Arab Spring Essays (Examples)

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Arabs Certain Words Must Be

Words: 1655 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80589979

S.-supported dictators.

Thus, while the term "Arab" is useful for describing a particular group of people with a shared language, culture, and history, one cannot readily assume that all Arabs subscribe to a pan-Arabist ideology, especially in light of the often overlapping "Muslim world," which many Arabs would identify themselves a part of (above and beyond any shared connection due to their Arab heritage). In reality, a shared linguistic and cultural background is really the only thing that unites Arabs, but because the world's largely white, Christian reigning powers have for so long actively disenfranchised and brutalized the Arab world, either through direct action or proxies, this shared linguistic and cultural background has been the only unifying feature which allows for any resistance. In many ways, one may see the emerging democratic movements of the Arab Spring as the successful replacement of both pan-Arabism and pan-Islamism, because the desire for…… [Read More]

References

Goldschmidt, A., & Davidson, L. (2006). A concise history of the middle east. Boulder:

Westview Press.

Kinninmont, J. (2008). The politics of chaos in the middle east. Middle East Policy, 15(4), 161-
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Arabs in the United States

Words: 1958 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98819897

Arab-Americans

More than 80% of all Arabs in the U.S. are legal citizens, thus creating an Arab-American cultural foundation consisting of over 3.5 million Americans (AAI, 2009). This single clustered group in reality consists of people from 22 countries like Egypt, Palestine, Morocco, and Lebanon. Today, a third of this population lives in California, New York, or Michigan, with 94% of all Arab-Americans living in urban areas. Only 5% of Arab-Americans are unemployed, and 46% have college degrees. Of all countries represented, over a third of all Arab-Americans are of Lebanese descent (AAI, 2009).

The first wave of Arab immigrants coming into the U.S. were clumped together and known as Syrian-Lebanese (Hajar and Jones, 2011). The majority of them were indeed of Lebanese, Christian descent, and their immigration fluctuated for decades from the late 19th century until the 1920's. hat initially brought them to the U.S. were stories told by…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Mamdani, Mahmood. Good Muslim, Bad Muslim: A Political Perspective on Culture and Terrorism. American Anthropologist, Vol. 104, No. 3 (Sept. 2002), pp. 766-775.

Leonard, Karen. American Muslims and Authority: Competing Discourses in a Non-Muslim State. Journal of American Ethnic History, Vol. 25, No. 1 (Fall 2005), pp. 5-30.

Salaita, Steven. Ethnic Identity and Imperative Patriotism: Arab-Americans before and after 9/11. College Literature, Vol. 32, No. 2 (Spring 2005), pp. 146-168.

Hajar, Paula, Jones, Sydney J. Lebanese Americans.  http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Le-Pa/Lebanese-Americans.html  Advameg Inc. 2011.
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Arab- and African-Americans and Racial

Words: 2860 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40513026

(Davis, 2001) That number is sure to have risen dramatically since Davis did her research.

The debates surrounding both the efficacy and the morality of racial profiling have created a lot of disagreement from many communities of color. Kabzuag Vaj is an organizer with the Asian Freedom Project in Madison, Wisconsin. The Asian Freedom Project has garnered hundreds of accounts of racial profiling of Southeast Asian youth over the past year. (Davis, 2001)

"Talking to the mainstream about racial profiling is hard," says Vaj. "The excuse people give us is extreme times demand extreme measures, whatever is necessary to catch the terrorists." (Davis, 2001) Organizers at People United for a etter Oakland (PUELO) also face similar concerns. They understand that although they are on all levels a multiracial organization, their campaign against racial profiling and police misconduct is simply inadequate to address the current political and sociological situation. "The fact…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Nicole Davis. 2001. The slippery slope of racial profiling. Color Lines. December 2001.

St. Petersburg Times, June 8, 2003. Aschroft's America. Editorial.

Anthony Romero. 2001. Letter to Attorney General Ashcroft. American Civil Liberties Union, Oct. 17, 2001.

New York Times, Mar. 13, 2002. Hundreds of Arabs still detained in U.S. Jails. From Reuters.
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Effects of Diversity on the UAE Workplace

Words: 2279 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93949501

Cultural Diversity in United Arab Emirates Organizations

The purpose of the proposed study will be to evaluate the current levels of cultural diversity in United Arab Emirates (UAE) public and private sector organizations and their implications for UAE culture.

The proposed study will be guided by the following research questions:

What have been the recent trends in economic diversification in the UAE?

Is it possible to formulate optimal diversity levels for a given country?

Can there be too much diversity? How can it best be measured? If there is too much diversity, should it be curtailed? Why? How can it be curtailed?

What are the implications for UAE culture if current demographic patterns persist over the next 10 years? Twenty years? Fifty years?

esearch Problem and Scope

Today, it can be argued that the UAE is in danger of losing its cultural and religious heritage altogether. Indeed, the UAE is…… [Read More]

References

Balasubramanian, A (2010, Winter). 'Rebuilding Dubai: Post-bubble economic strategy.'

Harvard International Review, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 10-19.

Bartos, OJ & Wehr, P (2002). Using Conflict Theory. Cambridge, England: Cambridge

Jonas, M. (2007, August 5). 'The downside of diversity.' The Boston Globe, 3.
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Economics of the UAE

Words: 1842 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82788345

Economies of the UAE

Economics of the UAE

Current analysis of UAE Economy

Historical economic aspects

Discussion of basic economic indicators

GDP: per capita GDP; growth rate of GDP

Inflation rate

Budget

Trade balance

Natural / Human resources & Infrastructure

Exchange ate Behavior and Forecasting

Demographics (age distribution)

Short-term and long-term prospects/forecasts for UAE Economy

Current analysis of UAE Economy:

The Persian Gulf states including Abu Dhabi, 'Ajman, Al Fujayrah, Ash Shariqah, Dubayy, Umm al Qaywayn, and a's al Qaywan are represented as UAE. The states follow an open economic and moderate political policy. The states are rich in oil reserves providing a structured support for their economic and social progress. The strong economic position of the states has enabled them to earn a competing position with the developed western countries. The continuous growth in economy has also enabled the businesses to invest in UAE. The governments of UAE are…… [Read More]

References:

Al-Kaabi, M.K. (2012). The Strategic Alternatives of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Disruption of Maritime Traffic in the Arabian Gulf as a result of Iranian Threats to Close the Strait of Hormuz (Doctoral dissertation, Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School).

CIA. (2013). The world Fact Book. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved from   https://www.cia.gov/library/ publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ae.html 

Elbadawi, I.A. (2012). The State of Open Government Data in GCC Countries. In Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on e-Government (Vol. 36, No. 41, p. 193). Academic Conferences Limited.

Ramamurti, R., & Singh, J.V. (Eds.). (2009). Emerging multinationals in emerging markets. Cambridge University Press.
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Arab-Israeli Conflict Specifically it Will

Words: 3314 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18642404

On the other hand, Israel, Jordan, and the United States were allied in their support of the Israeli state and Israel's land acquisitions during the Six-Day War. Eventually, the Sudan dropped out of the proposal, but, "By the end of 1971 the two leaders had taken soundings in Moscow, had appointed Egypt's war minister, General Muhammad Sadiq, supreme commander of both armies, and had reached agreement on broad strategy" (abil 22). They continued to gain support from the Soviet Union, knowing they needed support of a superpower to offset the military might Israel wielded in the area.

After the war, "Six Arab states, including Egypt, broke off diplomatic relations with Washington, and were subsequently drawn closer to the Soviet Union.28 Additionally, the 1967 war created another 200,000 Palestinian Arab refugees, and more than one million Arabs from this point on lived within Israeli borders" (Mork 21). This really changed the…… [Read More]

References

Ben-Ami, Shlomo. Scars of War, Wounds of Peace: The Israeli-Arab Tragedy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Cossali, Paul. "Arab-Israeli Relations 1967-2001." A Survey of Arab-Israeli Relations 1947-2001. Ed. David Lea. London: Europa, 2002. 39-283.

Mork, Hulda Kjeang. "The Jarring Mission: A Study of the UN Peace Effort in the Middle East, 1967-1971." University of Oslo. 2007. 2 June 2008.  http://www.duo.uio.no/publ/IAKH/2007/58588/HuldaxMxrkxxMasteroppgavexixhistorie.pdf 

Rabil, Robert G. Embattled Neighbors: Syria, Israel, and Lebanon. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2003.
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Anti-Arab Racism the Objective of

Words: 3088 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48277422

This is also possibly the least well-documented phenomenon in the racializing of Arabs and Muslims leading to the widespread acceptance of profiling and related loss of civil liberties." (2002)

The work of Nicole J. Henderson (2001) entitled: "Law Enforcement & Arab-American Community Relations After September 11, 2001" reports a study in which Arabs living in the United States were interviewed. Henderson reports that when asked about hate crimes "...community respondents across sites mentioned fear of government policies, at times equating the detention of Arab men and special registration with hate crimes. Another leader felt that "before 9/11, there were always questions of bias from people -- from individuals -- but not ever about the government and the police." A business leader commented in response to whether or not hate crimes were a problem in his community, "Now we're dealing with another prejudice. Right now, this is a very serious problem…… [Read More]

Bibliography

El-Amine, Rami (2006) Anti-Arab Racism, Islamophobia, and the Anti-War Movement. Left Turn Magazine. 1 Oct. 2006.

Akram, Susan M. (2002) the Aftermath of September 11, 2001: The Targeting of Arabs and Muslims in America. Arab Studies Quarterly March 2002.

Ibish, Hussein and Stewart Anne (2003) Report on Hate Crimes and Discrimination Against Arab-Americans. The Post- September 11 Backlash. American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee. Online available at http://www.adc.org/hatecrimes/pdf/2003_report_web.pdf

Gott, Gil (2005) the Devil We Know: Racial Insubordination and National Security Law. Villanova Law Review 2005. Online available at (http://biblioteca.rrp.upr.edu/LatCritCD/Publications/PublishedSymposium/LCIXVillanova&SetonHall%20(2005)/20LCIXGGot.pdf
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Madagascar's Exposure Is the Problem Needs to

Words: 1066 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6802797

Madagascar's exposure is, the problem needs to be understood. The problem is phrased as "The rise of Islamic regimes in Egypt." This phrasing makes no sense. The military is in charge of Egypt, following the takeover from the Muslim Brotherhood in 2013. This is in the background material. A better phrasing is found in the text: "The rise of Islamic regimes in the post-evolution Arab world." For some reason the writer of the document latched onto the qualifier "particularly in Egypt" and despite the fact that Egypt no longer has an Islamic regime has concocted the misleading topic. At any rate, Madagascar has a low level of exposure to this issue. Madagascar is only 7% Muslim (CIA World Factbook, 2014), and was not subject to the revolutionary politics of North Africa during the Arab Spring. Madagascar's Muslims are not Arab, but came to the country as laborers and slaves from…… [Read More]

References

CIA World Factbook. (2014). Madagascar. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved January 9, 2014 from  https://www.cia.gov/library/ publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ma.html

Haufiku, M. (2014). Madagascar's president-elect disputes provisional election result. New Era. Retrieved January 9, 2014 from  http://www.newera.com.na/2014/01/08/madagascars-president-elect-disputes-provisional-election-result/?ModPagespeed=noscript 

Islamic Focus. (2014). Islam in Madagascar. Islamic Focus. Retrieved January 9, 2014 from http://www.islamicfocus.co.za/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1849&Itemid=24

Rabenoro, M. (no date). Madagascar: the lost status of women. The Nordic African Institute. Retrieved January 9, 2014 from http://www.nai.uu.se/publications/news/archives/052rabenoro/
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Homeland Security

Words: 2038 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34045118

Pat Proctor of Kansas State University was published in the peer-Reviewed Journal of Strategic Security in 2012.

The point of this article is not so much posing a question but presenting a proposal. The proposal is directed at the United States, suggesting in strong terms how the United States (and presumably its allies) could and should engage in "…mass politics" which Proctor calls "war without violence" (Proctor, 2012, 47). The theme of the article is the remarkable transformation that has taken place in Arab countries (called the "Arab Spring") such as Egypt, Tunisia, Syria, Libya and elsewhere in the Middle East.

The hypothesis / thesis and central argument is very clearly stated in this piece. The thesis is that the United States needs a new strategy for persuading the Muslim world "…to reject the salafist jihadism idea" without further exacerbating the tensions that already exist between the est and the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cook, David. 2009. Islamism and Jihadism: The Transformation of Classical Notions into an Ideology of Terrorism. Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, 10.2, 177-187.

Moghadam, Assaf. 2008. Defining and confronting the Salafi Jihad. Middle East Strategy at Harvard. Retrieved August 22, 2012, from https://blogs.law.harvard.edu.

Proctor, Pat. 2012. War Without Violence: Leveraging the Arab Spring to Win the War on Terrorism. Journal of Strategic Security, 5.2, 47-64.
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Interventionism From the Perspective of Realism vs

Words: 13409 Length: 44 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80916514

interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in relationship to states national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UNs Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian intervention" becomes clear. Idealistically, humanitarian interventionism is a process that stops atrocities and establishes peace and prosperity. Realistically, interventionism allows Western businesses to reap the spoils of destabilization -- as has been seen in Libya with the Libyan oil fields being claimed by Western oil companies -- and as is being seen in Syria, with the threat of invasion bound to have detrimental effects on the construction of a new pipeline that bypasses the Turkey-Israel pipeline. Syria also presents itself as…… [Read More]

'Violent chaos': Libya in deep crisis 2 years since rebels took over', 2013, RT, 26 Aug.

Available from . [24 Aug 2013].

Weiner, T 2008, Legacy of Ashes, Anchor Books, NY.
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North Africa There Is No

Words: 916 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32260614

It is worth noting that in southern portions of these countries, the Berber population does not self-identify with any Arabic identity, and clearly Berber individuals often face discrimination as a result (Mesdoua, 2011).

Power distance is a cultural artifact that reflects the degree to which individuals in society are equal (Hofstede, 2012). North African countries tend to be hierarchical in nature, such that people feel they have a place in society and that roles can be defined by one's position in society. North African culture is generally a collectivist society, as opposed to an individualistic one. Some traits associated with collectivist societies are loyalty and helps to determine relationships in the society, as individual actions are perceived to have an impact on the groups (families, companies) with which one is associated.

A fifth element of North African culture that is worth being discussed because of its contribution to the modern…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Hofstede, G. (2012). Morocco. Geert-Hofstede.com Retrieved February 14, 2012 from http://geert-hofstede.com/morocco.html

Jenkins, O. (2004). Major types of Islam. Orville Jenkins. Retrieved February 14, 2012 from  http://orvillejenkins.com/outlineintro/types.html 

Mesdoua, I. (2011). Will the Arab Spring make the Arab Maghreb Union bloom? Think Africa Press. Retrieved February 14, 2012 from http://thinkafricapress.com/morocco/arab-spring-arab-maghreb-union-bloom

NASP. (2012). Defining culture. National Association of School Psychologists. Retrieved February 14, 2012 from http://www.nasponline.org/resources/culturalcompetence/definingculture.aspx
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U S Foreign Policy -- Middle

Words: 1158 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86202465

S.; b) assess correctly the readiness of America's partners to back up the sanctions; and c) engender the support of minor trading partners ("black knights") to increase their willingness to trade with Iran as the big players leave in obedience to the U.S. led sanctions (Kozhanov, 145).

The Russian writer uses some of the space in his article to review the history of U.S. sanctions against Iran, and mentions a brief thaw in the bitterness between the two countries. That came in 1998, when a team of American wrestlers visited Tehran and were welcomed with flowers. In that moment of detente, the U.S. lifted the ban on exported medical and agricultural goods to Iran, and allowed imports (dried fruits, caviar, and carpets) from Iran into the U.S. But along came the new Iranian president, hard-liner Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who took up the slogan "Death to Israel and the U.S.A." And made…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Economist. (2011). The Wretched Middle East. 401(8763), 1-3. Retrieved January 23, 2012,

From EbscoHost.com.

Kozhanov, Nikolay a. (2011). U.S. Economic Sanctions Against Iran: Undermined by External

Factors. Middle East Policy, XVIII (3), 144-158.
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Political History of Egypt Examining the History

Words: 1098 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89223911

Political History Of Egypt

Examining the History of an Ancient Land:

The country of Egypt has been ever developing. The reason why it is so important and interesting to study this country now is in light of the recent political events that the country has undergone. Needless to say, Egypt has always been a fodder for change. Without wasting too much time, thus, this paper will undertake one of the changing aspects of the country, namely, its political arena. The paper will begin by examining the development of politics in Egypt, and will continue this political history through to the present, including the recent and important events that have taken place in Egypt as part of the Arab Spring.

Egypt History

In order to truly understand a country and how it functions and develops, it is necessary to examine its history. For this reason, this section is of vital importance…… [Read More]

"Search Results | The Economist." The Economist - World News, Politics, Economics, Business & Finance. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. .

"BBC News - Egypt Profile - Leaders." BBC - Homepage. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. .

Goodman, Amy. "Arab Spring: A Discussion on Libya, Egypt and the Mideast with Palestinian Writer Rula Jebreal, Author of "Miral" & Journalist Issandr El Amrani." A Daily TV/radio News Program, Hosted by Amy Goodman and Juan Gonzalez, Airing on over 900 Stations, Pioneering the Largest Community Media Collaboration in the United States. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. .
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Resist in the City

Words: 1443 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53016096

resist in the city?

To parallel the 'Occupy' movement and others of its ilk with the Arab Spring may seem strange, given that the Arab protestors were resisting a bloodthirsty dictator, while the 'Occupy' movement was more concerned with economic issues such as student loan debt and outrage over the 'bailout' of the Wall Street banks. However, although the lives of young people are not necessarily on the line, their livelihoods and futures are -- to be crippled with student loan debt at a young age can mean that one's credit score, job prospects, and even ability to raise a family in a home is endangered. This is why organizers are creating a 10-day teach-in in Union Square in the spirit of the 'Occupy' movement to raise awareness about the high cost of tuition. The event is called the 10 DAY NO MORE TUITION INCREASE PROTEST PLAN organized by Students…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ballard, JG. War Fever. London: Collins, 1990.

Gray, Rosie. "NYU has highest student loan debt in the nation." NYU local. 2010.

Available: http://nyulocal.com/on-campus/2010/08/18/nyu-has-highest-student-debt-in-the-nation / [3 Mar 2013]

"Is a college degree still worth it?" U.S. News & World Report. 2013. Available:
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Consultative Assembly of Saudi Arabia

Words: 1876 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99722981

The Majlis al-Shura is appointed every four years while the Majlis al-Ummah members are elected every four years. The Majlis al-Shura serves in a monarch while the Majlis al-Ummah serves in a democracy. The running of Majlis al-Shura requires expertise in various fields.The council members are therefore some of the most educated people in the country. On the contrary, Majlis al-Ummah deals with issues that are mubar and do not necessarily need experts to make conclusions. These decisions by the Majlis al-Ummah are referred to as 'mashura'.The opinion of the majority are taken as the binding opinion since mubah issue have no wrong or rights. The other difference that exits between Majlis al-Shura and Majlis al-Ummah is that Majlis al-Shura has more members (150 members) when compared to Majlis al-Ummah (60 members). Majlis al-Shura also appears to be more of a political council that is mandated to run the country's…… [Read More]

References

Baaklini, AI.,Denoeux, G .,Springborg R (1999)Legislative politics in the Arab world: the resurgence of democratic institutions. Lynne Rienner Publishers

British Broadcasting Corporation (2011).Women in Saudi Arabia to vote and run in elections

 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-15052030 

Heydemann, S (2006).In the Shadow of Democracy: Review Article. Middle East Journal. 60 (1) Winter, 2006.).The Council of Ummah (Majlis ul-Ummah)
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Religion Theology Reaching Out to Communities

Words: 607 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60707210

Religion / Theology

Reaching out to communities and cultures that have not embraced Christianity is what God wants Christians to do. On this page references that describe the people and history of the country of Tunisian -- with its Arab community described and evaluated in terms of political and cultural history -- will be presented as a preface to a plan on page 2. Thesis: Scripture calls for all Christian believers to "Go into all the world and preach the gospel to all creation" (Mark 16:15); hence it is our duty to take the ord of Christ to Tunisia, bringing Saving Grace to Tunisia.

Bilgin, Feridun. 2012. The Ottoman-Spanis Struggle for Sovereignty Over Tunisia (16th

Century). Electronic Journal of Social Sciences. 12 (inter): 181-201.

Bishku, Michael B. 2013. "Is It An Arab Spring or Business as Usual? Recent Changes in the Arab orld in Historical Context." Journal of Third orld…… [Read More]

Women's rights have been part of the basis for the Arab uprisings against authority, and although the Holy Bible (in particular the Old Testament) makes women second-class citizens, and issues decrees against women teaching or speaking in church, in Tunisia (Megahed, et al., 2011) an upgrading of the status of women is part of the agenda for change, and modern Christians fully accept and promote the concept of gender-educational equality (Megahed, 57). To wit, women in Tunisia reportedly have "the highest rate of female literary… in the Arab world" (Maddy-Weitzman, 2011).

Maddy-Weitzman also points out that the multitude of demonstrators in Tunisia in 2011 demanded the separation of "mosque and state"; in other words, the government should not be imposing religious laws on people.

To date there are approximately 1,500 Christians in Tunisia and according to a post on Faithlafayette.org, Christians will appear on Tunisian television; we pray there will not be any persecution of those bringing missionary messages to Tunisians. There is historical evidence of a Muslim prince, Ibn al-Lihyani, who "…seized control of Tunis in a bloodless coup in 1311" and later he converted to Christianity; this precedent opens the door for missionaries (Lower, 2009).
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Human Society Is Made Up

Words: 1228 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51257161

They get the kind of information they want to hear and do not receive a balanced view of the facts surrounding any particular issue. As a result, people's view of politics have become increasingly partisan with the electorate less likely to accept a non-partisan view. One example of this is the recent political movement known as the "Tea Party." It's epublican members of Congress, under intense pressure from their Tea Party voters back home, have refused to engage in any compromise legislation with the Democrats. It is likely that many of those same Tea Party members get their news exclusively from right wing news outlets which espouse only a right wing view of politics.

Part 3:

It was on June 28, 2012 that the Supreme Court of the United States announced its ruling on the Affordable Care Act, widely known as "Obamacare," and demonstrated how politically partisan the nation has…… [Read More]

References

Cohen, Jon. (3 July, 2012). "Americans split on Supreme Court decision." The

Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the-

fix/post/americans-divided-on-supreme-court-ruling/2012/07/03/gJQAhnkNKW_blog.html

Putnam, R.D. (2000). Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American
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Liberation vs Control in Cyberspace

Words: 950 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68574002

Liberation vs. Control in Cyberspace

Deibertt, Ronald & Rafal Rohozinski. "Liberation vs. control: The future of cyberspace."

Journal of Democracy, 21.4 (2010): 43-56

The Internet is a paradox. On one hand, You Tube and Twitter have been widely credited with creating a more open and liberated world, and giving rise to the Arab Spring and other global pro-democracy movements. Yet while the Internet facilitates communication, it also allows for a greater degree of control of ideas through surveillance. "Even in democratic countries, surveillance systems penetrate every aspect of life, as people implicitly (and perhaps unwittingly) consent to the greatest invasion of personal privacy in history" (Deibertt & Rohozinski 2010: 44). What is unique about the Internet is the degree to which people are complicit in sharing information, enabling themselves to be observed, not its 'liberated' aspects: users are completely unaware of the degree to which they are laying their lives…… [Read More]

Groups that have good intentions are often unaware of that websites can be used to propagate social malware attacks, and have few controls to prevent such abuses. "The advocacy group Reporters Without Borders unknowingly propagated a link to a malicious website posing as a Facebook petition to release the Tibetan activist Dhondup Wangchen" (Deibert & Rohozinski 2010: 54). Using the screen of a reputable group or even a government website can be a convenient screen for a hacker.

A nuanced understanding

The Internet is not inherently good or bad nor is it essentially 'free' by its very nature. Those who would behave in a coercive manner, whether criminals, governments, or corporations, can use the Internet just as easily to engage in surveillance and stifle freedom as it is for advocates of democracy to use it as a vehicle for liberation. The Internet is much more highly regulated than would appear on the surface, and one of its great dangers, in contrast to other forms of speech, is that users are not always aware of how and if they are being controlled, and by whom (Deibert & Rohozinski 2010: 56).
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World Cultures Middle East

Words: 1748 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77036999

Middle East comprises a diverse group of regions, countries, peoples, customs, and cultures. On the one hand, it is daunting to offer a semester-long course that treats all Middle Eastern issues with clarity and fairness. The risk of oversimplification, however, is outweighed by the risk of ignorance. This course will explore the Middle East with as much depth and breadth as possible, stimulating student thought on political, social, religious, historical, ethnographic, and economic issues related to the region. Included in the course rubric will be current events ranging from gender issues to terrorism. In between the heavier topics, lighter lessons on local customs, culture, music, and food will reveal the ordinariness of daily life in the part of the world we call the Middle East.

Islam will be covered from a multidisciplinary perspective, allowing for nuanced and rich class discussions about the unique interface between politics, religion, and social norms.…… [Read More]

Anderson, Lisa. "Demystifying the Arab Spring." PDF Available:  http://www.ssrresourcecentre.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Anderson-Demystifying-the-Arab-Spring.pdf 

Henry, Clement Moore and Springborg, Robert. Globalization and the Politics of Development in the Middle East. Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Kuran, Timur. "The Islamic Commercial Crisis: Institutional Roots of Economic Underdevelopment in the Middle East." The Journal of Economic History (2003), 63(2).
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About Egypt

Words: 1533 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65027965

History Of Egypt

Civilization Emerges in the Nile Valley 2-3

The Age of the Pharaohs (3200 CE - 30 CE) 3-4

ritish Colonial Rule (1914-1954) 4-5

Modern Egypt (1954 -- Present Day) 5-6

Conclusion & Suggestions

Egypt has always remained one of the most intriguing areas on the planet, with historians, archaeologists and laymen alike flocking to the country on a steady basis throughout the last two centuries to indulge their curiosity and explore the heart of human civilization. The home of iconic monuments built by the world's first civilizations -- including the Great Pyramids of Giza, the Sphinx and a wide assortment of temples and ruins -- Egypt has come to represent the age of humanity's emergence for modern society. The age old cities of Cairo, Alexandria and Luxor have become modernized during the last century, but visitors and residents to Egypt have come to recognize the nation's seemingly…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Fouberg, Erin H.; Murphy, Alexander B. (4 December 2009). Human Geography: People, Place,

and Culture. John Wiley & Sons. p. 91.

Issawi, Charles. (1961). Egypt since 1800: A study in lop-sided development. The Journal of Economic History, 21(1), 1-25.

Janick, J. (2000, October). Ancient Egyptian agriculture and the origins of horticulture.
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Business Plan for Green Tongues Summer 2011

Words: 3613 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95295606

Business Plan for Green Tongues

Summer 2011

Company Information

Environmental and Industry Analysis

Products or Services

Marketing esearch and Evaluation

Manufacturing and Operations Plan

Management Team

Timeline

Critical isks and Assumptions

Benefits to the Community

Exit Strategy

Financial Plan

Green Tongues is an advertising company that provides environmentally friendly advertising solutions to all those companies that value their environment and want to give back to the society in which they exist. Green Tongues envisions itself to be the premier advertising company in the near future in the entire Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region as consumers and businesses in this region are slowly beginning to realize the importance of environmental conservation. The six member states that comprise the GCC (i.e., Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) are shown to be well situated to take advantage of their political and economic clout in ways that promote environmentally…… [Read More]

References

Bains, K. (2008, January 9). Solar powered billboards in San Francisco, Africa, and Canada.

Solar Power Authority. Retrieved from http://solarpowerauthority.com/solar-powered-billboards-in-san-francisco-africa-and-canada/.

Blanche, E. (2011, February). Gulf rail network: The dream becomes reality. The Middle East,

419, 12-13.
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Bahrain February 14

Words: 1866 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68082032

movement is an anti-government political movement in Bahrain. The Bahraini government has placed the group on its list of terrorist organizations (Saeed, 2014), a move not mirrored by the United States or its allies. The group began in 2011, as part of the February 14th uprising that was part of the broader Arab Spring movement. The group comprises a range of pro-democracy advocates and protestors, and its efforts are primarily focused on political reform in Bahrain. By all appearances, it seems rather disingenuous to call the February 14th Movement a terrorist group, as it is neither a group by formal structure, nor is it engaged in terrorist acts.

Bahrain is an absolute monarchy, run by the al-Khalifa family. The family has come under criticism from observers for human rights violations on numerous occasions, and it has a reputation for using brutal tactics to repress opposition (Fisk, 1996). This repression is…… [Read More]

References

Al Jazeera (2015). Protests mark fourth anniversary of Bahrain uprising. Al Jazeera. Retrieved March 19, 2015 from  http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/02/protests-mark-fourth-anniversary-bahrain-uprising-150214074700114.html 

BNA. (2013). February 14 terrorist organization exposed. Bahrain News Agency. Retrieved March 19, 2015 from  http://www.bna.bh/portal/en/news/565326 

Fisk, R. (1996). Briton at the heart of Bahrain's brutality rule. The Independent. Retrieved March 19, 2015 from  http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/briton-at-the-heart-of-bahrains-brutality-rule-1319571.html 

Saeed, F. (2014). Bahrain puts three groups on terrorism list after bomb kills three police. Reuters. Retrieved March 19, 2015 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/03/04/us-bahrain-unrest-idUSBREA231FC20140304
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Cairo Egypt I Elementary Egypt Is Largely

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67017201

Cairo Egypt.... I elementary

Egypt is largely considered to be one of the cradles of civilization when considering its history, its culture, and the numerous notable figures that it is responsible for holding throughout history. Even with this, its current capital, Cairo, does not have a significant connection to Ancient Egypt. Cairo's greatest connection to the area it is located in when considering the context of Ancient Egypt is the fact that it is located in the vicinity of the ancient of Memphis, an Egyptian inhabitance built by the first Pharaoh, Menes. The city's name originates from the Arabic expression Al-Q-hirah, which means the triumphant or the victorious. Cairo is the largest city on the African continent and is largely a center of cultural life and politics when considering the African region it is located in as a whole.

It would be safe to say that Cairo is both a…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Beattie, A. (2005). Cairo: A Cultural and Literary History. Signal Books.

Korany, B. & El-Mahdi, R. (2012). Arab Spring in Egypt: Revolution and Beyond. American University in Cairo Press.

"Destination Cairo," Retrieved September 17, 2013, from  http://www.egypt.travel/city/index/cairo
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Gas Prices Gas in Flux

Words: 699 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51141657

The Middle East takes great pride in its oil production, and sometimes dictators overstep boundaries in order to claim that oil for themselves, as Saddam Hussein of Iraq attempted to do to Kuwait in 1991.

Kuwait is a particularly extreme example of cheap oil for all within the borders of Kuwait. This small nation just next to the Arabian Peninsula has massive reserves of oil beneath its sands. Oil merchants could potentially make great profits from selling gasoline at market prices in the Middle East and Kuwait, but the overwhelming attitude of oil is that it should be extremely cheap and plentiful always, so oil merchants do not even attempt to exploit the local population with higher gas prices.

hen Iraq attempted to invade Kuwait, a tiny neighbor by comparison, it was seen as vital to American interests to maintain a strong bond with Kuwait, as Saddam Hussein had been…… [Read More]

When Iraq attempted to invade Kuwait, a tiny neighbor by comparison, it was seen as vital to American interests to maintain a strong bond with Kuwait, as Saddam Hussein had been far more volatile of a partner to the U.S. In the past. That is why the entire world condemned Iraq for its actions, and a large unified army action defeated Saddam Hussein's massive tank columns in just a few weeks. Kuwait's pride in its oil was maintained, and they made long lasting and secure relations with the United States for protecting its borders. In the year 2011, Kuwait is resting on solid ground in the region, and is a wealthy and prosperous nation. There is simply no need to charge market prices for gasoline as the sacred oil which has come to define Kuwait has been core to the nations success, and has been so plentiful to the populace for so long that it would be difficult to even change the prices of gasoline for locals.

The Arab Spring and Middle East Unrest. (2011). Brookings Institution. Retrieved October 1, .

Global prices around the world. (2011). CNN. Retrieved October 1, .
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Role Sumed Pipeline Egypt International Trade Kind

Words: 1184 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78409003

role sumed pipeline EGYPT international trade kind special services customers petroleum sector. notice: references internet .

Sumed Pipeline in Egypt

Traditionally, oil would be transported from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean region via the Suez Canal, which has also earned a remarkable historic resonance to its name. After a decade of construction, the Suez Canal was first used in 1869 and its aim is that of allowing transportation by water from Asia to Europe, without having to travel around Africa.

The Suez Canal is the traditional choice for transporting goods from one region to the other, and it is open to the access of all vessels, in times of war and peace, regardless of the flags carried by the vessels. Still, a shortage in using the Suez Canal is represented by the delays which can be encountered and the queues that can be created.

As a result of these…… [Read More]

References:

Strumph, D., Whittaker, M. (2011). Egypt unrest strokes oil, gold. The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704680604576110530618545842.html accessed on October 30, 2012

Wahba, A.L., (2011). Egypt's military deploys along Sumed oil pipeline, official says. Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-02-01/egypt-military-deploys-along-sumed-oil-pipe-adds-sentries-official-says.html accessed on October 30, 2012

(2006). Website of Sumed Pipeline.  http://www.sumed.org  accessed on October 30, 2012

(2011). No delays on Egypt's Sumed pipeline, Suez Canal: local sources. Platts. http://www.platts.com/RSSFeedDetailedNews/RSSFeed/Shipping/8501741 accessed on October 30, 2012
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Individuals Are Unable to Comprehend

Words: 2657 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91928714

For instance, the U.S. can use drones with the purpose of filming exact instances involving Assad's men violating human rights.

Considering that "the Syrian government isn't just fighting rebels, as it claims; it is shooting unarmed protesters, and has been doing so for months" (Sniderman & Hanis), it is only safe to assume that immediate action needs to be taken in order for conditions to change. Children are dying at the moment and the world appears to express lack of interest in their suffering. In spite of the fact that rebels are determined to bring Assad now, the Syrian president has successfully used the armed forces with the purpose of destroying rebel efforts up until this moment.

Assad continues to dominate Syria as outside forces sit and watch as innocent revolutionaries are being murdered. There is no limit to what Syrian armed forces are willing to do with the purpose…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Barnard, Anne, "Syrian Insurgents Accused of Rights Abuses," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/21/world/middleeast/syrian-insurgents-accused-of-rights-abuses.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all

Koettl, Cristoph, "How Many More Syrians Have to Die Before the UN Acts?," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the Human Rights Now Website:  http://blog.amnestyusa.org/justice/how-many-more-syrians-have-to-die-before-the-un-acts/ 

Neville-Morgan, Allyson, "Pressure on Syrian Regime Increases as Violence against Civilians Continues," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the United to End Genocide Website: http://blog.endgenocide.org/blog/2011/11/28/pressure-on-syrian-regime-increases-as-violence-against-civilians-continues/

Stobo Sniderman, Andrew and Hanis, Mark, "Drones for Human Rights," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/31/opinion/drones-for-human-rights.html
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Political and Economic Prospects for

Words: 2558 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49816111

Thus, weak institutions, frequent military takeovers, and corruption in government ranks, both civilian and military has resulted in present state of affairs of Pakistan. Syria: Syria's history has been one that was dominated by family rule, foreign interventions, and inability to successfully run the affairs of the country by the ruling elite. The Assad family has held the power in Syrian since last four decades and this has caused significant deterioration in institutional and other forms of governance (Zisser 2003, 15-19).With independence from the French forces in 1946, Syria remained internally polarized and externally vulnerable to the tensions of Middle East. Her confrontation with Israel and support for Hezbollah has considerable historical background. Thus, the issues today being faced by Syria are a continuation of its acts of historical omissions and commission by ruling elites.

Influence of leadership: Influence of leadership on both Syria and Pakistan has been largely negative…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berger, Mark T. 2004. "After the Third World? History, destiny and the fate of Third Worldism." Third World Quarterly 25: 9-39. Accessed July 11, 2013. doi: 10.1080/0143659042000185318

Judah, Ben. Assessing stability in Syria. International Relations and Security Network ISN. Aug, 2008. Retrieved from: [http://www.isn.ethz.ch/DigitalLibrary/Articles/Detail/?lng=en&id=88666]

Nasrallah, Jana. 2011. "The impact of external intervention on power sharing agreements. (c2011)." Masters Diss., Lebanese American University. Accessed July 11. [https://ecommons.lau.edu.lb:8443/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10725/337/Jana_Nasrallah_Thesis.pdf?sequence=1]

Rosenlund, Stephen. 2013. "A Bright Light on Syria's Horizons." Center for International Private Enterprise. CIPE Development Blog, March 4. [ http://www.cipe.org/blog/2013/03/04/a-bright-light-on-syrias-horizons/#.Ud5fcztHK_p ]
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Terrorism and Illicit Finance as

Words: 1427 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54172161

S. interests. What is different is that we have names and faces to go with that warning."3 This emphasis on recognizing the adaptability

3 Dennis C. Blair, Annual Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community for the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, (U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee, 2010).

of the terrorist is central to the government's overall response, in terms of both planning and execution, as evidenced by findings presented in the wealth of threat assessment material released to the public each year.

With the oft mentioned terrorist training camps and secret underground bases littered throughout the Middle East long since located and reduced to rubble, jihadists the world over have increasingly turned to the internet to lure potential borrowers and launder funds on a global scale.4 the last Homeland Security Threat Assessment, delivered to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence in 2008 and covering the period from that date…… [Read More]

Referenced

Bennetch, Paul. 2012. "Terrorism expert: al-Qaida's 9/11 tactics an 'abject failure'." Cornell Chronicle [Ithaca, NY] 13 Mar 2012. Retrieved from http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/March12/BergenCover.html

Blair, Dennis C. 2010. United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. Annual Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community for the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, Retrieved from http://intelligence.senate.gov/100202/blair.pdf

Esposito, Richard, Matthew Cole, and Brian Ross. 2009. Officials: U.S. Army Told of Hasan. ABC World News. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/fort-hood-shooter- contact-al-qaeda-terrorists-officials/story?id=9030873

Holt, B. 2010. Islamic wealth management. Unpublished raw data, Thomas Jefferson School of Law, San Diego, CA.
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Open Source Intelligence Estimate

Words: 609 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81762120

Intelligence

The Kingdom of Bahrain, a small Arab state located on the Persian Gulf, is an oil-rich constitutional monarchy. The country has generally been an ally of the United States, but has internal issues that could compromise its security. Less than half of Bahrain's population are native Bahraini, lending the country a more diverse ethnic mix than might be expected. According to the CIA, 70.3% of the population is Muslim. A plurality of these, including the ruling family, are Sunni, but the country also has a significant Shia minority (CIA, 2015).

Internal Ethnic Issues

Non-Bahrainis, despite making up the majority of the population in the country, have few rights and typically do not play a political role in the country. Bahrain's Muslim population is divided among the ruling minority Sunni and majority Shia, and there has been some friction in the past as the result of internal conflict between these…… [Read More]

References

Akbari, R. & Stern, J. (2012). Bahrain's triangle of conflict. Foreign Policy. Retrieved March 6, 2015 from http://foreignpolicy.com/2012/05/17/bahrains-triangle-of-conflict/

CIA (2015). Bahrain. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved March 6, 2015 from  https://www.cia.gov/library/ publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ba.html

Shehabi, A. (2014). Why is Bahrain outsourcing extremism? Foreign Policy. Retrieved March 6, 2015 from http://foreignpolicy.com/2014/10/29/why-is-bahrain-outsourcing-extremism/

Wagner, D. & Cafiero, G. (2014). The U.S. And Bahrain's increasingly tense alliance. International Policy Digest. Retrieved March 6, 2015 from http://www.internationalpolicydigest.org/2014/10/07/u-s-bahrain-s-increasingly-tense-alliance/
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The Impact of War on Iran

Words: 1475 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54558370

The Effects of War and Peace on Foreign Aid on Iran
Prior to 9/11 and the invasion of the Middle East by the U.S., the countries in this region, from Afghanistan to Pakistan to Iraq, Egypt and Libya, had used foreign aid and investment to stabilize their governments and build up their economies. In the wake of 9/11 and with the threat of war and revolution, upheavals have occurred, governments have been toppled, and societies have been decimated. As Scott and Carter (2015) point out, “no region in the world has received more US foreign aid than the Middle East” (p. 740). Following 9/11, however, that foreign aid was coupled with invasion and investment became almost impossible. For one country in particular, Iran, which has stood relatively outside the continuing wars (aside from intervening with Russia in Syria to fight back against ISIS), the effects of war and peace on foreign aid…… [Read More]

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Political Risk Models the Recent

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 653658

N.D. PP. 1). Yet with the recent wave of anti-American protests can these statements be integrated into a compelling narrative for long-term investment? Specifically, the answer is derived from qualifying the political risk variables associated with respective nation-states.

Risk Variables

While a plethora of political risk models exist, there are definitive items which comprise their ability to predict relative political turbulence. These factors include:

The threat of war, social unrest, disorderly transfers of power, political violence, international disputes, regime changes, institutional ineffectiveness, quality of the bureaucracy, the transparency and fairness of the political system, and levels of corruption and crime. (Economist Intelligence Unit. N.D. PP. 1)

Returning to the Middle East and the unrest of the last 24 months, nation-states in the region have experienced these factors to some degree and have developed scenarios to provide some measure of political certainty. Yet the issue remains whether the dynamism of the…… [Read More]

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Iran Can Never Be a Democratic Nation

Words: 728 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54838166

Democracy in Iran

As pro-democracy movements spread across a huge segment of the Muslim world in the spring and early summer of 2011, there was a tremendous amount of speculation that Iran would be the next totalitarian regime to join the world's democracies. However, this speculation seems to have been premature. Instead, Iran's response to pro-democracy movements in the country has solidified the notion that Iran will never achieve a democracy. First, the basic stagnancy in Iran's political debate suggests an unwillingness to move towards democracy. Second, Iran continues to suggest that its current regime is in line with Muslim awakenings around the world, which reveals the depth of the government's commitment to its current regime.

Third, the current government's brutality is not conducive to the type of organization that results in democracy. While some people believe that the social changes occurring in Iran mean that it is likely to…… [Read More]

References

Baghi, E. (2004). Hope for democracy in Iran. Retrieved February 21, 2012 from The

Washington Post website:  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A59941-2004Oct24.html 

Gheissari, A. & Nasr, V. (2006). Democracy in Iran: History and the quest for liberty. New York: Oxford University Press.

Molavi, A. (2011, April 6). Invoking the Arab Spring, Iran rewrites its own history. Retrieved February 21, 2012 from The National website:  http://www.thenational.ae/thenationalconversation/comment/invoking-the-arab-spring-iran-rewrites-its-own-history
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Chabros International's Expansion to North Africa Chabros

Words: 3311 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55087022

Chabros International's Expansion To North Africa

Chabros International is a company based in Lebanon that sells wood products and veneer that began its operations in the 1960's. The company was started by the current owners father and father's brothers. The company was envisioned, at the beginning, as a small local company that would deal in local wood products and veneer. During the ensuing years the company had very little growth, but it produced a living for the family, and, when his father died in 1987, Chami took over the company (Chabros, 2012).

Chami was more ambitious than his father had been and he wanted to take the company further that his father had ever thought possible. The first issue he faced is that Lebanon was still in the midst of a civil war that had plagued the country since the mid-1970's. It was difficult to find reliable suppliers, and it…… [Read More]

References

Bilan, V. (2012). Middle East recovering from Arab spring fever? The Arab world: In search of subjectivity. Retrieved from http://therearenosunglasses.wordpress.com/2012/03/12/middle-east-recovering- from-arab-spring-fever/

Chabros. (2012). About us. Retrieved from http://www.chabros.info/DynamicPage.aspx?id=1&PageId=1

Economist. (2012). Asia competition barometer: Petrochemicals and chemicals. Retrieved from http://www.managementthinking.eiu.com/asia-competition- barometer-petrochemicals-and-chemicals.html

EIU. (2012). Morocco business environment. Retrieved from http://store.eiu.com/product.aspx?pubid=160392201&pid=1930000193&gid=160 392201
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Impact of Culture on PTSD in the Middle East

Words: 2929 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66306094

PTSD in the Middle East

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is one of the most common mental health or psychological disorders facing people in the Middle East region. This condition emerges from episodes of social upheaval, combat, and violence that have become common in the Middle East over the past few years. Some of the major areas in the Middle East that have been characterized by increased conflicts in recent years include Palestine, Iraq, and Lebanon. Given increased conflicts and combat in the Middle East, PTSD and other trauma-related mental health conditions are expected to become public health crisis in the Arab world (Suto, 2016). Therefore, public health professionals in the Middle East face the need to develop appropriate measures for diagnosis and treatment of PTSD and other trauma-related disorders. However, the treatment of this condition and other traumatic mental health disorders is significantly affected by culture. This paper examines how…… [Read More]

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Modern Issues in Human Rights

Words: 976 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73792384

Human Rights

One of the major issues for the United Nations is human rights, which are defined by the organization as "right inherent to all human beings, regardless of race, sex, nationality, ethnicity, language, religion or any other status." These rights include "the right to life and liberty, freedom from slavery and torture, freedom of opinion and expression, the right to work and education, and many more" (UN.org, 2016).

A challenge with respect to human rights is that the nation-state is relied upon to safeguard or provide these rights to its citizens, and that this is far from the case. The head of Amnesty International discussed the need for people to stand up for their rights, and to hold accountable those regimes that do not respect these fundamental rights, pointing to the social media-driven events in 2011 such as the Arab Spring. One thing that the Arab Spring demonstrated, however,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"AI: World poised for human rights changes." World Geography and Culture Online. Facts On File, Inc. 13 May 2011. Web. 24 Apr. 2016.

Certoma, C. (no date) "Human rights." No source. In possession of the author.

"Report: Countries cracking down, restricting universal human rights ." World Geography and Culture Online. Facts On File, Inc. 28 Feb. 2014. Web. 24 Apr. 2016.

UN.org (2016). Human rights. [web]. Accessed April 27, 2016 from https://www.un.org/en/globalissues/humanrights/
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How Effective Have Global Efforts to Reduce Terrorism Been

Words: 3530 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34194078

Global Efforts to educe Terrorism and Political Violence Been Effective in the Past Decade?

Conceptualizing Political Violence and Terrorism

Terrorism does not have an assigned definition. As a matter of fact, "few terms or concepts in contemporary political discourse have proved as hard to define as terrorism" (Weinberg, Pedahzur, and Hirsch-Hoefler, 2004). The authors further point out that from as early as the 1960s and 1970s, when terrorism as a subject first appeared (or made a reappearance), various professional commentators have fund it quite challenging to come up with an articulate definition of the term that could gain acceptance across the board. Essentially, terrorism is a contemporary form of political violence. Indeed, terrorism as Gurr (as cited in Ortlung and Makarychev, 2006) points out, it is a subset of political violence. For purposes of this discussion, the definition (and interpretation) AND assigns to terrorism will be adopted. This definition will…… [Read More]

References

Apaza, C.R., 2011. Integrity and Accountability in Government: Homeland Security and the Inspector General. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing.

Gartenstein-Ross, D., 2012. Bin Laden's Legacy Why We're Still Losing the War on Terror. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons

Hoffman, B., (2010). A Counterterrorism Strategy for the Obama Administration. Terrorism and Political Violence, 21(4), pp. 359-377

Inbar, E. ed., 2013. The Arab Spring, Democracy and Security: Domestic and International Ramifications. New York, NY: Routledge.
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Media Worlds

Words: 793 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97214401

New Media and Politics

Digital media has been extremely instrumental in the organization and expression of political protest. This case study will examine the impact of digital media and social networking and the importance it plays in contemporary political movements.

Citizen Journalism

In the work entitled "New Media and Development Communication," stated is that modern mobile phones "…are transforming civilians into journalists." Columbia University, ITU Report, 2005, p.1) The report states that a critical role was played by mobile phones in the world receiving information about the pro-democracy protests in Myanmar" which involved 1,000 individuals being arrested and 30 to 40 monks and 50 to 70 civilians being killed. The report states specifically:

"Dissent turned into outrage as mobile phones transmitted grainy images of Myanmar's revered monks being beaten by junta security forces, 'Citizen Journalists' -- everyday citizens in Myanmar -- began surreptitiously recording video and taking photos of the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cagaptay, Soner (2012) Can Dictators Survive New Media. CNN Special Report. Retrieved from:  http://globalpublicsquare.blogs.cnn.com/2012/02/10/can-dictators-survive-new-media/ 

Cottle, Simon (2011) Cell Phones, Camels, and the Global Call for Democracy (2011) Open Democracy. 27 Sept. 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.opendemocracy.net/simon-cottle/cell-phones-camels-and-global-call-for-democracy

New Media and Development Communication (2005) Columbia University, ITU Report, 2005.Retrieved from:  http://www.columbia.edu/itc/sipa/nelson/newmediadev/Citizen%20journalism.html 

Preston, Jennifer (2011) Social Media Gives Wall Street Protests a Global Reach. The New York Times. 15 Oct 2011. Retrieved from: http://mediadecoder.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/10/15/social-media-gives-wall-street-protests-a-global-reach/
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Founding Documents American Democracy Determine Democratic Concepts

Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86751546

founding documents American democracy determine democratic concepts principles manifested early writings. For Application Assignment, asked shift thoughts current scholarly writings democratic governance.

The idea of democracy has experienced much change during recent decades and this is reflected by the attitudes that democratic governments put across with regard to the masses. Numerous scholars in the contemporary society have addressed this concept in an attempt to provide the world with a more complex understanding of how it influences people's lives in the present.

Devesh Kapur and Moises Naim's journal article "The IMF and Democratic Governance" relates to how institutions like the International Monetary Fund play an important role in shaping the way that governments apply democratic principles. This article presents research meant to address the way that financial institutions affect today's society through the set of legislations they impose. The fact that it provides substantial information with the purpose of backing ideas…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Brownlee, J., Masoud, T., Reynolds, A., Brown, N. "Tracking the "Arab Spring," Journal of Democracy, October 2013, Volume 24, Number 4

Franck, T.M. "The Emerging Right to Democratic Governance." The American Journal of International Law Vol. 86, No. 1 (Jan., 1992), pp. 46-91

Kapur, D. & Naim. M. "The IMF and Democratic Governance." Journal of Democracy Volume 16, Number 1, January 2005 pp. 89-102
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US as an International Peace-Keeping Force

Words: 1328 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39908156

U.S. ole as 'Policemen of the World'

Thesis and Outline Draft

Introduction and Thesis

currently holds the most important and influential role in international politics and represents a decisive player in all recent international conflicts. This role takes the form of political and military interventions, international and bilateral engagements as well as multilateral brokerage of peace talks. The basic principles of such an approach are the fostering of peaceful, democratic, and secure international environment. At the same time though, it must be pointed out that the entire international community does not always support such actions and often it has been said that the United States acts as the "policeman of the world" (Kissinger, 1995). It must be stressed that the current approach the United States have on foreign policy has not changed since the end of the Civil War and has guided the U.S. In military and political interventions in…… [Read More]

References

Calvocoressi, P. (1987) World politics since 1945. New York: Longman.

Federal News Service (2013) "America is not the world's policeman: Text of Barack Obama's speech on Syria," Associated Press, available online at http://www.ndtv.com/article/world/america-is-not-the-world-s-policeman-text-of-barack-obama-s-speech-on-syria-417077

Kissinger, H. (1995) Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster.

Shahshahani, A. And Corina Mullin (2012) "The legacy of U.S. intervention and the Tunisian revolution: promises and challenges one year on," Interface: a journal for and about social movements, Volume 4 (1): 67 -- 101, available online at  http://www.interfacejournal.net/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Interface-4-1-Shahshahani-and-Mullin.pdf
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Social Entrepreneurialism and Sustainability

Words: 4420 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61337118

Social Entrepreneurship

Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and he can feed himself for life. How could you put this principle into practice through the development of a social entrepreneurship venture?

Development of Social Entrepreneurialism

Corporate Social Responsibility

Externalities

Social Inequality

Social Entrepreneurship and Food

Social entrepreneurship was introduced in the 1970s to address the issue of social sustainably and the term "social entrepreneur." This analysis will begin by providing a brief history as well as a working definition for the concept of social entrepreneurialism. It will also discuss some of the related movements that have been working towards some of the same goals, albeit, from different directions to address various challenges in society and the environment. Furthermore, a more detailed overview of the exact challenges that are present in society that social entrepreneurialism can work to address will…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abu-Saifan, S., 2012. Social Entrepreneurship: Definition and Boundaries. [Online]

Available at: http://timreview.ca/article/523

[Accessed 28 April 2016].

Ashoka, N.d.. Vision and Mission. [Online]
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Analyzing the Role of Youth in the Political Changes in Egypt in 2011

Words: 2849 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46781117

Egyptians of all classes and ages took part in the protests, united in demands and ambitions such as improved wages, improved conditions of working, and political freedom. However, it was the surprising figures of young individuals who took part in the demonstrations that provided drive to the revolt. The young individuals were also key to maintaining the uprising given that numerous meet in Tahrir (Liberation) Square in Cairo as well as other cities across the nation. Egyptian youth are actually the faces behind this leaderless uprising; the revolution was generally impelled by their skill in utilizing social media to gain attention (oudi-Fahimi, El Feki & Tsai, 2011). The new youth backed, and at times, instigated by women is now an aware global citizen, refusing to bear the inability of its rulers to be with the times and provide means of development and rapidly changing economic and social paradigms.

Apart from…… [Read More]

References

Aday, S., Farrell, H., Lynch, M., Sides, J., & Freelon, D. (2012). Blogs and bullet II-New media and conflict after the Arab spring (No. 80). Peaceworks. United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved May 31, 2013.

Al-Natour, M. (2012). The role of women in the Egyptian 25th January revolution. Journal of International Women's Studies, 13(5), 59.

Auer, M. R. (2011). The policy sciences of social media. Policy Studies Journal, 39(4), 709-736.

Frederiksen, M. (2011). The key role of women in the Egyptian revolution. Retrieved March 01, 2016, from http://www.marxist.com/key-role-of-women-in-egyptian-revolution.htm
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Consonance With the Learning Outcomes

Words: 3105 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60753119

Additionally, it will boost team morale and teamwork and better employee relations and retention as well. Overall, performance will be improved. Intervention as a team is a must for the conflict resolution process to work. This process unlocks the power in a team and then provides an opportunity to negotiate and mediate problems. The results are detailed action plans which brings out strategies for improvement of a company. To ensure that all of the team members understand the project's goal and are committed is an effective methiod that can be used to avoid group conflicts. A team is normally formed involving a rational making decision process. Therefore, it must also be maintained through the agency of rational conflict resolution methods.

Sample Project Definition Document

As we mentioned above, it is important for a project to be able to procure the requisite permits and other permission documentation. Also, as mentioned above,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boyd, K. (2011). crushing plant design and layout considerations. Retrieved from http://www.technology.infomine.com/hydrometmine/papers/kboyd.pdf/

Heerkens, G. (2007). Project management: 24 steps to help you master any project. (1st ed. ed.). New

York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Kerzner, H. (2009). Project management: A systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling.
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Social World The Effects of Information Technology

Words: 2174 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83883196

social world?

The effects of information technology on the society

The social capital framework

In this paper, we evaluate the validity of the statement that IT is radically changing the social world. We perform a critical analysis of the concept of social world and social capital and how it is influenced by information technology. This is carried against the backdrop of the concept of information technology as the conceptual framework. The paper concludes that indeed the statement that IT is radically changing the social world is true.

The contemporary society has witnessed a series of transformations which can directly be attributed to the concept of technological dynamism. Technological dynamism is a concept which was defined by Albu (2009) as the rate of exchange in the level of predictability of new technologies. The technological advancements that we witness today are largely as a result of the lack of knowledge that exists…… [Read More]

Veenstra, G. (2000). Social capital, SES and health: An individual-level analysis. Social Science and Medicine, 50, 619-629.

Wellman, B.A., Quan-Haase, A., Witte, J., & Hampton, K. (2001). Does the Internet increase, decrease, or supplement social capital? Social networks, participation, and community commitment. American Behavioral Scientist, 45(3), 437-456.

Woolcock, M., & Narayan, D. (2000). Social capital: Implications for development theory, research, and policy. The World Bank Research Observer, 15, 225-249.
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Terrorist Group Factors for Formation and Continued Operations

Words: 2787 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38291069

Hezbollah

The Formation and Perpetuation of Hezbollah: Successful Politics and Successful Terrorism

The decade following the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City has seen some dramatic changes in U.S. And global policy towards terrorist groups and terrorist action, and to public sentiment and attitude regarding these groups and their actions, as well. From the semi-official War on Terror to the recent "Arab Spring" and the attendant turmoil in the Middle East, the global context within which terrorism exists -- the way in which the world responds to terrorism and the way in which terrorist organizations present themselves to the world -- has changed dramatically in the recent past. This has necessitated certain changes amongst terrorist organizations, or those organizations labeled as terrorists by the international community, that hope to remain viable and relevant forces in the modern world. Though it can be impolitic to discuss…… [Read More]

References

Baranovich, Nadia, and Ravichandran Moorthy. "The Dynamics of Terror Strategies by Hezbollah and Hamas in the Israel-Palestine Conflict." Tamkang Journal of International Affairs 14, no. 4 (2011): 28-61.

Byman, Daniel. "Should Hezbollah be next?" Foreign Affairs (2003): 54-66.

Cohen, Ariel. "Knowing the Enemy." Policy Review 145 (2007): 40-53.

Feldman, Shai. "The Hezbollah-Israel War: A Preliminary Assessment." Middle East Brief 10, no. 2 (2006).
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Grand Strategy Liberalism and How

Words: 1893 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46507194



Consistency, coupled by approval generates legitimacy. A government system is only legitimate if it receives the support of plural citizens. Therefore, a good example is Hosni Mubarak's one party, which was illegitimate. Any policy enjoying the majority approval of the citizens is said to be a legitimate policy. In this context, the United States invasion into Iraq has been perceived as illegitimate. This is not because many citizens of Iraq disapproved the policy but also due to the fact that majority of the Arabs recorded substantial support. As the global military utility continues to decline, a country perceived as consistent and legitimate will encounter minimal resistance from the new Arab world while the U.S. continues to execute its policies.

The occurrence of the Second World War is reflected from the relations between the American grand strategy and the initial existence of the realism, constructivism, and liberalism. Moreover, it is evident…… [Read More]

Reference List

Betts, Richard K. Is Strategy an Illusion?

International Security 25, no. 2 (2000): 5-50.

Grant, Robert M., and Judith Jordan. Foundations of Strategy. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley and Sons, 2012.

Gray, Colin. Why Strategy is Difficult. Joint Forces Quarterly, Summer 1999, 6-12.
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War in Afghanistan Following the

Words: 3674 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30447159



Fallout

A section of commentators have taken issue with the manner in which the federal government denied suspected terrorist the due process of law as stipulated under the constitution. The government even commissioned the establishment of a torture chamber in Guantanamo Bay. This amounts to gross violation of human rights and civil liberties. There is another clause in the patriot act dubbed "enhanced surveillance procedures," which allows federal authorities to gather foreign intelligence by breaching firewalls of 'terrorist nations.' This controversial foreign policy clause damaged the relationship between America and the Middle East.

A section of scholars argues that key players in the oil industry manipulated the United States to wage war against Afghanistan. According to an article published on the BBC World Service in December 2007, the execution of Saddam Hussein was unwarranted. Political scientists reckon that a cartel of multinational oil companies wanted to control the oil in…… [Read More]

Van Bergen, J. (2003) "In the Absence of Democracy: The Designation and Material Support Provisions of the Anti-Terrorism Laws." Cardozo Pub. [?] Law Policy & Ethics Journal 2 (2003): 107.

Luca, B (2004). American foreign policy and global governance, in A. Gobbicchi (ed.), Globalization, armed conflicts and security (Rubbettino/CEMISS, Roma) 112-127

Fawcett, L. (2009) International Relations of the Middle East (2nd ed.) Oxford University Press
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Globalization Has Become a Ubiquitously Word in

Words: 1132 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93427997

Globalization has become a ubiquitously word in the last few decades. Much of the globalization trend is driven by the fact that many organizations operate internationally and supply chains have become sophisticated, complex, and spans the entire globe. As a result of globalization, many organizations have tried to proactively create a level of homogenization and standardization internationally of markets, resources, and labor. hen international companies can have access to foreign resources and labor it often helps them achieve business objectives. It can also help to develop the local economy at it is working to create more middle class citizens in developing countries. Yet, the results are deeply mixed and often the result of newly introduced capitalism further stratifies the society. Therefore, even though the trend has been primarily measured by economic activities it also has had many other consequences as well in regards to social and political issues.

Globalization and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chang, D. "Informalising Labour in Asia's Global Factory." Journal of Contemporary Asia (2009): 161-179. Web.

Ghosh, J. "Women, Labor, and Capital Accumulation in Asia." January 2012. Monthly Review. Web. 28 July 2012.

Hanieh, A. "Temporary Migrant Labour and the Spatial Structuring of Class in the Gulf Cooperation Council." Spectrum: Journal of Global Studies (2010): 67-89. Web.

Mak, T. "Occupy Wall Street uses Arab Spring model." 3 September 2011. Politico. Web. 28 July 2012. .
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Financial Plan for Sikorsky Aircraft

Words: 919 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46599260

Sikorsky Aircraft -- Financial Plan for Looming Defense Cuts

New Defense Markets Strategy

Diversify Product Mix Strategy

Many analysts believe that the U.S. budget has grown to unprecedented levels and budget issues have become a political priority. Talks of to how reign in the deficit to a level that represents more a sustainable trajectory than its current path plagues all the media channels and political commentary. No matter which side of the political debate that anyone sides with, there seems to be evidence that massive budget cuts are on the horizon. Some of the deficit reduction measures that are being tossed around include social security reform, health care reform, social spending on entitlement programs, and last but not least, often the elephant in the room, defense spending.

The United States spends nearly as much on military expenditures as the rest of the world combined and in 2008 the budget exceeded…… [Read More]

Works Cited

BBC Business News. "China says it will boost its defence budget in 2011." 4 March 2011. Asia Business. 3 May 2011 .

Hellman, C. And T. Sharp. "The FY 2009 Pentagon Spending Request - Global Military Spending." 22 February 2008. The Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation. 3 May 2011 .

Lee, M. "Sikorsky Wins $3.5B Contract From Turkey." 22 April 2011. Courant. 3 May 2011 .

Watts, J. "World Bank sees China recovery this year." 7 April 2009. The Guardian. 2 May 2011 .