youth unemployment so high? Retrieved from The Economist:  http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2013/05/economist-explains-why-youth-unemployment-so-high 

Kumo, W., Rielander, J., & Omilola, B. (2014, 8-24). South Africa. Retrieved from African Economic Outlook:  http://www.africaneconomicoutlook.org/en/countries/southern-africa/south-africa/ 

YMCA International. (2013, March 20). One Million Voices. Retrieved from YMCA International:  http://www.ymca.int/what-matters-now/featured-stories/?tx_newsflexible_article%5Bid%5D=140&cHash=30b3ab312b280ab7b2b877cbd883985c
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Nadine Gordimer July's People Gordimer

Words: 1069 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92699613

Maureen tries to purge herself of the old South Africa, going so far as to stand naked in the rain at night, in kind of a baptismal ritual. However, this fantasy of purity is untenable in a reality where both black and white viewpoints are tainted with old notions about sexuality and race. Maureen constantly sees July in sexual and sexualized terms. This becomes most stark when the two of them fight over who will hold the keys to the 'bakkie,' the car they drove to the village, and to wrest control over the keys Maureen brings up July's mistress. She seems partially motivated by jealousy, as well as a desire to win a power struggle in this exchange, and although July eventually hands over the keys, the victory feels hollow.

Maureen's use of a sexual threat shows that she has still evidently internalized the exotic image of black sexuality…… [Read More]

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Examining a Contemporary Feature Film

Words: 1198 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23171152

French New Wave cinema was established by film critics, who founded the Cahiers du Cinema, whom felt cinema had become too commercialized, formulaic, and unoriginal. This group of critics would come to identify two major characteristics of the New Wave movement, which included the manner in which mise-en-scene was utilized in the film and how their auteur theory could be applied to work of art created. A contemporary film that incorporates French New Wave cinema elements into its production and design is the 2009 film District 9.

Among the major elements used in French New Wave film are loose story plots; improvised dialogue; erratic character behavior; unique use of jump cuts; and the use of natural lighting, location, and direct sound recording. District 9's unique documentary style and editing allows Neill Blomkamp to successfully incorporate these elements into the film's narrative while maintaining a cohesive feel.

Additionally, District 9 is…… [Read More]

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Dry White Season by Andre Brink

Words: 1245 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72879997

Dry hite Season

In Andre Brink's novel A Dry hite Season, the background of apartheid-era South Africa sets the stage for a legal battle which challenged the racial policies of the period. During Apartheid, the governmental regime set about a system of government-sanctioned racism which forced the black people of the area to suffer greatly. The story is on the surface a murder mystery which then enters the genre of political thriller. The central character of the story is white school teacher Ben du Toit. Although he begins the story as a selfish man concerned more with preserving the status quo and with it his own protection than in investigating the brutality of an assault on an innocent young man. Through the course of the story, du Toit evolves into a man who cannot stand by while allowing the present racist government policy to continue on unquestioned. His selfishness morphs…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Brink, Andre? P. A Dry White Season. New York: Harper Perennial, 2006. Print.

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Book Mother to Mother

Words: 1118 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82974735

Mother to Mother by Sindiwe Magona. Specifically, it will critically analyze the book. The book "Mother to Mother" is a touching and elegant story of race relations and misunderstanding in South Africa. The author bases her book on a true incident, but looks at it from the eyes of a mother who loves her son but recognizes his inadequacies. It is a devastating look at apartheid, violence, and anger in a society long split between black and white. Well-written with emotion and pathos, it is a book that discovers the difficulties of reconciliation and continuing with life after the death of a loved one.

This emotional book looks at both sides of a young white woman's murder in a black township in South Africa. The book begins with the haunting line "My son killed your daughter" (Magona 1), and that line grabs the reader from the beginning, and makes them…… [Read More]


Editors. "Magona Gives Voice to a Forgotten Mother." WritersofColor.org. 2000. 16 April 2004.  http://www.writersofcolor.org/interview.html 

Gray, Rosemary. "An Electronic Interview with Sindiwe Magona." English in Africa. 1 May 2002.

Harlow, Barbara. "Book Review." Race and Class. 1 Jan. 2000.

Magona, Sindiwe. Mother to Mother. Boston: Beacon Press, 2000.
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CEOs and Presidents

Words: 1477 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84231346

CEOs and Presidents

In delineation, influence processes are those employed by a leader to inspire, sway and encourage their followers and employees. This paper makes a comparison of the leadership styles of three particular leaders who include John F. Kennedy, Oprah Winfrey, and Nelson Mandela.

Influence is a vital component of leadership and refers to the manner in which a leader affects followers and employees. This particular aspect of influence necessitates that a leader affects the lives of their followers and employees. In particular, influence processes encompasses the different manners in which leaders fashion variables such as personnel and resources. In definition, influence processes denotes and conveys the different approaches employed by leaders to provide the essential strategic leadership vital for the everyday management of their organization. Irrespective of the processes used by leaders, their decisions largely influence the direction taken of the organization in addition to affecting the motivation…… [Read More]


Allen, T. (2014). Oprah Winfrey: Authentic and Transformational Leadership Personified. Linkedin. Retrieved from:  https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20140813145049-27554839-oprah-winfrey-authentic-and-transformational-leadership-personified 

Arogundande, B. (2016). Oprah Winfrey's Amazing Biography: The Facts About Her Early Life, Ancestry & Accomplishments. Retrieved from:  http://www.arogundade.com/when-and-where-was-oprah-winfrey-born-facts-accomplishments-short-biography-of-her-early-life-and-african-ancestry.html 

Articles Base. (2011). The Concept of Influence Processes. Retrieved from:  http://www.articlesbase.com/leadership-articles/the-concept-of-influence-processes-4872906.html 

Bio. (2016). Nelson Mandela Biography. Retrieved from:  http://www.biography.com/people/nelson-mandela-9397017
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Homeward Bound and Coming of

Words: 1695 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80114858

Did she on some subconscious level realize this irony and dichotomy? She does not deal with it in her book, but on some Freudian level it is certainly possible that she did.

To recap, both of the authors Elaine Tyler May and Ann Moody see the institution of the family as something that was a mixture of limiting and liberating influences both for men and women during the 1940s, 1950s, and early 1960s, but much less so in the case of Moody's book for blacks. Even the experience of the Civil Rights movement was bittersweet. These limitations were a mixture of good and bad, depending on a person's perspective. As the May book points out, the families that were established by marriages in the 1940s were especially stable.

Moody's family experience was also essentially stable. Religion gave her some succor, but essentially the issues that plagued her due to racial…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

May, Elaine Tyler. (1990). Homeward bound: american families in the cold war era. New York City: Basic Books.

Moody, Anne. (1992). Coming of age in Mississippi. New York City: Dell.
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Countries That Hold Elections South Africa

Words: 988 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59185242

South Africa: Electoral and Institutional Arrangements, Party Competition, and Checks and Balances in Government

South Africa's government is a constitutional democracy based upon a system of proportional representation. In other words, its national legislature is a parliament, with two houses, the National Assembly and the National Council of Provinces (NCOP). The parliament called the National Assembly awards seats to each political party based upon that party's proportionate support in the national election. Elections for the National Assembly are held every five years. The second general democratic post-apartheid election in 1999 in yielded a majority for the African National Congress (ANC) Party, the party famously lead by the imprisoned Nelson Mandela during the years of apartheid that disenfranchised most of South Africa's majority black population ("Government in South Africa," SouthAfricainfo, 2008).

In addition to the ANC, South Africa has sixteen registered political parties under the Independent Electoral Commission, spanning a variety…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Government in South Africa." Southafrica.info. 24 Mar 2008. http://www.southafrica.info/ess_info/sa_glance/government/gov.htm

South Africa's Political Parties." Southafrica.info. 24 Mar 2008. http://www.southafrica.info/ess_info/sa_glance/constitution/polparties.htm
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Integrated Corporate Communication and Corporate

Words: 16981 Length: 52 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1510916

Corporate communications involves not just the message, but the idea that communications are managed, and are connected to corporate objectives (Cornelissen, 2004). Therefore, when communication possibilities were limited, corporate options were limited, and one did not see communications management perspectives that advocated the type of intimate connection between communications and corporate strategy that one sees in a modern context (Cornelissen, 2004). What this makes clear is that CC is not simply, or even primarily, about communications; it is an overall corporate strategy that helps define how a corporation interacts with the world.

The emphasis on communication is very different from how corporations were traditionally, historically structured. Traditionally, strategic planning occurred at the top of the corporate structure, management was considered a mid-level activity, and operational control was the function of first-level management, and this corporate strategy was used in most workplaces (Oliver, 1997). However, as institutional hierarchies were challenged and…… [Read More]


Argenti, P 2007, The power of corporate communication. Available from:

. [17 July 2011].

Argenti, P 2006, The power of integration: building a corporate communication function that is greater than the sum of its parts. Available from: . [13 July 2011].

Argenti, P & Forman, J 2002, The power of corporate communication: crafting the voice and image of your business. McGraw-Hill, New York.
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Democratic Procedures an Aid or

Words: 2118 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85112739

The Democrats took over Congress in the 2006 mid-term elections, and while the party wished to have the administration adopt a policy to either "get out now" of Iraq, or "stabilize, then withdraw."

Those suggestions were met with patriotic, even nationalistic opposition from Bush and his very vocal vice president, Dick Cheney (Hartung, 44-45). "However reasonable the merits" were of Congress cutting off funding for the war in Iraq, Hartung continues, Cheney and others supporting the administration held a hammer over their heads in the form of jingoistic phrases like, if you vote to cut off funds you are "voting against the troops" (Hartung, 44). Leaving American troops hanging out there in Iraq would be unthinkable, it was argued from the Bush point-of-view.

Meanwhile, author Lewis B. Smith points out that arguing against the Bush invasion of Iraq was pointless for Congress, due to the sense of patriotism in the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bennet, Douglas J. (1978). Congress in Foreign Policy: Who Needs It? Foreign Affairs, 57(1),


Delaney, Kate. (2006). What's New? Don't Forget Capitol Hill. The Journal of American

History, 93(2), 437-440.
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Buchanan Op-Ed an Analysis of

Words: 3082 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99291916

Zionism is even being identified with Christianity, with evangelicals uniting themselves to Israeli interests. Need we remind ourselves that Zionism is a politico-religious belief that is diametrically opposed to Christian values? The post-war propaganda that followed II even helped obliterate the notion of Jesus Christ as Holocaust and replace it with the Shoah, the Jewish holocaust. At the heart of Zionism is the eradication of Christian culture and the elevation of Zionist policies like the one currently being enacted on the Gaza Strip. Israel is an apartheid state and has been murdering Palestinians for years -- and now it has convinced millions of Christians and evangelicals that they must destroy the Arab before he destroys them. hat kind of value is this? It is a diabolical one.

Refusing to embrace diplomacy also undermines our prosperity. Rather than attacking and occupying countries in the Middle East, we should be working with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anders, Chris. "Senators Demand the Military Lock Up of American Citizens." ACLU.

23 Nov 2011. Web. 13 Feb 2012.

Buchanan, Patrick. "Why Are We Baiting the Bear?" 23 Aug 2011.

Corbett, James. "9/11: A Conspiracy Theory." Corbett Report. 11 Sep 2011. Web. 13
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Conference Berlin Consequences B the History of

Words: 1492 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1152404

Conference Berlin consequences b)

The History of Contemporary frica

Ever since parts of its region became colonized by Europeans (which began happening fairly regularly since the early part of the nno Domini timeline), frica has suffered an abundance of problems relating to its political, social, and economic spheres of existence. fter its introduction to what is best termed a fledgling globalization through colonization in several of its countries by a number of European nations, frica has understandably endured a number of issues relating to its primary systems of government, economics, and socialization. lthough events related to the conclusion of World War II were largely responsible for decolonization in this part of the world, many nation states on the continent would struggle for several years -- and are still struggling -- to overcome the effects of colonization and the inherent instability it provided to many of the key infrastructures within today's…… [Read More]

A large degree of political turmoil took place in Uganda following its liberation from colonization midway through the 20th century. A number of political factions vied for power in the ensuing years; many of these were associated with religious groups set up by the European colonialists, such as Catholic and Protestant supporters. Economically, the country had a strong Indian population that was in control of much of the commerce nad industry there, which is why dictator Idi Amin expelled them in the early 1970's. Deforestation issues have affected Uganda quite significantly. Urbanization and expanding farmlands are responsible for much of Uganda's deforestation problem, while like most regions in Africa, the population housed within this country has seen an explosion in the number of victims of AIDS and HIV. Civil wars and internal fighting, however, would regularly plague Uganda into the new millennium. In more recent times, efforts have been made to reduce barriers to women owning property and being an economic influence within this country. The traditional gender equality within Uganda has certainly circumscribed its growth.

One of the most insidious instances of neo-colonization in Africa, however, was evinced in South Africa. The system of apartheid, which was essentially a legalized subjugation of people of African descent that highly favored Europeans and those of European descent, was responsible for political instability for several years as black South Africans strove to overturn such a repressive regime. Apartheid was eventually overturned in 1994 with the presidency of Nelson Mandela, but economically, unemployment was largely rampant in the country as it struggled to transition to true independence. Other contemporary issues plaguing this country are a nationwide rapid deforestation process, as well as rampant AIDS infection (South Africa may have the most people with AIDS in the world today). Women have played a significant role in the true liberation of this country from first its colonial history and then its repressive reign of Apartheid, as is evinced within the perseverance and political inclinations of Winnie Mandela.

There were several things about Africa that I learned while taking this course. One was that there was a highly planned, systematic implementation of repression that is responsible for keeping Africa socially, economically, and politically years behind many other parts of the world. This repression truly took hold during colonialism, but the bouts of neocolonialism that many countries endured even after formal colonialism was dispelled certainly contributed to this cause. I was also unaware of the contemporary problems that Africa has regarding issues of deforestation. I had no idea that the cutting down of trees and the reduction of forests could take hold of this area as quickly as it had, and continue to affect the environments there today.
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Criminal Justice Systemic Malignity Racial

Words: 2221 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3292173

aker reviewed three landmark Supreme Court decisions on capital punishment and concluded that the death penalty is capriciously imposed on lack defendants and thus serves the extra-legal function of preserving majority group interests. He viewed discrimination in capital sentencing as deliberate and identified the primary reasons why lack defendants with white victims have been denied fairness in capital sentencing. These are prosecutorial discretion in the selective prosecution of capital cases, prosecutorial misuse of peremptory challenges to systematically exclude lacks from juries, judicial overrides by trial judges, prosecutorial misconduct and the ineffective assistance by defense counsel (Emmelman).

Helen Taylor Greene used a colonial model to explore the effectiveness and limitations placed on the police in the past and in the present (Emmelman, 2005). This colonial model showed that the police, regardless of color, were an oppressive force in many communities. Lately, lack political empowerment and ascendancy in many law enforcement departments…… [Read More]


American Law Library (2009). Racial profiling: should police practice racial profiling?

Vol.8, American Encyclopedia: Net Industries. Retrieved on March 29, 2013

from  http://law.jrank.org/pages/9628/Racial-Profiling.html 

Banks, C (2004), Racial Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System. Chapter 3. Sage
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Pursuit of Equality

Words: 3839 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71232137

Obstacle omen Face in Pursuit of Equality

hen it comes to overcoming obstacles, two essays, "Ain't I a oman" and "atching Oprah infrey" from Behind the Veil," clearly show that women are encountering hindrances in chase of impartiality all over the world. However, although both essays touch on the same type of injustice which is gender inequality, they each have different themes. For instance, one delves into a country where the sexes are thoroughly kept apart from each other, where topics like sex and race are just about banned for even discussing them openly and where a severe enigma of public morality is imposed by police that are religious. However, the other touches on a period that goes back over a hundred of years where women of color were treated as cattle. Basically bought and sold by a society ran by men. Although these essays are worlds apart, they are…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cooley, Thomas. The Norton Sampler. New York: Eighth Edition, 2013.

Jacoby, Jeff. Jeff Jacoby: Watching Oprah from behind the veil. 2 March 2013.  http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/24/opinion/24iht-edjacoby.1.16446161.html?_r=0 . 3 May 2014.
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Effecting Meaningful Change in the Global South

Words: 1920 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80342862

Future of Global Neoliberalism

One of the harsh realities of life in the 21st century is that the vast majority of the world's population continues to struggle to survive in the face of dwindling arable land and governmental policies that serve to constrain rather than promote economic development. To determine the facts, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to explain why some theorists have maintained that the state continues to be a central agent that facilitates the advancement of global neoliberalism. A discussion concerning the rationale in support of this position, including an analysis of the possibilities and barriers that neoliberalism creates for genuine long-term sustainable human development; the objectives, strategies, and achievements of social movements as well as the barriers they face; and state-led models of development that run counter to the neoliberal agenda. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings…… [Read More]


Abahlal. (2009, August 7). Winning our land back -- the Landless People's

Movement wins a major court victory. Abahlali baseMjondolo. Retrieved from  http://abahlali.org/node/5622/ .

Butt, S. (2013, June 26). Incredible India: Home to modern slavery. The Real

News. Retrieved from  http://therealnews.com/t2/index.php?option=com_
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Investment in South Africa and

Words: 1725 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63289572

Since they had so much invested in South Africa, they were in a position of power, and they could have used that power much more effectively. They might even have been able to bring change about sooner than it occurred. While they did not take their responsibility seriously, companies do have a moral and ethical responsibility to themselves, their communities, and their shareholders. The companies that do not recognize this should not gain support or business from their consumers. It is up to the shareholders to hold the companies responsible for their ethical behavior and to how they manage their investments. The company has a responsibility to make money and to stay healthy, but not at the expense of morals or ethics. It does not have to be difficult to act morally and responsibly. It can become a part of the everyday actions of the business, and it should be…… [Read More]


Author not Available. Case study: Investment in South Africa.

Velasquez, M.G. (2006). Chapter two. Ethical principles in business. Business ethics: Concepts & cases, Sixth Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Velasquez, M.G. (2006). Chapter three. The market and business. Business ethics: Concepts & cases, Sixth Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
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Managing International Conflict Diversity in

Words: 1757 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79564218

' The researchers did include one anecdote of a South African woman of Indian ancestry, and how she dealt with the unconscious racism of her colleagues, drawing upon a positive sense of community solidarity and avoiding some of the negative emotions such conflicts spawned in others. But other than her comment that professionalism and a strong sense of family identity was helpful in emotionally coping with racism, her remarks were not specifically insightful about working in a global, international organization in a formerly segregated area of the world.


The conclusions of the article regarding what organizational forces positively impact and do not impact identity seem fairly vague and generalized, despite the advantage that a case study format can have in terms of studying a highly specific context. Communication is suggested as the key to broaching identity conflicts, as well as having formal sensitivity training and grievance procedures. Although these…… [Read More]


Mayer, Claude H. (2009). Managing conflicts through strength of identity. Management Revue.

Retrieved through FindArticles.com on January 21, 2011.  http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5454/is_200907/ai_n42039398/
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Alumni in Institutional Advancement at

Words: 3503 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17022965

..stand out in the material consulted regarding the critical closing years of the twentieth century. First, the external audiences of African universities, including UNESCO, had a sympathetic understanding of the problems that assailed them, a number of which could be said to be world-wide. One could look forward to a future that produced concrete propositions for recovering from the crisis that was being experienced. Secondly, a pattern of three generations of scholars was emerging. It comprised:

1) postgraduate students of outstanding caliber and suitable for training as future university teachers;

2) their incumbent professors, and 3) an older generation of alumni and scholars - emeritus professors and seasoned retired university teachers and writers like JF Ade Ajayi, Lamech KH Goma and G. Ampah Johnson, whose wealth of experience gave us, three years after Alexandria 1993, an unrivalled summary of the fortunes of the African University in their book, the African…… [Read More]


Mokubung, O. Knomo, Swatz, Derrick, and Maja, Botshabelo (2006) Within the Realm of Possibility: From Disadvantage to Development at the University of Fort Hare and the University of the North. HSRC Press 2006.

Tettey, Wisdom J. (2006) Staff Retention in African Universities: Elements of a Sustainable Strategy Commissioned by the World Bank January 2006

Bartels, Francis R. (2003) the African university at the threshold of the new millennium:

potential, process, performance and prospects Meeting of Higher Education Partners Paris, 23-25 June 2003 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Paris, 2003
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Human Rights in Australia Bearing

Words: 2582 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93570425

Another aspect which is important to be taken into account in respect to human rights issues is the right to seek asylum. The 1951 UN Convention for Refugees states that asylum seekers should be helped by the country where they seek assistance in order to prevent the return of the people in a situation which would put their lives or their integrity in danger. However, for the Australian government such a provision is less important than the actual attempt to cut down on immigration and reduce the possibility of people entering legally or illegally in the country. In this sense, there is a famous case which points out precisely this attitude of the Australian government which pointed out the fact that indeed, there is no particular desire for the Australian officials to go beyond their national interest and work for the global one. Thus, in 2001 Australia refused to give…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Amnesty International, 'Australia: Too many open questions: Stephen Wardle's death in police custody'. Library: Asia Pacific. (1996). http://asiapacific.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGASA120131996?open&of=ENG-AUSat 19 May 2008.

Australia accused of violating UN convention. RTE news (2001)  http://www.rte.ie/news/2001/0829/australia.html 

Australian Government, Human Rights. Attorney General's Department. (2008)  http://www.ag.gov.au/www/agd/agd.nsf/Page/Humanrightsandanti-discrimination_Humanrightsat  19 May 2008.

Human Rights Watch, 'Australia: Anti-Terrorism Proposal Threatens Civil Liberties'. Human Rights Watch (2006)  http://hrw.org/english/docs/2005/10/13/austra11863.htm . At 19 May 2008.