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We are much less active in our perception of smell, touch, sound, and taste. The other four senses are spontaneous and static, whereas the sense of sight is controllable and dynamic. For example, we cannot control our experience of a scent by focusing our noses, we can only control it by terminating the experience completely, e.g. covering our noses or moving out of the scent's range. Sound also has a way of just happening to you, you have no control over how sound reaches your ear except by terminating contact with it by covering your ears or insulating your rooms to obstruct the sound.
Sight is currently the dominant source of knowledge in creating our model of reality. As we become more interested in distant and unfamiliar things that we cannot hear, smell, feel, or taste, sight is plays a larger and larger role in constructing our model of…
Pallasmaa, Juhani. "The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses" the New Humanities Reader. By Richard E. Miller and Kurt Spellmeyer. 4th ed. Boston: Wadsworth Pub., 2011. 282-298. Print.
Sacks, Oliver. "The Mind's Eye: What the Blind See" the New Humanities Reader. By Richard E. Miller and Kurt Spellmeyer. 4th ed. Boston: Wadsworth Pub., 2011. 303-317. Print.
Architecture & Behavior
There is little question but that architecture is a regulator of human behavior. What sites and facilities look like and function as play key roles in the way people respond to and even participate in what they have to offer. The emergence of a number of fields of study on issues as diverse as health care practices and the habits of crime and safety as well as the developing field of New Urbanism all take for granted that the physical structures on which we depend impact the ways we reflect the world we live in -- for good and for bad. The American Psychological Association's Task Force on Urban Psychology put it this way: "urban psychology proposes that the mix of people and places that make up the urban setting affects psychological functioning and development in these settings" (APA, nd: vi) But exactly how it…
APA Task Force (nd). Report of the Task Force of Urban Psychology: Toward an Urban Psychology. Research, Action, Policy. Viewable at http://www.apa.org/pi/ses/resources/publications/urban-taskforce.pdf .
Ellis, C. (2002). The New Urbanism: Critiques and Rebuttals. Journal of Urban Design. Vol. 7, No. 9. 261-291. Viewable at http://www.botsfor.no/publikasjoner/Litteratur/New%20Urbanism/The%20New%20Urbanism%20Critiques%20and%20Rebuttals%20by%20Chris%20Ellis.pdf .
LISC (2010). Primer: New Urbanism. Green Development Center. Viewable at http://www.lisc.org/docs/GDC/New_Urbanism_Primer.pdf .
Shah, R.C. And Kesan, J.P. (2007). How Architecture Regulates. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research. Vol. 24, No. 4. Pg. 350.
From approximately 1930 until the 1980s, rectangular and functional spaces were the chief form of architecture around the world in general. The latter part of the 20th century -- the 1980s onward -- saw change once again, however (2008). For the most part, 20th century architecture, however, "focused on machine aesthetics or functionality and failed to incorporate any ornamental accents in the structure" (2008). The designs were, for the most part, simplistic, uncomplicated, and lacking excessive detail in both the design and the construction process (2008). The term "form follows function" was based on this type of architecture (2008).
Ornamentation on a building does not necessarily have to be seen as criminal because, in many cases, ornamentation has social uses like serving as landmarks, offering the identity of the building, referencing scale, and attracting individuals to go inside the building. Ornamentation, under these examples, can be seen as quite functional…
Artect., 2007. "Burj Dubai Exhibit at Skyscraper Museum." Artect. Accessed on January 18,
A View on Cities., 2011. "Torre Agbar." Accessed on January 10, 2011:
Architecture and Linguistics
Classical architecture can be described within the context of a linguistic model. Architecture and grammar are commonly described in terms of each other, and a deeper investigation reveals the strong conceptual relations between the two fields. As linguistic grammar comes from rules of the combination of words in sentences, a type of architectural grammar comes from the rules that relate to the combination of rooms within buildings. Further, linguistic semantics have an architectural correlate.
There seems to be a strong and ubiquitous relationship between architectural and linguistics. As such, the concepts of architecture and grammar are often intertwined within both the fields of linguistics and architecture. Elizabeth Cole's book "The Grammar of Architecture" typifies this natural and almost instinctive relationship, as it describes its comprehensive look at the history of architecture in linguistic terms. Similarly, Ronald Kaplain describes his look at English grammar in terms of architecture…
Cole, Emily. 2002. The Grammar of Architecture. Bulfinch.
Kaplain, Ronald M. 1989. The Formal Architecture of Lexical-Functional Grammar. 04 December 2003. Abstract available online at http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/kaplan89formal.html
Wikipedia. Classical architecture. 04 December 2003. http://en2.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_architecture
Architecture and Urban Transformation: evisioning
The objective of this research is to examine the central of Footscray and specifically to posed specific questions including whether there is a discernable orderly underlying the structure of the city and how does one ready the city, decipher the complexities of the city and how does that reading inform the production of architecture? Also addressed in this study are the questions of how could the urban proposal act as a fulcrum to reengage with city and how does the architectural investigation enable expression of inclusiveness? Toward the goal of addressing these specific questions this study intends to conduct a review of literature relating to urban architectural production. The literature reviewed will be that of professional and academic peer-reviewed journals and publication. The findings reported are located in the discussion and conclusion sections of the present study.
Architecture and Urban Transformation: evisioning
Statement of Thesis…
Lynch, K (1960) The Image of the City. Cambridge: MIT Press;
Revisioning Footscray -- Final Report (2005) Red Road Development 14 June 2005.
Sennett, R., 'The conscience of the eye, the design and social life of cities', USA, 1992
Leikina, Daria (nd) Exposure and Transition. March, Studio 11.
This indicates the open and natural lines of the American prairie fields. A very interesting element of the obie House design is that it has neither a basement nor an attic; the latter was omitted to perpetuate the visual element of the horizontal represented by the house, while the former was omitted for the simple reason that Wright found it aesthetically unpleasant.
Instead, the communication of the house with the earth is a clean break between built surface and natural foundation, with only a four-step descent to allow for the furnace and coal rooms and a pit for working on the cars in the garage.
Another consideration in terms of the home's communication with its environment was its location in a city environment; the architect did not have much by way of natural environment to work with; hence a focus on geometrical construction to indicate the forms of nature --…
Coleman, Brian D. Historic Arts & Crafts Homes of Great Britain. Layton, Utah: Gibbs Smith, 2005.
Frampton, Kenneth. Modern Architecture 1851-1945. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, 1983.
Hoffman, Donald. Frank Lloyd Wright's Robie House: The Illustrated Story of an Architectural Masterpiece. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications, 1984.
Elements like "exposed concrete beams, flat roofs, and large metal windows" are signature elements of both Villa Tegendhat and the Eames House (Neumann 88). What these structures do is to reduce the gap between commercial and personal, between home space and work space. After all, the Eames House was erected as a working studio by its own architectural team. It is a literal fusion of form and function; it is both work house and living space. The concept of blending industrial and domestic elements of design was quintessentially modern. With Villa Tegendhat, Mies would "revolutionize the aesthetics of the bourgeois interi- or by adopting materials and visual elements from the commercial architecture of store displays and exhibition spaces," (Neumann 88). In fact, Mies had revealed the multiple uses for chrome plating, which would be used in domestic architecture for the first time concurrently with uses in the automotive industry (Neumann).…
Correia, K. & Ngo, a. (2008). Eames House. Retrieved online: http://myweb.wit.edu/ngoa/architecture/arch245/precedent.pdf
Eames Foundation (2013). Eames House History. Retrieved online: http://eamesfoundation.org/eames-house-history/
Frampton, Kenneth (1987). Ten points on an architecture of regionalism: A provincial polemic. Retrieved online: http://home.earthlink.net/~aisgp/texts/regionalism/regionalism.html
Frampton, Kenneth. "Towards a Critical Regionalism." Retrieved online: http://designtheory.fiu.edu/readings/frampton_regionalism.pdf
Connor, Mallory McCane. Lost Cities of the Ancient Southeast. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1995.
Roth, Leland M. A Concise History of American Architecture. Boulder, CO: estview Press, 1980.
hite, Janet R. "The Ephrata Cloister: Intersections of Architecture and Culture in an Eighteenth-Century Utopia." Utopian Studies 11.2 (2000): 57.
Eduardo Matos Moctezuma, "6 From Teotihuacan to Tenochtitlan Their Great Temples," trans. Scott Sessions, Mesoamerica's Classic Heritage: From Teotihuacan to the Aztecs, ed. David Carrasco, Lindsay Jones, and Scott Sessions (Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado, 2000) 188. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=70446617
Mallory McCane O'Connor, Lost Cities of the Ancient Southeast (Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1995) 17. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002571050
Dennis Doxtater, "Parallel Universes on the Colorado Plateau: Indications of Chacoan Integration of an Earlier Anasazi Focus at Canyon De Chelly," Journal of the Southwest 45.1-2 (2003). http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99883323
Alan Gowans, Styles and Types of North American Architecture:…
Doxtater, Dennis. "Parallel Universes on the Colorado Plateau: Indications of Chacoan Integration of an Earlier Anasazi Focus at Canyon De Chelly." Journal of the Southwest 45.1-2 (2003): 33+.
Gowans, Alan. Styles and Types of North American Architecture: Social Function and Cultural Expression. New York: Icon Editions, 1993.
3. When he says architecture to-day is no longer conscious of its own beginnings, what does this seem to mean? What is his problem with architects, and do you think it is a problem?
What he means by this is that when architecture first came about it was born from someone's imagination and their viewpoints. There was nothing to compare it to and thus was original and novel. Le Corbusier is saying that now everything that is built is based upon some pre-existing style or idea and that no one is doing anything original. It is all about following in what is tried and true. This is a problem in the fact that without imagination and invention, things will become stale and tired and no new ways of doing things will ever be discovered.
Adolf Loos: "Ornament and Crime"
1. What does Loos' comparison of human cultures, especially Europeans and…
Indeed, the first use of the term 'architect' as against 'master mason' in France dates from 1511 and reflects the increasing influence of Italian ideas" ( P88). Heller goes on to state that "…humanist learning in architecture not only raised the status of the architect, it also helped to foster a new division of labor in construction…"( Heller 88).
The innovative design that was exhibited in this construction was to lead to unique and progressive developments in the field of architecture. This is evidenced by the following quotation; "This manner of thinking through the project as a whole and determining every aspect of its structure, construction, and aesthetics was very different from the traditional ways of the masons and was to some extent the birth of the modern architectural profession." (Castex 52)
runelleschi's design and building expertise was also innovative in other ways as well. His creation of…
Andrea Palladio: Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2004. Web.
An Engineer's Aspect: Filippo Brunelleschi's Dome. Web.
Basilica of St. Peter. Web. < http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13369b.htm >
Bonde, S., R. Mark, and E.C. Robison. "Walls and Other Vertical Elements." In Architectural Technology Up to the Scientific Revolution: The Art and Structure of Large-Scale Buildings, edited by Robert Mark, 52-137. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993.
The importance of the previous site to the locals is evidence in the fact that parts of that older building were "built into the terrace wall," ("Aegina, Temple of Aphaia (Building)"). The Temple of Portuna was built of different materials than the Greek temple, out of "tufa and travertine blocks which had been originally been coated with a fine layer of stucco," (Sullivan). What is significant from the context of construction is that the Temple of Portuna was built before marble was "widely accepted as a construction material in ome," (the Architecture of oman Temples: The epublic to the Middle Empire). Stucco was used, and so was travertine, materials that remained in use but less so after marble became fashionable in ome.
The cultural context of these two buildings tells much about the role that architecture plays in the community and culture. In ome, the Temple of Portunus was dedicated…
"Aegina, Temple of Aphaia (Building)" Retrieved online: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/artifact?name=Aegina,+Temple+of+Aphaia&object=Building
Gill, David W.J., 1988, the Temple of Aphaia on Aegina: The Date of the Reconstruction. The Annual of the British School at Athens, Vol. 83, (1988), pp. 169-177
Kashdan, Harry, n.d. "Temple of Aphaia on Aegina." Retrieved online: http://proteus.brown.edu/greekpast/4775
Sear, Frank, Roman Architecture.
Architecture and People (Tiesdel and Oc)
Architecture can be assessed aesthetically alone, as with a photograph, or experientially and as environments. This chapter is concerned with the latter.
while architecture can impact and improve social behavior, there are exceptions to that, it does not always work
Determinism: Environment determines behavior (is a crude belief, narrow minded) -- also takes away attention from real problems that the architecture was intended to solve but doesn't (like poverty)
Non-Determinism: also limited
Ideally, accept both; there is a mutual relationship between behavior and environment; environment is not the only determinant of behavior but it can be one factor
Amos Rappaport -- expanded view: determinancy is a "generic term for the continuum begtween determinancy and non-determinancy"
Continuum: One end is Physical environment determines human behavior=====Other end is Possibiliism (physical environment offers opportunities for people to make choices). IN between these two is Probabilism (physical environment…
The Palais des Soviets and the Palais des Nations, like the Party Buildings in Nuremberg, symbolized the hoped for triumph of a "new order." Communism, like Nazism, believed that society functioned according to certain, almost mathematical laws. The dialectic of class against class had brought the proletariat to power, and the communist Soviet state represented the natural and inevitable apex of human evolution and history. Le Corbusier shared in the Nazi predilection for seeing scientific order as an ideal in all things. The classical building with its carefully defined parts and their mathematical relationships to one another were like the parts of a machine - each piece an essential part of the whole, the whole inoperable without the parts. Indeed, Le Corbusier likened the house to these engines of the industrial age calling houses "machines for living."
In 1931, the government of the Soviet Union announced a competition for designs…
Arnold, Dana. Reading Architectural History: An Annotated Anthology. New York: Routledge, 2002.
Bown, Matthew Cullerne. Art under Stalin. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1991.
The capital supported a horizontal element called the entablature, which was divided further into three different parts:
The architrave which was the lowest part
The frieze was the middle part
The cornice was the very top
These elements were further detailed with decorative moldings and ornamentation. Each part of the classical order was sized and arranged according to an overall proportioning system based on the height and diameter of the columns.
In order to examine the artistic features of that time period it is useful to look at the building materials with which a Greek architect had to use and the methods of putting them together. Greece had a large amount of good building stone. Many times there was an inexhaustible supply of white marble. There was also many beautiful colored marbles that the Romans had to figure out how to use. There was also many other common types of…
Ziggurat.eu: Mesopotamia. 2009. Mesopotamia. http://www.ziggurat.eu/mesopotamia_en.html (accessed June 8, 2009).
Greek Architecture: Doric, Ionic, or Corinthian? 2009. Dummies.com http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/greek-architecture-doric-ionic-or-corinthian.html (accessed June 8, 2009).
Greek Architecture. n.d. The History of Ancient Greece. http://greek- history.annourbis.com/GreekArt/GreekArthgrkr10_greek_architecture.html#greek_architectu re (accessed June 8, 2009).
Paul's Cathedral, the work of England's most renown architect Christopher Wren (1632 -- 1723). Wren, a mathematical genius and highly-skilled engineer, built and designed this massive building, highlighted by its magnificent dome, after the Great Fire of 1666 which destroyed the old structure. According to Nikolaus Pevsner, St. Paul's Cathedral "is a splendid skyline composition with the two foreground towers acting effectively as foils to the great dome. The upper levels are quite differently designed than the lower levels which are Palladian" (256). Thus, Wren's skillful artistry and eclecticism brought these foreign features into a monumental unity, while the building itself serves as a prototype for later structures in both Europe and Colonial America.
Between 1785 and 1789 in the American colonies, future President Thomas Jefferson (1743 -- 1826) expressed his adoration for the Classical past of ancient Rome and Greece by going beyond architects who had incorporated only elements…
In 1835 in London, another magnificent building was designed by Charles Barry (1795 -- 1860) and A.W.N. Pugin, being the new Houses of Parliament which replaced the old structure after being burned in 1835. Like Jefferson, Barry preferred the Classical style, yet Pugin convinced him to incorporate late English Gothic into the building. However, the Houses of Parliament is not genuinely Gothic, despite its picturesque tower groupings. Generally, this building "has a formal axial plan and a kind of Palladian regularity beneath its Tudor details" (Copplestone, 325), similar in nature to Wren's design of St. Paul's Cathedral more than a hundred years earlier.
Not surprisingly, Neoclassical and Gothic architecture dominated the early 19th century, but exotic styles of all kinds, mixed with ingredients borrowed from the East, also appeared. By mid century, Renaissance and Baroque were added to the inventory, especially in France with the Paris Opera House, designed by Charles Garnier and constructed between 1861 and 1874.
In contrast to these buildings, the movement known as Realism gradually replaced sentimental and romantic designs in favor of the purpose and function within a building. With the assistance of the Industrial Revolution, architects began to use iron which allowed engineering advances in the construction of larger, stronger and more fire-resistant structures. The tensile strength
..a spirit that is intent on interior things is better served by an absence of decoration and trimming in the things around it" (p. 11). The old order they had left behind provided them with views of what architecture should not be, that is, extravagant and highly ornamented, which they regarded as a hindrance to spiritual growth. Peacefulness was the aim, achieved by their use of light: "The relationship of light to architecture, specifically the way it conditioned a new luminous and spatial quality in the building, became in fact one of the most prominent features of the Cistercians' churches. Clear white light complemented the simple forms and fine proportions of the buildings to produce interiors of coolness, quiet, and serenity" (p. 13).
As profound expansion took place, however, architectural ideals were compromised. They needed bigger buildings and solved the problem by simplifying the existent Romanesque by eliminating its superfluous…
Breuer's continued use of the shaded method emphasizes his own feelings about form and function, as the shading was very practical. Not only did it allow for full views without glare, but it also reflected heat from the buildings before the radiant energy could get trapped within the structure (Turvey 74).
Another focus in Brauer's designs is his purposeful emphasis on building structure. Like his furniture, many of Breuer's designs draw attention to the structural features, including girders, beams, and wall supports (Masello 68). His playful cantilevered designs (again used in both his furniture and architecture) allow for symmetrical yet functional and simple aesthetic appeal.
One such design, finished with partner Herbert Beckhard, features all of the aspects common to Breuer's aesthetic vision. The 4,400 square foot McMullen Beach House, was built as a vacation home for Jacquie McMullen and family in 1960 (Masello 68). Beckhard and Breauer were challenged…
Marcel Breuer. n.d. Art & Culture. 7 Dec. 2006 http://www.artandculture.com/cgi-bin/WebObjects/ACLive.woa/wa/artist?id=326 .
Marcel Breuer: architect biography. n.d. Architecture.sk. 7 Dec. 2006 http://architect.architecture.sk/marcel-breuer-architect/marcel-breuer-architect.php .
Masello, David. Architecture Without Rules: The Houses of Marcel Breuer and Herbert Beckhard. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1993.
Turvey, Cameron. The Oakville Experiment. Canadian Architect Nov. 2005: 74.
Similarly, English architect Augustus elby Northmore Pugin (1812 to 1852), best-known for his designs for the Houses of Parliament building of 1835, considered the Gothic style as the cornerstone of European Christianity and saw moral purity and spiritual authenticity in the religious architecture of the Middle Ages while also "glorifying the Medieval craftsmen who produced it." 7
Clearly, Pugin saw the historical past through the eyes of an idealist who clung to ancient Greek architectural ideals and principles with great vigor; he was also convinced that Greek Revivalism would play a significant role in all future buildings constructed in Great Britain and America. At the same time, Pugin was quite disillusioned by the Industrial Revolution and firmly believed in the necessity of restoring old craftsmanship which had "honesty and quality." 8 Obviously, Pugin's vision of history, much like that of Schinkel, was based upon the slow but persistent emergence of…
Carter, Rand. "Karl Friedrich Schinkel: The Last Great Architect." 1996. Internet. Retrieved December 7, 2008 at http://www.tc.umn.edu/~peikx001/rcessay.htm .
Healey, Caroline. "Augustus Welby Pugin and the Gothic Revival." 2004. Internet. Retrieved December 7, 2008 at http://www.victorianweb.org/art/design/pugin/healey10.html .
Rykwert, Joseph. The First Moderns: Architects of the 18th and 19th Centuries. UK: Cambridge University Press, 1980.
Silverman, Kenneth J. Thomas Jefferson: America's First Architect. New York: Scribner's, 2004.
This methodology emphasized observable empirical evidence as the way towards discovering and understanding natural laws and true causes. It was the use of this method that was cardinal in the advancement and development of many disciplines, including architecture. Coupled with this was the invention of modern printing by Johannes Gutenberg (1398 -- 1468). His mechanized process of movable type allowed books to be mass produced. This invention laid the foundation for a modern knowledge-based economy (Eisenstein) and accelerated the accessibility of learning within society. This had a concomitant affect on the proliferation of knowledge and education, as well as communication; and as one commentator asserts, the printing press helped to produce a democratization of knowledge (Rheingold). This period of history was therefore pivotal in the creation of knowledge and vision, which would further advance the development and achievements of architecture.
2.2 History of the Scientific Revolution
An architectural structure with its foundation in the past and the present
The University of Michigan Student Union building
In ages past, collective and communal places often were simply expected to serve a singular function. A church was to bring together individuals who shared in a similar faith, for instance. A one-room schoolhouse was to bring together students and an educator, united for the singular purpose of learning. However, as society has grown more complex and diverse, so have the structures that encompass intellectual, recreational, and communal life.
This is perhaps best evidenced on the University of Michigan Campus, in the form of the Michigan Student Union. This building is of particular interest, not simply because it is so well trafficked by students of the university. It is also of interest because it aspires to do so much, namely to provide a common nutritional, recreational, and functional gathering place…
Nostrand Reinhold, 1996.
Clark, Roger H. And Michael Pause. Precedents in Architecture. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985.
Doczi, Gyorgy. The Power of Limits: Proportional Harmonies in Nature, Art and Architecture. Boulder, CO: Shambhala, 1981.
Three grand examples of Roman Architectural ingenuity represent the standards set by the Roman culture for the centralization of space. Serving a central purpose all three, the Domus Aurea, built between 64-68 AD, the Pantheon in Rome, built around 118-128 AD and the Mausoleum of Diocletian in Split, built around 300 AD
The later architectural designs and constructions of the early Christians and the Byzantine culture can be said to be direct reflections of the centralized planning and structures of their Pagan ancestors, the Romans. Though adaptations clearly took place the traditions of the Roman planners are clearly represented within these later works.
The Domus Aurea, built between 64-68 AD as a palace and central administration for the emperor Nero after the great fire is based around an octagonal plan with a central open air lake and garden.
The Domus Aurea is often thought of as a benchmark for…
This cathedral itself might be better compared to Michelangelo's painting of the Sistine Chapel, as it too has a multitude of figures looking down upon the visitor, as Chartres does. But if we are comparing the cathedral to the "David," one could say that they are similar in proportion. Chartres is broad-based and of human proportions. The round rose window is its head, and the shoulders are the square behind it, holding up both arms, pointing to the sky. It appears to have its feet spread, and the flying buttresses on either side appear like a skirt or wings under which a chick might be gathered.
As to structure, the church is made in many parts, "the vaulting was quadripartite, which eliminated the need for alternating supports,"(Frazier 440) whereas the "David" is made on one block of stone. As to materials, the cathedral is made of masonry stone, in blocks…
Frazier, Nancy. The Penguin Concise Dictionary of Art History. New York: Penguin Putnam, Inc. 2000.
Kostof, Spiro. A History of Architecture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Levoy, Mark. A 3D-computer model of the head of Michelangelo's David, 1999 Stanford Computer Graphics Laboratory, http://graphics.stanford.edu/projects/mich/head-of-david/ .
Economics Questions Discussion Assignment
Looking at the major spending categories, and delving into detail as you can, identify spending areas that you think could be cut if there were a need to reduce the deficit or control inflation.
In terms of cutting the deficit, it is worth reiterating that no spending cuts are politically popular, even for deficit-hating conservatives. However, given the current state of affairs in Iraq, it would seem that the areas least open to potential cuts are those for the Department of Defense and Department of State and International Assistance. The best available options might be to cut departments and agencies of which, some of whose functions could be potentially assumed by the states. These might include he Department of Education, Housing and Human Development, and Environmental Protection Agency. However, these departments have relatively small budgets. Thus, another potential option might be cutting some of the…
The sheer length of time designated to each suggests a great deal about the excess of resources, man-power and conceit which were reserved for the cite of worship, historical documentation, deference to the shared authority of the Crown and Church and, in the case of St. Denis, the interment of France's Kings. And embodied in this long process would be the incorporation of a host of aesthetic, spiritual and sociological impulses that would ultimately feed into the political and philosophical machinations of the renaissance. Thus, it may be that there is some elevated degree of credit to be given to the French Renaissance architects who ultimately completed these structures so unprecedented in their size.
It must be acknowledged that the construction of the Cathedral at Notre Dame would, in France, represent nothing less significant than the transition from a Roman tradition of building aesthetic values to a distinct manifestation of…
Art Movements. (2008). Mannerism. Art Industri. Online at http://www.artmovements.co.uk/mannerism.htm
Brown, Elizabeth a.R. & Michael W. Cothren. 1986. The Twelfth Century Crusading Window of the Abbey of Saint-Denis. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Vol. 49.
Crosby, Summer McK. 1970. The West Portals of Saint-Denis and the Saint-Denis Style. Gesta, Vol. 9, No 2.
Cupola Consulting. (1998) Renaissance and Mannerist Architecture. Cupola. Online at http://www.cupola.com/html/bldgstru/renaissa/renais01.htm
The capital city of Brasilia and its primary edifices were all state-commissioned in the middle of the twentieth century. President Juscelino Kubitschek’s vision depended on working with Oscar Niemeyer to create a unified, symbolic, modernist vision that encapsulated Brazil’s social, economic, and political progress. The centerpiece of Brasilia architecturally and symbolically is the Plaza of the Three Powers (Praça dos Três Podores), which includes the emblematic National Congress of Brazil. The National Congress of Brazil also forms the eastern end of what is known as Brasilia’s monumental axis. The term monumental axis refers to the grandeur of the scope and sheer size of the complex, as well as to the fact that this area of the capital is home to its most important political monuments. Moreover, the term monumental axis denotes the linearity of the layout: the strict horizontal and vertical lines that intersect at the National Congress. Roadways were…
Order in Renaissance & Neo-Classical Architecture
Alberti and Perrault thought differently about the role of the column in architecture. Alberti was a Renaissance architect—and like many others of the Renaissance era, he was inspired by the symmetrical beauty, mathematical precision, and classical guidelines of the ancients. Alberti used the column in architecture to give a sense of harmony and wholeness. Perrault, who designed architecture some two centuries after Alberti in the 17th century, was standing on different shoulders. Whereas Alberti had been operating in a world of wholeness prior to the wreck of Europe that was the Protestant Reformation, which tore the Continent apart, Perrault grew up in an Age where Christian nations were divided. Thus, the same love of wholeness and harmony that Alberti displayed in his use of columns was not felt by Perrault. Perrault focused less on mathematical precision and more on the concept of beauty and…
Alberti, Leon Battista. “Book Six” and “Book Eight”. In On the Art of Building. 154-188 and 244-290. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1980.
Allais, Lucia. “Ordering the Orders”. Future Anterior 2, No 2 (2005): 53-74.
Damisch, Hubert. “The Column and the Wall.” In Architectural Design Profile 21:Leonis Baptiste Alberti 49, no. 5-6 (1979): 18-25.
Durand, Jean-Nicolas-Louis. Precis of the Lectures on Architecture. Los Angeles: Getty, 2000, 73-88.
Laugier, Marc-Antoine. An Essay on Architecture. Translated by Wolfgang Herrman and Anni Herrmann. Los Angeles: Hennessey & Ingalls, 1977.
Perrault, Claude. “Preface”. In Ordonnance, 47-63. Santa Monica: Getty Center for the
History of Art and the Humanities, 1993.
Rykwert, Joseph. “Positive and Arbitrary”. In The First Moderns, 23-53. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1980.
Oscar Niemeyer’s Impact on the Modernization of Brasilia
It is important to note, from the onset, that Oscar Niemeyer’s professional journey begun in Belo Horizonte - way before he was involved in the transformation and modernization of Brasilia. At this point, the role he played in the formative development of some centers in Belo Horizonte as a leisure and tourism hubs was laudable, especially with his involvement in the planning of a recreation as well as tourism complex, Pampulha. His readiness and willingness to work with other experts in diverse fields was evident from the beginning. In this particular undertaking, he invited Alfredo Ceschiatti and Roberto Burle, a prominent sculptor and landscape architect respectively. Through their collaboration, the complex which comprised of three buildings (a church, a dance pavilion, and a golf and yacht club) was completed in a relatively short period of time. It was a masterpiece. Towards this…
Bradbury, Dominic, and Richard Powers R 2009. The Iconic House: Architectural Masterworks Since 1900. New York, NY: Thames & Hudson.
Grinceri, D. 2016. Architecture as Cultural and Political Discourse: Case Studies of Conceptual Norms and Aesthetic Practices. New York, Routledge.
Goldhagen, S.W. 2012. The Beauty and Inhumanity of Oscar Niemeyer’s Architecture. https://newrepublic.com/article/111002/beauty-and-inhumanity-oscar-niemeyers-architecture
Jackson, E.A. 1995. “The Modernization of Brazilian Urban Space as a Political Symbol of the Republic.” The Journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts 21, no. 8 (August): 218-237.
Mical, T., ed. 2005. Surrealism and Architecture. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Ouroussoff, N. 2007. Even if His Own Work Isn’t Broken, a Brazilian Architect Fixes It. https://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/26/arts/design/26niem.html
Philippou, S. 2008. Oscar Niemeyer: Curves of Irreverence. London: Yale University Press
Underwood, D. 1994. Oscar Niemeyer and the Architecture of Brazil. Rizzoli: New York.
Naves During the Middle Ages -- Architectural Analysis
From a structural perspective, the basic timber roof possesses some problems, most notably its relatively flimsy structural integrity. It is easy to construct, requiring less manpower to lift it and to construct its support network, but provides relatively little resistance to the elements of snow and the wind. It is functional in the sense that it performs the sheltering function of shielding the building's inner dwellers, and encloses the building from the open air, but aesthetically is not satisfactory in providing the sense of 'reaching up to the sky' so important in Medieval cathedrals of the era, and of some import in castles and other symbolically significant structures.
Longitudinal barrel vault
This is the simplest form of a vault, consisting of a continuous surface of semicircular or pointed sections. It resembles a barrel or tunnel that has been cut…
Open source is different than the similar free software movement because it is based on technical, rather than political motivations. The underlying philosophy of the free software movement is that it is morally wrong to restrict access to source code or prohibit making changes to software. The open source movement is based on the idea that making code public improves its quality because a much larger number of people have the ability to find defects and improve the software. Linux author Linus Torvalds compares traditional proprietary software to witchcraft, where a few individuals have secret information that gives them an advantage over everyone else. Torvalds compares open source software to science, in which researchers share their results to allow for independent review of the results.
McNurlin & Sprague R (2004). Information Systems Management in Practice (6th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice…
McNurlin B & Sprague R (2004). Information Systems Management in Practice (6th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
Ecological urbanism is, as Mostafavi describes it, a "sense of sensibilities' that specifically influence urban design and development in a way that will more effectively address the growing number and diversity of urban community needs.
Ecological urbanism is thus a conscious architectural and design trend that addresses the issues exposed more spontaneously by practices classified as everyday urbanism.
Le Parc de la Villette
The Parc de la Villette in Paris, France was designed by Bernard Tschumi and constructed in the 1980s and early 1990s, and can in many ways be seen as an early example of the trends of ecological urbanism and even everyday urbanism to various degrees.
Located at the edge of the city on land that was formerly occupied by slaughterhouses and other industrial structures, the park was part of a very deliberately designed urban renewal project meant to provide public space that was culturally relevant and accessible…
Galinsky. (2006). "Le Parc de la Villette." http://www.galinsky.com/buildings/villette/
Galinsky. (2006). "Le Parc de la Villette."
Adele Weder might have had this renovation in mind, when she described D'Arcy's constructions as being Modernistic, graceful, and well-proportioned. The lightness of his touch and grace illuminates this dwelling.
The Cowboy cabin
Set squarely in the woods, the Cowboy cabin is a flat-pack cabin, one-story, well proportioned as all of D'Arcy creations are, and resonating with its landscape and surroundings by the use of scrubbed, unadorned wood.
D'Arcy shocks again by shifting the entrance door from its familiar place, and by transforming a tectonic structure into something that is 'light and minimal' and blends into its surroundings.
Totally scorning conspicuousness, the unadorned structure merges light and air (in its breadth of light material to portray a modernistic dwelling that focuses on simplicity and primal value and by doing so it becomes one with the wood around it, humbly fitting in and becoming part of its context.
Canadian Architect. "The Cowboy." Retrieved March 3, 2011 on from:
D'Arcy Jones Design Inc. Retrieved March 3, 2011 on from:
Currently, the cytotoxicity of chrysotile, which is a type of asbestos, as well as Rockwool along with other man-made vitreous fibers (MMVFs) have been evaluated by cell magnetometry. This method established cytoskeleton-dependent functions of macrophages, which contribute to a significant role in phagocytosis, and is used to assess the degree of harm caused on macrophages (Kudo, Kotani, Tomita and Aizawa, 2009).
Biological consequences of MMVFs have to be looked at not only at the cell level but also in the lung. To date there have been no studies done to look at the safety of Rockwool by way of lung magnetometry. In a study done by Kudo, Kotani, Tomita and Aizawa, 2009, rats were forced to inhale Rockwood a nose-only inhalation exposure system, and then looked at by lung magnetometry, a biopersistence test and pathological examination. The well-being features and safe utilization of mineral wools have been looked at for…
Baldwin, Stephen Andrew. (2010). "List of Materials to Build a Vocal Booth," viewed 20
October 2010, < http://www.ehow.com/list_6299897_list-materials-build-vocal-booth.html>
"CSR Building Materials Rockwool Insulation," 2008, viewed 20 October 2010,
ole of Architecture in the Progress of Society
Architecture can be defined as "the masterly, correct and magnificent play of masses seen in light" (Conway and oenisch 9). In other words, it is an experience that is emotional and artistic. Some people agree that architecture is the amalgamation of building and art. However, many do not agree with this opinion (Conway and oenisch 9). According to Britannica Encyclopedia, architecture is "the art and technique of designing and building" ("architecture") whose practice "is employed to fulfill both practical and expressive requirements, and thus it serves both utilitarian and aesthetic ends" ("architecture"). Therefore, every society has a spatial connection to the natural world. The sort of architecture and the produced structures reflects history, culture, environment, traditions, ceremonies, customs and artistic sensibility of a society ("architecture").
Buildings keep people warm and dry and are directly involved in the reasonableness and feasibility of living.…
"architecture." Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 2012. Web. 2 Aug 2012. .
"architecture." Questia. Columbia University Press, 2012. Web. 2 Aug 2012. .
Ballantyne, A. Architecture: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Web. 1 August 2012. .
Conway, H., & Roenisch, R. Understanding Architecture: An Introduction to Architecture and Architectural History. New York: Routledge, 1994. Web. 1 August 2012. .
The other structures of Teotihuacan use the same architectural language in varying forms and to differing scales. Residential buildings stand upon platforms and are arranged around depressed courtyards; palaces follow a pattern of low buildings arranged around columned patios, creating a unified, enclosed form; ceremonial structures use the talus-and-tablero profile and large flat platforms. The earliest period of construction was the most austere, with little decoration, but later structures - from around 300 a.D. - are marked by decorative friezes and other sculpture, and traces of painted decoration.
The architectural influence of Teotihuacan can be seen throughout Central America in the Classic period and later. The economic importance of the city was echoed in its cultural and religious influence, seen in the wide dissemination of the Feathered Serpent, originating with Teotihuacan's Quetzalcoatl, as a symbol of religious and political authority throughout Mesoamerica. The basic form of the Teotihuacan temples,…
Adams, Richard E.W., Ancient Civilizations of the New World (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997)
Headrick, Annabeth, Rex Koontz and Kathryn Reese-Taylor, Landscape and Power in Ancient Mesoamerica (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2001).
Kowalski, Jeff Karl, Mesoamerican Architecture as Cultural Symbol (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).
Kubler, George, the Art and Architecture of Ancient America: the Mexican, Maya and Andean Peoples (London: Penguin, 1962).
It has been one of the greatest and most joyous challenges of my current architectural career. I have also worked previously in construction management, experience that will act as an additional aid in coping with the practical demands of my chosen profession.
Unfortunately, my school transcripts do not reflect my level of commitment to the field of architecture, despite the fact that I have been working at architectural firms for more than ten years. After September 11th, I was let go from my job due to the financial pressures placed upon the firm where I was working. I was forced to terminate my schooling, because of financial reasons. Also, my father was dying of pancreatic cancer and my focus was on my family, not on my own needs and professional aspirations, and my grades are unfortunately reflective of this fact. But now, New York is currently where most of my…
pecifically, James describes a variety of buildings to demonstrate the various elements that Kahn uses in his architecture. One building of particular interest is his Yale Center for British Arts. Here, the cylindrical stair tower in the courtyard of the Center introduces an imposing note (James, p. 49). In contrast, and indeed according to Khan's ideal, the facades are understated and reserved. The elevations of the courtyard and galleries adhere to the principle of study, providing a quiet space for students to focus their thoughts and their subdued conversation. As such the courtyard focuses the purpose of the rest of the building. In the interior, daylight is filtered to a soft hue through skylights, where as the oak and fabric paneled walls as well as chamber music further focuses the atmosphere inward, towards a contemplative and peaceful design. patial emphasis is placed upon the aesthetic displays of the galleries within…
The Museum of Modern Art, New York. (2004). Curator's Statement. http://www.moma.org/expansion/charette/statement.html
James, Kathleen (1995, Sep). Louis Kahn's Indian Institute of Management's Courtyard: Form vs. Function Journal of Architectural Education Vol. 49, No. 1. pp. 38-49.
Ricciotti, Dominic (1985, Summer). The 1939 Building of the Museum of Modern Art: The Goodwin-StoneCollaboration American Art Journal, Vol. 17, No. 3. pp. 50-76.
The men had returned from the war, Americans were buying homes and putting all their energies in to building a nest for the family filled with all sorts of creature comforts. The female form reflected these comforts: it was round and healthy. On the other hand, the 1960s and 1970s signaled the rampant winds of change; while some people attribute it primarily to the debut of Twiggy, the skinny supermodel of the era other reasons are relevant to examine as well: "popular during the 1960's because of the increasingly popularity of self-expression and women's rights movements during this time that allowed women to shed clothes and bare more body. Being thin allowed them to comfortably wear clothes like the mini-skirt, which maybe at that time stood for some sort of freedom and self-expression. Being thin and shedding weight may have given some women the ability to feel better about themselves.…
Bennett, B. (2011). it's All About Art Deco. Retrieved from galleryatlantic.com: http://www.galleryatlantic.com/Its-All-About-Art-Deco.html
Boyars, M. Gothic Fantasy: The Films of Tim Burton.
com). Sedate it is definitely not. e read, "Even from this distance the tower's abundant ornamentation is clear. Its Northern Italian Gothic style adds exotic elements to the neighborhood's skyline." (iboston.org). Trinity Church cannot be overlooked when examining the history and architecture of Boston. It is said, "James O'Gorman described Trinity as 'a cultural event of the first importance in American history'" (O'Gorman qtd. In iboston.org). Trinity church is significant because it "represents a departure of the Boston's mind from its Puritan past, and emergence of American creativity as a force in architecture" (iboston.org). The churches of Boston are not special to Bostonians. It is written in the Catholic Historical Review that in 2005, "The National Trust for Historic Preservation announced... that it had included the Historic Catholic Churches of Greater Boston, Massachusetts, in its 2005 list of America's Eleven Most Endangered Historic Places" (Catholic Historical Review). The churches of…
The Old State House Museum." Boston History Online. Retrieved May 15, 2008. http://www.bostonhistory.org
Old State House." Story of Boston Online. Retrieved May 15, 2008. http://www.storyofboston.com
Boston History and Architecture. Retrieved May 15, 2008. http://www.iboston.org
Historic Places." Catholic Historical Review. Gale Resource Database. Retrieved May 15, 2008. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
John uskin/s beliefs in a the Seven Lamps of Architecture. The author of this paper presents a general overview of the book and then narrows the paper's focus to include uskin's claim that free people can only create good architecture.
USKIN AND HIS UNDESTANDING OF BEAUTIFUL BUILDINGS
The world today is a very complicated place. We are constantly evolving in our societal expectations and acceptance of events. Many times, we realize after the fact that something we did or condoned had a domino effect on the world. Such was the case of architecture, according to author John uskin. In his book The Seven Lamps of Architecture uskin expounds on his belief that the only truly good architecture is made by people who are free (uskin, 1990). This is a true statement if it is taken in the context of design and not actual implementation of that design.
Before we can…
Ruskin, John. The Seven Lamps of Architecture. (Dover Publishing, 1990)
Street in Columbus, Ohio, the humbly named Broad Street Presbyterian Church was built in 1887, but has had several additional architectural elements added since then, including structural and functional spaces beyond the main apse and nave, ranging from a large north side parking area to the multiple annexes and entryways. The Broad Street Presbyterian Church occupies a relatively large footprint, spanning about four acres of urban land. On the south side of the street, the Broad Street Presbyterian Church receives an ample amount of sunlight throughout the day, which gleams and glows as it reflects on its flagstone finish. On its centennial in 1987, the church was formally added to the National Register of Historic Places in spite of its numerous modern additions, solidifying the church in Columbus's urban landscape. In fact, the Broad Street Presbyterian Church shares the street with four other landmark churches in Columbus, all built within…
Some have described this facade as "a showy and impressive piece of Tuscan architecture,' with arched doors surrounded by elaborate floral carvings, twisting columns, and shell-topped niches for statuary" (Tarin). However, I find the facade quite common and uninteresting. I would much prefer to see a more ornate and intricate style, such as the style I employed in my final plans of the Piazza del Campidoglio in ome, which was completed after my death. ather than rely on the "traditional" as the style of this early Texas mission relies, I used other, new techniques that would live on after I was gone. One expert writes of my work on the Piazza, "[H]e articulated his new ground floor loggia with a lintel instead of the usual arches, supported by Ionic columns. The bays are divided by an order of colossal Corinthian pilasters that rise through both stories to support a magnificent…
De Tolnay, Charles. The Medici Chapel. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1948.
Hibbard, Howard. Michelangelo. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Harper & Row, 1985.
Tarin, Randall. "The Mission San Antonio de Valero." Personal Web Page. 2004. 18 March 2005. http://www.geocities.com//adp/history/mission_period/valero/valero.html
Walters, Colin. "Michelangelo: One Artist, Three Worlds." The Washington Times 7 Feb. 1999: 6.
origins of skyscrapers, their design, and some major architects.
ORIGINS OF SKYSCRAPERS
Skyscrapers flourished in Chicago for a variety of reasons. "The main technological advancement that made skyscrapers possible was the development of mass iron and steel production. New manufacturing processes made it possible to produce long beams of solid iron. Essentially, this gave architects a whole new set of building blocks to work with" (Harris). The development of elevators also played in the development of skyscrapers, because people could move more quickly and efficiently between floors, which is why skyscrapers are sometimes called "elevator buildings."
Chicago was located near large producers of steel, and it was an industrial and commercial hub for the whole Midwest. Land was at a premium, and so building designers had to find new ways to put more buildings on less land. One solution was for the building to go up, instead of out. hen…
Damore, Chris. "History of the Singer Building." Chrysler Building.org. 2002.
Harris, Tom. "How Skyscrapers Work." How Stuff Works. 2002.
These markets need the categorization of information assets and also the plan of interaction interfaces that conventionally were built up within the organizations. Nevertheless, as the diversities of the access to information and also functionality of these applications are increasing, the difficulties of the organization of information and also the user interfaces that are possible will also increase. Due to this, the architects of information are becoming increasingly concerned with the vertical application development to design and also to put into practice precise architectures to maintain users and also to develop and increase organically with functionality. In a number of instances, vertical IAs might principally be cautiously organized, task-based boundaries to customary end-user applications and databases accessed through a Web browser and customized to every purpose, activity and industry. A common example is the applications of e-commerce which are within commercial Web sites like shopping carts and exact term creation…
Beckett, D., & McBride, B., (2004).RDF=XML Syntax Specification (Revised): W3C
Recommendation 10 February 2004. World Wide Web Consortium, Cambridge, MA., http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-syntax-grammar / (accessed Mar 27-2011).
Dillon & Turnbull (2005). Dillon, a. & Turnbull, D. ( 2005). Information Architecture. (Pp. 1-9).
In: Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science. New York: Marcel Dekker. Pp. 1-14. Online: http://www.dekker.com/sdek/abstract~db=~content=a713609832?words=&hash=
Architecture Tutorial -- Lesson
The metaphorical allegory of the proposed website for build-to-order tablet PCs will be a functional one, based on the structural aspects of the new device and its customization and configurability to customers' preferences. Inherent in this site structure is the need to also support a catalog system of enhanced components and accessories. The foundational aspect of a successful e-commerce system is the inclusion of catalog management and content management systems (Spiteri, 239). This analysis provides a site structure for the proposed website that will sell build-to-order tablet PCs. Empirical studies have consistently shown that companies who can provide greater flexibility to customers in terms of product and feature customization over time gain greater customer loyalty and the potential for greater profitability (Fan, Tsai, 1141). The goal of the proposed website is to provide prospective and current customers with the opportunity to customize their tablet…
Fan, Wei-Shang, and Ming-Chun Tsai. "Factors Driving Website Success - the Key Role of Internet Customisation and the Influence of Website Design Quality and Internet Marketing Strategy." Total Quality Management & Business Excellence 21.11 (2010): 1141.
Spiteri, Louise R. "Information Architecture of Business-to-Consumer e-Commerce Websites. Part I: The Online Catalogue of Selected Video Retailers." Journal of Information Science 27.4 (2001): 239-48.
Customized For Your Exact Needs
Mies van der ohe was one of the most well-known architects of 20th century. His birth took place in Germany and it was in 1938 that he came to United States. Mies van der ohe is commonly known as "Mies" or "Ludwig Mies van der ohe." He had an approach of constructing and designing buildings as a part of international style movement, and this had a grand impact on country's architecture. Farnsworth house is an example of contemporary architecture world. "Less is more" is a statement of Mies, which was adopted as a motto for all the modern artists all over the world (The Chicago Architecture Foundation, 2007).
It was in 1945 when a doctor of Chicago hired Mies to design a home for her in the country side, which should be around 60 miles away from southwest of Chicago, i.e. near Plano, Illinois. The doctor's name…
Farnsworth House. (1995). Probing Architecture's Anatomy. Progressive Architecture, pp 58, 59.
Feldman, G.C. (2002). Fallingwater is no longer Falling. The Structure Group Companies.
MetLife. (2012). Rogerson Communities' Farnsworth House in Boston is Recognized by MetLife Foundation and Enterprise Community Partners for Exemplary Work in Senior Housing and Successfully Incorporating Green Components in its Housing: Wins 2012 MetLife Foundation Award for Excellence in Affordable Housing, $50,000. Press Release.
The Chicago Architecture Foundation. (2007). Farnsworth House: Meet The Buildings. The Architecture Handbook: A Student Guide to Understanding Buildings.
20,21). Romanesque structures tend to be dark and cave-like on the inside. Arches became pointed, rather than rounded as in Roman structures. Gothic architecture represents an advancement in engineering techniques, as builders found that they could do with thinner materials and that roofs could span greater distances. The roofs in Gothic architecture was supported by this new form of arch, rather than by the massive walls, as was done in Romanesque architecture ("Gothic Architecture," pp. 20,21)
Gothic structures sported and increased number of towers, flying buttresses, and decorative designs ("Gothic Architecture," pp. 20,21). Gothic architectures indow openings were adorned with either stained glass or the distinctive Gothic Rose indows. Adornments included human figures, animals, scenes of ordinary life, wars, important events, gargoyles and other mythological creatures. Gothic structures were highly ornate when compared to Romanesque Structures.
Visiting different structures on a trip through Europe can be an exciting adventure.…
"Gothic Architecture." Athena Review. Vol. 4. No. 2.pp. 20,21. < http://www.athenapub.com/14gothic-architecture.htm >. Accessed October 6, 2010.
Gothic Art. "Worldly Famous Gothic Cathedrals and Key Characteristics of Gothic Cathedrals." < http://www.gothicart.org.uk/characteristics_of_gothic_cathedrals.htm >. Accessed October 6, 2010.
Sacred Destinations. "Romanesque Architecture." Sacred-Destinations.com. 2010. < http://www.sacred-destinations.com/reference/romanesque-architecture >. Accessed October 6, 2010.
Fear of the Return of Totalitarian Architecture Due to Technological Advancements
This paper examines some of the different aspects of the coming worldwide technological totalitarianism and the expanding of it influence. The argument that this is both a conscious and accidental program of influential individuals and organizations carried out through the procedure of reification of philosophical beliefs which are misshapen into institutions, services, technologies policies and in the end, culture. Some experts that have explored this topic believe that by pay no attention to the costs of new technologies, what there may be some kind of loss in the bargain and that it can lean so something that is immeasurable and potentially disastrous. It is obvious that history was not or is not all the way inevitable, however, it is likewise a question of human values in connection to changes that are looked at as being natural. Although there have…
Carpo, Mario. "Architecture in the Age of Printing." The History of Architectural Theory. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, 6 March 1998.
-- . "The Alphabet and the Algorithm." Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. The MIT Press, 7 May 1995.
Giroux, Henry. Totalitarian Paranoia in the Post-Orwellian Surveillance State. 14 Feruary 2014. http://billmoyers.com/2014/02/11/totalitarian-paranoia-in-the-post-orwellian-surveillance-state/ . 18 March 2014.
Keller, Marcello Sorce. "Why is Music so Ideological, Why Do Totalitarian States Take It So Seriously: A Personal View from History, and the Social Sciences",." Journal of Musicological Research, XXVI 2.3 (2007): 91 -- 122.
It is impossible to have one without the other. The progression of shadows is used to indicate the passage of time in Ando's work. One can watch the progression of shadow across a light piece of concrete and track the passage of time.
It can be said that light represents the concept of somethingness and shadow represents the concept of nothingness. It is the nothingness that humans seek to understand in their spiritual endeavors. The world of somethingness represents the reality that we know in our physical world. Light allows us to see our world and the things in it. Darkness, however, masks these objects. The objects themselves are still there, only we cannot see them until it is light again. Shadow represents the human journey into the nothingness of the soul. hen we sit in the shadow and cannot see our physical world, we are forced to confront the…
Altsai, A. "The Church on the Water." MIT Department of Architecture. Last Updated
December 10, 1999. Accessed January 7, 2007. Available at http://cat2.mit.edu/arc/gallery/4203_final/gal_altsai/andoinfo.html
Barandon, J. "Tadao Ando." The Architect. Mit Department of Architecture. Last updated
November 25, 2001. Accessed January 7, 2007. Available at http://architecture.mit.edu/~barandon/4.203/overview_page.htm
The Turbine Factory and its use of industrial material on a very grand scale is able to evoke feelings of machinery and production and how it changed society, or rather, how it controlled society at that time. Behrens was able to transform architecture by creating designs that reflected the changing culture.
Frank Lloyd Wright and Peter Behrens were pioneers in the innovation of functionalism. While Wright used more organic elements into his design to give the feeling that architecture and nature should go hand-in-hand, Behrens was creating designs out of more industrial materials that reflect the era and the culture of an era. However, both of these architects considered function as the dominating principal of building structures even though they essentially came to their way of designing via different ways of thinking (nature and organics vs. industry and function).
Both Wright and Behrens were innovative designers and architects and their…
McCarter, R. ( 2010) "Wright, Frank Lloyd." Encyclopedia of Aesthetics. Ed. Michael
Oxford Art Online. Retrieved Sep. 20, 2010, from .
career in architecture actually began when I was a child, when with wonder-filled eyes I beheld the designs and finished plans both my parents produced. My father is an architect, the principal in his own company. My mother is a painter and the owner of an interior design firm. Both of my parents' passion for their work inspired me to pursue a career along the same path.
Throughout high school and college, I sought personal, academic, and professional means by which to manifest my dreams, such as taking any courses that were relevant to the field. Because of both school and my parents' presence in my life, professional resources were plentiful for me. I have plenty of visual images imprinted my mind as a result, too. Therefore, my eventual decision to pursue architecture in college naturally stemmed from my early experiences and passion for creativity, form, and function.
In keeping with the functionality and mechanization of the time, Wright used simple materials such as brick, wood and plaster to create a sense of the natural in his work. M
This form is exemplified in the architect's Zimmerman house, which is a long, low house, with an interior space that is not immediately apparent from the outside. While performing the functional purpose of shelter and protection, the interior of the house also focuses on open, shared space; an idea inspired by the prairie fields of the United States. Hence, mechanization and functionality are integrated into the architect's design.
Like Wright, Mies van de ohe is also concerned with maintaining simplicity in the interest of material honesty and structural integrity (Matthews, 2011). The drive towards this simplicity is also inspired by mechanization, where industrialization has created a faster pace in life, work and art. Using simple materials provides for the…
Kahn, L.I. Monumentality.
Le Courbusier. Towards a New Architecture. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.
Matthews, K. (2011). Zimmerman House. Retrieved from: http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Zimmerman_House.html
Matthews, K. (2011). Tugendhat House. Retrieved from: http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Tugendhat_House.html
Intended Major: Art and Architecture hope to major in the discipline of art, gaining my B.A. In art, and then pursuing a M.A. In architecture, with the aim of becoming a licensed architect. Art is one of the most demanding and complex of all the humanities subjects. Studying art demands a precise eye as well as a precise mind and hand. To create art, the individual artist must understand symmetry and beauty. The artist must also know how to use such elements as form and proportion in odd and interesting ways to jar the viewer's consciousness and ways of seeing his or her place in the world. Genius in art, as with so many things, requires both perspiration and inspiration, with a healthy dose of knowledge, experience, and technical learning as well.
An art historian must be able to articulate how an artist accomplishes this feat of combining all of…
Scandinavian Architecture: The Evolution of Vernacular
All types of art are normally influenced by both the social and the political factors within a geographical region. These social aspects are reflected in the designs of the time and most of the inspiration that the designers get is from history. In Scandinavia, it is easy to define the style as straightforward. The logic behind the simplicity of this was due to the limited resources which emphasized saving and proper utilization (Pile, 335). It is also democratic in the manner that its main intention was to please, the masses. Architects in Scandinavia share an inherent bond with nature and the natural landscape. hen studying the geographical locations of these nodes and, therefore, cross referencing their localities to similar cultural conditions a trend is found. It is the intention of this research to research just how the natural landscape is invited into the manmade…
Bandle, Oskar, Kurt Braunmu-ller, Lennart Elmevik, and Gun Widmark. The Nordic Languages:
An International Handbook of the History of the North Germanic Languages. Berlin: de
Gruyter, 2005. Print.
Fallan, Kjetil. Design History: Understanding Theory and Method. Oxford: Berg Publishers,
An integrated system was used in buildings where columns, pilasters, and entablatures came together as support. Arches were also used in building churches and other such structures. Semi-circular or segmental vaults were used which were mostly without ribs. In this era domes were not only used in churches but they were also used in building secular structures. Doors and windows usually had square lintels in the buildings of the era. Cravings and decorations also became prominent part of the structures taking their inspiration from the classic structures. Though Florence was the place where renaissance started but Italy embraced renaissance and effects of classic architecture as opposed to Gothic architecture. enaissance style further gave way to baroque style in the 17th-century. The Georgian style became notable in the 18th-century while the 19th century was given over to the classic revival and the Gothic revival.
Though our current architecture is derived…
Architecture History'. Wikipedia Encyclopedia. Available at http://en.wikipedia.org
Materiality is a tool in which should be incorporated into the performative deign, but also allows a design to enhance a form or space and invoke different emotions.
"First, material artifacts engage us with all our senses. Materiality comprise physical properties such as texture (roughness or smoothness, details), geometry (size, shape, proportion, location in space, and arrangement in relation to other objects), material (weight, rigidity, plasticity), energy (temperature, moisture), as well as dynamic properties. Many of these properties are 'dimensions of touch'. Secondly, our interactions with materials are not just 'physical' but they spur our thinking, help us communicate ideas that would be difficult to communicate through words alone, adding an 'experiential' dimension to our action. hile the concept of affordances of artifacts is fundamental to an analysis of the use of material artifacts, it is not sufficient for addressing the very intricate interrelationships that emerge in people's interactions with…
Bonet, Llorenc. Exhibition Design. Gloucester: LOFT Publications, 2006.
Giulio Jacucci, Ina Wagner. "Performative Roles of Materiality for Collective Creativity." C & C (2007): 73-82.
Hertzberger, Herman. Space and the Architect: Lessons in Architecture 2. Vol. 2. Rotterdam, 2010.
Holl, Stephen. Anchoring. New York: Princeton University Press, 1991.
M.S. Advanced Architectural Design
Office of Architecture Admissions
To the Admissions Committee.
As the son of an architect, my exposure to artistic forms and cultural designs began at an early age; my decision to become an architect was of course quite natural. The study of Architectural Engineering at Han Yang University in Seoul, South Korea broadened my knowledge on theory and I soon realized that my perspectives were changing. When I began working at my father's architectural firm I quickly decided to become a designer and theorist architect instead of an engineer. This desire soon led me to the Southern California Institute of Architecture, where I successfully completed an Architectural Degree.
When I began my studies at SCI, my knowledge in the field was limited, but as time passed and the course work became increasingly difficult, I thought of quitting, due to feeling that I was not qualified. As a…
TOWARDS A NEW ARCHITECTURE
Le Corbusier is known as the father of New Architecture. His Magnus opus, Towards New Architecture, reveals the reasons why Le Corbusier was given this title. Being a well-known modernist architect, Le Corbusier was the one of the first few architects to popularize the change that modernism had brought along and suggested way in which it could be incorporated in architectural designs. His book. Towards the New Architecture ' was enthusiastically welcomed by the modernist circles, many of whom agreed with Corbusier's basic ideas for modernist living. Unlike some of his predecessors, Corbusier was of the view that the best and most important objective of architecture was to create designs that are functional in nature. While aesthetic appeal of designs was important, Le Corbusier believed it should take precedence over function, which helped in evolution of architecture. This was indeed a very interesting concept,…
Leon attista Alberti and Claude Perrault viewed the beauty and order of architectural in different terms. Alberti's perspective represented the High Renaissance's love of classicism and mathematical precision. Thus, Alberti viewed architectural order and beauty as being rooted in mathematical symmetry and harmony. Perrault, on the other hand, represented a worldview that came two hundred years later, after Europe had already been split apart by the Protestant Reformation, the Scientific Revolution, and now embarked upon the Age of Enlightenment (which would lead directly into the Romantic Era). Perrault's perspective was shaped less by the order and mathematical discipline that Alberti associated with architectural order and more by the perception of beauty and the impression of spatial dimension and order. Perrault understand how the Greeks played tricks on the eyes by adhering not to a formulaic structure but rather to a consideration for the viewer, placing columns, for instance, in…
Alberti, L.B. (1980) On the Art of Building in Ten Books. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Alberti, L.B., Rykwert, J. (1955) Ten Books on Architecture. UK: Tiranti.
Allais, L. (2005) Ordering the Orders, Future Anterior, 2(2): 53-74.
Ching, F., Jarzombek, M., Prakash, V. (2011) A Global History of Architecture. NY:
They displayed great knowledge of architecture, and their building style had been noteworthy.
As the Roman Empire began to take shape, Romans built several wonderful architectural structures for their time. They built city walls, fortifications, temples, bridges, and pavements. Most of the structures were built using large stones which were gently cut. Romans are also among the first nations in the world to have built a functional sewer system. Their remaining of their architectural structures withstood the passing of millennia and survived till today. Christian churches and even apartments buildings were built over Roman temples and other public buildings with some of them, like the Theater of Marcellus being functional even today.
1 H.R. Hitchcock, Seton Lloyd, David Talbot Rice, Norbert Lynton, Andrew Boyd, Andrew Carden, Philip Rawson, John Jacobus 1963. "orld Architecture: An Illustrated History." McGraw-Hill.
2. Hamlin, Talbot 1940 "Architecture through the Ages." G.P. Putnam's Sons,…
1 H.R. Hitchcock, Seton Lloyd, David Talbot Rice, Norbert Lynton, Andrew Boyd, Andrew Carden, Philip Rawson, John Jacobus 1963. "World Architecture: An Illustrated History." McGraw-Hill.
2. Hamlin, Talbot 1940 "Architecture through the Ages." G.P. Putnam's Sons,
H.R. Hitchcock, Seton Lloyd, David Talbot Rice, Norbert Lynton, Andrew Boyd, Andrew Carden, Philip Rawson, John Jacobus. "World Architecture: An Illustrated History." McGraw-Hill, 1963.
Talbot Hamlin. "Architecture through the Ages." G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1940.
Piranesi on Architecture:
Argument and Summary
Giovanni Battista Piranesi, a fantastic writer on Roman architecture, argues, against the contemporaries of his time, for this type of architecture. Such contemporaries would state, on Roman architecture, that "there is no composition that is not full of superfluous ornament, and absolutely hors d'oeuvre. Everything is sacrificed for luxury, and in the end one is left with style that quickly becomes ridiculous and barbarous."[footnoteRef:1] However, Piranesi sticks with his taste, and proves, through a dialogue written by the critic himself, the importance of Roman architecture. Thus, this paper will give a brief summary of the afore-mentioned dialogue and the argument presented. [1: Source given by customer -- Thoughts on Architecture by Giovanni Battista Piranesi (Translation by Michaels Nonis and Mark Epstein) ]
The essay presented in this document is called Parere su l'architectura, and provide a clear exposition of the author's thoughts on "ornament…