Apartheid remains one of the twentieth century's biggest blunders concerning human welfare and simple decency. Apartheid is the result of two different schools of thought that existed primarily upon the oppression of others. The Afrikaner government was no better at human rights than the ides lost in colonialism. Any attempt to restrain individuals is wrong but to attempt to do in a country to the very people that live there is something altogether horrible. Apartheid was never meant to improve the country or create a society that flourished. It was based upon the ideas of racism and repressing certain individuals because of their race. It is important to note that this kind of thinking was not simply thrust upon the blacks in South Africa - it was thrust upon all who were not white. The idea that holding people down will result in prosperity seems absurd and the results of…… [Read More]
The End of Apartheid in South Africa. New York: Greenwood Press, 1999.
As the titles suggests, this excellent work by Lindsay M. Eades, one of the most prominent South African historians writing today, explores the long and often violent history of apartheid in South Africa and offers a number of explanations as to why it collapsed in the early 1990's. Most of this book is composed of various essays that examine five major issues -- first, the divisions within South African society that led to the historic apartheid legislation initiated in 1948; second, how each social group was defined and separated by apartheid -- whites, coloreds,
Indians and Africans; third, how this separation put increasing pressure on the system that gave rise to organized domestic resistance that eventually led to the collapse of apartheid; fourth, the economic sanctions imposed by other nations on South Africa in retaliation for apartheid, and…… [Read More]
'" (ANC, 1)
The statement goes further to make a crucial point with respect to our discussion. Namely, it confirms the philosophical relevance of using the sporting world as a way to gain international attention and reinforces the rationale that this approach to change would help to illuminate the broader racial struggles in South Africa. Quite indeed, the United Nations would take up the logic that any endorsement of the validity of all-white South African teams would amount to a tacit endorsement of a racially oppressive governmental regime. It is thus that through the avenue of international sporting association, the world community would denounce not just its segregation in its domestic and international sporting representation, but would go on to explicitly denounce the Apartheid and that which it stood for.
In the resolution, the larger part of the 1970s and 1980s would be devoted to an internal anti-Apartheid movement strengthened…… [Read More]
hough quantitative in its coverage and discussion, the article was helpful in generating the finding that BEE transactions are considered vital for a business or company to enter and succeed in the South African market, while at the same time reinforcing once again the "black" identity of the country -- a reinstatement of black African culture and society in the post-apartheid South Africa. In effect, the article touches an important international dimension to apartheid -- how, in the 21st century, South Africa has evolved and returned to its original identity as a 'black man's society, politically and economically.
Elder, G. (2003). "Malevolent raditions: Hostel violence and the procreational geography of Apartheid." Journal of Southern African Studies, Volume 29, Number 4.
his article centers on the issue of violence that are still occurring as South Africa approaches a transition between apartheid and post-apartheid practices. he "economical geography of apartheid" that the…… [Read More]
The very structure of Apartheid was corrosive and thus led to the demise of the South African economy.
hat is Apartheid?
Dutch and English Settlement. (Kahn)
Governmental Policies on Segregation ("Apartheid")
The structure of Apartheid
hat affects did apartheid have on South Africa's economy?
Denial of Healthcare
Current and Future Economic Indicators
The apartheid in South Africa has been at the forefront of global issues for decades. The purpose of this discussion is to define the system of apartheid. e will review the history, structure and key players of the South African system of apartheid.
e will then explore the affects of apartheid on South Africa's economy. Our research will confirm that; the very structure of Apartheid was corrosive and thus led to the demise of the South African economy.
hat is Apartheid
In the Afrikaans language the word apartheid actually means "apartness."…… [Read More]
What it did was provide voting rights as stated in the constitution but removed any clout the Black vote carried.
In addition to the law being passed that prohibited mixed marriage the government took it a step further to prevent the Blacks mixing their offspring with White blood to try and protect their children from oppression.
The government passed a law making it illegal for two people of mixed race to have sexual relations.
The laws were also changed to provide separate and different government structures for different races.
Blacks responded to Apartheid in many ways. One of the common practices that they took part in was to set up shack villages and squat in and around the White areas where they could get work and support their families while still living with them.
It was not long however, before the government took care of that as well when it…… [Read More]
In addition, nonwhites could not bring their families with them to the living places near work sights, which encouraged a system of temporary labor. These legal restrictions on non-white increased until the system known as apartheid, which almost completely separated whites from non-whites and barred non-whites from any meaningful participation in any sector of society, became the norm for South Africa.
Under the Bantu Authorities Act of 1951, the South African government reestablished tribal organizations for black Africans and established Bantustans or homelands for Africans; while they were ostensibly free, they were politically and economically dependent upon South Africa and could best be described as ghettos. Furthermore, the government established a state of emergency, so that all protest, even non-violent protest, was dealt with harshly and swiftly. Many South Africans, both black and white, began to call for the end of apartheid in the 1970s. Nelson Mandela, who would eventually…… [Read More]
SAMiller (South African reweries) post-Apartheid expansion and financial performance
SA Miller is by far the largest brewery in South Africa and one of the largest brewers in the world. Its presence is felt within 4 continents, with leading market shares in many of the countries it operates in. It is one of the largest bottlers of Coca-Cola outside the U.S.A. AS of 1999, SA Miller has been listed on the London Stock Exchange, a testimony of its economic strength.
1990 saw, besides a new era of racial harmony, with the abolition of Apartheid, a new era from SA Miller. A massive brewery investment programme was started at Alrode, Prospecton and Newlands. For the first time, domestic beer volumes exceeded 20 million hectoliters per year.
In 1992, SA investments suffered a new push forward with the acquisition of control at Plate Glass Group, a leading manufacturer and distributor of glass…… [Read More]
1948, apartheid, a social philosophy that enforced social, economic, and racial segregation was introduced in South Africa. While millions saw apartheid as an injustice to blacks in South Africa, those who supported apartheid asserted that is was vital in building a stable nation because it prevented homelands from collapsing. This was what prompted one Dr. A. L Geyer, a supporter of apartheid, to give a speech before the Rotary Club of London on 19th August 1953. His speech, 'The Case for Apartheid', explains why apartheid was an appropriate policy for all the races in South Africa and expresses frustration about issues that are continually ignored in the apartheid debate. According to Geyer, lack Africans were continually being portrayed as victims, yet the whites were responsible for majority of the progress and development in most parts of the country[footnoteRef:1]. He, therefore, presents his opinion on why apartheid was the key to…… [Read More]
F.W. de Kerk: The Struggle for a alance of Power in South Africa
F.W. de Klerk's transformation of South Africa's National Party was instrumental in freeing South Africa from the grip of apartheid.
The self-described centralist had to undertake a very difficult balancing act between striving for consensus among the National Party's (NP) right wingers and the African National Congress's (ANC) freedom fighters.
Yet he was less successful in the equally difficult task of establishing his minority rule party as a strong and credible opposition party in a post-apartheid world.
The attempt to reconcile the competing interests of these two stalwarts of South African parties resulted in a compromise party.
It was de Klerk who played the largest role in forming the new Government of National Unity, within which he served as deputy president under President Nelson Mandela, the ANC leader he liberated from prison to be elected South Africa's…… [Read More]
Their educational system was superior, as was their economic foundation, and their statuses were those of the privileged (Falola, 202).
There can be no question that apartheid came into being due to centuries of oppression of the non-white cultures in South Africa by the Dutch and British inhabitants and settlers. The wars and conflicts between races and political factions decimated the landscape, and resulted in thousands of lost lives on both sides of the racial line. hile the system of apartheid certainly destroyed the lives of nearly all black citizens of South Africa, it had an equally detrimental effect on the countless number of white opponents who dared to speak out against the oppression, and of those white citizens whose economic status was already low. In all cases, and for all citizens of South Africa, the time of apartheid was a time of conflict, loss, and struggle.
Eades,…… [Read More]
" Additionally in chapter four the authors explained that the federal government actually developed maps that influenced the dispersement of federal loans. In addition these maps influenced who would receive private loans. Basically the authors explain that this type of deeply rooted discrimination had an extremely negative impact on Black neighborhoods that needed federal dollars for improvement. In addition this discrimination kept qualified blacks from having the ability to get mortgages so that they could become home owners. Home ownership is an essential part of being able to build wealth.
In the fifth chapter of the book the authors focus on the creation of the underclass. The authors explain that the development of the underclass took many years to develop. This underclass was developed as a direct result of segregation and all of the racist attitudes and idioms that occurred as a result of segregation. The underclass is often composed…… [Read More]
Apartheid certainly represents some of the darkest times in the history of South Africa as well as the larger world. In the several decades it existed, a white minority exploited and oppressed a black majority in a violent and suppressive manner. Indeed, the very word "apartheid" means separation and being "apart." The brutality in question lasted from just after World War II in 1948 and eventually (and finally) ended in 1994. While the scars are still healing in South Africa and many social/racial problems still exist, a full generation has passed since Apartheid fell.
Apartheid was the brainchild and creation of the National Party and the Broederbond organization but was actually a continuation of what was started by the Dutch when they controlled the area. There was a significant amount of blowback and strife that followed as the black populace oppressed by Apartheid rejected and roiled…… [Read More]
The theme of gende and sexuality is elated to social powe. In Repoducing Empie: Race, Sex, Science, and U.S. Impeialism in Pueto Rico, Biggs shows how ace, class, gende, and powe ae inteelated and inteconnected. Pueto Rican cultue has been sexualized, and the sexualization of Pueto Rico has been lagely o exclusively the pojection of white Anglo-Saxon Potestant values placed upon a dake-skinned, Catholic populace. The esult has been the conceptualization of an exotic otheness, coupled with a simultaneous fea. Pueto Ricans have been citicized as developing a cultue of povety in the United States, and Pueto Rican families ae blamed.
Regading the theme of gende and sexuality and how it is elated to citizenship and immigation, Biggs shows that white Ameicans have pojected the cultue of povety on Pueto Rico by blaming Pueto Ricans, athe than acknowledging the sociological oots of the poblem that can be taced to…… [Read More]
This was largely because the resistance was split along racial lines. For instance, the Afrikaans National Council wanted freedom from foreign oppression without taking into consideration the needs and demands of the Colored. Similarly, the Non-European Liberation League, another group that opposed the current practices, were the proponents of the issues of immediate concern to Colored but African people. This lack of unity proved decisive, taking into consideration the immediate rise to power of the Nationalistic Party in 1948 and the subsequent inability to immediately react to the measures that would be taken in the following years.
The South African society, following the war was left without a well-defined national identity because of the continuous struggle to face the conquering forces of the Dutch and the ritish. Consequently, the rise to power of a nationalistic party can be seen as predictable, taking into consideration the general trend existing in the…… [Read More]
They are words that last forever, and when we face challenges where racial inequities and inhumane horrors cause to pause in stunned silence, often times these words of inspiration come to us and move us take action for social justice. Harrell explains Mandela's gift in this regard saying:
"Mandela exhibited the characteristics that made jeremiad in South Africa social protest feasible: he combined lament and call to consciousness in sustaining South Africa's democratic mission. His ultimate success depended upon his rational appeal to those who saw his course of action would be the most sensible choice (7 of 15)."
Indeed, with words so carefully crafted as to emphasize the essences of democracy, Mandela ensured the support of those in South Africa who had long been deprived democracy. He also appealed to those who understood that the only way to bring about a world peace, was to pursue democratic principles, ensuring…… [Read More]
Black people have to work as hired household help or as farm labor while white people own the economic resources of production. Gordimer's mother had a black maid and it is likely that this made her sensitive to the inequality between the two communities (Gordimer et al. 1990).
On the other hand, What it's Like to be a Black Girl explores the psychological pressure and turmoil that a young black girl living in an urban society has to go through. Her identity is shaped by her consciousness of her physical appearance and how different it is from the white-skinned acceptable norm of society. She also has to deal with her developing sexuality and the responses that elicits from people in her community. The poem shows how the young black girl has to accept her fate as a passive sexual being to satisfy the needs of the male.
Compared with Thebedi,…… [Read More]
Gordimer's Country Lovers
Issues of race and gender have been considered to be popular subjects in literature and allow individuals to express how these issues have affected them and how they have affected society. "Country Lovers" (1975), by Nadine Gordimer, allows the reader to understand how issues of race and gender are universal. Gordimer also uses "Country Lovers" as a platform to show how these issues impacted her personally and the lasting effect that they have on people living in South Africa, where she was born and raised. "Country Lovers" (1975) analyzes how racial discrimination and gender influence how the story's female protagonist, Thebedi, is treated.
Despite the fact that Gordimer herself is not involved in politics, "her writings document, decade by decade, the impact of politics on personal lives and what an increasingly radical white South African woman felt, thought, and imaged during the rise and fall of apartheid"…… [Read More]
PESIDENT EAGAN'S HUMAN IGHTS ECOD
Was onald eagan a Good President?
President eagan's International Human ights ecord
President eagan's International Human ights ecord
The Cold War and Apartheid
On September 26, 1986, President onald eagan (1986) sent a message to the House of epresentatives that he would not sign into law H.. 4868 because it imposed punitive economic sanctions against South Africa as a whole. His stated rationale was that the people most affected by the sanctions would be the Black workers, not the ruling White elite. eagan agreed that apartheid needed to end, but not at the expense of those already suffering the most under White rule. On the surface this logic seems admirable, even honorable, but others have questioned eagan's motives. Although eagan did not use the exact phrase "constructive engagement," this term would come to represent his policy stance towards apartheid. eagan's message to the House followed…… [Read More]
Postcolonial Ed Lit
Education, Death, and Postcolonial Literature
The peculiarities of the postcolonial struggle for identity and independence are entirely unique to the historical occupation and colonization that ended, at least ostensibly, in the middle of the twentieth century. Peoples that had full histories and rich cultures prior to the arrival of Europeans or European-descended individuals from the New World found themselves largely without the foundations of these cultures to support themselves once these Europeans had departed, yet also unable to achieve the promises of the Western cultures that had arrived on their shores. Former value systems and ways of life had been eradicated, and nothing substantial was put into place to subsidize what was lost. Instead, the indigenous peoples of the world had to find methods of combining the old and the new in attempts to carve out new identities and self-directed histories in a way that had never…… [Read More]
In a time of modernization preceding the current-day Islamic revolution, he is looked on as a dangerous stranger, an outsider, in the country of his origin. During the story, his interactions with everything from the architecture of the Ottoman Empire, to a former/current love interest, to police spies, to a local newspaper publisher become pregnant with meaning as he searches about for meaning in an otherwise mundane existence. Though, as an exile, his heart should be with the Muslim reactionaries -- particularly since he is being shadowed by the secularist regime -- in the end he feels rootless and dissatisfied with both the changes going on around him and the promise of a return to things as they used to be. His love for his former mistress drives him to write poetry and to perform a poem entitle "Snow" at a local theatre, and it is during this event that…… [Read More]
The demonstration in Tiananmen Square showed that there were alrge semgnets of the population that wanted change, but Deng's response was to crush the movement with violence and to assert the supremacy ofm centalzied rule once more..
These actions show some of the difficulties of independence and of developing a new political structure when many adhere to older political structures and ideas. One response is to try to wipe out the old with violence, but regimes tend to become reactionary about their own ideas as well and to crush any opposition, real of perceived.
9. Arab unity has not materialized for a number of historical reasons related to the different ways in which the countries of the region have developed so that the leaders of some of the states are wary of other leaders, because of differences in economic structures in the various countries, and because of different reactions to…… [Read More]
Holly Sklar writes, "the gulf between the rich and the rest of America will continue to widen, weakening our economy and our democracy. The American Dream will be history instead of poverty."
With the advent of more billions into the ranks of the Fortune 400, so it is; instead of witnessing the booming middle class that marked the Scientific and Industrial evolutions, America is undergoing a transformation that more clearly limns the demarcation between classes than ever before.
With economic segregation an ever more encroaching reality, the distinctions between race, age, and gender come increased under review as Americans are forced to examine the origins of social class, its solidification in early childhood, and its place in the national life.
In academic circles, social class describes the relationships between individual agents and groups as they struggle through social hierarchies. Weber famously defined the social stratification as a three-component theory frequently…… [Read More]
Sabmiller Case Study
SABMiller Breweries Company Case Study
SABMiller Breweries Company
SABMiller Breweries Company
SABMiller breweries Company has grown since it begun over the years adopting different business strategies for its survival in the market. Surrounding environmental factors have affected its growth, and strategies that are put to counter different environmental situations. SABMiller is a South African company with its base in Johannesburg. It grew to being the second largest brewer company in the world.
During the twentieth century, SABMiller's operation faced difficulties due to the apartheid regime. South Africa faced economic sanctions due to the apartheid regime which restricted them from doing business with, external international, markets. SAB moved their capital from London to their homeland Johannesburg to enable them operate with the sanctions. SAB prioritized Domesticconsumption to keep the breweries running. SAB concentrated most of its activities in southern parts of Africa hence expanding its market.…… [Read More]
Essentially, those in the lower tiers of the urban
socioeconomic hierarchy, rather than having been drawn out of despair, have
been thrust to the periphery of America's 'revitalizing' cities.
One of the most important points raised by the course reading
material would be that underscoring a clear proclivity toward urban design
and planning in those who would first colonize the new lands. Though
massive and ripe with natural resources and incredible frontiers, the new
land was also flowing with inherently profitable waterways, brimming with
commercial trade prospects and inhabited by a native population which,
though Chudacoff reports it to have been significantly underestimated as an
city-dwelling peoples as well, would appear ripe for exploitation. More
importantly though to this discussion would be the text's consideration of
the inherency of the European urban culture to America's development.
Indeed, according to Chudacoff's (2005) account, "the Europeans who
colonized North America…… [Read More]
One of the best examples of the mentality behind the development of the pedagogy of the oppressed, with regard to education is the evolution of the official restriction of curriculum to that which the African would need to survive in the economy of labor.
A the solutions to the "poor Whites" problem, as was indicated in the Carnegie Commission of Inquiry into Poor Whites in South Africa in 1932, were not bearing the expected fruits of "innate superiority." Thus, Verwoerd emphasized that the African "school must equip him [the African] to meet the demands which the economic life of South Africa will impose on him" (Mbere 1979, 106).The relationship between production and what is learned in schools reproduces unskilled and semiskilled labor power that allows domination and exploitation to occur. According to the CNE policy, Whites were perpetual parents who had to guide their "children," the Africans. This relationship of…… [Read More]
Of course, a separation of the races meant really the preservation of white superiority at the expense of those formerly enslaved. The law mandated distinct facilities for hites and Blacks. Everything from schools, to transportation, movie theaters, hotels, and even public restrooms were carefully segregated. Few Black only facilities approached white ones in quality or amount of money expended on their upkeep. Black public schools were notoriously inferior as were hospitals and other essential services. As arguments about the disparities became more apparent toward the mid-Twentieth Century, the South sought to defend its segregationist policies by - in the case of medical schools - expanding and consolidating its physician training facilities so as to avoid providing more facilities for Blacks. A plan was actually floated, not to increase Black enrollment at the South's twenty-six medical colleges, but rather to consolidate all training of Black medical personnel at a single facility.…… [Read More]
After being detained in prison for 27 years, Nelson Mandela walked out of Prison to lead South Africans in their quest to break free from Apartheid rule. He became the first Black president of the Republic of South Africa and led a robust reconciliation effort that helped Blacks and Whites in South Africa forgive one another and find common ground to work on to help build South Africa. For these efforts, Nelson Mandela won the Nobel Peace Prize. Nelson Mandela was born in 1918 in Transkei and went on to be a student of law at Fort Hare University. As the African National Congress (ANC) started gaining momentum in the early 1940s, he joined the movement to help resist the racist policies of the then ruling White government. The racist government policies would later be codified into Apartheid which proved to be a brutal and highly racist rule.…… [Read More]
Having been prosecuted in Europe, they were inclined to severe all ties with the continent and considered Africa their homeland. Since most other immigrants in Cape were also Calvinists -- members of the Dutch Reformed Church, the French Haguenots were readily accepted as part of a common community and were soon integrated into settler society by intermarriage. Their emphasis on a 'pure' form of Calvinism and self-sufficiency, however, influenced the development of the Afrikaner culture and way of life.
The Afrikaans Language
Afrikaans is the language of the white South Africans that was largely derived from the 17th century Dutch language. It is estimated that about seven million people in South Africa and Namibia speak some form of Afrikaans, although 'standard' Afrikaans is spoken mainly by the whites. Until the end of the "apartheid" in 1994, Afrikaans was the official language of government and education. It is now one of…… [Read More]
This entertainment is the ceremonial or festive taking of alcoholic drinks at events called "beer parties." Researchers noted the significance of the festive element of work among the laborers but showed beer as an essential aspect of work. The rule in these beer work parties are adjusted to the particular workers involved. It invokes the overall value and morality of helpfulness and reciprocity, which are part of beer-drinking events. It is an expression of a general interdependence between homesteads. Ordinary beer parties emphasize the general principle of mutual helpfulness and mutual relationships in homesteads. ut beer parties for harvest give thanks to ancestors for the homestead's harvest. These parties give recognition to those who plow the homestead's garden (McAllister).
A recent analyzed the relation between cooperative work and beer drinking. It found that beer drinks served as a contact point of everyday activity and ideas in the Xhosa society in…… [Read More]
..This perspective is from the U.S.A.; in Europe, violence in school and the concern about violence may not be at similar levels, but it is undoubtedly a topic of major concern (Smith, 2003, p. 1).
This article also makes the important point that school is intended as a developmental and educational environment and that violence in its various forms negatively effects and detracts from the goals of education.
Another general work that adds to the underlying body of knowledge on this topic is Stealing the Show? Crime and Its Impact in Post-Apartheid South Africa by Mark Shaw and Peter Gastrow (2001). Among others, this study makes a cogent assessment of the way that crime and violence is measured and reported in South Africa.
Most researchers assume that official crime statistics -- that is, those collected and released by the South African Police Service -- provide a poor indication of levels…… [Read More]
Gordimer and Walker
ace and gender have been shown to be major social issues throughout the world as demonstrated through short stories written by Nadine Gordimer, who writes from a South African perspective, and Alice Walker, who writes from an American perspective. Gordimer's "Country Lovers" (1975), takes a look at South African apartheid and allows the reader insight into the discrimination that was prevalent in society. Likewise, Walker's "The Welcome Table" (1970), takes a look at discrimination within American society. Gordimer and Walker's short stories analyze racial discrimination and the impacts that it has on the female protagonist in each story.
Nadine Gordimer was born in South Africa on November 20, 1923 and has lived there her entire life (Nadine Gordimer, 2005). Gordimer published her first work at 15 years old and since then, she has written numerous short story collections and novels. Although Gordimer contends that she is not…… [Read More]
Van der Vyer is repulsed by the idea of living in close proximity to blacks, as is reflected in Gordimer's physical description of his home. He is angered by the calls for freedom of blacks such as Nelson Mandela, protesting in the townships. He is also angry at himself that his accident has given anti-apartheid activists more 'ammunition' in the fight to end state-imposed segregation. He feels sad for Lucas, but it does not occur to him that Lucas may have wanted more in life than merely serving Van der Vyer. Lucas' life is a tragedy, not simply because it has ended but because it never really began, due to the fact he was denied an appropriate education and opportunities.
It is interesting that the story is entitled "The Moment Before the Gun Went Off:" surely the story is about what occurs afterwards, the reader might initially suspect. However, Gordimer's…… [Read More]
Winnie Mandela. The writer focuses on the Truth and econciliation hearing that she went through. Her life is presented as well as her beliefs and causes with a focus on the hearing and what it meant her followers. There were 10 sources used to complete this paper.
She is a woman who excused confidence, and she led many people to the brink of freedom as well as political activism. While she was at one time married to the great political activist Nelson Mandela, her name has become well-known because of her own fight for the causes she believes in. Winnie Mandela has spent her adult life as an activist. She knows how to stir the hearts of those who follower her as well as push the buttons of those who do not. In contrast to her ex-husband who is known for his attitude of passive resistance Winnie is far more…… [Read More]
It was often said: "Sport is a religion in South Africa…South Africa is the most sports-mad country in the world" (Anderson et al. 2004).South Africa was banned from the Olympic Games in 1964 because it would only permit whites to represent the nation, on the grounds that only whites could become citizens. FIFA (Federation of International Football Associations) suspended South Africa in 1960 and then finally expelled the national team from competition permanently in 1976. But the more rarefied sports of rugby and cricket were slower to react. These sports were often criticized by anti-apartheid activists within South Africa because unlike football, there were few examples of interracial play under apartheid, given the greater expense and the class as well as racial barriers that existed within these sports.
The end of apartheid has exhibited swift changes in South African cricket: recently, black African Makhaya Ntini recently participated in his historic…… [Read More]
Gordimer's Impersonal Perspective
One of the most fascinating aspects of Nadine Gordimer's talent as a writer is her ability to present ideas and concepts to readers without explicitly showing them. This statement is particularly true of the author's treatment of the interregnum in her novel July's People, which is a fairly insightful look at relationships between whites and blacks in apartheid South Africa. The interregnum is very much the setting in which the novel takes place; it is the source of much of the tension and mistrust that exists between its principle characters, the Smales family and their one-time servant July. Yet what Gordimer does that adds a high degree of sophistication to this book is to deal with the interregnum period -- which was imagined, at the time of the writing, since South Africa's apartheid system was still enforced when this novel was initially published in 1981 -- from…… [Read More]
The U.S.A. is known to be a host of people from varied origins like German, Scottish, Italian, Africans and so on hence the mixture of many cultures. This is the same phenomenon with South Africa as portrayed in the novel. There are the Africans, Irish, Dutch (Boers) and the English people among others (Stanford University, n.d).
The two countries also have a shared history of the segregation culture that saw one group of people given lesser preference on the major issues like governance and access to basic amenities. The societal stratification existed within the U.S.A. with the whites presumed to be superior to the rest of the Americans, and the same thing is portrayed in the novel where the whites held higher class than the rest. They were feared as they held the major offices and wealth yet the Africans there were despised, economically down and living in slums by…… [Read More]
Personal Introduction and Research Interests
My background is certainly not unique or even rare, at least for many South Africans. When I was born, apartheid was still the law of the land in South Africa and I was classified as "colored" (i.e., neither white nor black) and commonly referred to as "hotnots" (i.e., bastards). As a result, our family was forced to first live in a tiny apartment on the outskirts of Cape Town called Woodstock, or more commonly the "mixed slums." When Woodstock became overcrowded, our family was forcibly relocated to the desert-like Cape Flats, 25 miles further from Cape Town. Because these actions were sanctioned by the government and were therefore "legal," I simply accepted what was happening as a part of the natural course of things. Over time, however, these and other racially motivated incidents during this formative period in my life convinced me that the status…… [Read More]
Of course, Coetzee puts Soraya's disgrace into context. Her case as a Muslim woman engaging in prostitution showed that her being a native of her country did not elevate her status nor improved her everyday life. She remained a prostitute who still felt the effects of poverty. Thus, for Soraya, disgrace is but a reality reserved only for people like David, white South Africans who used to have control and power in their country.
David and Lucy, his daughter, had experienced disgrace in the most conventional manner: David was stripped of his status as a professor and member of the affluent class of society, while Lucy was sexually assaulted by the robbers who invaded their farm. Both had been disgraced, though each had different reactions to this incidence of disgrace in their lives. Surprisingly, Lucy accepted what happened to her, and in fact, did not consider what happened to her…… [Read More]
Gender and Race in Gordimer and Smith
In "Country Lovers" and "What It's Like to be a Black Girl (For Those of You Who Aren't)," Nadine Gordimer and Patricia Smith, respectively, demonstrate that issues of race and ethnicity are issues that are devoid of space and time. Gordimer focuses on the impact that apartheid has on Thebedi, a young, black girl, in South Africa, whereas Smith focuses on how American society has shaped her perception of herself due to a long history of racial discrimination. Both Gordimer's story and Smith's poem allow the reader to see how society shapes perceptions of others and perceptions of oneself based on race and ethnicity.
Gordimer has first-hand experience on the effects of apartheid as she grew up in South Africa and witnessed how people were discriminated against based upon the color of their skin. In South Africa, apartheid governed how society was structured…… [Read More]
Investment in South Africa
In your judgment, were the possible utilitarian benefits of building the Caltex plant in 1977 more important than the possible violations of moral rights and of justice that may be involved? Justify your answer fully by identifying the possible benefits and the possible violations of rights and justice that you believe may be associated with the building of the plant, and explaining which you think are more important.
The possible utilitarian benefits of building the Caltex plant in 1977 were not more important than the possible -- or actual -- violations of moral rights and justice involved. The violations of moral rights and justices should have been prioritized. Looking back on the situation, of course, we have the benefit of knowing history, and the case of the South African apartheid is an exemplary case for the power of socially responsible investment movement.
In 1977, when the…… [Read More]
YMCA in South Africa
History of the YMCA in South Africa
YMCA Growth Efforts in South Africa
South African Economy
Sports in South Africa
Developing Inroads in South Africa
The YMCA in South Africa has a long history of progressive service in the country. The organization is the largest NGO and Africa and was on the forefront of combatting apartheid in South Africa. However, today the organization faces a new set of challenges; the most notable of which is a high youth unemployment rate, one of the highest in the world actually. The YMCA is in the best position to help this demographic with their history in the region as well as the infrastructure they have already built. The YMCA seeks actively seek additional funding so that they can leverage their position to positively affect youth opportunities in this region.
History of the YMCA in South Africa
George illiams founded…… [Read More]
Maureen tries to purge herself of the old South Africa, going so far as to stand naked in the rain at night, in kind of a baptismal ritual. However, this fantasy of purity is untenable in a reality where both black and white viewpoints are tainted with old notions about sexuality and race. Maureen constantly sees July in sexual and sexualized terms. This becomes most stark when the two of them fight over who will hold the keys to the 'bakkie,' the car they drove to the village, and to wrest control over the keys Maureen brings up July's mistress. She seems partially motivated by jealousy, as well as a desire to win a power struggle in this exchange, and although July eventually hands over the keys, the victory feels hollow.
Maureen's use of a sexual threat shows that she has still evidently internalized the exotic image of black sexuality…… [Read More]
French New Wave cinema was established by film critics, who founded the Cahiers du Cinema, whom felt cinema had become too commercialized, formulaic, and unoriginal. This group of critics would come to identify two major characteristics of the New Wave movement, which included the manner in which mise-en-scene was utilized in the film and how their auteur theory could be applied to work of art created. A contemporary film that incorporates French New Wave cinema elements into its production and design is the 2009 film District 9.
Among the major elements used in French New Wave film are loose story plots; improvised dialogue; erratic character behavior; unique use of jump cuts; and the use of natural lighting, location, and direct sound recording. District 9's unique documentary style and editing allows Neill Blomkamp to successfully incorporate these elements into the film's narrative while maintaining a cohesive feel.
Additionally, District 9 is…… [Read More]
Dry hite Season
In Andre Brink's novel A Dry hite Season, the background of apartheid-era South Africa sets the stage for a legal battle which challenged the racial policies of the period. During Apartheid, the governmental regime set about a system of government-sanctioned racism which forced the black people of the area to suffer greatly. The story is on the surface a murder mystery which then enters the genre of political thriller. The central character of the story is white school teacher Ben du Toit. Although he begins the story as a selfish man concerned more with preserving the status quo and with it his own protection than in investigating the brutality of an assault on an innocent young man. Through the course of the story, du Toit evolves into a man who cannot stand by while allowing the present racist government policy to continue on unquestioned. His selfishness morphs…… [Read More]
Mother to Mother by Sindiwe Magona. Specifically, it will critically analyze the book. The book "Mother to Mother" is a touching and elegant story of race relations and misunderstanding in South Africa. The author bases her book on a true incident, but looks at it from the eyes of a mother who loves her son but recognizes his inadequacies. It is a devastating look at apartheid, violence, and anger in a society long split between black and white. Well-written with emotion and pathos, it is a book that discovers the difficulties of reconciliation and continuing with life after the death of a loved one.
This emotional book looks at both sides of a young white woman's murder in a black township in South Africa. The book begins with the haunting line "My son killed your daughter" (Magona 1), and that line grabs the reader from the beginning, and makes them…… [Read More]
CEOs and Presidents
In delineation, influence processes are those employed by a leader to inspire, sway and encourage their followers and employees. This paper makes a comparison of the leadership styles of three particular leaders who include John F. Kennedy, Oprah Winfrey, and Nelson Mandela.
Influence is a vital component of leadership and refers to the manner in which a leader affects followers and employees. This particular aspect of influence necessitates that a leader affects the lives of their followers and employees. In particular, influence processes encompasses the different manners in which leaders fashion variables such as personnel and resources. In definition, influence processes denotes and conveys the different approaches employed by leaders to provide the essential strategic leadership vital for the everyday management of their organization. Irrespective of the processes used by leaders, their decisions largely influence the direction taken of the organization in addition to affecting the motivation…… [Read More]
Did she on some subconscious level realize this irony and dichotomy? She does not deal with it in her book, but on some Freudian level it is certainly possible that she did.
To recap, both of the authors Elaine Tyler May and Ann Moody see the institution of the family as something that was a mixture of limiting and liberating influences both for men and women during the 1940s, 1950s, and early 1960s, but much less so in the case of Moody's book for blacks. Even the experience of the Civil Rights movement was bittersweet. These limitations were a mixture of good and bad, depending on a person's perspective. As the May book points out, the families that were established by marriages in the 1940s were especially stable.
Moody's family experience was also essentially stable. Religion gave her some succor, but essentially the issues that plagued her due to racial…… [Read More]
South Africa: Electoral and Institutional Arrangements, Party Competition, and Checks and Balances in Government
South Africa's government is a constitutional democracy based upon a system of proportional representation. In other words, its national legislature is a parliament, with two houses, the National Assembly and the National Council of Provinces (NCOP). The parliament called the National Assembly awards seats to each political party based upon that party's proportionate support in the national election. Elections for the National Assembly are held every five years. The second general democratic post-apartheid election in 1999 in yielded a majority for the African National Congress (ANC) Party, the party famously lead by the imprisoned Nelson Mandela during the years of apartheid that disenfranchised most of South Africa's majority black population ("Government in South Africa," SouthAfricainfo, 2008).
In addition to the ANC, South Africa has sixteen registered political parties under the Independent Electoral Commission, spanning a variety…… [Read More]
Corporate communications involves not just the message, but the idea that communications are managed, and are connected to corporate objectives (Cornelissen, 2004). Therefore, when communication possibilities were limited, corporate options were limited, and one did not see communications management perspectives that advocated the type of intimate connection between communications and corporate strategy that one sees in a modern context (Cornelissen, 2004). What this makes clear is that CC is not simply, or even primarily, about communications; it is an overall corporate strategy that helps define how a corporation interacts with the world.
The emphasis on communication is very different from how corporations were traditionally, historically structured. Traditionally, strategic planning occurred at the top of the corporate structure, management was considered a mid-level activity, and operational control was the function of first-level management, and this corporate strategy was used in most workplaces (Oliver, 1997). However, as institutional hierarchies were challenged and…… [Read More]
The Democrats took over Congress in the 2006 mid-term elections, and while the party wished to have the administration adopt a policy to either "get out now" of Iraq, or "stabilize, then withdraw."
Those suggestions were met with patriotic, even nationalistic opposition from Bush and his very vocal vice president, Dick Cheney (Hartung, 44-45). "However reasonable the merits" were of Congress cutting off funding for the war in Iraq, Hartung continues, Cheney and others supporting the administration held a hammer over their heads in the form of jingoistic phrases like, if you vote to cut off funds you are "voting against the troops" (Hartung, 44). Leaving American troops hanging out there in Iraq would be unthinkable, it was argued from the Bush point-of-view.
Meanwhile, author Lewis B. Smith points out that arguing against the Bush invasion of Iraq was pointless for Congress, due to the sense of patriotism in the…… [Read More]
Zionism is even being identified with Christianity, with evangelicals uniting themselves to Israeli interests. Need we remind ourselves that Zionism is a politico-religious belief that is diametrically opposed to Christian values? The post-war propaganda that followed II even helped obliterate the notion of Jesus Christ as Holocaust and replace it with the Shoah, the Jewish holocaust. At the heart of Zionism is the eradication of Christian culture and the elevation of Zionist policies like the one currently being enacted on the Gaza Strip. Israel is an apartheid state and has been murdering Palestinians for years -- and now it has convinced millions of Christians and evangelicals that they must destroy the Arab before he destroys them. hat kind of value is this? It is a diabolical one.
Refusing to embrace diplomacy also undermines our prosperity. Rather than attacking and occupying countries in the Middle East, we should be working with…… [Read More]
Conference Berlin consequences b)
The History of Contemporary frica
Ever since parts of its region became colonized by Europeans (which began happening fairly regularly since the early part of the nno Domini timeline), frica has suffered an abundance of problems relating to its political, social, and economic spheres of existence. fter its introduction to what is best termed a fledgling globalization through colonization in several of its countries by a number of European nations, frica has understandably endured a number of issues relating to its primary systems of government, economics, and socialization. lthough events related to the conclusion of World War II were largely responsible for decolonization in this part of the world, many nation states on the continent would struggle for several years -- and are still struggling -- to overcome the effects of colonization and the inherent instability it provided to many of the key infrastructures within today's…… [Read More]
aker reviewed three landmark Supreme Court decisions on capital punishment and concluded that the death penalty is capriciously imposed on lack defendants and thus serves the extra-legal function of preserving majority group interests. He viewed discrimination in capital sentencing as deliberate and identified the primary reasons why lack defendants with white victims have been denied fairness in capital sentencing. These are prosecutorial discretion in the selective prosecution of capital cases, prosecutorial misuse of peremptory challenges to systematically exclude lacks from juries, judicial overrides by trial judges, prosecutorial misconduct and the ineffective assistance by defense counsel (Emmelman).
Helen Taylor Greene used a colonial model to explore the effectiveness and limitations placed on the police in the past and in the present (Emmelman, 2005). This colonial model showed that the police, regardless of color, were an oppressive force in many communities. Lately, lack political empowerment and ascendancy in many law enforcement departments…… [Read More]
Obstacle omen Face in Pursuit of Equality
hen it comes to overcoming obstacles, two essays, "Ain't I a oman" and "atching Oprah infrey" from Behind the Veil," clearly show that women are encountering hindrances in chase of impartiality all over the world. However, although both essays touch on the same type of injustice which is gender inequality, they each have different themes. For instance, one delves into a country where the sexes are thoroughly kept apart from each other, where topics like sex and race are just about banned for even discussing them openly and where a severe enigma of public morality is imposed by police that are religious. However, the other touches on a period that goes back over a hundred of years where women of color were treated as cattle. Basically bought and sold by a society ran by men. Although these essays are worlds apart, they are…… [Read More]
Future of Global Neoliberalism
One of the harsh realities of life in the 21st century is that the vast majority of the world's population continues to struggle to survive in the face of dwindling arable land and governmental policies that serve to constrain rather than promote economic development. To determine the facts, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to explain why some theorists have maintained that the state continues to be a central agent that facilitates the advancement of global neoliberalism. A discussion concerning the rationale in support of this position, including an analysis of the possibilities and barriers that neoliberalism creates for genuine long-term sustainable human development; the objectives, strategies, and achievements of social movements as well as the barriers they face; and state-led models of development that run counter to the neoliberal agenda. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings…… [Read More]
Since they had so much invested in South Africa, they were in a position of power, and they could have used that power much more effectively. They might even have been able to bring change about sooner than it occurred. While they did not take their responsibility seriously, companies do have a moral and ethical responsibility to themselves, their communities, and their shareholders. The companies that do not recognize this should not gain support or business from their consumers. It is up to the shareholders to hold the companies responsible for their ethical behavior and to how they manage their investments. The company has a responsibility to make money and to stay healthy, but not at the expense of morals or ethics. It does not have to be difficult to act morally and responsibly. It can become a part of the everyday actions of the business, and it should be…… [Read More]
' The researchers did include one anecdote of a South African woman of Indian ancestry, and how she dealt with the unconscious racism of her colleagues, drawing upon a positive sense of community solidarity and avoiding some of the negative emotions such conflicts spawned in others. But other than her comment that professionalism and a strong sense of family identity was helpful in emotionally coping with racism, her remarks were not specifically insightful about working in a global, international organization in a formerly segregated area of the world.
The conclusions of the article regarding what organizational forces positively impact and do not impact identity seem fairly vague and generalized, despite the advantage that a case study format can have in terms of studying a highly specific context. Communication is suggested as the key to broaching identity conflicts, as well as having formal sensitivity training and grievance procedures. Although these…… [Read More]
..stand out in the material consulted regarding the critical closing years of the twentieth century. First, the external audiences of African universities, including UNESCO, had a sympathetic understanding of the problems that assailed them, a number of which could be said to be world-wide. One could look forward to a future that produced concrete propositions for recovering from the crisis that was being experienced. Secondly, a pattern of three generations of scholars was emerging. It comprised:
1) postgraduate students of outstanding caliber and suitable for training as future university teachers;
2) their incumbent professors, and 3) an older generation of alumni and scholars - emeritus professors and seasoned retired university teachers and writers like JF Ade Ajayi, Lamech KH Goma and G. Ampah Johnson, whose wealth of experience gave us, three years after Alexandria 1993, an unrivalled summary of the fortunes of the African University in their book, the African…… [Read More]
Another aspect which is important to be taken into account in respect to human rights issues is the right to seek asylum. The 1951 UN Convention for Refugees states that asylum seekers should be helped by the country where they seek assistance in order to prevent the return of the people in a situation which would put their lives or their integrity in danger. However, for the Australian government such a provision is less important than the actual attempt to cut down on immigration and reduce the possibility of people entering legally or illegally in the country. In this sense, there is a famous case which points out precisely this attitude of the Australian government which pointed out the fact that indeed, there is no particular desire for the Australian officials to go beyond their national interest and work for the global one. Thus, in 2001 Australia refused to give…… [Read More]