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Arab Spring was a revolution started mainly by youth and spread over the Arab and North African countries. The purpose was to attain change in the way the countries were run and in doing so attain better living conditions. Morocco was one of the nations involved in the revolution and it succeeded in attaining some form of change. The constitutional and parliament alterations limited the powers of the king along with giving more independence to the judiciary and the parliament. Despite the political distress, the country managed to have a stable and progressing economy. However, the unemployment still remains a crucial problem for many young people. The women in Morocco were specifically highlighted in this issue. Gender equality has been looked into and is making progress with positive reforms.
eview of literature
The literature used was mainly articles from magazines and newspapers as this was a major issue in the…
Achy, L., Touhtou, R., & Hachimi, M.E. (2012). State and Civil Society in Morocco: Assessing the Arab Spring Effect. Retrieved from http://www.carnegieendowment.org/2012/07/17/state-and-civil-society-in-morocco-assessing-arab-spring-effect/cnn3
Bauer, M., & Schiller, T. (2012) the Arab Spring in 2012. Center for Applied Policy Research. 1.
Belhorma, Souad. (2011) The Impact of the Arab Spring: Spotlight on the Future of Moroccan Women. Retrieved from http://www.moroccoworldnews.com/2011/12/17635/the-impact-of-the-arab-spring-spotlight-on-the-future-of-moroccan-women/
Norgaard, Ole. (2001). Democracy, Democratization and Institutional Theory. Retrieved from http://www.demstar.dk/papers/democracy.pdf
Arab Spring in Syria
The Middle East is a region which has been rife with violence and political upheaval since its original inhabitation millennia ago. Peoples who desire power over others have used force and violence in order to subvert the civil rights of others and expand their dominion over more land. Throughout the latter half of the twentieth century advances in technology, including weapons technologies has only made the wars between factions even more deadly, leading to eradications of large numbers of the populations. Many countries in the Middle East have suffered because of leadership more interested in their own power than in the rights of the people. In each of these countries, there have also been groups dedicated to the spreading of democracy and the overthrowing of totalitarian regimes. These series of civil wars have become collectively known as the Arab Spring, since spring is the season traditionally…
Barnard, A. & Myers, S. (2012). Battle for Aleppo intensifies, as world leaders pledge new support for rebels. The New York Times.
Daftari, L. (2012). Iranian general admits 'fighting every aspect of a war' in defending Syria's
Assad. Fox News.
Edwell, P. (2012). The perils of history and antiquity in Syria. The Conversation. The Conversation Media Group. Retrieved from http://theconversation.com/the-perils-of-history-and-antiquity-in-syria-9003
Arab Spring: Jordan
The Middle East is an area of the world that has always been prone to uprisings and political turmoil, but that can be said of almost any area of the world given a specific time period. In the Arab world, there has been a lot of political change over the last century because the major players have changed so many times. Originally, it was the British who held a great deal of the territory as a part of their extensive empire, but all of that land was returned after the Second orld ar. Then the governments were largely puppets of estern democracies like those in Egypt and Iran. But, the new trend (happening at least since the Shah was deposed) is that Islamist religious leaders are the true theocratic rulers of countries with a de facto head who is the face of the nation, but has little…
Blanche, Ed. "Arab Spring and the Mukhabarat Moment." The Middle East 427 (2011, Nov.): 31-34. Print.
Blanche, Ed. "The Club of Kings." The Middle East 425 (2011, Aug/Sept): 28-31. Print.
de Borchgrave, Arnaud. "Beware the Arab Spring; Long-Time Israeli Diplomat Warns that Democracy will Morph into Islamism." The Washington Times (2011, 14 Dec): 804. Print.
Cotelesse, Chris. "A Costly Chill in the Air." The Humanist 71.5 (2011): 40-41. Print.
That means the radicals and terrorists that follow al Qaeda might have new opportunities to plan attacks against the est, because in the past, the dictators in Egypt and Tunisia held tight control over any activities by radicals or others. That said, it should be noted that the U.S. still has "deep connections" among small but economically powerful "monarchies, emirates and sheikdoms" in the Persian Gulf. In fact the U.S. has its Navy 5th Fleet headquarters in Bahrain, and the U.S. needs those strategic allies notwithstanding the lack of democratic policies in those countries.
In Egypt's revolution, dictator Mubarak was sent from power, but notwithstanding his brutal control over the population, he was an ally of the U.S. because he cooperated in the U.S. negotiations with Israel. And in fact Egypt and Israel signed a peace treaty in 1979, so Mubarak -- who went against public opinion in Egypt…
Anderson, Lisa. "Demystifying the Arab Spring." Foreign Affairs, 90.3 (2011): 1-7.
CBS News. "Arab Spring's uprisings reshape U.S. influence." Retrieved January 4, 2012, from http://www.cbsnews.com . 2011.
Damon, Arwa. "Syrian defector says government has lost control of 'human monsters'."
CNN.com. Retrieved January 5, 2012, from http://www.cnn.com .
The differences were in the response from government officials and what tactics were used by protestors to place increasing amounts of pressure on these regimes. (Anderson, 2011) (Goldstone, 2011)
Depending upon the definition of a real revolution, there are certain characteristics that might not qualify some countries under this kind of status. For example, in Tunisia and Egypt there were continuing demonstrations along with general strikes that shut down both countries. This forced these regimes to give up power, in an effort to meet the demands of the general public. In this aspect, the underlying amounts of violence were less severe (which is making these revolutions appear as if they do not fully qualify). (Anderson, 2011) (Goldstone, 2011)
While at other times, there have been tremendous amounts of blood shed among the demonstrators and military units. That is supposed to be stopping these protests against the government. In many cases,…
IOC says Muammar Gaddafi Killing may be a War Crime. (2011). BBC. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-16212133
Anderson, L. (2011). Demystifying the Arab Spring.
Goldstone, J. (2011). Understanding the Revolutions of 2011.
Affecting the Rest of the World
The Arab Spring can and will affect the rest of the world for the foreseeable future by acting as a representation of the will of the people over the tyranny of unpopular dictatorships. This spirit can already be seen in the populism sweeping through Europe and even in the U.S. Donald Trump (the billionaire candidate who embraced his “outsider” status by pledging to “drain the swamp” (Prupis, 2017) of Establishment politics in D.C.) won the election for president in 2016 over political mainstay Hillary Clinton, who represented both progressive liberalism and the status quo that had been carried on by Barack Obama for the 8 years prior. Trump’s victory was viewed as a moral victory for voters in the U.S. who wanted to send a message to D.C. that they wanted to see the bull let loose in the proverbial China shop: they wanted…
BBC. (2011). Tunisia suicide protester Mohammed Bouazizi dies. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-12120228
Chikhi, L. (2011). Algeria army should quit politics: opposition. Retrieved from https://af.reuters.com/article/topNews/idAFJOE70K02X20110121
Gobe, E. (2010). The Gafsa Mining Basin between Riots and a Social Movement: meaning and significance of a protest movement in Ben Ali\\\\'s Tunisia. Retrieved from https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00557826/document
Prupis, N. (2017). United States: Report says Trump breaking pledge to\\\\'drain the swamp\\\\'. Green Left Weekly, (1131), 15.
Radsch, C. (2014). Digital dissidence & Political change: Cyberactivism and citizen journalism in Egypt. (Doctoral Dissertation, American University).
Rubinstein, D. (2018). Ocasio-Cortez takes on the Amazon fight in New York. Retrieved from https://www.politico.com/states/new-york/albany/story/2018/11/22/ocasio-cortez-takes-on-the-amazon-fight-in-new-york-707205
Scott, J. M., & Carter, R. G. (2015). From Cold War to Arab Spring: mapping the effects of paradigm shifts on the nature and dynamics of US democracy assistance to the Middle East and North Africa. Democratization, 22(4), 738-763.
VanGrasstek, C. (2016). What will happen to US trade policy when Trump runs the zoo? (No. 03/2016). ECIPE Occasional Paper.
Arab Spring: the political movement
The overall incidents that have recently surfaced in the form of political revolts and instability within the Arab world have been termed as the 'Arab Spring'. This particular chain of events was lead primarily by the Jasmine revolution which began back in December 2010. The jasmine revolution basically meant to overrun the authoritative Tunisian administration which it was successful in doing and thus the revolution was then able to spread to the neighboring nations like Egypt, Syria and Libya. The Arab Spring has shown that there is an excessive and extensive need and demand for the rule of democracy as well as exercise of civil rights from within all the countries that have been included within the Arab Spring phenomenon and thus we see revolutions surfacing in all major regions like Tunisia, Libya, Egypt. This increased need and awareness has been the reason behind the…
Aa. V. (2011), The New Arab Revolt: What Happened, What It Means, and What Comes Next, Council on Foreign Relations, Foreign Affairs, Maggio-Giugno.
Brownlee, J.,Masoud, T. And Reynolds, A. (2013). The Arab Spring: the politics of transformation in North Africa and the Middle East. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lutterbeck, D. (2013). Arab Uprisings, Armed Forces, and Civil-Military Relations. Armed Forces & Society, Vol. 39, No. 1 (pp. 28 -- 52)
Arab Spring has shifted the political landscape of North Africa and the Middle East. Starting in Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt, the Arab Spring has often been described as a pro-democracy movement. It was characterized by massive political protests, organized largely by the use of social media, and led to a pan-regional revolution of sorts. Political leaders were overthrown, leading to disparate governments in each of the affected nations. The Arab Spring spread, partly due to social media but also due to more traditional methods of communication and information sharing, to the Middle East. Countries that have been impacted in one way or another include Syria, Bahrain, Yemen, Algeria, Jordan, Morocco, Oman, Iraq, Lebanon, Sudan, and Saudi Arabia (Angel, n.d.).
Undoubtedly, the Arab Spring has also altered the nature, focus, character, and goals of terrorism in the region. The types of changes that the Arab Spring has instigated, however, remain largely…
Angel, D. (n.d.). The Arab Spring and terrorism. Retrieved online: http://aladinrc.wrlc.org/bitstream/handle/1961/10403/Angel,%20Danielle-%20Fall%2011.pdf?sequence=1
Boghardt, L.P. (2013). Saudi Arabia: Outlawing terrorism and the Arab Spring. The Washington Institute. Dec 27, 2013. Retrieved online: https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/saudi-arabia-outlawing-terrorism-and-the-arab-spring
Cruickshank, P. (2011). Analysis: Why Arab Spring could be Al Qa'ida's fall. CNN. 21 Feb, 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.cnn.com /2011/WORLD/meast/02/21/arab.unrest.alqaeda.analysis/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Women in the Arab Spring
ole of Women in the Arab Spring
History of Women in the Arab World
Tunisian Example and Women's ole in the evolt
Egyptian Example and Women's ole in the evolt
Yemeni Example and Women's ole in the evolt
Libyan Example and Women's ole in the evolt
Common-ground of the Eminent Female Workers
The Arab Spring was a rude awakening for the world. It brought to light how simmering discontent among the masses can erupt into a volcano on the pretext of a seemingly insignificant event. Countries that were ruled by autocratic governments for decades, realized that they had had enough of oppression and that the time had come for them to change their lives.
While these countries have generally been considered conservative with regards to women's rights, it should be noted here that Islam is actually a religion of moderation and the values that are…
Cozzens, L. The Civil Rights Movement 1955-1965. 1998. Retrieved December 4, 2011, from African-American History: http://fledge.watson.org/~lisa/
Crawford, J. Despite Arab Spring, women's rights tenuous, Senate panel told . 2011. Retrieved December 4, 2011, from CNN National Security Producer: http://articles.cnn.com/2011-11-02/us/us_arab-women-rights_1_equal-rights-human-rights-societies?_s=PM:U.S.
D'Amour, R. As Arab Spring Turns to Winter, Women Fear Pushback. IPS. 2011
Kelly, M. Civil War - History of the Civil War. Retrieved December 4, 2011, from http://americanhistory.about.com/od/civilwarmenu/Civil_War.htm
The presence of the Iranian nuclear problem on the agenda of the Security Council and as a topic for all discussions between heads of states has determined a reluctant attitude in terms of the way in which Iran conducts both its foreign and internal affairs. Despite the fact that Turkey is reluctant to create a situation in which Syria would eventually depend on the support of the Iranian side, given all the above, Turkey cannot afford to invest diplomatic and political efforts that would attract sufficient visibility both internal and external into a Syrian project that cannot rely on the strength and desire of the Asad regime to impose certain reforms that would reduce both the pressure and the expectations of the international community. Therefore, seeing that on the one hand, Syria is reluctant to undergo internal massive reforms and on the other hand is vulnerable to outside influence from…
Aydintasbas, Asli. Turkey's New Policy on Syria ? "Washington Institute for Near East Policy ." 5 Oct 2011. . 17 Dec 2911 .
AlJazeera. National coordination committee Live Blog. 2011. 16 Dec 2011 .
Cagaptay, Soner. "Under the Influence: Syria's Unique Relationship with Turkey." The Washington Institute for Near East Studies (2011).
Ghalioun, Burhan. Syria Opposition Leader Interview Transcript The Wall Street Journal. 2 Dec 2011.
Uprisings are a part of history. From the Greeks against the Persians to Americans against the British, revolutions are won and lost just as quickly as they are started. The Arab Spring region experienced several revolutions in 2010-2011. Some of these revolutions were somewhat successful (Tunisia and Yemen) while others were not (Egypt and Syria). What is clear about the Arab Spring uprisings is that many people needed things to change and they were willing to sacrifice it all, including their very lives to see it done.
The Arab revolts became a major source of news in 2011. What sparked the tragic and turbulent series of events began in 2010 with the self-immolation of a young fruit vendor by the nameof Mohamed Bouazizi. This singular event sparked a series of unparalleled demonstrations and protests in Tunisia. The success of which led to another wave of unrest in Egypt, spreading to…
Gelvin, James L. The Arab Uprisings. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. Print.
The Guardian,. "The Arab Spring: Made in Tunisia, Broken in Egypt." the Guardian. N.p., 2014. Web. 10 May 2016.
Williamson, Scott and Caroline Abadeer. "Protest, Uprising & Regime Change in The Arab Spring." Muftah. N.p., 2014. Web. 10 May 2016.
Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood was founded in 1928 when Great Britain was still in control of Egypt. World War I had effectively ended the Muslim caliphate, and it was this entity that the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood sought to restore. Even though there is broad recognition by the organization that this goal will not be quickly achieved with estimates considering several decades of effort will be needed to accomplish the objective.
A teacher from a middle class, educated family, Hasan al-Banna had participated in demonstrations against British colonial rule since he was a youth (Warner, 2013). Al-Banna was respected as both a preacher and an unorthodox thinker, attributes which led disgruntled workers from the Suez Canal zone to seek him out. Encouraged by their approach, al-Banna began a "pan-Islamic revival and solidarity movement" henceforth referred to as the Muslim Brotherhood (Warner, 2013).
According to Yasser El-Shimy, an Egypt and Middle East Analyst…
Alterman, J. B and McCants, W. (2015). Egypt: The search for stability, In J.B. Alterman, (Ed.), Religious Radicalism After the Arab Uprisings. Center for Strategic & International Studies. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. Retreived from http://csis.org/files/publication/150203_Alterman_ReligiousRadicalism_Web.pdf
Warner, A. (2013). An illustrated history of the Muslim Brotherhood: A half-century journey from the underground to the corridors of power. Slate. Retreived from http://www.slate.com/articles/life/history/2013/01/egypt_s_muslim_brotherhood_an_illustrated_history.html
____. (2014, December 6). Al-Qaeda's remaining leaders. New Asia, British Broadcasting Company (BBC). Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-south-asia-11489337
____. (2013, July 8). Muslim Brotherhood has long history in Egypt. [Robert Siegel Interviews Yasser El-Shimy, an Egypt and Middle East Analyst for the International Crisis Group and former diplomat of the Egyptian Ministry of Foreign Affairs]. Special Series: Political Crisis in Egypt. National Public Radio (NPR). Retreived from http://www.npr.org /templates/story/story.php?storyId=200104641
Thus, while the term "Arab" is useful for describing a particular group of people with a shared language, culture, and history, one cannot readily assume that all Arabs subscribe to a pan-Arabist ideology, especially in light of the often overlapping "Muslim world," which many Arabs would identify themselves a part of (above and beyond any shared connection due to their Arab heritage). In reality, a shared linguistic and cultural background is really the only thing that unites Arabs, but because the world's largely white, Christian reigning powers have for so long actively disenfranchised and brutalized the Arab world, either through direct action or proxies, this shared linguistic and cultural background has been the only unifying feature which allows for any resistance. In many ways, one may see the emerging democratic movements of the Arab Spring as the successful replacement of both pan-Arabism and pan-Islamism, because the desire for…
Goldschmidt, A., & Davidson, L. (2006). A concise history of the middle east. Boulder:
Kinninmont, J. (2008). The politics of chaos in the middle east. Middle East Policy, 15(4), 161-
More than 80% of all Arabs in the U.S. are legal citizens, thus creating an Arab-American cultural foundation consisting of over 3.5 million Americans (AAI, 2009). This single clustered group in reality consists of people from 22 countries like Egypt, Palestine, Morocco, and Lebanon. Today, a third of this population lives in California, New York, or Michigan, with 94% of all Arab-Americans living in urban areas. Only 5% of Arab-Americans are unemployed, and 46% have college degrees. Of all countries represented, over a third of all Arab-Americans are of Lebanese descent (AAI, 2009).
The first wave of Arab immigrants coming into the U.S. were clumped together and known as Syrian-Lebanese (Hajar and Jones, 2011). The majority of them were indeed of Lebanese, Christian descent, and their immigration fluctuated for decades from the late 19th century until the 1920's. hat initially brought them to the U.S. were stories told by…
Mamdani, Mahmood. Good Muslim, Bad Muslim: A Political Perspective on Culture and Terrorism. American Anthropologist, Vol. 104, No. 3 (Sept. 2002), pp. 766-775.
Leonard, Karen. American Muslims and Authority: Competing Discourses in a Non-Muslim State. Journal of American Ethnic History, Vol. 25, No. 1 (Fall 2005), pp. 5-30.
Salaita, Steven. Ethnic Identity and Imperative Patriotism: Arab-Americans before and after 9/11. College Literature, Vol. 32, No. 2 (Spring 2005), pp. 146-168.
Hajar, Paula, Jones, Sydney J. Lebanese Americans. http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Le-Pa/Lebanese-Americans.html Advameg Inc. 2011.
(Davis, 2001) That number is sure to have risen dramatically since Davis did her research.
The debates surrounding both the efficacy and the morality of racial profiling have created a lot of disagreement from many communities of color. Kabzuag Vaj is an organizer with the Asian Freedom Project in Madison, Wisconsin. The Asian Freedom Project has garnered hundreds of accounts of racial profiling of Southeast Asian youth over the past year. (Davis, 2001)
"Talking to the mainstream about racial profiling is hard," says Vaj. "The excuse people give us is extreme times demand extreme measures, whatever is necessary to catch the terrorists." (Davis, 2001) Organizers at People United for a etter Oakland (PUELO) also face similar concerns. They understand that although they are on all levels a multiracial organization, their campaign against racial profiling and police misconduct is simply inadequate to address the current political and sociological situation. "The fact…
Nicole Davis. 2001. The slippery slope of racial profiling. Color Lines. December 2001.
St. Petersburg Times, June 8, 2003. Aschroft's America. Editorial.
Anthony Romero. 2001. Letter to Attorney General Ashcroft. American Civil Liberties Union, Oct. 17, 2001.
New York Times, Mar. 13, 2002. Hundreds of Arabs still detained in U.S. Jails. From Reuters.
Cultural Diversity in United Arab Emirates Organizations
The purpose of the proposed study will be to evaluate the current levels of cultural diversity in United Arab Emirates (UAE) public and private sector organizations and their implications for UAE culture.
The proposed study will be guided by the following research questions:
What have been the recent trends in economic diversification in the UAE?
Is it possible to formulate optimal diversity levels for a given country?
Can there be too much diversity? How can it best be measured? If there is too much diversity, should it be curtailed? Why? How can it be curtailed?
What are the implications for UAE culture if current demographic patterns persist over the next 10 years? Twenty years? Fifty years?
esearch Problem and Scope
Today, it can be argued that the UAE is in danger of losing its cultural and religious heritage altogether. Indeed, the UAE is…
Balasubramanian, A (2010, Winter). 'Rebuilding Dubai: Post-bubble economic strategy.'
Harvard International Review, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 10-19.
Bartos, OJ & Wehr, P (2002). Using Conflict Theory. Cambridge, England: Cambridge
Jonas, M. (2007, August 5). 'The downside of diversity.' The Boston Globe, 3.
Economies of the UAE
Economics of the UAE
Current analysis of UAE Economy
Historical economic aspects
Discussion of basic economic indicators
GDP: per capita GDP; growth rate of GDP
Natural / Human resources & Infrastructure
Exchange ate Behavior and Forecasting
Demographics (age distribution)
Short-term and long-term prospects/forecasts for UAE Economy
Current analysis of UAE Economy:
The Persian Gulf states including Abu Dhabi, 'Ajman, Al Fujayrah, Ash Shariqah, Dubayy, Umm al Qaywayn, and a's al Qaywan are represented as UAE. The states follow an open economic and moderate political policy. The states are rich in oil reserves providing a structured support for their economic and social progress. The strong economic position of the states has enabled them to earn a competing position with the developed western countries. The continuous growth in economy has also enabled the businesses to invest in UAE. The governments of UAE are…
Al-Kaabi, M.K. (2012). The Strategic Alternatives of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Disruption of Maritime Traffic in the Arabian Gulf as a result of Iranian Threats to Close the Strait of Hormuz (Doctoral dissertation, Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School).
CIA. (2013). The world Fact Book. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
On the other hand, Israel, Jordan, and the United States were allied in their support of the Israeli state and Israel's land acquisitions during the Six-Day War. Eventually, the Sudan dropped out of the proposal, but, "By the end of 1971 the two leaders had taken soundings in Moscow, had appointed Egypt's war minister, General Muhammad Sadiq, supreme commander of both armies, and had reached agreement on broad strategy" (abil 22). They continued to gain support from the Soviet Union, knowing they needed support of a superpower to offset the military might Israel wielded in the area.
After the war, "Six Arab states, including Egypt, broke off diplomatic relations with Washington, and were subsequently drawn closer to the Soviet Union.28 Additionally, the 1967 war created another 200,000 Palestinian Arab refugees, and more than one million Arabs from this point on lived within Israeli borders" (Mork 21). This really changed the…
Ben-Ami, Shlomo. Scars of War, Wounds of Peace: The Israeli-Arab Tragedy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Cossali, Paul. "Arab-Israeli Relations 1967-2001." A Survey of Arab-Israeli Relations 1947-2001. Ed. David Lea. London: Europa, 2002. 39-283.
Mork, Hulda Kjeang. "The Jarring Mission: A Study of the UN Peace Effort in the Middle East, 1967-1971." University of Oslo. 2007. 2 June 2008. http://www.duo.uio.no/publ/IAKH/2007/58588/HuldaxMxrkxxMasteroppgavexixhistorie.pdf
Rabil, Robert G. Embattled Neighbors: Syria, Israel, and Lebanon. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2003.
This is also possibly the least well-documented phenomenon in the racializing of Arabs and Muslims leading to the widespread acceptance of profiling and related loss of civil liberties." (2002)
The work of Nicole J. Henderson (2001) entitled: "Law Enforcement & Arab-American Community Relations After September 11, 2001" reports a study in which Arabs living in the United States were interviewed. Henderson reports that when asked about hate crimes "...community respondents across sites mentioned fear of government policies, at times equating the detention of Arab men and special registration with hate crimes. Another leader felt that "before 9/11, there were always questions of bias from people -- from individuals -- but not ever about the government and the police." A business leader commented in response to whether or not hate crimes were a problem in his community, "Now we're dealing with another prejudice. Right now, this is a very serious problem…
El-Amine, Rami (2006) Anti-Arab Racism, Islamophobia, and the Anti-War Movement. Left Turn Magazine. 1 Oct. 2006.
Akram, Susan M. (2002) the Aftermath of September 11, 2001: The Targeting of Arabs and Muslims in America. Arab Studies Quarterly March 2002.
Ibish, Hussein and Stewart Anne (2003) Report on Hate Crimes and Discrimination Against Arab-Americans. The Post- September 11 Backlash. American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee. Online available at http://www.adc.org/hatecrimes/pdf/2003_report_web.pdf
Gott, Gil (2005) the Devil We Know: Racial Insubordination and National Security Law. Villanova Law Review 2005. Online available at (http://biblioteca.rrp.upr.edu/LatCritCD/Publications/PublishedSymposium/LCIXVillanova&SetonHall%20(2005)/20LCIXGGot.pdf
An Analysis of Relations between United Arab Emirates and Japan
In an era when American influence in the world is waning, the bipolarity of the Cold War years is being replaced by regional partnerships that are mutually beneficial for all stakeholders. Indeed, one important international partnership that has emerged over the past half century has been between the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Japan, with both countries expanding their diplomatic presence in each other’s capitals and investing heavily in exports, most especially oil and gas to Japan with the UAE importing electronics, vehicles and various types of machinery from Japan. Moreover, international analysts predict that this strategic partnership will continue to expand for the foreseeable future. The purpose of this research proposal was to provide an overview of the history of the relations between Japan and the UAE. A discussion concerning the origins of this modern relationship is followed by…
Madagascar's exposure is, the problem needs to be understood. The problem is phrased as "The rise of Islamic regimes in Egypt." This phrasing makes no sense. The military is in charge of Egypt, following the takeover from the Muslim Brotherhood in 2013. This is in the background material. A better phrasing is found in the text: "The rise of Islamic regimes in the post-evolution Arab world." For some reason the writer of the document latched onto the qualifier "particularly in Egypt" and despite the fact that Egypt no longer has an Islamic regime has concocted the misleading topic. At any rate, Madagascar has a low level of exposure to this issue. Madagascar is only 7% Muslim (CIA World Factbook, 2014), and was not subject to the revolutionary politics of North Africa during the Arab Spring. Madagascar's Muslims are not Arab, but came to the country as laborers and slaves from…
CIA World Factbook. (2014). Madagascar. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved January 9, 2014 from https://www.cia.gov/library /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Pat Proctor of Kansas State University was published in the peer-Reviewed Journal of Strategic Security in 2012.
The point of this article is not so much posing a question but presenting a proposal. The proposal is directed at the United States, suggesting in strong terms how the United States (and presumably its allies) could and should engage in "…mass politics" which Proctor calls "war without violence" (Proctor, 2012, 47). The theme of the article is the remarkable transformation that has taken place in Arab countries (called the "Arab Spring") such as Egypt, Tunisia, Syria, Libya and elsewhere in the Middle East.
The hypothesis / thesis and central argument is very clearly stated in this piece. The thesis is that the United States needs a new strategy for persuading the Muslim world "…to reject the salafist jihadism idea" without further exacerbating the tensions that already exist between the est and the…
Cook, David. 2009. Islamism and Jihadism: The Transformation of Classical Notions into an Ideology of Terrorism. Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, 10.2, 177-187.
Moghadam, Assaf. 2008. Defining and confronting the Salafi Jihad. Middle East Strategy at Harvard. Retrieved August 22, 2012, from https://blogs.law.harvard.edu .
Proctor, Pat. 2012. War Without Violence: Leveraging the Arab Spring to Win the War on Terrorism. Journal of Strategic Security, 5.2, 47-64.
interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in relationship to states national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UNs Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian intervention" becomes clear. Idealistically, humanitarian interventionism is a process that stops atrocities and establishes peace and prosperity. Realistically, interventionism allows Western businesses to reap the spoils of destabilization -- as has been seen in Libya with the Libyan oil fields being claimed by Western oil companies -- and as is being seen in Syria, with the threat of invasion bound to have detrimental effects on the construction of a new pipeline that bypasses the Turkey-Israel pipeline. Syria also presents itself as…
'Violent chaos': Libya in deep crisis 2 years since rebels took over', 2013, RT, 26 Aug.
Available from . [24 Aug 2013].
Weiner, T 2008, Legacy of Ashes, Anchor Books, NY.
It is worth noting that in southern portions of these countries, the Berber population does not self-identify with any Arabic identity, and clearly Berber individuals often face discrimination as a result (Mesdoua, 2011).
Power distance is a cultural artifact that reflects the degree to which individuals in society are equal (Hofstede, 2012). North African countries tend to be hierarchical in nature, such that people feel they have a place in society and that roles can be defined by one's position in society. North African culture is generally a collectivist society, as opposed to an individualistic one. Some traits associated with collectivist societies are loyalty and helps to determine relationships in the society, as individual actions are perceived to have an impact on the groups (families, companies) with which one is associated.
A fifth element of North African culture that is worth being discussed because of its contribution to the modern…
Hofstede, G. (2012). Morocco. Geert-Hofstede.com Retrieved February 14, 2012 from http://geert-hofstede.com/morocco.html
Jenkins, O. (2004). Major types of Islam. Orville Jenkins. Retrieved February 14, 2012 from http://orvillejenkins.com/outlineintro/types.html
Mesdoua, I. (2011). Will the Arab Spring make the Arab Maghreb Union bloom? Think Africa Press. Retrieved February 14, 2012 from http://thinkafricapress.com/morocco/arab-spring-arab-maghreb-union-bloom
NASP. (2012). Defining culture. National Association of School Psychologists. Retrieved February 14, 2012 from http://www.nasponline.org/resources/culturalcompetence/definingculture.aspx
S.; b) assess correctly the readiness of America's partners to back up the sanctions; and c) engender the support of minor trading partners ("black knights") to increase their willingness to trade with Iran as the big players leave in obedience to the U.S. led sanctions (Kozhanov, 145).
The Russian writer uses some of the space in his article to review the history of U.S. sanctions against Iran, and mentions a brief thaw in the bitterness between the two countries. That came in 1998, when a team of American wrestlers visited Tehran and were welcomed with flowers. In that moment of detente, the U.S. lifted the ban on exported medical and agricultural goods to Iran, and allowed imports (dried fruits, caviar, and carpets) from Iran into the U.S. But along came the new Iranian president, hard-liner Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who took up the slogan "Death to Israel and the U.S.A." And made…
Economist. (2011). The Wretched Middle East. 401(8763), 1-3. Retrieved January 23, 2012,
Kozhanov, Nikolay a. (2011). U.S. Economic Sanctions Against Iran: Undermined by External
Factors. Middle East Policy, XVIII (3), 144-158.
Political History Of Egypt
Examining the History of an Ancient Land:
The country of Egypt has been ever developing. The reason why it is so important and interesting to study this country now is in light of the recent political events that the country has undergone. Needless to say, Egypt has always been a fodder for change. Without wasting too much time, thus, this paper will undertake one of the changing aspects of the country, namely, its political arena. The paper will begin by examining the development of politics in Egypt, and will continue this political history through to the present, including the recent and important events that have taken place in Egypt as part of the Arab Spring.
In order to truly understand a country and how it functions and develops, it is necessary to examine its history. For this reason, this section is of vital importance…
"Search Results | The Economist." The Economist - World News, Politics, Economics, Business & Finance. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. .
"BBC News - Egypt Profile - Leaders." BBC - Homepage. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. .
Goodman, Amy. "Arab Spring: A Discussion on Libya, Egypt and the Mideast with Palestinian Writer Rula Jebreal, Author of "Miral" & Journalist Issandr El Amrani." A Daily TV/radio News Program, Hosted by Amy Goodman and Juan Gonzalez, Airing on over 900 Stations, Pioneering the Largest Community Media Collaboration in the United States. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. .
resist in the city?
To parallel the 'Occupy' movement and others of its ilk with the Arab Spring may seem strange, given that the Arab protestors were resisting a bloodthirsty dictator, while the 'Occupy' movement was more concerned with economic issues such as student loan debt and outrage over the 'bailout' of the Wall Street banks. However, although the lives of young people are not necessarily on the line, their livelihoods and futures are -- to be crippled with student loan debt at a young age can mean that one's credit score, job prospects, and even ability to raise a family in a home is endangered. This is why organizers are creating a 10-day teach-in in Union Square in the spirit of the 'Occupy' movement to raise awareness about the high cost of tuition. The event is called the 10 DAY NO MORE TUITION INCREASE PROTEST PLAN organized by Students…
Ballard, JG. War Fever. London: Collins, 1990.
Gray, Rosie. "NYU has highest student loan debt in the nation." NYU local. 2010.
Available: http://nyulocal.com/on-campus/2010/08/18/nyu-has-highest-student-debt-in-the-nation / [3 Mar 2013]
"Is a college degree still worth it?" U.S. News & World Report. 2013. Available:
The Majlis al-Shura is appointed every four years while the Majlis al-Ummah members are elected every four years. The Majlis al-Shura serves in a monarch while the Majlis al-Ummah serves in a democracy. The running of Majlis al-Shura requires expertise in various fields.The council members are therefore some of the most educated people in the country. On the contrary, Majlis al-Ummah deals with issues that are mubar and do not necessarily need experts to make conclusions. These decisions by the Majlis al-Ummah are referred to as 'mashura'.The opinion of the majority are taken as the binding opinion since mubah issue have no wrong or rights. The other difference that exits between Majlis al-Shura and Majlis al-Ummah is that Majlis al-Shura has more members (150 members) when compared to Majlis al-Ummah (60 members). Majlis al-Shura also appears to be more of a political council that is mandated to run the country's…
Baaklini, AI.,Denoeux, G .,Springborg R (1999)Legislative politics in the Arab world: the resurgence of democratic institutions. Lynne Rienner Publishers
British Broadcasting Corporation (2011).Women in Saudi Arabia to vote and run in elections
Heydemann, S (2006).In the Shadow of Democracy: Review Article. Middle East Journal. 60 (1) Winter, 2006.).The Council of Ummah (Majlis ul-Ummah)
Religion / Theology
Reaching out to communities and cultures that have not embraced Christianity is what God wants Christians to do. On this page references that describe the people and history of the country of Tunisian -- with its Arab community described and evaluated in terms of political and cultural history -- will be presented as a preface to a plan on page 2. Thesis: Scripture calls for all Christian believers to "Go into all the world and preach the gospel to all creation" (Mark 16:15); hence it is our duty to take the ord of Christ to Tunisia, bringing Saving Grace to Tunisia.
Bilgin, Feridun. 2012. The Ottoman-Spanis Struggle for Sovereignty Over Tunisia (16th
Century). Electronic Journal of Social Sciences. 12 (inter): 181-201.
Bishku, Michael B. 2013. "Is It An Arab Spring or Business as Usual? Recent Changes in the Arab orld in Historical Context." Journal of Third orld…
Women's rights have been part of the basis for the Arab uprisings against authority, and although the Holy Bible (in particular the Old Testament) makes women second-class citizens, and issues decrees against women teaching or speaking in church, in Tunisia (Megahed, et al., 2011) an upgrading of the status of women is part of the agenda for change, and modern Christians fully accept and promote the concept of gender-educational equality (Megahed, 57). To wit, women in Tunisia reportedly have "the highest rate of female literary… in the Arab world" (Maddy-Weitzman, 2011).
Maddy-Weitzman also points out that the multitude of demonstrators in Tunisia in 2011 demanded the separation of "mosque and state"; in other words, the government should not be imposing religious laws on people.
To date there are approximately 1,500 Christians in Tunisia and according to a post on Faithlafayette.org, Christians will appear on Tunisian television; we pray there will not be any persecution of those bringing missionary messages to Tunisians. There is historical evidence of a Muslim prince, Ibn al-Lihyani, who "…seized control of Tunis in a bloodless coup in 1311" and later he converted to Christianity; this precedent opens the door for missionaries (Lower, 2009).
Liberation vs. Control in Cyberspace
Deibertt, Ronald & Rafal Rohozinski. "Liberation vs. control: The future of cyberspace."
Journal of Democracy, 21.4 (2010): 43-56
The Internet is a paradox. On one hand, You Tube and Twitter have been widely credited with creating a more open and liberated world, and giving rise to the Arab Spring and other global pro-democracy movements. Yet while the Internet facilitates communication, it also allows for a greater degree of control of ideas through surveillance. "Even in democratic countries, surveillance systems penetrate every aspect of life, as people implicitly (and perhaps unwittingly) consent to the greatest invasion of personal privacy in history" (Deibertt & Rohozinski 2010: 44). What is unique about the Internet is the degree to which people are complicit in sharing information, enabling themselves to be observed, not its 'liberated' aspects: users are completely unaware of the degree to which they are laying their lives…
Groups that have good intentions are often unaware of that websites can be used to propagate social malware attacks, and have few controls to prevent such abuses. "The advocacy group Reporters Without Borders unknowingly propagated a link to a malicious website posing as a Facebook petition to release the Tibetan activist Dhondup Wangchen" (Deibert & Rohozinski 2010: 54). Using the screen of a reputable group or even a government website can be a convenient screen for a hacker.
A nuanced understanding
The Internet is not inherently good or bad nor is it essentially 'free' by its very nature. Those who would behave in a coercive manner, whether criminals, governments, or corporations, can use the Internet just as easily to engage in surveillance and stifle freedom as it is for advocates of democracy to use it as a vehicle for liberation. The Internet is much more highly regulated than would appear on the surface, and one of its great dangers, in contrast to other forms of speech, is that users are not always aware of how and if they are being controlled, and by whom (Deibert & Rohozinski 2010: 56).
Middle East comprises a diverse group of regions, countries, peoples, customs, and cultures. On the one hand, it is daunting to offer a semester-long course that treats all Middle Eastern issues with clarity and fairness. The risk of oversimplification, however, is outweighed by the risk of ignorance. This course will explore the Middle East with as much depth and breadth as possible, stimulating student thought on political, social, religious, historical, ethnographic, and economic issues related to the region. Included in the course rubric will be current events ranging from gender issues to terrorism. In between the heavier topics, lighter lessons on local customs, culture, music, and food will reveal the ordinariness of daily life in the part of the world we call the Middle East.
Islam will be covered from a multidisciplinary perspective, allowing for nuanced and rich class discussions about the unique interface between politics, religion, and social norms.…
Anderson, Lisa. "Demystifying the Arab Spring." PDF Available: http://www.ssrresourcecentre.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Anderson-Demystifying-the-Arab-Spring.pdf
Henry, Clement Moore and Springborg, Robert. Globalization and the Politics of Development in the Middle East. Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Kuran, Timur. "The Islamic Commercial Crisis: Institutional Roots of Economic Underdevelopment in the Middle East." The Journal of Economic History (2003), 63(2).
History Of Egypt
Civilization Emerges in the Nile Valley 2-3
The Age of the Pharaohs (3200 CE - 30 CE) 3-4
ritish Colonial Rule (1914-1954) 4-5
Modern Egypt (1954 -- Present Day) 5-6
Conclusion & Suggestions
Egypt has always remained one of the most intriguing areas on the planet, with historians, archaeologists and laymen alike flocking to the country on a steady basis throughout the last two centuries to indulge their curiosity and explore the heart of human civilization. The home of iconic monuments built by the world's first civilizations -- including the Great Pyramids of Giza, the Sphinx and a wide assortment of temples and ruins -- Egypt has come to represent the age of humanity's emergence for modern society. The age old cities of Cairo, Alexandria and Luxor have become modernized during the last century, but visitors and residents to Egypt have come to recognize the nation's seemingly…
Fouberg, Erin H.; Murphy, Alexander B. (4 December 2009). Human Geography: People, Place,
and Culture. John Wiley & Sons. p. 91.
Issawi, Charles. (1961). Egypt since 1800: A study in lop-sided development. The Journal of Economic History, 21(1), 1-25.
Janick, J. (2000, October). Ancient Egyptian agriculture and the origins of horticulture.
Business Plan for Green Tongues
Environmental and Industry Analysis
Products or Services
Marketing esearch and Evaluation
Manufacturing and Operations Plan
Critical isks and Assumptions
Benefits to the Community
Green Tongues is an advertising company that provides environmentally friendly advertising solutions to all those companies that value their environment and want to give back to the society in which they exist. Green Tongues envisions itself to be the premier advertising company in the near future in the entire Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region as consumers and businesses in this region are slowly beginning to realize the importance of environmental conservation. The six member states that comprise the GCC (i.e., Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) are shown to be well situated to take advantage of their political and economic clout in ways that promote environmentally…
Bains, K. (2008, January 9). Solar powered billboards in San Francisco, Africa, and Canada.
Solar Power Authority. Retrieved from http://solarpowerauthority.com/solar-powered-billboards-in-san-francisco-africa-and-canada/ .
Blanche, E. (2011, February). Gulf rail network: The dream becomes reality. The Middle East,
movement is an anti-government political movement in Bahrain. The Bahraini government has placed the group on its list of terrorist organizations (Saeed, 2014), a move not mirrored by the United States or its allies. The group began in 2011, as part of the February 14th uprising that was part of the broader Arab Spring movement. The group comprises a range of pro-democracy advocates and protestors, and its efforts are primarily focused on political reform in Bahrain. By all appearances, it seems rather disingenuous to call the February 14th Movement a terrorist group, as it is neither a group by formal structure, nor is it engaged in terrorist acts.
Bahrain is an absolute monarchy, run by the al-Khalifa family. The family has come under criticism from observers for human rights violations on numerous occasions, and it has a reputation for using brutal tactics to repress opposition (Fisk, 1996). This repression is…
Al Jazeera (2015). Protests mark fourth anniversary of Bahrain uprising. Al Jazeera. Retrieved March 19, 2015 from http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/02/protests-mark-fourth-anniversary-bahrain-uprising-150214074700114.html
BNA. (2013). February 14 terrorist organization exposed. Bahrain News Agency. Retrieved March 19, 2015 from http://www.bna.bh/portal/en/news/565326
Fisk, R. (1996). Briton at the heart of Bahrain's brutality rule. The Independent. Retrieved March 19, 2015 from http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/briton-at-the-heart-of-bahrains-brutality-rule-1319571.html
Saeed, F. (2014). Bahrain puts three groups on terrorism list after bomb kills three police. Reuters. Retrieved March 19, 2015 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/03/04/us-bahrain-unrest-idUSBREA231FC20140304
Cairo Egypt.... I elementary
Egypt is largely considered to be one of the cradles of civilization when considering its history, its culture, and the numerous notable figures that it is responsible for holding throughout history. Even with this, its current capital, Cairo, does not have a significant connection to Ancient Egypt. Cairo's greatest connection to the area it is located in when considering the context of Ancient Egypt is the fact that it is located in the vicinity of the ancient of Memphis, an Egyptian inhabitance built by the first Pharaoh, Menes. The city's name originates from the Arabic expression Al-Q-hirah, which means the triumphant or the victorious. Cairo is the largest city on the African continent and is largely a center of cultural life and politics when considering the African region it is located in as a whole.
It would be safe to say that Cairo is both a…
Beattie, A. (2005). Cairo: A Cultural and Literary History. Signal Books.
Korany, B. & El-Mahdi, R. (2012). Arab Spring in Egypt: Revolution and Beyond. American University in Cairo Press.
"Destination Cairo," Retrieved September 17, 2013, from http://www.egypt.travel/city/index/cairo
The Middle East takes great pride in its oil production, and sometimes dictators overstep boundaries in order to claim that oil for themselves, as Saddam Hussein of Iraq attempted to do to Kuwait in 1991.
Kuwait is a particularly extreme example of cheap oil for all within the borders of Kuwait. This small nation just next to the Arabian Peninsula has massive reserves of oil beneath its sands. Oil merchants could potentially make great profits from selling gasoline at market prices in the Middle East and Kuwait, but the overwhelming attitude of oil is that it should be extremely cheap and plentiful always, so oil merchants do not even attempt to exploit the local population with higher gas prices.
hen Iraq attempted to invade Kuwait, a tiny neighbor by comparison, it was seen as vital to American interests to maintain a strong bond with Kuwait, as Saddam Hussein had been…
When Iraq attempted to invade Kuwait, a tiny neighbor by comparison, it was seen as vital to American interests to maintain a strong bond with Kuwait, as Saddam Hussein had been far more volatile of a partner to the U.S. In the past. That is why the entire world condemned Iraq for its actions, and a large unified army action defeated Saddam Hussein's massive tank columns in just a few weeks. Kuwait's pride in its oil was maintained, and they made long lasting and secure relations with the United States for protecting its borders. In the year 2011, Kuwait is resting on solid ground in the region, and is a wealthy and prosperous nation. There is simply no need to charge market prices for gasoline as the sacred oil which has come to define Kuwait has been core to the nations success, and has been so plentiful to the populace for so long that it would be difficult to even change the prices of gasoline for locals.
The Arab Spring and Middle East Unrest. (2011). Brookings Institution. Retrieved October 1, .
Global prices around the world. (2011). CNN. Retrieved October 1, .
role sumed pipeline EGYPT international trade kind special services customers petroleum sector. notice: references internet .
Sumed Pipeline in Egypt
Traditionally, oil would be transported from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean region via the Suez Canal, which has also earned a remarkable historic resonance to its name. After a decade of construction, the Suez Canal was first used in 1869 and its aim is that of allowing transportation by water from Asia to Europe, without having to travel around Africa.
The Suez Canal is the traditional choice for transporting goods from one region to the other, and it is open to the access of all vessels, in times of war and peace, regardless of the flags carried by the vessels. Still, a shortage in using the Suez Canal is represented by the delays which can be encountered and the queues that can be created.
As a result of these…
Strumph, D., Whittaker, M. (2011). Egypt unrest strokes oil, gold. The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704680604576110530618545842.html accessed on October 30, 2012
Wahba, A.L., (2011). Egypt's military deploys along Sumed oil pipeline, official says. Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-02-01/egypt-military-deploys-along-sumed-oil-pipe-adds-sentries-official-says.html accessed on October 30, 2012
(2006). Website of Sumed Pipeline. http://www.sumed.org accessed on October 30, 2012
(2011). No delays on Egypt's Sumed pipeline, Suez Canal: local sources. Platts. http://www.platts.com/RSSFeedDetailedNews/RSSFeed/Shipping/8501741 accessed on October 30, 2012
For instance, the U.S. can use drones with the purpose of filming exact instances involving Assad's men violating human rights.
Considering that "the Syrian government isn't just fighting rebels, as it claims; it is shooting unarmed protesters, and has been doing so for months" (Sniderman & Hanis), it is only safe to assume that immediate action needs to be taken in order for conditions to change. Children are dying at the moment and the world appears to express lack of interest in their suffering. In spite of the fact that rebels are determined to bring Assad now, the Syrian president has successfully used the armed forces with the purpose of destroying rebel efforts up until this moment.
Assad continues to dominate Syria as outside forces sit and watch as innocent revolutionaries are being murdered. There is no limit to what Syrian armed forces are willing to do with the purpose…
Barnard, Anne, "Syrian Insurgents Accused of Rights Abuses," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/21/world/middleeast/syrian-insurgents-accused-of-rights-abuses.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all
Koettl, Cristoph, "How Many More Syrians Have to Die Before the UN Acts?," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the Human Rights Now Website: http://blog.amnestyusa.org/justice/how-many-more-syrians-have-to-die-before-the-un-acts/
Neville-Morgan, Allyson, "Pressure on Syrian Regime Increases as Violence against Civilians Continues," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the United to End Genocide Website: http://blog.endgenocide.org/blog/2011/11/28/pressure-on-syrian-regime-increases-as-violence-against-civilians-continues/
Stobo Sniderman, Andrew and Hanis, Mark, "Drones for Human Rights," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/31/opinion/drones-for-human-rights.html
Thus, weak institutions, frequent military takeovers, and corruption in government ranks, both civilian and military has resulted in present state of affairs of Pakistan. Syria: Syria's history has been one that was dominated by family rule, foreign interventions, and inability to successfully run the affairs of the country by the ruling elite. The Assad family has held the power in Syrian since last four decades and this has caused significant deterioration in institutional and other forms of governance (Zisser 2003, 15-19).With independence from the French forces in 1946, Syria remained internally polarized and externally vulnerable to the tensions of Middle East. Her confrontation with Israel and support for Hezbollah has considerable historical background. Thus, the issues today being faced by Syria are a continuation of its acts of historical omissions and commission by ruling elites.
Influence of leadership: Influence of leadership on both Syria and Pakistan has been largely negative…
Berger, Mark T. 2004. "After the Third World? History, destiny and the fate of Third Worldism." Third World Quarterly 25: 9-39. Accessed July 11, 2013. doi: 10.1080/0143659042000185318
Judah, Ben. Assessing stability in Syria. International Relations and Security Network ISN. Aug, 2008. Retrieved from: [ http://www.isn.ethz.ch/DigitalLibrary/Articles/Detail/?lng=en&id=88666 ]
Nasrallah, Jana. 2011. "The impact of external intervention on power sharing agreements. (c2011)." Masters Diss., Lebanese American University. Accessed July 11. [https://ecommons.lau.edu.lb:8443/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10725/337/Jana_Nasrallah_Thesis.pdf?sequence=1]
Rosenlund, Stephen. 2013. "A Bright Light on Syria's Horizons." Center for International Private Enterprise. CIPE Development Blog, March 4. [ http://www.cipe.org/blog/2013/03/04/a-bright-light-on-syrias-horizons/#.Ud5fcztHK_p ]
S. interests. What is different is that we have names and faces to go with that warning."3 This emphasis on recognizing the adaptability
3 Dennis C. Blair, Annual Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community for the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, (U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee, 2010).
of the terrorist is central to the government's overall response, in terms of both planning and execution, as evidenced by findings presented in the wealth of threat assessment material released to the public each year.
With the oft mentioned terrorist training camps and secret underground bases littered throughout the Middle East long since located and reduced to rubble, jihadists the world over have increasingly turned to the internet to lure potential borrowers and launder funds on a global scale.4 the last Homeland Security Threat Assessment, delivered to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence in 2008 and covering the period from that date…
Bennetch, Paul. 2012. "Terrorism expert: al-Qaida's 9/11 tactics an 'abject failure'." Cornell Chronicle [Ithaca, NY] 13 Mar 2012. Retrieved from http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/March12/BergenCover.html
Blair, Dennis C. 2010. United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. Annual Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community for the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, Retrieved from http://intelligence.senate.gov/100202/blair.pdf
Esposito, Richard, Matthew Cole, and Brian Ross. 2009. Officials: U.S. Army Told of Hasan. ABC World News. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/fort-hood-shooter - contact-al-qaeda-terrorists-officials/story?id=9030873
Holt, B. 2010. Islamic wealth management. Unpublished raw data, Thomas Jefferson School of Law, San Diego, CA.
The Kingdom of Bahrain, a small Arab state located on the Persian Gulf, is an oil-rich constitutional monarchy. The country has generally been an ally of the United States, but has internal issues that could compromise its security. Less than half of Bahrain's population are native Bahraini, lending the country a more diverse ethnic mix than might be expected. According to the CIA, 70.3% of the population is Muslim. A plurality of these, including the ruling family, are Sunni, but the country also has a significant Shia minority (CIA, 2015).
Internal Ethnic Issues
Non-Bahrainis, despite making up the majority of the population in the country, have few rights and typically do not play a political role in the country. Bahrain's Muslim population is divided among the ruling minority Sunni and majority Shia, and there has been some friction in the past as the result of internal conflict between these…
Akbari, R. & Stern, J. (2012). Bahrain's triangle of conflict. Foreign Policy. Retrieved March 6, 2015 from http://foreignpolicy.com/2012/05/17/bahrains-triangle-of-conflict/
CIA (2015). Bahrain. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved March 6, 2015 from https://www.cia.gov/library /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The Effects of War and Peace on Foreign Aid on Iran
Prior to 9/11 and the invasion of the Middle East by the U.S., the countries in this region, from Afghanistan to Pakistan to Iraq, Egypt and Libya, had used foreign aid and investment to stabilize their governments and build up their economies. In the wake of 9/11 and with the threat of war and revolution, upheavals have occurred, governments have been toppled, and societies have been decimated. As Scott and Carter (2015) point out, “no region in the world has received more US foreign aid than the Middle East” (p. 740). Following 9/11, however, that foreign aid was coupled with invasion and investment became almost impossible. For one country in particular, Iran, which has stood relatively outside the continuing wars (aside from intervening with Russia in Syria to fight back against ISIS), the effects of war and peace on foreign aid…
N.D. PP. 1). Yet with the recent wave of anti-American protests can these statements be integrated into a compelling narrative for long-term investment? Specifically, the answer is derived from qualifying the political risk variables associated with respective nation-states.
While a plethora of political risk models exist, there are definitive items which comprise their ability to predict relative political turbulence. These factors include:
The threat of war, social unrest, disorderly transfers of power, political violence, international disputes, regime changes, institutional ineffectiveness, quality of the bureaucracy, the transparency and fairness of the political system, and levels of corruption and crime. (Economist Intelligence Unit. N.D. PP. 1)
Returning to the Middle East and the unrest of the last 24 months, nation-states in the region have experienced these factors to some degree and have developed scenarios to provide some measure of political certainty. Yet the issue remains whether the dynamism of the…
Role of Social Media in Social Movements
The rapid technological advancements have played a major role in shaping today’s society, especially in terms of communication and information sharing. Technological developments have contributed to the emergence of social media, whose use has grown rapidly over the last decade (Anderson et al., 2018). Currently, many people across the globe including in the United States are using a wide range of social networking sites to get news and information. As a result, social media has become a key avenue for public discourse on various issues as people engage in civic-related discussions and activities. For many people, social media allows them to obtain more secure and reliable information or knowledge on various issues including civic-related issues (Balci & Golcu, 2013). By providing avenues for people to get more secure and reliable information and enhancing communication, social media has played a critical role in recent…
Anderson, M., Toor, S., Rainie, L. & Smith, A 2018. Public Attitudes Toward Political Engagement on Social Media. Pew Research Center. Viewed November 26, 2020,
Balci, S. & Golcu, A 2013. The Role and Impacts of Social Media in Social Movements: “Example of the Arab Spring.” The Asian Conference on the Social Sciences, pp.269-281.
Breuer, A 2012. The Role of Social Media in Mobilizing Political Protest. German Development Institute. Viewed November 26, 2020,
Brown, H., Guskin, E. & Mitchell, A 2012. The Role of Social Media in the Arab Uprisings. Pew Research Center. Viewed November 26, 2020,
Cammaerts, B 2015. Social Media and Activism. LSE Research Online. Viewed November 26, 2020,
Clark, E 2012. Social Movement & Social Media: A Qualitative Study of Occupy Wall Street. Sodertorn University. Viewed November 26, 2020,
Elshahed, H 2020. Social Media Mobilization and Political Activism in Egypt. Global Media Journal, vol. 18, no. 34. Viewed November 26, 2020,
Granillo, G 2020. The Role of Social Media in Social Movements. Portland Monthly. Viewed November 26, 2020,
Democracy in Iran
As pro-democracy movements spread across a huge segment of the Muslim world in the spring and early summer of 2011, there was a tremendous amount of speculation that Iran would be the next totalitarian regime to join the world's democracies. However, this speculation seems to have been premature. Instead, Iran's response to pro-democracy movements in the country has solidified the notion that Iran will never achieve a democracy. First, the basic stagnancy in Iran's political debate suggests an unwillingness to move towards democracy. Second, Iran continues to suggest that its current regime is in line with Muslim awakenings around the world, which reveals the depth of the government's commitment to its current regime.
Third, the current government's brutality is not conducive to the type of organization that results in democracy. While some people believe that the social changes occurring in Iran mean that it is likely to…
Baghi, E. (2004). Hope for democracy in Iran. Retrieved February 21, 2012 from The
Washington Post website: http://www.washingtonpost.com /wp-dyn/articles/A59941-2004Oct24.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Chabros International's Expansion To North Africa
Chabros International is a company based in Lebanon that sells wood products and veneer that began its operations in the 1960's. The company was started by the current owners father and father's brothers. The company was envisioned, at the beginning, as a small local company that would deal in local wood products and veneer. During the ensuing years the company had very little growth, but it produced a living for the family, and, when his father died in 1987, Chami took over the company (Chabros, 2012).
Chami was more ambitious than his father had been and he wanted to take the company further that his father had ever thought possible. The first issue he faced is that Lebanon was still in the midst of a civil war that had plagued the country since the mid-1970's. It was difficult to find reliable suppliers, and it…
Bilan, V. (2012). Middle East recovering from Arab spring fever? The Arab world: In search of subjectivity. Retrieved from http://therearenosunglasses.wordpress.com/2012/03/12/middle-east-recovering - from-arab-spring-fever/
Chabros. (2012). About us. Retrieved from http://www.chabros.info/DynamicPage.aspx?id=1&PageId=1
Economist. (2012). Asia competition barometer: Petrochemicals and chemicals. Retrieved from http://www.managementthinking.eiu.com/asia-competition- barometer-petrochemicals-and-chemicals.html
EIU. (2012). Morocco business environment. Retrieved from http://store.eiu.com/product.aspx?pubid=160392201&pid=1930000193&gid=160 392201
Gender Equality in the Gulf
Historically, there has been a marked dearth of gender equality and women’s empowerment in the countries compromising the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which include Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. There are a number of reasons responsible for this situation. Firstly, these countries are all predominantly Muslim. Traditional gender roles (and stereotypes) largely exist in Islam and in countries which adhere to this faith as their national religion. Women are supposed to remain covered up in their raiment and relegated to domestic roles. The problem is that women account for approximately 50 percent of the population in the GCC countries, yet only constitute approximately 25 percent of the labor force in those countries (World Bank). Therefore, these countries are disadvantageously affected in certain aspects of economics and society because of the lack of female contributions in both of…
PTSD in the Middle East
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is one of the most common mental health or psychological disorders facing people in the Middle East region. This condition emerges from episodes of social upheaval, combat, and violence that have become common in the Middle East over the past few years. Some of the major areas in the Middle East that have been characterized by increased conflicts in recent years include Palestine, Iraq, and Lebanon. Given increased conflicts and combat in the Middle East, PTSD and other trauma-related mental health conditions are expected to become public health crisis in the Arab world (Suto, 2016). Therefore, public health professionals in the Middle East face the need to develop appropriate measures for diagnosis and treatment of PTSD and other trauma-related disorders. However, the treatment of this condition and other traumatic mental health disorders is significantly affected by culture. This paper examines how…
One of the major issues for the United Nations is human rights, which are defined by the organization as "right inherent to all human beings, regardless of race, sex, nationality, ethnicity, language, religion or any other status." These rights include "the right to life and liberty, freedom from slavery and torture, freedom of opinion and expression, the right to work and education, and many more" (UN.org, 2016).
A challenge with respect to human rights is that the nation-state is relied upon to safeguard or provide these rights to its citizens, and that this is far from the case. The head of Amnesty International discussed the need for people to stand up for their rights, and to hold accountable those regimes that do not respect these fundamental rights, pointing to the social media-driven events in 2011 such as the Arab Spring. One thing that the Arab Spring demonstrated, however,…
"AI: World poised for human rights changes." World Geography and Culture Online. Facts On File, Inc. 13 May 2011. Web. 24 Apr. 2016.
Certoma, C. (no date) "Human rights." No source. In possession of the author.
"Report: Countries cracking down, restricting universal human rights ." World Geography and Culture Online. Facts On File, Inc. 28 Feb. 2014. Web. 24 Apr. 2016.
UN.org (2016). Human rights. [web]. Accessed April 27, 2016 from https://www.un.org/en/globalissues/humanrights/
Global Efforts to educe Terrorism and Political Violence Been Effective in the Past Decade?
Conceptualizing Political Violence and Terrorism
Terrorism does not have an assigned definition. As a matter of fact, "few terms or concepts in contemporary political discourse have proved as hard to define as terrorism" (Weinberg, Pedahzur, and Hirsch-Hoefler, 2004). The authors further point out that from as early as the 1960s and 1970s, when terrorism as a subject first appeared (or made a reappearance), various professional commentators have fund it quite challenging to come up with an articulate definition of the term that could gain acceptance across the board. Essentially, terrorism is a contemporary form of political violence. Indeed, terrorism as Gurr (as cited in Ortlung and Makarychev, 2006) points out, it is a subset of political violence. For purposes of this discussion, the definition (and interpretation) AND assigns to terrorism will be adopted. This definition will…
Apaza, C.R., 2011. Integrity and Accountability in Government: Homeland Security and the Inspector General. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing.
Gartenstein-Ross, D., 2012. Bin Laden's Legacy Why We're Still Losing the War on Terror. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons
Hoffman, B., (2010). A Counterterrorism Strategy for the Obama Administration. Terrorism and Political Violence, 21(4), pp. 359-377
Inbar, E. ed., 2013. The Arab Spring, Democracy and Security: Domestic and International Ramifications. New York, NY: Routledge.
New Media and Politics
Digital media has been extremely instrumental in the organization and expression of political protest. This case study will examine the impact of digital media and social networking and the importance it plays in contemporary political movements.
In the work entitled "New Media and Development Communication," stated is that modern mobile phones "…are transforming civilians into journalists." Columbia University, ITU Report, 2005, p.1) The report states that a critical role was played by mobile phones in the world receiving information about the pro-democracy protests in Myanmar" which involved 1,000 individuals being arrested and 30 to 40 monks and 50 to 70 civilians being killed. The report states specifically:
"Dissent turned into outrage as mobile phones transmitted grainy images of Myanmar's revered monks being beaten by junta security forces, 'Citizen Journalists' -- everyday citizens in Myanmar -- began surreptitiously recording video and taking photos of the…
Cagaptay, Soner (2012) Can Dictators Survive New Media. CNN Special Report. Retrieved from: http://globalpublicsquare.blogs.cnn.com/2012/02/10/can-dictators-survive-new-media/
Cottle, Simon (2011) Cell Phones, Camels, and the Global Call for Democracy (2011) Open Democracy. 27 Sept. 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.opendemocracy.net/simon-cottle/cell-phones-camels-and-global-call-for-democracy
New Media and Development Communication (2005) Columbia University, ITU Report, 2005.Retrieved from: http://www.columbia.edu/itc/sipa/nelson/newmediadev/Citizen%20journalism.html
Preston, Jennifer (2011) Social Media Gives Wall Street Protests a Global Reach. The New York Times. 15 Oct 2011. Retrieved from: http://mediadecoder.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/10/15/social-media-gives-wall-street-protests-a-global-reach/
U.S. ole as 'Policemen of the World'
Thesis and Outline Draft
Introduction and Thesis
currently holds the most important and influential role in international politics and represents a decisive player in all recent international conflicts. This role takes the form of political and military interventions, international and bilateral engagements as well as multilateral brokerage of peace talks. The basic principles of such an approach are the fostering of peaceful, democratic, and secure international environment. At the same time though, it must be pointed out that the entire international community does not always support such actions and often it has been said that the United States acts as the "policeman of the world" (Kissinger, 1995). It must be stressed that the current approach the United States have on foreign policy has not changed since the end of the Civil War and has guided the U.S. In military and political interventions in…
Calvocoressi, P. (1987) World politics since 1945. New York: Longman.
Federal News Service (2013) "America is not the world's policeman: Text of Barack Obama's speech on Syria," Associated Press, available online at http://www.ndtv.com/article/world/america-is-not-the-world-s-policeman-text-of-barack-obama-s-speech-on-syria-417077
Kissinger, H. (1995) Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster.
Shahshahani, A. And Corina Mullin (2012) "The legacy of U.S. intervention and the Tunisian revolution: promises and challenges one year on," Interface: a journal for and about social movements, Volume 4 (1): 67 -- 101, available online at http://www.interfacejournal.net/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Interface-4-1-Shahshahani-and-Mullin.pdf
Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and he can feed himself for life. How could you put this principle into practice through the development of a social entrepreneurship venture?
Development of Social Entrepreneurialism
Corporate Social Responsibility
Social Entrepreneurship and Food
Social entrepreneurship was introduced in the 1970s to address the issue of social sustainably and the term "social entrepreneur." This analysis will begin by providing a brief history as well as a working definition for the concept of social entrepreneurialism. It will also discuss some of the related movements that have been working towards some of the same goals, albeit, from different directions to address various challenges in society and the environment. Furthermore, a more detailed overview of the exact challenges that are present in society that social entrepreneurialism can work to address will…
Abu-Saifan, S., 2012. Social Entrepreneurship: Definition and Boundaries. [Online]
Available at: http://timreview.ca/article/523
[Accessed 28 April 2016].
Ashoka, N.d.. Vision and Mission. [Online]
Egyptians of all classes and ages took part in the protests, united in demands and ambitions such as improved wages, improved conditions of working, and political freedom. However, it was the surprising figures of young individuals who took part in the demonstrations that provided drive to the revolt. The young individuals were also key to maintaining the uprising given that numerous meet in Tahrir (Liberation) Square in Cairo as well as other cities across the nation. Egyptian youth are actually the faces behind this leaderless uprising; the revolution was generally impelled by their skill in utilizing social media to gain attention (oudi-Fahimi, El Feki & Tsai, 2011). The new youth backed, and at times, instigated by women is now an aware global citizen, refusing to bear the inability of its rulers to be with the times and provide means of development and rapidly changing economic and social paradigms.
Aday, S., Farrell, H., Lynch, M., Sides, J., & Freelon, D. (2012). Blogs and bullet II-New media and conflict after the Arab spring (No. 80). Peaceworks. United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
Al-Natour, M. (2012). The role of women in the Egyptian 25th January revolution. Journal of International Women's Studies, 13(5), 59.
Auer, M. R. (2011). The policy sciences of social media. Policy Studies Journal, 39(4), 709-736.
Frederiksen, M. (2011). The key role of women in the Egyptian revolution. Retrieved March 01, 2016, from http://www.marxist.com/key-role-of-women-in-egyptian-revolution.htm
The effects of information technology on the society
The social capital framework
In this paper, we evaluate the validity of the statement that IT is radically changing the social world. We perform a critical analysis of the concept of social world and social capital and how it is influenced by information technology. This is carried against the backdrop of the concept of information technology as the conceptual framework. The paper concludes that indeed the statement that IT is radically changing the social world is true.
The contemporary society has witnessed a series of transformations which can directly be attributed to the concept of technological dynamism. Technological dynamism is a concept which was defined by Albu (2009) as the rate of exchange in the level of predictability of new technologies. The technological advancements that we witness today are largely as a result of the lack of knowledge that exists…
Veenstra, G. (2000). Social capital, SES and health: An individual-level analysis. Social Science and Medicine, 50, 619-629.
Wellman, B.A., Quan-Haase, A., Witte, J., & Hampton, K. (2001). Does the Internet increase, decrease, or supplement social capital? Social networks, participation, and community commitment. American Behavioral Scientist, 45(3), 437-456.
Woolcock, M., & Narayan, D. (2000). Social capital: Implications for development theory, research, and policy. The World Bank Research Observer, 15, 225-249.
The Formation and Perpetuation of Hezbollah: Successful Politics and Successful Terrorism
The decade following the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City has seen some dramatic changes in U.S. And global policy towards terrorist groups and terrorist action, and to public sentiment and attitude regarding these groups and their actions, as well. From the semi-official War on Terror to the recent "Arab Spring" and the attendant turmoil in the Middle East, the global context within which terrorism exists -- the way in which the world responds to terrorism and the way in which terrorist organizations present themselves to the world -- has changed dramatically in the recent past. This has necessitated certain changes amongst terrorist organizations, or those organizations labeled as terrorists by the international community, that hope to remain viable and relevant forces in the modern world. Though it can be impolitic to discuss…
Baranovich, Nadia, and Ravichandran Moorthy. "The Dynamics of Terror Strategies by Hezbollah and Hamas in the Israel-Palestine Conflict." Tamkang Journal of International Affairs 14, no. 4 (2011): 28-61.
Byman, Daniel. "Should Hezbollah be next?" Foreign Affairs (2003): 54-66.
Cohen, Ariel. "Knowing the Enemy." Policy Review 145 (2007): 40-53.
Feldman, Shai. "The Hezbollah-Israel War: A Preliminary Assessment." Middle East Brief 10, no. 2 (2006).
Consistency, coupled by approval generates legitimacy. A government system is only legitimate if it receives the support of plural citizens. Therefore, a good example is Hosni Mubarak's one party, which was illegitimate. Any policy enjoying the majority approval of the citizens is said to be a legitimate policy. In this context, the United States invasion into Iraq has been perceived as illegitimate. This is not because many citizens of Iraq disapproved the policy but also due to the fact that majority of the Arabs recorded substantial support. As the global military utility continues to decline, a country perceived as consistent and legitimate will encounter minimal resistance from the new Arab world while the U.S. continues to execute its policies.
The occurrence of the Second World War is reflected from the relations between the American grand strategy and the initial existence of the realism, constructivism, and liberalism. Moreover, it is evident…
Betts, Richard K. Is Strategy an Illusion?
International Security 25, no. 2 (2000): 5-50.
Grant, Robert M., and Judith Jordan. Foundations of Strategy. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley and Sons, 2012.
Gray, Colin. Why Strategy is Difficult. Joint Forces Quarterly, Summer 1999, 6-12.
A section of commentators have taken issue with the manner in which the federal government denied suspected terrorist the due process of law as stipulated under the constitution. The government even commissioned the establishment of a torture chamber in Guantanamo Bay. This amounts to gross violation of human rights and civil liberties. There is another clause in the patriot act dubbed "enhanced surveillance procedures," which allows federal authorities to gather foreign intelligence by breaching firewalls of 'terrorist nations.' This controversial foreign policy clause damaged the relationship between America and the Middle East.
A section of scholars argues that key players in the oil industry manipulated the United States to wage war against Afghanistan. According to an article published on the BBC World Service in December 2007, the execution of Saddam Hussein was unwarranted. Political scientists reckon that a cartel of multinational oil companies wanted to control the oil in…
Van Bergen, J. (2003) "In the Absence of Democracy: The Designation and Material Support Provisions of the Anti-Terrorism Laws." Cardozo Pub. [?] Law Policy & Ethics Journal 2 (2003): 107.
Luca, B (2004). American foreign policy and global governance, in A. Gobbicchi (ed.), Globalization, armed conflicts and security (Rubbettino/CEMISS, Roma) 112-127
Fawcett, L. (2009) International Relations of the Middle East (2nd ed.) Oxford University Press
Globalization has become a ubiquitously word in the last few decades. Much of the globalization trend is driven by the fact that many organizations operate internationally and supply chains have become sophisticated, complex, and spans the entire globe. As a result of globalization, many organizations have tried to proactively create a level of homogenization and standardization internationally of markets, resources, and labor. hen international companies can have access to foreign resources and labor it often helps them achieve business objectives. It can also help to develop the local economy at it is working to create more middle class citizens in developing countries. Yet, the results are deeply mixed and often the result of newly introduced capitalism further stratifies the society. Therefore, even though the trend has been primarily measured by economic activities it also has had many other consequences as well in regards to social and political issues.
Chang, D. "Informalising Labour in Asia's Global Factory." Journal of Contemporary Asia (2009): 161-179. Web.
Ghosh, J. "Women, Labor, and Capital Accumulation in Asia." January 2012. Monthly Review. Web. 28 July 2012.
Hanieh, A. "Temporary Migrant Labour and the Spatial Structuring of Class in the Gulf Cooperation Council." Spectrum: Journal of Global Studies (2010): 67-89. Web.
Mak, T. "Occupy Wall Street uses Arab Spring model." 3 September 2011. Politico. Web. 28 July 2012. .
Sikorsky Aircraft -- Financial Plan for Looming Defense Cuts
New Defense Markets Strategy
Diversify Product Mix Strategy
Many analysts believe that the U.S. budget has grown to unprecedented levels and budget issues have become a political priority. Talks of to how reign in the deficit to a level that represents more a sustainable trajectory than its current path plagues all the media channels and political commentary. No matter which side of the political debate that anyone sides with, there seems to be evidence that massive budget cuts are on the horizon. Some of the deficit reduction measures that are being tossed around include social security reform, health care reform, social spending on entitlement programs, and last but not least, often the elephant in the room, defense spending.
The United States spends nearly as much on military expenditures as the rest of the world combined and in 2008 the budget exceeded…
BBC Business News. "China says it will boost its defence budget in 2011." 4 March 2011. Asia Business. 3 May 2011 .
Hellman, C. And T. Sharp. "The FY 2009 Pentagon Spending Request - Global Military Spending." 22 February 2008. The Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation. 3 May 2011 .
Lee, M. "Sikorsky Wins $3.5B Contract From Turkey." 22 April 2011. Courant. 3 May 2011 .
Watts, J. "World Bank sees China recovery this year." 7 April 2009. The Guardian. 2 May 2011 .