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Apprenticeship Data eview: UK, France and USA
Why are apprenticeship contracts different now than in the past? There are differences in the average pay of French and English apprentices. Some of the difference is age, not just wage. Older students are denied training opportunities in the U.K., I respectfully submit. A new model may be in order for the English and the French -- the emerging American apprenticeship model.
According to the U.S. Department of Labor, for every $1 the government invests in formal apprenticeship training programs, it receives $100 in taxes in return from the wages of working apprentices. Apprenticeship programs are run by both the public and private sectors. Apprenticeship sponsors, who are employers, trade associations and labor-management groups, register programs with federal and state government agencies. Sponsors furnish on-the-job learning and academic instruction to apprentices according to their industry standards and licensing requirements. This paper addresses the…
1. Apprenticeship indenture. Cambridge University Library Archives (Luard 179/9). March 18, 1602.
2. Modern Apprenticeships: the way to work, The Report of the Modern Apprenticeship Advisory Committee, 2001
3. Apprenticeship in the British Training Market, Paul Ryan and Lorna Unwin, University of Cambridge and University of Leicester, 2001
4. Aldrich, Richard (2005) [1997 in A. Heikkinen and R. Sultana (eds), Vocational Education and Apprenticeships in Europe]. "13 - Apprenticeships in England." Lessons from History of Education. Routledge. pp. 195 -- 205. ISBN 0415358922. http://books.google.com/?id=9lGp9Tad5-QC&dq=apprentice+twelfth+century
Culturally-Based Cognitive Apprenticeship
(Teaching African-American High School Students Skills in Literary Interpretation) by Carol D. Lee
The author observes that there is a distinct need for implementation of special strategies pertaining to reading comprehension skills in schools populated by students of African-American or other ethnic minority groups. Cultural orientation plays a crucial role in understanding and interpreting literature alongside general reading and task specific strategies. This automatically implies that the differences in cultural background and home language are important considerations that affect the comprehensive skills of the students in the study of literary texts. Researchers also vary widely in their opinion as to the kind of reading strategies that must be emphasized in view of the disparities in the community. For example 'signifying', use of double extendre and metaphoric statements are important aspects specific to African-American english. The author opines that since interpretations are largely based on the cultural…
Value of a BA Degree
The Value of BA Degrees
Would you say this statement is "True" or "False"? Too many people are going to college these days. Many experts in business say that the statement is true. People once thought that college degrees were the most important advantage that people could attain through their own efforts (uiz 2011). But the situation is changing. A look at employees and entrepreneurs in Silicon Valley underscores a more pessimistic and sobering view of college education (uiz 2011). People who work in technical jobs without the benefit of formal coursework in higher education can be free to follow their interests and creativity (uiz 2011). These new technology experts don't need to get locked into boring corporate jobs that pay well in order to pay off enormous student loan debt burdens (uiz 2011). The cost of higher education keeps rising and there are those…
Baum, Sandy and Kathleen Payea. "The Benefits of Higher Education for Individuals and Society." Trends in Higher Education Series, Revised Edition. 2005.
Edsall, Thomas. "The Reproduction of Privilege." The New York Times. 12 March 2012. < http://campaignstops.blogs.nytimes.com/ >
Hill, Kent, Dennis Hoffman, and Tom R. Rex. "The Value of Higher Education: Individual and Societal Benefits (With Special Consideration for the State of Arizona). Productivity and Prosperity Project (P3). October 2004. Tempe, Arizona: L. William Seidman Research Institute W.P. Carey School of Business Arizona State University? (2004).
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment. Economic News Release, Bureau of Labor Statistics. United States Department of Labor. 2 November 2012.
Therefore, it makes no sense to force companies to administer such tests.
2. On the topic of learning at work and having this knowledge assessed and recognized; "should there be a resurgence of traditional apprenticeships (construction trades, transportation, etc.); and a movement for apprenticeship programs that would apply to most occupations that do not presently recognize such training and education?" (Medicine, manufacturing, education, etc.)
Apprenticeships offer opportunities that can never be acquired through formal education and training. One of the casualties of the industrial revolution, apprenticeship should come back into the fore of job training. Employees are empowered, supervisors enjoy improved and more personal communications with their apprentices, and learning takes place on an organic level. Apprenticing offers the opportunity to witness the real-world workings of a business, skill, or artisan trade.
The prevailing model of job training is also unfairly skewed toward those who can afford expensive education and…
Lyondell Basell Industries offers a positon of Machinist Apprentice in our Machinist Apprenticeship program. The program consists of 144 hours of classroom instruction and 2,520 hours or one year of on the job experience. Once training is complete, apprentices are called journey workers. Not only do you get much needed experience as a Machinist, but you also get benefits along with learning the ability to manufacture high precision "prototype" parts out of an assortment of materials, using all types of conventional or Computer Numeric Control (CNC) machine tools as well as the ability to estimate the work and plan the Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) processes from the Computer Aided Design (CAD). (CalApprenticeship.org, 2013, p. 1) You can work with a team, engineers, or by yourself as the choice is yours.
Here is the breakdown of the hours and skills you'll learn and complete in our program: 240 hours or 6…
CalApprenticeship.org (2013). Machinists Apprenticeship. Retrieved from http://www.calapprenticeship.org/programs/machinists_apprenticeship.php
Noe, R.A., & Noe, R.A. (2010). Employee training & development. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Amico, Deborah.(2011).Providing Worker Education and Building the Labor Movement: The Joseph S. Murphy Institute of City University of New York. Adult Learning; Winter2011, Vol. 22 (1)
In this paper, D'Amico discusses the provision of worker education as well as the building of the labor movement activities that takes place at Joseph S. Murphy Institute of City University of New York (CUNY).This educational facility is dedicated to the provision of worker education as well as the building of the city's labor market. The author indicates that the institute is active in the provision of workers access to education as well as advancement should they seeks it. The article also mentions that the institute is also involved in the coalescing of the labor-management education funds as well as academic departments with the widely accepted industry expertise in order to create the best programs that can adequately serve the union members.
D'Amico, Deborah.(2011).Providing Worker Education and Building the Labor Movement: The Joseph S. Murphy Institute of City University of New York. Adult Learning; Winter2011, Vol. 22 (1) p12-17
Martin, Larry C., Smith, Regina O (2011).Pre-Apprenticeship Urban Workforce Training Programs. Adult Learning; Winter2011, Vol. 22 (1), p23-27
Maslow, A.H. (1998). Maslow on management. New York: Wiley.
The original inhabitants of Jamaica are long forgotten, their name barely a footnote in Caribbean history. The main legacy of the Arawak Indians has been the word "Xamayca," meaning "land of wood and water," ("A Brief History of Jamaica"). Xamayca gradually became rendered as Jamaica, an island nation with a tumultuous but vibrant history. The first non-native settlers on Jamaica were the Spaniards. Christopher Columbus included it in Spain's territorial acquisitions in 1494. Soon thereafter, a small Spanish settlement existed on the island until 1655. The Spaniards killed every last Arawak, either via use of force or exposure to disease. Moreover, the Spaniards bought African slaves and brought them to Jamaica to work on the budding sugar plantations. Growing interest in sugar was fueling the Age of Imperialism. Britain was poised to strike the Caribbean.
In May 1655, a convoy of British ships arrived and startled the Spanish settlement.…
"A Brief History of Jamaica." Retrieved online: http://www.mtholyoke.edu/~beckf20s/classweb/History.html
"Brief History of Jamaica." Retrieved online: http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/History/Jamaica-history.htm
Draper, N. The Price of Emancipation: Slave-ownership, compensation and British society at the end of slavery. Cambridge studies in economic history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Holt, Thomas C. The Problem of Freedom. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.
Educational institutions generally approach organizational improvement by addressing the performance standards to which students, educators, and administrators are held. The standards movement has been a dominant theme in educational policy arenas and in the public eye. With roots in the 1950s Cold War mentality, the thrust of educational improvement has been prodded by perceptions of international industrial and scientific competition. If the rigor of educational standards in the nation -- according to the logic of this argument -- falls below that of other countries, our economy will falter and the balance of trade will be compromised, perhaps beyond the point of recovery.
Fears for the future of the country and our citizens run deep; these fears propel a course of action that is not particularly based on rational thinking and lacks a base of evidence. The course of action adopted by educational policy makers and educational leaders in…
Barth, P. (1997, November 26). Want to keep American jobs and avert class division? Try high school trig. Education Week, 30,33.
Bosch, G. (2000). The Dual System of Vocational Training in Germany. In Tremblay, D.-G. And Doray, P. (2000). Vers de nouveaux modes de formation professionnelle? Le role des acteurs et des collaborations. Quebec: Presses de l'Universite du Quebec.
____. (1998). Business Coalition for Education Reform. The Formula for Success: A Business Leader's Guide to Supporting Math and Science Achievement. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
Hacker, A. (2012, July 20). Is algebra necessary? The New York Times [national ed.], SR1, SR6.
Metal Workers Employment Law Case eview
One of the primary functions of the judiciary is to clearly define the parameters of legislative intent, as the passage of any law necessarily creates parties with a vested interest in bypassing or overturning the statute, and in the case of Local 28, Sheet Metal Workers v. EEOC 478 U.S. 421 (1986) the Supreme Court was again tasked with assessing the validity of a law via its method of application. This case of Sheet Metal Workers v. EEOC presented the high court with an opportunity to decisively delineate the remedies afforded to correct violations of Title VII of the Civil ights Act of 1964, which prohibited employers from discriminating on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. When the New York State Commission for Human ights identified New York City's Local 28 Joint Apprenticeship Committee (JAC) as a gross violator of…
142 U.S.C. § 2000e-2000e-17 (1982)
Griggs v. Duke Power Co., 401 U.S. 424, 429 (1971).
Moreno, P.D. (1999). From direct action to affirmative action: Fair employment law and policy in america 1933-1972. (3rd ed.). Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press.
Napolitano, S. (1987). Interpreting the legislative history of section 706(g) of title vii. Boston College Third World Law Journal, 7(2), 263-276. Retrieved from http://lawdigitalcommons.bc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1378&context=twlj
Carrabine, Lee and South 193)
As has been said before, the UK no longer makes anything, builds anything or sells anything tangible. The decline in industrial production has resulted in an overall decline in employment of industrial workers, who have not been aided by a failing system to transition to other work.
Some would say that the changes occurring in the UK, at this time with the increased importance of service industry work and intelligence rather than physical labor employment is a natural byproduct of globalization and an evolutionary product of the next phase as a "developed" nation.
They evidence this by observing that all developed nations are leaning in this direction. Yet, the transition has not and will not be easy, whether it is normal or not, a point which remains to be proven.
ith the education system in the UK in serious need of reform…
A Culturally-Based Cognitive Apprenticeship
The article puts forth the idea that those who teach literature in schools are giving students too much of their own interpretations and stating them to be correct, rather than allowing the students to think for themselves and find other ways to interpret the literature. Since this attitude toward telling the students what is right instead of letting them learn seems to be very prevalent in schools that have large minority populations, the author of the article chose to look at ways that this could be changed. Taking culture into account was very important, as was finding something that could stimulate the students intellectually. Otherwise, they would not learn. Theoretical arguments for using a cultural approach toward learning are also discussed by Lee as she works her way through the issues that surround and plague the teaching of minority cultures in many schools. The…
Federal and State Websites
State/Federal Research Project
Employment raining Panel
Employment training panel (EP) is a business and labor supported Californian State agency, which funds the vocational training costs. EP clearly outlines its programs, and can only involve in fund provision for training employers who are subject to the payment of Employment raining ax. he eligible entities in this case may include single employers who are subject to the UI (unemployment insurance tax), and holding a California Employment Account with a prefix number of 699 or below. Similarly, a group of employers may be eligible. Such groups include Joint Apprenticeship Committees, Chambers of Commerce, Economic Development Corporations and rade Associations. raining Agencies come in as the third group, including educational institutions such as university foundations, community colleges, adult schools, or the regional occupational programs. Additionally, workforce investment boards also contribute in the list of the primary audience to…
This board was established under an Executive Order in response to the decree from the federal Workforce Investment Act of 1998. The board aids the Governor to set and guide policies within the field of workforce development. The governor appoints all the board members, representing the multifaceted workforce including labor, business, higher education, public education, youth activities, economic developments, training, employment, as well as the legislature. This website thereby addresses all members of the public from the entire nation as its audience. The Board conducts meetings on a regular basis, an event during which it encourages the public to attend workforce meetings, and to be positive towards every individual's line of career or work. Inclusively, the website encloses everyone, especially the adults within any area of workforce together with the youths within Youth Associations, which inspire and model them towards their lines of career.
The State Board (California Workforce Investment Board) assists the Governor to set and guide state policies within the workforce development area. The board is responsible for assisting the governor perform the required duties and responsibilities by the federal Workforce Investment Act-1998. The Board thereby formulates a strategic plan that directs its activities in the provision of guidance and support to the statewide system of workforce investment. The Board has got an executive branch agency known as the LWDA (Labor and Workforce Development Agency) that oversees seven main departments, panels, and boards that serve the Californian businesses and employees/workers. Moreover, the board ensures assistance and support to small businesses within California. It created a system of Small Business Liaison that assists business owners and employers through job trainings and hiring employees. The liaison responds to complaints from small businesses and reports the concerns of small businesses to the Secretary of Labor and Workforce Development Agency.
The California Workforce Investment Board accrues its funds from a number of sources including grants, tax credits, rebates and reimbursements. Grants come from diverse sources including the automotive industry of transportation and logistics. The hybrid bus and truck voucher incentive projects accelerates the deployment of firsthand hybrid and zero emission buses and trucks. As at October 2012, the program had fund approximation of $18 million. As well, it gets funds provided for the cleaner prerequisite engines, equipment as well as other pollution sources that address the reduction of extra or early emissions. Alternatively, funds from the tax credits equal the percentage of wage payments to the qualified employees.
Thomas Aquinas led the move away from the Platonic and Augustinian and toward Aristotelianism and "developed a philosophy of mind by writing that the mind was at birth a tabula rasa ('blank slate') that was given the ability to think and recognize forms or ideas through a divine spark" (Haskins viii). y 1200 there were reasonably accurate Latin translations of the main works of Aristotle, Euclid, Ptolemy, Archimedes, and Galen, that is, of all the intellectually crucial ancient authors except Plato. Also, many of the medieval Arabic and Jewish key texts, such as the main works of Avicenna, Averroes and Maimonides now became available in Latin. During the 13th Century, scholastics expanded the natural philosophy of these texts by commentaries and independent treatises. Notable among these were the works of Robert Grosseteste, Roger acon, John of Sacrobosco, Albertus Magnus, and Duns Scotus. Precursors of the modern scientific method can be…
1. Cultural Environment
Atrisgerinko, V.A. Origins of the Romanesque. London: Lund, 2005. Print.
Benson, R.E. Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1982. Print.
Benson, Robert L. et al. (eds). Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century. Medieval Academy of America, 1991.
In a recent study co-learning is categorized into two separate domains; the facilitator and the explorer. According to the study the facilitator of learning is the individual who "does not get in the way of learning by imposing information…a facilitator guides the process of student learning" (Brantmeier, 2010, p. 1) while the student, or learner, is defined as an empowered explorer who is an "independent or collective explorer of knowledge through disciplined means" (p. 1). Whether the student is one as defined in the traditional sense, or it is a co-worker seeking to gain knowledge of the business world, both facilitator and explorer learn by sharing knowledge through communication.
Oftentimes the facilitator is one that has had previous experience in the workforce with the specific subject at hand. The facilitator is therefore often the leader of the group or project. Being a leader requires experience but it also…
Brantmeier, E.J. (2010) Empowerment pedagogy: Co-learning and teaching, accessed at website: www.indiana.edu/~leeehman/Brantmeier.pdf on April 25, 2011
Clarke, N. (2005) Workplace learning environment and its relationship with learning outcomes in healthcare organizations, Human Resource Development International, Vol. 8, Issue 2, pp. 185 -- 205
Gratton, L. & Erickson, T.J.; (2007) 8 Ways to build collaborative teams, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 85, issue 11, pp. 100-109
Kitching, J. (2008) Rethinking UK small employer's skills policies and the role of workplace learning, International Journal of Training and Development, Vol. 12, Issue 2, pp. 100 -- 120
Career Technical Education (CTE) - Past to Present
This statement made in 1905 suggests that the education system is supposed to be focused on increasing the amount of time to commercial, industrial and technical training. However this is not the prevailing conditions and interests that are in existence today. Today most of the education systems mainly focus on ensuring that students from high school proceed to colleges or universities. Most people view college and university education as a peak when it comes to education achievement.one is viewed as being educated if they have successfully gone through high school and straight to college or University. Therefore today very little or no focus is put on commercial, industrial or technical education.
How apprenticeship system impacted the development of Vocational Education
Vocational education involves training for a particular vocation industry, trade or agriculture. Vocational education policy in every nation concentrates on its traditional…
Adults ith Learning Disabilities
It has been estimated (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 that 50-80% of the students in Adult Basic Education and literacy programs are affected by learning disabilities (LD). Unfortunately, there has been little research on adults who have learning disabilities, leaving literacy practitioners with limited information on the unique manifestations of learning disabilities in adults.
One of the major goals of the (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 National
Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center (National ALLD Center) is to raise awareness among literacy practitioners, policy makers, researchers, and adult learners about the nature of learning disabilities and their impact on the provision of literacy services. This fact sheet provides: a definition of learning disabilities in adults; a list of common elements found in many useful LD definitions; and a list of areas in which LD may affect life situations of adults.
In 1963, the term "learning…
Author Unkown. Adult with Learning Disabilities
Corley, Mary Ann & Taymans, Juliana M. Adults with Learning Disabilities:A Review of Literature
The reference to Montesquieu (as well as to Smith) in that part of the 'Dissertation' which deals with the 'Progress of Philosophy during the Seventeenth Century' was made just as a digression, and the further development of Jurisprudence by writers on Political Economy as well as 'the mighty influence which his [Montesquieu's] writings have had on the subsequent history of Scottish literature' (Stewart, 1854) were to be explained in the third Part of the 'Dissertation', which was never to be published.
A major task of the state is thus to ensure that the conditions of economic freedom are in fact satisfied, so far as possible, by sweeping away all legal and institutional impediments to it. Generally speaking, these obstructions can be condensed to four main groups. First, there is the problem that, in all societies subject to a course of evolution, 'Laws frequently continue in force long after the…
Arrow, Kenneth. 1951. Social choice and individual values. New York: Wiley.
Arrow, Kenneth. 1983. Social choice and justice: Vol. 1 of Collected Papers of Kenneth J. Arrow. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of the Harvard University Press.
Becker, Gary. 1976. The economic approach to human behavior. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Hopfl, H.M. 1978. From savage to Scotsman: Conjectural history in the Scottish enlightenment. Journal of British Studies 17:19 -- 40.
The bottom line is that while is it helpful for future grant writers to gain knowledge of models, to get a grasp of "scaffolding, coaching, and collaboration" in the classroom environment, there is no substitute for being out in the society, in formal settings, to collaborate with "experts, colleagues, and peers" in learning the ropes of grant proposal writing and getting projects funded.
Attending workshops, conferences, and signing up for training sessions are all necessary when going for large dollar grants from institutions like the National Institutes of Health and other government granting agencies. "Learning and doing are inseparable," Ding writes; without the classroom knowledge, the social collaboration and "real world experiences" of meeting key people and attending high-powered training sessions, the grant writer seeking funds from big government sources is going to fail most of the time. And quite apart from the actual research and writing of the proposal,…
Ding, Huiling. (2008). The Use of Cognitive and Social Apprenticeship to Teach a Disciplinary
Genre: Initiation of Graduate Students into NIH Grant Writing. Written Communication,
Lemmon, Kathryn. (2007). How to begin grant writing. Writer, (120(11), 13-13.
Wasby, Stephen L. (2001). Proposal Writing: A Remedy for a Missing Part of Graduate
Charles . Chesnutt was an American author and essayist who explored themes of race and society in his many works. In addition to these themes, Chesnutt explores the themes of ignorance in the short story "The Passing of Grandison" and in the essay "The Free Colored People of North Carolina." Although "The Passing of Grandison" is an allegorical/moral tale and "The Free Colored People of North Carolina" is an essay based upon statistics based upon the number of freedmen in North Carolina before the Civil ar and their contribution to society, Chesnutt is able to demonstrate that ignorance on the part of whites in the South lead to a loss of laborers, both skilled and enslaved.
In "The Passing of Grandison" there are two types of ignorance that are displayed by the characters. In the story, Col. Owens believes that he has treated his slaves so well that…
Chesnutt, Charles W. "The Freed Colored People of North Carolina." ChestnuttArchive.org.
Web. 23 May 2012.
-. "The Passing of Grandison." The Literature Network. Web. 23 May 2012.
Training Needs Analysis Practices for Managers: A Study of Saudi Arabia Private Firms
Training needs analysis (TNA) is defined by Mabey and Salman (1995:158) as a "process of collecting data which allows an organization to identify and compare its actual level with its desired level of performance." The authors also indicate that this performance could be interpreted as meaning the competencies and attitude necessary for the staff to do the job effectively. Moreover, Armstrong (1996:536) states that "training needs assessment is partly concerned with finding the gap between what is happening and what should happen.. This is what has to be filled by training ." Figure (1.1) depicts this gap.
The training Gap
WHAT SHOULD BE
CORPORATE OR FUNCTIONAL ATANDARDS
KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL REQUIRED
TARGETS OR STANDARDS OF
CORPORATE FOR FUNCTIONAL RESULTS
KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL POSSESSED
ACTUAL PERFORMANCE OF INDIVIDUALS
Source: Armstrong (1996)
Human resources management applies the concept of hiring and developing employees so they ultimately contribute more value to an organization or business. As it applies to tourism, people hired by the tourism industry are often instructed to work low paying, low skill jobs that do not encourage better workers, nor improvement within the workplace. This can hurt the industry because it is important to understand that tourism as a whole needs its workers to be above the expected standard in order to keep customers interested, satisfied, and desire to come back to the region they offer their services. In chapter 1 of Human esource Management for the Hospitality and Tourism Industries, Nickson explains the need for HM within the Tourism industry: "...recruiting, developing and maintaining a committed, competent, well managed and well-motivated workforce... focused on offering a high-quality 'product' to the increasingly demanding and discerning customer...allows for higher return…
Armstrong, M. And Armstrong, M. 2009. Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. London: Kogan Page.
Bratton, J. And Gold, J. 2000. Human resource management. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Butler, D. 2004. Bottom-line call center management. Amsterdam: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.
ESCAP. 2013. Draft plan of action for sustainable tourism development in the Asian and Pacific region (E/ESCAP/1137). [online] Available at: http://www.unescap.org/55/e1137e.htm#E . Implementation [Accessed: 11 Nov 2013].
His own work was also published in a wide variety of literary magazines several of which were prestigious and nationally respected. His publication and involvement in publishing impressive accomplishments for an African-American man in the United States in the 1960's (Woodward, 1999).
In 1957 he moved to Greenwich Village in New York and became interested in both in jazz and the Beat Movement. he following year he began the otem Press (I have seen this referenced as Yugen).
he Beat Generation -- later just "he Beats" or the beatniks -- were a collection of writers centered first in New York and later in San Francisco. While there was a great deal of variation among the artists, they were joined to each other by a common rejection of mainstream American culture and some dabbling in Eastern religious ideas. hough counter culture and alternative religion was their focus, they became at least…
The entire above section is unrelated to your paper. You are discussing LeRoi Jones / Amiri Baraka. Though the trials of his wife and writers like her are an interesting cultural reference to the time period they ultimately detract from your paper. A more effective segue into the topic of modernism is (continuing from the last segment in red):
As Jones's views became more radical so too did his writing. One feature that remained consistent however was Jones's distinctive highly personal voice (Harris, 1991). This characteristic of his writing would always physically connect him to the idyllic bohemian roots of his success. Modernism, a style of writing which emphasized the awareness of the author that he, was writing something which represented himself, is evident throughout the body of Jones's work. But It is important to remember that Modernism itself was in many ways revolutionary. And is more connected to Postmodernism than adherents of either school would generally like to admit. (post modernism has nothing to do with your paper. It is unclear why you chose to discuss it here) Modernism (like Postmodernism) rejected the over-arching coherence that had been the provenance detachment of art and literature prevalent since the Enlightenment. Modernist prose and advocated an insistence on were defined by self-awareness, a sense that the author was intimately and immediately aware of their position as the author, the purveyor of their own voice. The author of the Modernist text is always very much aware of the power of authorship and of his or position of authority (in both a limited and a broader sense) within the text. As the literary world shifted into Postmodernity, the sense of suspended reality rationality and coherence which that had marked earlier artistic schools was discarded in favor of meta- literature, or literature immediately aware that it is literature. fragmented even further so that not only did the center not hold in terms of art and discourse but also in terms of the artist's own sense of self. When we contrast Modernism and Postmodernism, it is clear that Baraka is a Modernist author because we are always aware, as is he, of a clearly of his clearly defined sense of self and authorship within the text. We always know who is speaking to us.
Following an unsuccessful attempt at developing a youth theatre in Harlem Jones moved back to Newark NJ. There he became involved in a number of activities and organizations generally focused on the development of the "Black Arts Movement." Among the most personally important of Jones's efforts was Spirit House which was described as a community center intended to be "whatever the community wanted it to be." It was in this period of his life when Jones was first
5-8). This demonstrates that while Jefferson highly prized his collection of books and his ownership of them, he also did not see education and access to it as a luxury afforded to the rich, or as a means of demonstrating wealth.
Following the death of his father, Thomas Jefferson was left the large estate on which he was born, and would eventually build his famous house Monticello on the same grounds (Hayes 2008; Schouler 2005; Malone 1986, pp. 11). There was a lot of life he had ahead of him before his grand estate was completed, however, and a great deal of education ahead of him as well. His upbringing to this point had provided him with a solid grounding as well as the beginnings of the philosophy towards education that would continue to develop and come to light for the rest of his life; the next stage…
References (Primary Documents)
Jefferson, T. (1781-2). Notes on the State of Virginia. Accessed 5 November 2010. http://etext.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/JefVirg.html
Jefferson, T. (1806). "6th Annual Message." Accessed 5 November 2010. http://etext.virginia.edu/jefferson/quotations/jeff1370.htm
Jefferson, T. (1810). "Letter to John Tyler." Accessed 5 November 2010.
Nevertheless, "A Musical Party" and other banquet scenes, in its contrasting gloom, gain a sense of depth that other painters do not achieve with similar depictions.
After the end of his apprenticeship in 1619, Tournier became part of a community of French artists in Rome, who perpetuated the Caravaggesque movement. Most influential of Tournier's work during this time was Valentin de Boulogne (Musee des Augustins). Both being French and in Rome, the artists became good friends. While Tournier was not a pupil of Boulogne's, the latter nonetheless influenced him significantly. It is perhaps also as a result of Boulogne's influence that Tournier painted generally upbeat, secular scenes such as "A Musical Party." Not even this artist's jovial influence could destroy the inherent melancholy of Tournier's work. Whereas Boulogne's figures were depicted with an edgy tension, Tournier's were consistently quiet, as mentioned above, almost suspended in time. The two style were…
Artnet. "Artist's Biographies: Nicolas Tournier." 2007. http://www.artnet.com/library/08/0858/T085862.asp
Encyclopaedia Britannica. "French culture in the 17th century." 2007. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-40368/France
Musee des Augustins. "Nicolas Tournier." 2007. http://www.augustins.org/en/exposition/trn/formation/accueil.htm
The advantages in efficiency were evident, as are the ways of apprenticing younger members slowly into the family trade.
The more probable model is that the skilled labour was taken from the guilds, whose power was on the rise throughout Europe after AD 1100. Artistic and trade guilds selected their members. Such pooled labour provided training, experience, a career trajectory, and security for the craftsman, who could eventually work through the stage of journeyman to master craftsman. This system allowed for the concentration of skilled labour and guaranteed quality controls. Non-members were excluded from building projects. It was an early form of labour union. At times these guilds had a monopoly on trade labour. Out of some system like this it is likely that the labour came to work on buildings like Pisa Cathedral. The master builders themselves would have been influenced by knowledge generated in the intellectual revival at…
Drucker could "discern trends" twenty years or more before other observers could observe them the author explains, and then goes on to itemize specific programs, concepts, and strategies that management leaders either adopted or embraced to some degree:
In terms of advocating for changes in management, Drucker introduced the idea of "decentralization" in the 1940s, Byrne observes, and decentralization went on to become "a bedrock principle" for "virtually every large organization in the world." Drucker's suggested changes are as follows: a) orkers should be treated as assets, "not as liabilities to be eliminated," Drucker asserted in the 1950s, and was the first to put forth that philosophy; b) Also in the 1950s, Drucker originated the view of the corporation "as a human community" which should be build "on trust and respect for the worker" and not just a "machine" to produce profit; for this idea, Drucker achieved "an almost God-like…
Byrne, John A.; & Gerdes, Lindsey. (2005). THE MAN WHO INVENTED Management:
Why Peter Drucker's ideas still matter. Business Week no. 3961, p. 96.
Hofstede, Geert. (1993). Cultural constraints in management theories. Academy of Management
Executive, 7(1), 81-94.
While at J.C. Penney, Walton read extensively about retailing theory and principles. He also had the insight to consider the importance of proximity to his merchandise suppliers and he took full advantage of his ability to turn around merchandise so fast that he could leverage his short-term debts to suppliers into capital for investment and growth.
6. Who is in charge of the company now?
Michael Terry Duke, became the Chief Executive Officer and President of Wal-Mart tores Inc. In 2009. Previously, he was the Executive Vice President of Wal-Mart tores Inc., and before that, he served as Executive Vice President of Administration, and Executive Vice President of Logistics, enior Vice President of Logistics at Wal-Mart tores Inc., and enior Vice President of Distribution of Wal-Mart tores Division (UA).
7. Describe any "barriers of entry," competition or marketing challenges the Entrepreneur overcame.
The principal barrier of entry faced by Walton…
Kennon, J. (2011) Sam Walton (aka Samuel Moore Walton)
The Hershey Company. (2011). Our Story.
In certain countries, an effective supervisor possesses basic teaching skills, facilitation skills, negotiation and assertiveness skills, counseling and appraisal skills, mentoring skills, and knowledge of learning resources and certification requirements (Kilminster).
The most important aspect of the role of an effective supervisor is giving supervisee responsibility and the opportunity to practice it (Kilminster, 2000). Supervisees come to view the supervisor as a colleague and this leads them to become self-directed. Some supervisees consider teaching skills and techniques, interpersonal style and professional competence the most important characteristics of an effective supervisor. An effective supervisor shows empathy, is supportive, and exhibits flexibility, instruction, knowledge, interest in supervision and good tracking of supervisees. He is interpretative, respectful, focused ad practical. In contrast, an ineffective supervisor is rigid, shows little empathy and provides low support. He fails to consistently track supervisee concerns, teach or instruct. He is indirect and intolerant. He is close-minded. He…
Borders, L.D. (1994). The good supervisor. ERIC Digests: ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Student Services. Retrieved on October 28, 2011 from http://www.ericdigest.org/1995-1/good.htm
Joslin, v. (2008). Ten traits of a good supervisor. Associated Content: Yahoo. Inc. Shine.
Retrieved on October 28, 2011 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/969660/ten_traits_of_a_good_supervisor.html
Kilminster, S.M. (2000). Effective supervision in clinical practice settings. Vol 34
Decreasing Quality in Construction
In the modern estern world, quality construction is generally taken for granted. Although it was once expected that each member of a town or village participate in construction. few people today are involved in the building of their own homes. Only a small percentage of the population is involved in the construction of the roads on which the majority of the population drives. It is a vast minority of people that have played any part in the creation of the structures in which they live, work, or shop. To the average person, there is little connection made mentally between the solid floors supporting his or her weight many stories above the ground, or the protective roof keeping out the elements overhead, and the actual labor which was put into these things. If the construction process is flawless, then no one will have to think about it…
(2003, August 19) China launches crackdown on fake, inferior construction products. People's daily Online. Retrieved February 27, 2005 from http://english.people.com.cn/200308/19/eng20030819_122575.shtml
Chini, A.R., & Brown, B.H., & Drummond, E.G. (1999, April) Journal of Construction Education. ASC Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference, California Polytechnic State University. Retrieved February 27, 2005 from http://asceditor.unl.edu/archives/1999/chini99.htm
C-Risk. (2001) Construction defect. C-Risk Consultants in Risk Management. Retrieved February 27, 2005 from http://www.c-risk.com/Construction_Risk/CR_CDs_01.htm
Garrity, K. & Olson, S. (1998, May 5) Local groups trying to bring workers into construction. The Seattle Daily jounal of Commerce. Retrieved on February 27, 2005 from http://www.djc.com/special/constequip98/10038833.htm
IAMAW Views on Safety
The response of the American people to the terrorists attacks of 9/11 was felt one of compassion and resolve. Almost all Americans were associated in one or other manner in assisting the Nation come out of the dangerous impacts and become strengthened. It was curious to witness the way some hurried into the burning building and saving lives of their fellow workers, friends and strangers. While many measures have been undertaken to safeguard the security of Americans and continuance of the way of life, the workers confront stringent security policies on the job and sometimes loss of civil rights. (Worksite Security: IAM Headquarters)
The International Association for Machinists and Aerospace Workers -- IAM& AW as well as other institutions are watchful of the legislation and presidential orders against possible violation of bargaining and civil rights. They found the workplace security to be more embarrassing to the…
"Contact Lens Use in a Chemical Environment" (11 July, 2005) Retrieved from http://www.iamaw.org/content.cfm?cID=4866 Accessed 16 September, 2005
'Ergonomic, OSHA and EPA Update" (April/May, 2003) Trade Winds. Vol: 51; No: 2.
Retrieved from http://www.iamll1781.org/pdf/tradewinds/aprilmay03.pdf
Accessed 17 September, 2005
In his own words he is -- "more like a chef, because I bring my personal taste in sound." (Waves. com (b))
6) Who were/are the engineer's important artists?
Some of the most noted works were for these musicals -- "Genesis the Lamb Lies Down on Broadway & a Trick of the Tail are masterpieces the others are -- Deep Purple Machine Head, Frampton Comes Alive, Led Zeppelin, the Who Quadrophenia, Pink Floyd Wish You Were Here, Def Leppard Hysteria and Chic Good Times." (Waves. com (b)). Some noted songs were Joe Cocker's Unchain My Heart album, Tina Turner's Foreign Affair album, remixes of Madonna's 'La Isla Bonita', Springsteen's 'Dancing in the Dark', 'Cover Me', and 'Born in the U.S.A.'. Carly Simon's Coming Around Again album and 12'Khan's Destiny album, the olling Stones' "Too Much Blood" and more like the ocky IV soundtrack, Some sound tracks he produced include the…
BBC. Chris Lord-Alge Biography. BBC, 2012,
Molly, M. Sound Sampling Protection and Infringement in Today's Music Industry" High
Tech. L.J. vol. 4, no. 1, 1989, pp: 147-151.
manager." The introduction describe " -development important a manager mix a bit coaching theories ( I a coaching I techniques Kolb' learning cycle techniques fuore managers improve ), I a part body essay real life examples managers coaching techniques -development successful ( describe techniques ).
The importance of self-development in becoming a manager
Self-development is defined first and foremost as an overall holistic desire to find one's freedom and the desire to connect with one's self and own sense of worth, integrity and happiness so as to enjoy abundant happiness both at home and at work. Self-development in simpler terms is that amazing quest / journey that a person embarks on; a point of realization when all the pieces of a person's life fall together and they finally remove their own self limitations and inhibitions that hinder or stop any person more so a manager from achieving greatness. This definition…
BRUCE, H.A. 1938. Self-development: how to build self-confidence, a handbook for the ambitious, New York, Three Sirens Press.
BRUCE, H.A. 2010. Self-Development: A Handbook for the Ambitious, Whitefish, Kessinger Publishing, LLC.
BYNUM, W.F.A.P., R. (ed.) 2005. Oxford Dictionary of Scientific Quotations, London: Oxford University Press.
CLELAND, D. & IRELAND, L. 2006. Project Management: Strategic Design and Implementation, New York, McGraw-Hill.
The Navajo Indians also referred to as Dine are semi-nomadic people. It is interesting to note that Navajo people are at times known as 'Holy Earth People (Iverson, 2002). This comes from their beliefs in supernatural beings as well as traditional practices of ritual songs and dance. Navajo people are found in north-eastern areas of Arizona and north-western region of New Mexico (Iverson, 2002) .the regions where the Navajo people live in arid and desert areas that have minimal rainfall. The Navajo people are highly family oriented people, and have a rich culture that is full of ceremonies and other traditions. This paper looks at the history of pastoralists of the Navajo people, their beliefs and religious practices and kinship, sickness and healing, which are important elements with the culture of Navajo people.
The traditions and practices of a society, which are to some…
Haile, B (1993). Origin Legend of the Navaho Enemy Way: Text and Translation. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Iverson, P. (2002). Dine: A History of the Navajo. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Kluckhohn, C and Leighton, D (1960). The Navaho. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Sander, D (1979). Navaho Symbols of Healing. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
To some, that suggests that college is a more viable alternative for many of those who would otherwise have sought jobs in the manufacturing sector previously.
However, there are at least two reasons that such a conclusion may be invalid. First, while many manufacturing jobs have disappeared, many other types of technical jobs opportunities have emerged from numerous new technologies (Klein, 2012). Many of them require vocational degrees and certifications but no college degrees. For many people without specific interests in vocational applications of any college degrees being considered, training programs for these types of jobs is much less expensive, quicker, and more likely to lead to satisfying employment options than a college diploma in a random academic area or one of great intellectual value but few employment prospects outside of academia (Klein, 2012).
Second, vocational training, in general, has changed significantly in the last several decades. Specifically, whereas vocational…
Coy, P. (2009). "The lost generation." Business Week (October 19, 2009): 33-35.
Ewing, J. (2009). "Germany's answer: The apprentice." Business Week (October 19,
Hay, J. (2013). Question of 'Is college worth it?' weighs on local students. The Press
BSN Degree: Pathway to Professional Nursing
BSN Pros and Cons
Nursing education goals must adapt to changes in healthcare policy in order to better serve the needs of patients. Beginning in 1965, the American Nurses Association took a position that promoted academic degree programs as a way to foster the development of an autonomous nursing profession. This position necessarily rejected the value of the hospital-based diploma programs in existence at the time. This policy was based on the perceived need to improve the quality of patient care by creating professional nurses trained to take on a variety of roles, including healthcare management, nursing education, and nursing research. Although there is real value in earning an associate degree in nursing, the BSN degree is the requisite entry point for anyone interested in professional nursing and the many roles that entails. The BSN degree is also a prerequisite for further career development…
Ashford, Ellie. (2011, Mar. 28). Data show value of associate degree RN programs. CommunityCollegeTimes.com. Retrieved 12 Sep. 2013 from http://www.communitycollegetimes.com/Pages/Workforce-Development/Federal-data-demonstrate-value-of-associate-degree-RN-programs.aspx .
Blegen, Mary A., Vaughn, Thomas E., and Goode, Colleen J. (2001). Nurse experience and education: Effects on quality of care. Journal of Nursing Administration, 31(1), 33-39.
Chang, Yun-Kyung and Mark, Barbara A. (2009). Antecedents of severe and nonsevere medication errors. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 41(1), 70-78.
Donley, Rosemary and Flaherty, Mary Jean. (2002). Revisiting the American Nurses Association's first position on education for nurses. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 7(2). Retrieved 11 Sep. 2013 from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Volume72002/No2May2002/RevisingPostiononEducation.aspx .
There are points in every person's life where they might feel that things are quickly spiraling out of control. People must be self-confident and self-reliant in order to get ahead in this life. This understanding tends to create relationships where we push people away. When trouble comes, it is possible to find ourselves alone, so bent upon personal progress that we neglect interpersonal relationships. Sometimes it is simply impossible to keep going alone. t is necessary to find people that can be counted upon because no one completely succeeds without the help of others. n my life, it was within the business world where someone reached out and gave me a much needed lifeline and helped me overcome a situation which simply was unable to deal with on my own.
After graduating from high school in the year 1988 decided to attend a two-year college. At that time was…
I was involved in a project with The Barnes Foundation Museum. I estimated, negotiated and received a purchase order in October of 2010 to work with this museum. The contract amount of the project was for $525,000, a large sum. It was my company's responsibility to install of the security system in the museum, including hardware. I felt very personally excited at the beginning of the project. Also, it was much needed important and purportedly profitable work for our company. After about a month, that feeling of excitement quickly turned to nervousness and constant beleaguered communication from the foreman of the project about the many problems. Another, month had gone by and the project that I had instigated was turning into the nightmare of my professional life. I had never experienced anything as dysfunctional as a project manager.
It was just after Christmas of that year and I had to provide my superior with a cost report on how many hours the project consumed and the amount of materials we had so far devoted to the project. In the meantime it was quite obvious to all that my estimate was far from accurate. I was in the fight of my life. After, a meeting the owners of the company I work for and I came up with a plan about how we could move forward. We reached out for help from a private consultant who identified where the estimate was low and told my boss what to expect over the next twenty months, the expected length of the rest of the construction. One morning I woke up with sharp pains in my stomach and a high fever. Something was obviously not right. My wife drove me to the emergency room and where it was determined that my colon had burst into abscess. There were severe ramifications for this including the need for surgery.
Once again, taking too much upon myself led to a damaging situation where my future was in jeopardy. My parent's advice about my uncle came back to me from so long ago and I reached out to others for aid. I have had to learn the same lesson twice in my life: to get the help you need, you must be willing to ask for it.
Sociology research review and critique: "oyz to Men"
Anoop Nayak's 2003 sociological study "oyz to Men: masculinities, schooling and labour transitions in de- industrial times" examines the adaptation (or lack thereof) of a representational group working-class ritish young men to a changing labor economy. Life in ritain has been profoundly altered due to shifts in the class structure. There is a dearth of stable factory jobs and a shift to "service sector economies, part-time work, fixed-term contracts and more 'flexible' patterns of labour" (Nayak 2003: 148). The study focuses specifically on the Northeast of England and details a specifically 'male' experience inside and outside of school. The perspective adopted is thus one of social constructivism, which seeks to understand how the subjects understand their own experiences in a social context and contextualizes those experiences within a wider cultural framework of interpretation which has many 'layers.'
The Northeast region was historically…
Nayak, Anoop. 2003. 'Boyz to Men': masculinities, schooling and labour transitions in de-
industrial times. Educational Review, 55(2): 147-158.
In order to understand the structural change and implementation of hybrid organizations in public administration it is necessary to gain a comprehension of what defines hybrid organizations as opposed to public and private organizations. Differences between these three types of organizations exist in managerial approaches to goals and rules, and they also vary in regards to effectiveness with achieving distinct aims and objectives (Lan and ainey, 1992). The extent to which these types of organizations are similar or differ illuminate organizational and managerial approaches that may function well for certain approaches but not for others.
A study conducted by Lan & ainey (1992) explored private, public, and hybrid organizations in order to assess and explore differences in regards to goals, rules, and effectiveness. The researchers sought to demonstrate specific factors involved in common assertions held with regard to private and public organizations by utilizing hybrid organizations as a…
Anheier, H.K. (2011). Governance and leadership in hybrid organizations: comparative and interdisciplinary perspectives. Centre for Social Investment (Draft for International Symposium at Heidelberg University, December 2011).
Battilana, J., Dorado, S. (2010). Building sustainable hybrid organizations: the case of commercial microfinance organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 53(6), 1419-40.
Boland Jr., R.J., Sharma, A.K., Afonso, P.S. (2008). Designing management control in hybrid organizations: the role of path creation and morphogenesis. Accounting, Organizations, and Society, 33, 899-914.
Evers, A. (2004). Mixed welfare systems and hybrid organisations -- changes in the governance and provision of social services. Sixth International Conference of the International Society for Third-Sector Research, 11-14 July, 2004.
Collaboration Work With John Cage
John Cage was a revolutionary artist that transcended his time and his generation. He was a man that refused to limit himself or his work in any way. eing a musician myself, I was certainly very appreciative of his radical and uncompromising musical style and his unique willingness to take great chances in his work. However, after further research I have realized that I had only come to regard a small sliver of Mr. Cage's true mastery. While my musical penchants drew me specifically to his melodic concoctions, I was unaware of his other talents in the genres of poetry, painting, printmaking, philosophy and composition. Through extensive examination of his remarkable and groundbreaking works in these artistic arenas, I began to realize Mr. Cage's genuine and complete genius. The vast scope of his artistic capacity did make it a bit difficult to decide on which…
Cage, John. "An Autobiographical Statement." Southwest Review 17.1 (1991).
John Cage: From Zero. Dirs. Andrew Culver and Frank Scheffer. Perf. John Cage. 2004.
John Cage: One11 with 103. Dir. John Cage. Perf. John Cage. 2006.
Kozinn, Allan. "John Cage." The New York Times 28 July 2009.
The fifteenth-century Spanish travelers who embarked on voyages of discovery and conquest in the Americas expected to encounter primitive savage races. Instead, they found advanced civilizations with intricately designed cities, complex social hierarchies and accurate methods of calculating calendars. But despite this evidence, the Spaniards used the differences between the two sets of cultural beliefs and practices as proof of the inferiority of the Andean civilizations. Because of this backwardness, the Spanish believed that colonization was needed to bring "civilization" to the new world. Susan Ramirez described this Eurocentrism as a "disregard of others' cultures and identities" (Ramirez, 10-11).
This paper applies Ramirez's critique of Eurocentrism by looking at the civilization of the Chimu, a powerful coastal kingdom in Northern Peru. By looking at the Chimu religion and social structure - as evidenced in their ceramic art and in their architecture - this paper posits that the Chimu…
Kubler, George. The Art and Architecture of Ancient America: The Mexican, Maya and Andean Peoples. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990.
Leicht, Hermann. Pre-Inca Art and Culture. New York: Orion Press, 1960.
Mason, J. Alden. The Ancient Civilizations of Peru. New York: Penguin Books, 1979.
McIlvee, Rose. "A catacomb of palace/tombs defined ancient Peruvian leaders." (December 4, 1998). Indiana University Homepage. Retrieved November 25, 2002 at http://www.iuinfo.indiana.edu/HomePages/120498/text/conrad.htm
Cognitive Approach to Teaching with Technology
Throughout the history of the study of education and educational philosophies, many different approaches have been employed. The educational theories developed by John Dewy, Lev Vygotsky, Jerome runer, and Jean Piaget have culminated to create an approach that is known today as the Cognitive Approach to learning. This particular approach proposes that learning takes place in what is referred to as "the zone of proximal development." It is within this zone that a teacher explores what the child needs assistance with and what he does not. Ideally, the teacher provides a challenge which is slightly harder than the preceding challenge, thus creating a "intellectual scaffolding" which the student will use to climb through their developmental phases.
Generally this approach employs real life problem solving, cooperative groups, and projects which require solutions instead of those which focus on instructional sequences. The cognitive approach feels as…
Conway, Judith. (1997) Educational Technology's Effect on Models of Instruction. Retrieved February 12, 2003. Website: http://copland.udel.edu/~jconway/EDST666.htm
Huitt, Bill. (1997) Educational Psychology Interactive: The Cognitive System. Retrieved February 12, 2003. Website: http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whitt/col/cogsys/cogsys.html
Wilson, Brent (1996) Cognitive Teaching Models. Retrieved February 12, 2003. Website: http://carbon.cudenver.edu/'bwilson/hndbkch.html
Cole, Peggy (1991) Cognitive Teaching Models. Retrieved February 12, 2003. Website: http://carbon.cudenver.edu/'bwilson/cogapp.html
Education in America
The seventeenth century has been called, as an age of faith, and for the colonists a preoccupation with religion, as probably right. The religious rebel of the sixteenth century was severe and shaking as its impact was felt both on the continent as well as in America. However, intelligent Americans of the seventeenth century thought and realized that education could, and may be should, be a handmaiden to religion. Yet, humanism was there more than religion in the intellectual diet of the educated Americans 1.
The humanists preceded their work at a stable speed, which, affected education of northern, middle & southern colonies of America. However, many argued that without much attention given to education, and without even realizing that the books comprised illustrations of better life were taught into schools in order to affect the life and mind of students, how could the aspiration of humanism…
1. George R. Waggoner; Barbara Ashton Waggoner. Education in Central America
University Press of Kansas. Lawrence, KS. 1971
2 H.E. Butler. Institutes of Oratory. Cambridge: Loeb Classical Library, Harvard
University Press, 1921, 4 vols.
Employment -- the Morality of the Contract between Employee and Employer
Before entering into a contract for employment, an employees' first concern is usually to gain a living wage, then to gain experience in a particular profession, and perhaps finally to gain advancement within a particular corporate structure, industry, or trade. An employer's main concern in hiring an employee is usually if the employee can perform the job the employee is being hired to perform, if he or she will be deserving of the wage he or she is will be paid, and if he or she will stay for the necessary hours and period of time. However, once the employee has made a commitment to work and the employer has made a commitment to pay the employee for a period of time, the relationship and ratio of obligations invariably grows murkier. hat obligation does the employer have…
Franklin, Benjamin "From the Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin" Retrieved on April 5, 2005 at http://www.wwnorton.com/secure/tindall/ch3/resources/documents/franklin.htm .
Franklin, Benjamin. "Benjamin Franklin, How I became a printer in Philadelphia" http://www.ku.edu/carrie/docs/texts/franklin_how.html
Locke, John. "Two Treatises of Government" (1690) Retrieved on April 5, 2005 at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1690locke-sel.html .
Winthrop, John "A Modell of Christian Charity" (1630) Retrieved on April 5, 2005 at http://history.hanover.edu/texts/winthmod.html .
athletic coach I have garnered a wide variety of skills, as well as an extensive understanding of the standard practices and procedures an individual in the field of exercise science should possess. My past experiences have provided me with substantial knowledge of the principles involved in the prevention and care of athletic injuries. With the following, I hope to illustrate that my experiences and subsequent research have provided me with a broad awareness of typical athletic injuries and treatments as they apply to exercise science.
When a member of my dance squad sprained her ankle it became necessary for me to tape it as to provide additional support. I employed the traditional Gibney basket weave procedure. This consists of an interwoven network of stirrup strips "which cover the plantar surface of the hindfoot and extend proximally on both the medial and lateral aspects of the leg, and horseshoe strips, which…
Boyle, Daniel J.M.D. Sports Medicine for Parents and Coaches. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1999.
Brown, Lee E. And Vance A. Ferrigno. Training for Speed, Agility, and Quickness. New York: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, 2000.
Garrick, James G.M.D. And Peter Radetsky, Ph.D. Anybody's Sports Medicine Book. Toronto: Ten Speed Press, 2000.
Levy, Allan M.M.D. And Mark L. Fuerst. Sports Injury Handbook. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1993.
Craft in America
Work Sheet #8
List the names of the artists in this particular video of the Craft in America Series on PBS
The artists, apprentices, and students mentioned, are from this YouTube Playlist:
Joseph "Ronnie' Pringle is a blacksmith working in Simmons Forge. In the episode, he talks about apprenticeship and camp. Another kind individual paid for his camp experience. He discusses his three years working as a blacksmith. He also shows gratitude for the camp experience and the merit badges he earned there.
Vernon Owens is a potter. He works in Jugtown Pottery. In the episode, he discusses the groundhog kiln. Essentially, it is a kiln placed in a dug out trench. He runs around 150 small pieces in the kiln. He also mentions cutting back the kiln from 15 feet to 12 feet.
The next artists are Calder and Julie. They are students.…
Human esource Management Analysis - Case study of ASDA PLC
Management of human resource or "people working in an organization" is the most acute problem that faces managers nowadays. Today, it is no doubt that this is the leading cause of worries that nearly every other organization has to contend with. When the effects of organizational culture and structure; or group, or an individual are considered in light of the performance of the organization then such a study is referred to as organizational behavior. To this extent, such a study is an attempt to provide adequate definition of the efficiency and performance factors of the organization. Two most important performance factors that almost correlate are organizational culture and organizational structure, and they both principally define the desirable structure an organization should have in order to spur performance to more than average. Basically, job satisfaction and employee turnover have everything to…
Bolden, R. (2004). What is leadership? Leadership southwest Research Report, pp 5-7 and 28-30
Burke, R. And Cooper, C. (2007). The new world of work and organizations: Implications for human resource management; Human Resource Management Review, Vol. 16, No 2, p 83-85
Gilmore, S. And Williams, S. (2009). Human Resource Management. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Glassdoor. (2013). ASDA - Lack of organizational structure and companies three main principles are just words. [Online] Available at:
Education in the East and West
The difference between education in the East and the West is primarily a difference in culture. Today, cultural differences are less pronounced than they were a century ago. Globalized society has seen cultures meld and melt into one another, so that in many senses the East resembles the West in more ways than one (Igarashi). However, deeply rooted cultural cues still represent a fundamental reason for existing educational differences between the East and the West. This paper will describe these differences and show why they exist.
Medieval Guilds were important to production standards in the time of the Renaissance. For example, "in places where guilds were strong, they exercised strict oversight over training" (Hansen). In fact, the education and apprenticeship of the Renaissance was a highly skilled exercise that began at the youngest age and often required more than a decade of training.
Li, Jin. Cultural Foundations of Learning: East and West. UK: Cambridge, 2012.
Li's book is very helpful in understanding the differences between Eastern and Western education: it highlights cultural influences in the West, from the Greeks, and in the East, from Confucius and Buddha, etc. It looks at how religion and science have both played a part in where East and West are educationally speaking.
Hostile working environment is when an employee makes the workplace environment uncomfortable for another employee by behavior that is judged to be threatening or harassing. For example, by intentionally blocking a co-worker's path at work or by posting offensive images on his desk so that the co-worker will see or using language that is upsetting to another co-worker -- all of this would be considered creating a hostile working environment. Quid pro quo sexual harassment occurs when a "this for that" arrangement is put on the table by a boss or manager -- for example, a raise or a higher level position within the company in exchange for sexual favors. This is sexual harassment.
Three specific steps does that the EEOC encourages are to:
Clearly communicate a zero tolerance policy
Establish an effective grievance process
Take immediate and appropriate action when employee complains.
The first step requires management to explain…
Mental health practitioners' clinical supervision began similar to the practice of "apprenticeship" in other areas. Apprentices or pupils possessing basic skills and knowledge would become proficient in work through observation, assisting the accomplished professional in that field, and receiving his/her feedback. The belief was that, since the "master" excelled at the job, his/her supervisory and teaching skills would be just as good. However, this is not true always. Experts in the field have realized today that, despite counseling and clinical supervision having a lot in common (including the ability of engaging in effective interpersonal relationships), these two tasks employ unique and different skills. In other words, an expert clinician will not invariably be an expert supervisor, without adding supervisory skills and knowledge training and experience. Moreover, the specialist-apprentice supervision concept induces a power hierarchy that favors the specialist or coach as "authority" in the field; this dynamic receives…
Bernard, J. M., & Goodyear, R. K. (2014). Fundamentals of clinical supervision. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Bernard, J., & Goodyear, R. (1992). Fundamentals of clinical supervision. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Borders, L. D., & Brown, L. L. (2005). The new hand of counseling supervision. Mahwah, NJ: Lahaska Press.
Borders, L. D., DeKruyf, L., Fernando, D. M., Fernando, H. L., Hays, D. G., Page, B., & Welfare, L. E. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.acesonline.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/ACES - Best-Practices-in-clinical-supervision-document-FINAL.pdf
Training and Development Plan / Employees' Training and Development Plan
Justify the use of a needs assessment of your company's proposed employee customer service training, stressing five (5) ways in which such an assessment would expose any existing performance deficiencies
Develop a customer service training implementation plan and determine the method of training (i.e., presentation, discussion, case study, discovery, role play, simulation, modeling, or on-the-job training).
Justify why you selected the training method that you did
Propose two (2) ways to motivate an employee who has no interest in attending a training class
Develop a survey to collect feedback from the employees who attend the training
Justify the use of a needs assessment of your company's proposed employee customer service training, stressing five (5) ways in which such an assessment would expose any existing performance deficiencies
In many businesses, particularly in the retail industry, one of the ways one…
Barbazette, J. (2006). Training Needs Assessment: Methods, Tools, and Techniques. Volume 1. USA: John Wiley & Sons.
Hooker, B.J. (2015). Retail Customer Service Training: Ready-made Step-by-Step Lessons Made Easy For You. Australia: Australian eBook Publisher.
Lauby, S.J. (2005). Motivating Employees. USA: American Society for Training and Development.
Richason, O.W. (2015). How to Implement Customer Service Training With Employees. The Hearst Newspapers LLC. Retrieved from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/implement-customer-service-training-employees-1119.html on 19th November, 2015.
ColonialWebb is a construction company that has developed to become a leader in the Mid-South through superior construction as well as installation and service of developing mechanical systems. The company has experienced tremendous growth and profitability across its operations because of various factors including its unparalleled and wide range of capabilities, industry experience, and technical expertise. The company is operating in the construction industry, which is a branch of the commercial enterprise sector that focuses on the development of buildings and mechanical systems. This industry is regarded as one of the booming industries across the globe given the proliferation of real estate properties and is expected to continue growing in the foreseeable future. However, it is characterized by a increase in skills shortage, which has enhanced the demand for competent and productive construction workforce.
ColonialWebb has currently advertised for the position of Helpers for its commercial construction projects…
Learning in theory and practice: Vygotsky’s ZPD and physical education in primary education
Age-graded schooling is one of the most common and conventional features of today’s academic environment. For younger learners in the primary education levels, this separation of young children from adolescents may seem on the face of it like a common sense approach to education—yet, as Gray and Feldman (2004) point out, separation such as this actually is more restrictive to the educative experience than it is facilitative. The reason is found in Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development (ZPD) theory. Vygotsky was an early 20th century Soviet thinker who articulated the idea that individuals learn most effectively when they are aided by other skilled individuals who know how to perform a certain task. Child learners can benefit, for example, from being placed in a zone of proximal development: alone or confined to a sphere in which they…
The differential earning gap between men and women reflects that no matter what level the salary; gaps exist.
Education levels have led to numerous changes in reducing the gap between the genders vs. The gaps between the genders with less education. The Conference oard of Canada cites the following differences between the different levels of education or training and the differentials between the genders:
Women aged 25 to 29 holding a graduate or professional diploma and working on a full-time, full-year basis earned 96 cents for every dollar earned by their male counterparts in 2005.
Women with a bachelor's degree earned 89 cents for every dollar earned by their male counterparts.
Women with a registered apprenticeship or trades certificate earned only 65 cents for every dollar earned by their male counterparts.
Young women with no high school diploma earned 67 cents for every dollar earned by young men with the…
Bibliography www.scwist.ca "Women still earn less than men for the same work, Canadian census say" Fran
Donaldson. Society for Canadian Women in Science and Technology. 2 May 2008
Web. 28 March 2010.
www.canadianlabour.ca "New report reveals a widening gap between men and women in Canada" Jeff Atkinson. Canadian Labour Congress. 6 March 2008. Web 28 March
A person find that grad school, where a good chunk of the course load is self-regulating work, research, or study, requires a lot more initiative and individual responsibility than ever before. This is one area where being more mature might give a person a benefit over students who have just left undergrad school. Knowing that one must stay on top of their classes, assignments, course requirements and graduation requirements is a key. It is also very important to realize that it is up to the individual to look for and seize occasions to network, have hands-on experiences, publish or otherwise go beyond what is required on the syllabus (Danesco, 2009).
Many problems can be avoided by doing some advance planning. It helps to have a good idea of what one wants to specialize in, and preferably a couple of particular research projects that they might like to work on. It…
Azuma, Ronald T. (1999). Excellent advice about graduate school life. Retrieved April 2, 2010,
Danesco, B. (2009). How To Address the Challenges of Returning to Graduate School. Retrieved April 2, 2010, from How to do things Web site:
It is my recommendation that Matt, encourage Josh to stay in Chicago until he was promoted. After receiving his promotion, Josh could then apply to the Ambassador program. This would also give his family a chance to plan for a possible overseas relocation.
Eric Wong and Michael Lao
Eric does not seem like a good fit for BCG; he is passive in asking for help or staffing assignments, he is perceived to be unpolished and has been unable to balance life and work. Eric is intimidated by his mentor and refers to him as Mr. Lao. Mr. Lao, has also failed Eric -- he has made minimal efforts to provide support and is passively waiting for Eric to come to him. Some of this passivity by Eric and Mr. Lao could be cultural and/or environmental to the Hong Kong office. My recommendation for Eric is to overcome his fears and…
The amended program integrates compensation, benefits, work-life, performance and recognition, and development and career opportunities, in the total rewards package making it more relevant and flexible for today's employers and employees. Financial remuneration and benefits are expected components of a compensation package. The last 3 mentioned bear further scrutiny.
The more progressive organizations have been incorporating programs that are designed to help their employees do their job more effectively. These businesses have come to realize that when they support their workers -- their workers support them. Examples of work-life programs include on-site daycare and flexible scheduling. Technology and a global economy have forced companies and employees to change their expectations of each other -- and for the most part this has improved opportunities for both.
Studies have shown that employees demonstrate greater satisfaction in their jobs when there is a recognition component to a compensation package. According to Christofferson (2006)…
Christofferson, J, & King, B. (2007). Breaking down the barriers, part 2. Workspan, p. 1-8.
Mercer (2004). Striking the right balance: Total rewards that work. New York:
Under these circumstances, an ethical dilemma is born. Should society control its development or leave it to chance? And in the case that it should control it, which categories should it help?
If the person in the above mentioned example is helped, we could assume that in a certain way, the person who was not helped because he or she already disposed of the necessary means, the latter one might be considered as having been subject to reverse discrimination. Yet we ought to look at the picture from an utilitarian point-of-view. Under these circumstances we might state that society as an overall system has more benefits from helping the categories which are in bigger need of help (for example the ones mentioned in the principles of affirmative action).
ut what are the exact principles of affirmative action: let us take a look at them and analyze them. Title VI, section…
"Access, equity and diversity, American association for affirmative action," Retrieved October 27, 2010 from http://www.affirmativeaction.org/resources.html
Anderson, TH. The pursuit of fairness: a history of affirmative action, Oxford University Press, 2005
"Affirmative action" in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Retrieved October 27, 2010 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/affirmative-action/
"Affirmative action- pros and cons, the origins of, legal treatment of, political and social debates, the future" in Encyclopedia. Jrank. Org., Retrieved October 25, 2010 from http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/5916/Affirmative-Action.html
The contract between the employer and the employee develops narrows the areas that these rights address. Therefore, the right to privacy can be limited regarding the e-mail and Internet use. As one knows, many companies do not allow their employees to surf the Internet, or to send e-mails to outside parties, or to visit certain Internet websites. These companies provide intranets, designed in order to help employees communicate and inform about certain issues.
Employment law also refers to a very important aspect that refers to discrimination. In other words, federal laws prohibit employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. There are also a series of acts that develop the aspects that the federal laws refer to, in order to create a work environment that provides equal opportunities.
The discriminatory practices that are prohibited by these laws include: hiring and firing, compensation, assignment, or classification of employees,…
1. Berman, E. et al. (2010). Human Resource Management in Public Service: Paradoxes, Processes, and Problems. SAGE Publications. Retrieved October 3, 2010 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=PuuI1hgJJrgC&printsec=frontcover&dq=paradoxes+and+problems+of+human+resources+management&source=bl&ots=GJfr9bwhCi&sig=ZzEnMrnmAi-KNkRzRD5GOeiZfeA&hl=ro&ei=WVKoTM3UIIaWswbBobivDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CB8Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=paradoxes%20and%20problems%20of%20human%20resources%20management&f=false .
2. Employment Law (2010). FindLaw. Retrieved October 3, 2010 from http://smallbusiness.findlaw.com/employment-employer/employment-employer-overview/employment-employer-overview-101.html .
3. Federal Equal Employment Opportunity Laws (2009). The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Retrieved October 3, 2010 from http://www.eeoc.gov/facts/qanda.html .
Being a parent isn't easy, offer a helping hand so parents can rest or spend time together. 3) Help yourself. When things pile up take time out so you don't get to the point of feeling overwhelmed or out of control. 4) Don't get frustrated if your baby cries. 5) Get involved, assist in community efforts to develop services to meet the needs of healthy children and families. 6) Promote programs at school to teach children, parents, and teacher's strategies to be safe. 7) Help develop parenting recourses at your local library. 8) Monitor your child's television and video viewing, watching violent behavior can harm children. 9) Volunteer at a local child abuse prevention program. 10) eport suspected abuse or neglect. Education, community involvement and cooperation are significant factors in the effort to prevent children from suffering maltreatment.
Levi, B.H. & Portwood, S.G. (2011, Spring). easonable suspicion of child…
Levi, B.H. & Portwood, S.G. (2011, Spring). Reasonable suspicion of child abuse: Finding a common language. Journal of law, medicine & ethics. Vol. 39, Issue 1, 62-69. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=cf7e5f19-4670-42ea-b115-83ef3ac5d27b%40sessionmgr115&vid=4&hid=112
Patton, W.W. (2011). Child protective services -- Histirical overview. State University.com. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1828/Child-Protective-Services.html
Ten Ways to Help Prevent Child Abuse. (NDI). Prevent child abuse America. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from http://www.preventchildabuse.org/publications/parents/downloads/ten_ways_to_prevent.pdf
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). Child maltreatment 2009. U.S. department of health and human services. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/pubs/cm09/cm09.pdf
In terms of their personal attributes, engineers should be natural problem solvers (Johnston, McGregor, & Taylor, 2000).
ecause modern engineering involves such powerful and dangerous forces, professional engineers have a profound ethical responsibility to establish appropriate principles to ensure safety. The consequences of failure in engineering can result in injury or death to human beings, or even to entire human communities (Vee & Skitmore, 2003). For example, bad engineering decisions in bridge, highway, and building design and construction can threaten the lives of thousands of human beings every day. To protect society from poor engineering, the field has established formal educational requirements and a test of professional competence. Professional engineering licenses require satisfaction of qualifying educational programs and a minimum score on an objective licensing exam (Johnston, McGregor, & Taylor, 2000).
Once in professional practice, engineers must also adhere to the code of ethics used to establish important standards and…
Harris, CE., Pritchard, MS., and Rabins, MJ. Engineering Ethics: Concepts and Cases.
(2008). Cengage Publishing.
Institution of Engineers Australia (2000). Engineers Australia Code of Ethics. Accessed 1 Sept 2010, from: