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Arizona Immigration Law SB1070
This work in writing examines Arizona's SB1070 Immigration Law and how this law has impacted the state of Arizona, the citizens of Arizona, and the U.S. In its entirety as well as the conflicting views on SB1070 and seeks to determine is SB1070 is adherent to the tenants of federal immigration law.
Arizona Immigration Law SB1070
The objective of this work in writing is to briefly explain Arizona's SB1070 legislation and outline the flaws in the arguments against SB 1070 and will as well examine how Arizona's Immigration Law SB1070 is reflective of federal law. This work in writing should reference current court decisions regarding the new law and the potential for going all the way to the Supreme Court.
Arizona's Immigration Law SB 1070 sets out the imperative for the "cooperative enforcement of federal immigration laws throughout all of Arizona[and] declares that the intent…
Archibold, Randal C. (2010) Arizona Enacts Stringent Law on Immigration. 23 Apr 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/24/us/politics/24immig.html
Fitzsimmons, Alex (2011) NBC Correspondent's Shorthand for SB-1070: Arizona's Nazi Law. 26 May 2011. CSPAN. Retrieved from: http://www.newsbusters.org/blogs/alex-fitzsimmons/2011/05/26/nbc-correspondents-shorthand-sb-1070-arizonas-nazi-law
Judge Bars Parts of Arizona Immigration Law (2010) American City and County. 28 Jul 2010. Retrieved from: http://americancityandcounty.com/pubsafe/arizona-immigration-barred-20100728/
State of Arizona. Senate Bill 1070. 49th Legislature, Second Regular Session 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.azleg.gov/legtext/49leg/2r/bills/sb1070s.pdf
The hypothesis that certain black persons viewed racism as an all round phenomenon that occurs in many forms was tested. Other black persons viewed and experienced racism in many other different ways. This suggested that the act of racism is more in the mind of the specific victim than the actual fact in the objective reality. This highlighted out the fact that if white individuals were in the same environment with blacks, then the feeling of discrimination would be randomly experienced by the black persons. This and the fact that most of the reported racist cases are usually ambiguous highlights the fact that the opponents of the illegal immigration law of Arizona might be blinded by the fear in their minds that the actual reality on the ground which of course prompted the state to adopt the controversial piece of legislation. If a policeman would stop an individual on one…
Box, R (2003).Contradiction, Utopia and Public Administration. Administrative Theory and Praxis. Vol 25.No.2 -243-260
Gersen, K.J (1999). An Invitation to Social Construction. Sage Guhname (2010).The social construction of racism http://inductivist.blogspot.com/2010/05/social-construction-of-racism.html
Texas Code of Criminal Procedure.(2007)Law Enforcement Policy on Racial Profiling
Arizona SB 1070
On January 13, 2010 Senator ussell Pearce, representative of District 18 in Mesa, introduced Senate Bill 1070 which stated as it's intent to make attrition through enforcement the public policy of the state of Arizona. In support of this goal, the state would seek to enforce all federal immigration laws in an effort to deter "the unlawful entry and presence of illegal aliens and economic activity by illegal aliens in the United States." ("Support Our Law Enforcement") Just over three months later, on April 23, Arizona governor Jan Brewer signed the bill into law; which immediately provoked four lawsuits that challenged the constitutionality of the law. These lawsuits were filed in federal court, outside the jurisdiction of any state court. In response to criticisms, Governor Jan Brewer then signed Senate Bill 2162, a bill which modified the newly enacted immigration law. But this did not quiet opponents…
"Arizona Offers Compelling Legal Arguments in Support of SB 1070, Says Fair."
(25 Apr. 2012). Federation For American Immigration Reform.
Retrieved from http://www.fairus.org/news/arizona-offers-compelling-legal-arguments-in-support-of-sb-1070-says-fair
"Arizona SB 1070, Legal Challenges and Economic Realities." Immigration
Though the specter of racism will continue to underscore the current controversy, many Democratic politicians will avoid making such strong accusations at such an early stage. The mid-term elections are approaching and the Democrats want to preserve or increase their thin majority in Congress. The Democrats are poised to achieve important objectives such as financial regulation and energy policy in the coming year. An eruption of racial tensions at this point would derail the national debate and relegate long overdue reforms to the backburner for an indefinite period.
A responsible public policy maker would try to avoid the racial war trap while still expressing strong disapproval of the new Arizona law. After all, the racial issue is not the only offensive aspect of this new law. What is probably more disturbing, and more applicable to all Americans, is the violation of basic civil liberties. The degree of authority granted to…
New York Times
April 23, 2010
They point out that neither the Constitution nor the Supreme Court has precluded the States or localities from enforcing the criminal provisions of immigration law.
Because the enforcement of the criminal provisions of Federal Law has not been expressly prohibited by the Constitution, it would be reserved to the states respectively. According to the Tenth Amendment of the .S. Constitution, "The powers not delegated to the nited States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people."
This is interpreted to mean that the states have implied powers in addition to the powers explicitly enumerated to them in the Constitution.
With this understanding of the Constitution, proponents argue that the disputed SB 1070 provisions are not immigration law provisions, but criminal law provisions.
For example, the provision making it a state crime for an alien to be in Arizona…
United States v. Arizona, No. 10-16645, Brief of Amici Curiae State Legislators for Legal Immigration, 7-10 (2010).
Laura Sullivan and Beau Hodai, How Corporate Interests Got SB 1070 Passed, November 9, 2010, available at http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=131191523
Gabriel J. Chin, et.al., a Legal Labyrinth: Issues Raised by Arizona Senate Bill 1070. Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 10-24, 3 (2010).
Arizona SB 1070: Over Enforcement of Borderlands
In an era where terrorism and international turmoil continues to plague the news, it is no wonder that so many Americans would be scared enough into wanting to amp up border security. However, Arizona has taken these concerns way too far. Arizona SB 1070 is much too extreme and thus violates the constitutional rights of legal immigrants, while also making economic and environmental efforts in the region much harder to fulfill. Overall, Arizona SB 1070 clearly stands against the philosophy that the United States was originally built on.
Arizona Senate Bill 1070 is a controversial border protection law that has been raising concerns all over the nation. Essentially, it is a "law requiring state and local law enforcement officers to check the immigration status of suspected 'illegals'" (Olsen, 2011). Not only does this mean that anyone who looks Hispanic must carry around proper…
Fair Federation for American Immigration Reform. (2010). Support Out Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act. Legislative Analysis. Web. http://www.fairus.org/site/DocServer/ariz_SB1070_summary.pdf-docID
Kraehenbuel, James A. (2011). Lessons from the past: How the antebellum fugitive slave debate informs state enforcement of federal immigration law. University of Chicago Law Review, 78(2011), 1466-1503.
Olson, Alexander. (2011). El Grito and the Tea Party. Boom, 1(4).
York, Abigail M. & Schoon, Michael L. (2011). Collaboration in the shadow of the wall: Shifting power in the borderlands. Policy Science, 44(2011), 345-365.
The Existential Fallacy Behind Arizona's Immigration Policy
Few issues currently featured in American public debate are clouded by as much emotional bias, invective and distortion as that of immigration reform. Particularly as this concerns America's shared border with Mexico, immigration is a discussion which carries significant political ramification, clear racial overtones and distinctions in ideology where American openness is concerned. As a result, many political figures have been moved to comment or drive policy on the issue-based less on the support of fact than on the employment of inflammatory rhetoric. And quite frequently, this rhetoric is presented with little concern for the logical fallacies which may underlie is basic formative claims. Rarely has this been evidenced with more vitriol or determination than in the state of Arizona over the last several years. In the context of our discussion, Arizona Governor Jan Brewer is particularly noted for her steady…
Biggers, J. (2011). How Arizona wrote the GOP's immigration platform. Salon.com.
To put a price tag on the problem for reader, Indiana University economist Eric Rasmusen claims in figures from a 2005 GAO report on foreigners that were incarcerated in Federal and state prisons calculated that illegal immigrants commit 21% of crime in America. This cost America more than $84 billion (Kingsbury).
Illegal immigration from Mexico is a major funnel for terrorist groups such as Al-Qaeda. This is stated in the groups own words. In a 2009 video, an al Qaeda recruiter threatened to smuggle a biological weapon into the United States. He claimed that the organization would do this via tunnels under the Mexico border. The video aired on Al Jazeera and was later posted to several web sites. These show Kuwaiti dissident Abdullah al-Nafisi telling supporters in Bahrain that terrorists in al Qaeda were observing the U.S. border with Mexico to figure out how to send terrorists…
"Al Qaeda eyes bio attack from Mexico." Washington Times 3 June 2009: Web.
24 Oct 2010. .
"Al-Qaida Operative Nabbed Near Mexican Border." News Max.com. News Max.com,
20 Nov. 2005. Web. 24 Oct 2010. .
Ethics and Social esponsibility:
Immigration and Amnesty in the United States
The question of immigration, especially in this country, is ever-present. From our past, and well into our future, the United States will be a nation of immigrants. However, as political candidates raise a number of questions relating to immigrants south of the border, one must wonder about how immigration has grown into such a hotly debated issue, and how it is separating this country. Though it is true that the United States needs immigration reform, one must also look at the traditions of the country, and how they can protect the less fortunate, especially in the area of immigration. The reason this must happen is because most come here with notions of a better place, where they can live safely and freely, and prosper as individuals. This nation ought to offer that to all individuals, for that is…
Amnesty International. "USA must fight anti-immigration sentiments in nine states" (2010). Amnesty International. < http://www.amnestyusa.org/news/press-releases/usa-must-fight-anti-immigrant-sentiment-in-nine-states >.
Baier, K. (1990). "Egoism" in A companion to ethics, Ed., Peter Singer. Blackwell: Oxford.
Cox, A., & Posner, A. (2007). The second-order structure of immigration law. 809,
These measures included laws, which denied services to undocumented residents, alerted police to assume ICE functions, penalized for employers who hired the aliens, and made English the official language. In Arizona, ordinary citizens were encouraged to report businesses, which hired suspicious foreign-looking persons. Hispanics were the major targets of this xenophobia because they were believed to be the major law violators. Statistics showed that there were approximately 12 million undocumented immigrants, most of them Latinos or Hispanics, in the U.S. The national bias against them showed up in studies, which considered only them in determining how much they were costing the country in services. ut did they really drain the economy? A spokesman for the Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission did not think so. A 2004 study on "foreign-born" citizens of Virginia alone concluded that Asians outnumbered Hispanics. The Commission found that these "foreign-born" citizens were not a huge…
Galuszka, P. (2008). Hispanics bearing the brunt of xenophobia. Diverse Issues in Higher
Education: Cox, Matthews & Associates. Retrieved on March 24, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mWMX/is_1_25/ai_n2491956?tag=content;col1
ICE (2008). About ICE. Immigration and Customs Enforcement: U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved on March 24, 2009 from http://www.ice.gov/about/index.htm
Marcucci, M.R. (2007). Marchers call for immigration reform. Oakland Tribune: ANG
e can see that minority status has far less to do with population size, and instead seems very much to be inclined by race, ethnicity and political power instead. This label of minority status is in many ways used as a tag by which certain groups are detained from political unity or effectiveness.
To a large degree, this is a condition which relates to the nature of the Hispanic demographic, which in spite of its cultural diversity, is typically perceived by the larger American public as a single unified entity. This is both untrue and reflects the ethnocentric qualities of the white American political body that have tended to relegate the Hispanic population to representation that is not proportional to its true presence here. Indeed, "although Mexican-Americans continue to be the largest group within the Latino population, increasing immigration from other Latin American means they are perhaps the most culturally…
Agencia EFE. (2009). Hispanics ask Obama for More Key Government Posts. Hispanic Business. Ret. Feb. 13, 2010 at http://www.hispanicbusiness.com/politics/2009/4/30/hispanics_ask_obama_for_more_key.htm
Auerbach, a.J. & Oreopoulos, P. (1999). Analyzing the Fiscal Impact of U.S. Immigration. The American Economic Review, 89(2).
Bernstein, R. (2008). U.S. Hispanic population surpasses 45 million now 15% of total. U.S. Census Bureau News.
Borjas, G. (1995). The Economic Benefits from Immigration. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9(2).
Scores of illegal Latin Americans work in the hospitality industry, construction, meatpacking, agriculture, and landscaping sectors. In fact, in some of the states it is said that almost half of the construction workers are from Latin America. There are arguments that if all these illegal immigrants were removed these jobs would improve the unemployment situation for the American citizens. It is also generally argued that the pay scale for low skilled jobs would also increase. Also, most of the illegal aliens utilize healthcare, education and other services without paying taxes causing significant drain for the government.
The above points are clearly valid but there are both positive and negative effects of illegal immigration. Economists feel that totally eliminating illegal workers would only marginally improve the pay scale for high school dropouts and would not have any significant impact for workers with higher qualifications. Furthermore, illegal immigration contributes positively as Americans…
1) Michael Barone, 'Living with Illegals', U.S. News and World Report, April 3rd 2006.
The weak part of the argument was that I found that Noorani and Belanger (2009) generalized. He seemed to show subjectivity and bias in his rancor when for instance he complains that "Immigration hard-liners will use the hook of immigration enforcement in an effort to derail just about anything progressive tilt the Congressional leadership tries to accomplish" (ibid.) Not all immigration hardliners are like that; their reasons may not be because of their opposition to immigration; and the argument would have been more convincing had Noorani and Belanger (2009) stated the specific policies that hardliners resent and the reasons for their disproval . The succeeding sentences continue to malign the so-called hardliners turning Noorani and Belanger (2009)'s otherwise level-headed argument into one that sounds suspiciously partisan and, therefore, less strong in its power to persuade.
The author urges Obama's government to continue with their immigration stance and to ignore these…
NOORANI, ALI, and MAURICE BELANGER. 2009. "The Need for Progressive immigration Reform." Social Policy 39, no. 1: 12-14. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed November 29, 2012).
In this Immigration essay, we will offer some sample titles, topics, an outline, and structure that you can use to improve your writing. The start of any good essay is an interesting topic statement followed by a succinct and descriptive thesis statement. The Thesis statement acts as the direction from which a reader takes when examining the body and conclusion. Body paragraphs should include a background on the topic and sub topics addressing each part of the thesis statement. The conclusion is a brief recap of what was covered.
Immigration in the United States
Past and Present Immigration Patterns in the United States
Lost and Found: Immigration in the United States
Selected Title: The Birth of a Nation: Immigration
History of Immigration
Immigration Patterns in the United States
Effects of Immigration
Undocumented Immigrants in Gainesville
The city of Gainesville has a population of about 54,000 and of these, approximately 3,200 are illegal aliens. The law enforcement community in this city is charged with protecting these undocumented aliens on the one hand and enforcing illegal immigrant laws on the other. To the extent that undocumented residents are afraid that the police will enforce the latter may be the extent to which they are discouraged from seeking help from the law enforcement community when they need it, exacerbating existing crime levels. Conversely, the extent to which law enforcement authorities fail to enforce illegal immigration laws may be the extent to which they are viewed as being malfeasant in the prosecution of their official duties. To determine the optimal course of action for law enforcement authorities faced with these conflicting priorities, this paper reviews the relevant literature including a discussion of so-called "sanctuary cities"…
Armajani, B. (2007, August). What transformational leaders do. Government Finance Review, 23(4), 79-83.
Bahn, S. (2013, April 1). Transformational leaders? The pivotal role that supervisors play in safety culture. International Journal of Training Research, 11(1), 17-21.
Bambale, A. & Jaafaru, S. F. (2012, May 1). Servant leadership as employee-organization approach for performance of employee citizenship behaviors in the Nigeria's electric power sector. Journal of Marketing and Management, 3(1), 1-5.
Berger, T. A (2014, Fall). Servant Leadership 2.0: A call for strong theory. Sociological Viewpoints, 30(1), 146-150.
Arizona vs. USA
The recent Supreme Court spat between the United States and the state of Arizona has raised some interesting questions. These questions include whether and when laws are clearly discriminatory in nature, whether the federal government should have sole dominion over immigration enforcement, whether the federal government is indeed doing its assign duties as far as immigration enforcement goes and what levels of involvement the state can or should have given the answers to the above. While the points made by the United States are certainly valid and the decision by the Supreme Court is technically valid because the state law SB 1070 should indeed be enjoined, the court also made a valid point by stating that it is not beyond the pale to consider whether or not the state law even conflicts with the federal one.
As ordered by the parameters of this assignment, this is…
ACLU. (2013, November 2). American Civil Liberties Union. American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved November 2, 2013, from https://www.aclu.org/drug-law-reform-immigrants-rights-racial-justice/know-your-rights-what-do-if-you
Department of Justice. (2013, November 2). Criminal Resource Manual 1034 Kidnapping -- Federal Jurisdiction. Criminal Resource Manual 1034 Kidnapping -- Federal Jurisdiction. Retrieved November 2, 2013, from http://www.justice.gov/usao/eousa/foia_reading_room/usam/title9/crm01034.htm
Flannery, N. (2013, September 9). Immigration Debate: What's More Important, Border Security Or Protecting Immigrant Workers?. Forbes. Retrieved November 2, 2013, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/nathanielparishflannery/2013/09/09/immigration-debate-whats-more-important-border-security-or-protecting-immigrant-workers/
The debate on the immigration should be stopped and sober legislation is needed to curb the influx. American must work together to achieve this objective as we reflect our values and aspiration which bond us as a nation. it's also necessary for the state to assist the illegal immigrants who are still under shadow to come out. This would the government tot document all the immigrants which would be benefit the country economically. Assist refugees both from within and outside to help them build themselves strong economically, socially and politically. Most importantly, the protection of our borders should be more vigilant to prevent more illegal immigrants from entering the country.
Many studies have shown that immigrants play a very important role for the economic, social and political development of the United States. Therefore the immigration issues which affect5 the country should be handled with a lot of sobriety to…
Ray Marshall, Immigration for Shared Prosperity; Economic Policy Institute http://www.epi.org/publication/book_isp / (November, 2009, 14-25)
Hilda L. Solis, Immigrants and America's Future; the U.S. labor secretary offers a blueprint for immigration reform, http://www.americasquarterly.org/node/2419 (January, 2011, 20-30)
Jay Corney, Fixing the Immigration System for America's 21st Century Economy: http://www.whitehouse.gov/issues/fixing-immigration-system-america-s-21st-century-economy (September, 2012, 1-5)
Standardized Assessment Technique and Immigration
For quite a long time, immigration and crime have been closely linked with some pointing out that immigrants tend to have a particularly high rate of criminality. There are those, however, who feel that an increase in immigration rates has no impact whatsoever on crime. Based on my review of literature on this particular topic, greater immigration rates do not result in more crimes. In an attempt to get tough on immigrants -- in the mistaken belief that doing so could help reduce crime rates - states like Arizona have in the past enacted anti-immigration laws. Other states that have sought to implement anti-immigration laws include but they are not limited to South Carolina.
To begin with, although the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) as Camarota and Vaughan (2009) point out "estimates that immigrants (legal and illegal) comprise 20% of inmates in prisons and jails,"…
Camarota, S.A. & Vaughan, J. (2009). Immigration and Crime: Assessing a Conflicted Issue. Retrieved from http://www.cis.org/ImmigrantCrime
Siegel, L.J. (2011). Essentials of Criminal Justice (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Wachs, T.D. & Sheehan, R. (Eds.). (1998). Assessment of Young Developmentally Disabled Children. New York: Plenum Press.
S. House that would make it a felony to be in the country illegally; the rally was just angry backlash by a criminal elements for increasing the penalties of this criminality, in their view (AP 2006). Whether or not illegal immigrants are assets to a society, if they are illegal then there must be punitive consequences for breaking this nations laws -- this is the argument that is becoming increasingly popular in anti-immigration circles.
More recently, controversy over immigration has been stirred up due to the passage of an Arizona law making being in the country illegally a state crime as well as a federal one, and requiring state and local law enforcement to take certain actions regarding verifying the legal status of immigrants that many people fear will lead to racial profiling. In addition, many public figures and politicians feel that the law itself is illegal, as it attempts…
Racism in the Arizona Community
Do members of the community look like you? In what ways do they look the same or different?
I remember once sitting in a Chris Rock open mike when he cracked a joke about how he viewed the U.S. To be the rich relative in his family who financed your education after assaulting you for years. Even though I couldn't stop laughing at that; in hindsight however, living in Arizona for over 20 years and in light of the new immigration law I cannot help but agree with that completely. Even though I have gotten the best out of the best and yet I have been slapped down all my life too. I grew up in the pre-civil rights movements when my neighbourhood was the home of jazz and blue centres and breakthrough entrepreneurs who paved the way to better lifestyles making in-roads for the…
Georgia's Employment Laws
All 50 states in the U.S. -- including Georgia -- have their own laws regarding employment. Georgia is beholding to federal laws regarding employment.
hen managing the human relations department (HR) in a company in Georgia it is very important to stay abreast of recent laws relating to labor. The "Georgia Security and Immigration Compliance Act" requires subcontractors and contractors working with Georgia's public employees to verify the eligibility of all new hires. New tough Georgia laws regarding illegal immigration relate to employment, so HR needs to be very up-to-date on those laws. In fact federal immigration laws require employers (HR personnel) to "…complete an INS Form 1-9 to verify each employee's authorization" to be working in America (Kemp, 2008). A Plan: The HR department should establish regular tutorials for all employees to bring everyone up-to-date on legal requirements for both Georgia and federal guidelines and laws.…
De Grip, Andries, and Sieben, Inge. (2009). The effectiveness of more advanced human resource systems in small firms. The International Journal of Human Resource Management,
Georgia Department of Labor. (2009). Georgia Security & Immigration Compliance Act.
Retrieved September 4, 2012, from http://www.dol.state.ga.us .
media is playing a major influence in determining how the general public will look at what is occurring. In the case of the Arizona immigration law, (a.k.a. Arizona S 1070) it is giving the authorities the power to arrest, detain and deport illegal immigrants. To fully understand the media coverage of this issue requires: examining the message they are portraying, the way it is affecting public perceptions, how it is impacting the U.S. economy and what inclusion strategies could be utilized to moderate the effects of the media. Once this occurs, it will provide the greatest insights as to how this law could be redefining the overall scope of the debate on this issue based upon the coverage that it is receiving. (Archibald, 2010)
What message does the media piece try to portray? Is it biased? Was it sensationalized or objective?
The message that media is trying to portray is…
Archibald, R. (2010). Arizona Enacts Stringent Law. New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/24/us/politics/24immig.html
What does Arizona's Immigration Law Do? CNN. com. Retrieved from: http://articles.cnn.com/2010-04-23/politics/immigration.faq_1_arizona-immigration-law-reform-sb1070?_s=PM:POLITICS
Stars Always Shine
Salvador Campos: Reflections of an Illegal Immigrant
The United States is essentially a nation of immigrants. Very few people can trace their ancestry back to the Native American tribes that were here prior to European conquest. Yet, now that we have an idea of what an American is, we are denying the right to immigrate to new generations of people who wish to tap into the American Dream. This is the case witnessed by Salvador Campos, an illegal immigrant who is living on StarRidge Ranch in California in Rick P. Rivera's novel Stars Always Shine. Salvador's experience embodies what many immigrants have seen and felt over the years, he wants to become an American citizen. Essentially, he does not like that he is technically breaking immigration laws by working and living in the United States undocumented. However, he has little choice, as there are no clear avenues…
Johnson, Jason B. "Serving His Country, Becoming a Citizen: Marine Knows From Experience the Immigrant's Struggle." San Francisco Chronicle. 16 Jun 2006. Web. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2006/06/19/MNG48JGEAS1.DTL
Unger, Stephen H. "The Immigration Struggle: Defending Arizona." Columbia University. 16 May 2010. Web. http://www1.cs.columbia.edu/~unger/articles/arizona.html
" (Liptak, 2011)
The dissenting opinions on the court include: Stephen G. reyer, Ruth ader Ginsburg and Sonia Sotomayor. Commenting about these views Justice reyer wrote, "The word licensing in the federal law should be read to mean employment-related licensing systems and not all licenses." (Liptak, 2011) This is significant, because it showing the different policy positions that the Supreme Court Justices are taking in relation to the law that has been enacted in Arizona. As, it is illustrating how the Supreme Court has been supporting policy decisions that are designed to give the states more power in setting regulations vs. that of the federal government.
The Policy Decisions of Governor Christie for the State of New Jersey
In New Jersey, Governor Christie has been aggressively promoting a 10-year program called the Energy Master Plan (EMP). The way it works is the state is encouraging electric utilities to produce energy…
Gallucci, M. (2011). Governor Christie's Energy Plan. Reuters. Retrieved from: http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/06/14/idUS316229553820110614
Heuvel, K. (2011). A Jobs Crisis, Not a Debt Crisis. The Nation. Retrieved from: http://www.thenation.com/blog/162071/week-jobs-crisis-not-deficit-crisis-plus-four-major-investigations
Liptak, A. (2011). Illegal Workers. New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/27/us/27scotus.html
Okungua, J. (2011). Tackling Sensitive Issues without Fear. New Vision. Retrieved from: http://www.newvision.co.ug/D/8/20/760281
4 trillion and $3.6 trillion, an impressive boost to the U.S. economy in those years, the IPC explains. A study conducted by Arizona State University determined that when a person has a bachelor's degree that person earns about $750,000 more over the course of a lifetime of earning than a person with just a high school diploma earns.
The data from that study indicates that as of 2006, those working without a high school diploma earned approximately $419 per week and had an unemployment rate of 6.8%, the IPC explains. Those with a bachelor's degree earned approximately $962 per seek and their rate of unemployment was only 2.3%; over their careers college graduates earn "in excels of 60% more than a high school graduate, and workers with advanced degrees earn two to three times as much as high school graduates" (IPC, p. 2).
The Dream Act would remove the uncertainty…
Associated Press. (2011). Court rules against Arizona immigration law. Justice Department filed suit to block law it says violates U.S. Constitution. Retrieved May 4, 2011, from http://www.msnbc.msn.com .
Barreto, Matt. (2010). Senators who opposed DREAM Act may fact Latino roadblocks in 2012.
Latino Decisions. Retrieved May 7, 2011, from http://latinodecisions.wordpress.com .
Bennett, Brian. (2011). GOP drafts legislative assault on illegal immigration. Los Angeles
Rather than violating the rights of medical practitioners, is it not a better idea simply to break the trusts that make health care so unaffordable? I agree there should be real reform -- but we should not be satisfied with phony reform.
Rand Paul's policy on health care puts the issue in a singular light. First, he draws distinction between real health care reform and phony reform. Real reform, he states would emphasize free market economics and would allow consumers to buy health insurance from providers from a wider spectrum rather than from the artificially manipulate market that we see today. As Paul says, state and federal laws place restrictions and exactly who can buy what from where -- and this is the real heart of the problem because it allows health insurance companies to charge higher and higher premiums and places greater and greater restrictions and demands on medical…
Tenant, Michael. "Rand Paul. Right to Healthcare is 'Slavery'." The New American.
2011. Web. 3 Apr 2012.
Paul, Rand. "Can Healthcare Reform Affect the Economy?" Rand Paul U.S. Senate.
2009. Web. 3 Apr 2012.
" Despite the stated expansion, habeas protection continued to be applied only to cases in which the defendant alleged that the sentencing court lacked personal or subject matter jurisdiction. The Court extended the reach of federal habeas review during the later part of the nineteenth century, however, by changing the circumstances under which the lack of state court jurisdiction could be found. Even after this shift, federal habeas courts sat not as fact finders but as guarantors of fundamental constitutional rights. (Breuer, 1994)
In 1915, the Court dramatically increased the scope of habeas corpus in Frank v. Mangum, in which the Court held that habeas relief is available whenever the state, "supplying no corrective process,... deprives the accused of his life or liberty without due process of law." The Warren Court continued this shift toward increased availability of habeas corpus in the next phase of habeas litigation after World War…
Breuer, J.R. (1994). Habeas Corpus - Limited Review for Actual Innocence. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 84(4), 943-974.
Hafetz, J.L. (1998). The Untold Story of Non-criminal Habeas Corpus and the 1996 Immigration Acts. Yale Law Journal, 107(8), 2509-2544.
Hammel, A. (2002). Diabolical Federalism: A Functional Critique and Proposed Reconstruction of Death Penalty Federal Habeas. American Criminal Law Review, 39(1), 1+.
Hoffstadt, B.M. (2000). How Congress Might Redesign a Leaner, Cleaner Writ of Habeas Corpus. Duke Law Journal, 49(4), 947.
S.B. 1070, ACA, AND FEDEAL PEEMPTION
1070, the ACA, and Federal Preemption
S.B. 1070, the ACA, and Federal Preemption
The Tenth Amendment was intended to limit the scope and power of the federal government, thereby preserving some measure of state autonomy (Lash, 2006). The Tenth Amendment accomplishes this by stating explicitly that the federal government can only exercise those powers enumerated within the U.S. Constitution. All other powers are left to the states. In James Madison's words, a Federalist, the "… powers delegated by the proposed Constitution to the federal government are few and defined. Those which are to remain in the State governments are numerous and indefinite." (p. 166). The Tenth Amendment therefore allows states to retain their freedom, sovereignty, and right to self-determination, as long as it does not conflict with the powers conferred to the federal government by the Constitution.
Madison, however, never viewed the…
Arizona et al. v. United States, 567 U.S. ____ (2012).
Lash, Kurt T. (2006). James Madison's celebrated report of 1800: The Transformation of the Tenth Amendment. George Washington Law Review, 74, 165-200.
LII (Legal Information Institute). (2010a). Supremacy Clause. Legal Information Institute, Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 13 Oct. 2013 from http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/supremacy_clause .
LII (Legal Information Institute). (2010b). Preemption. Legal Information Institute, Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 13 Oct. 2013 from http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/Preemption .
Tanya Trucker and Confusion
Tanya Trucker and the State of Confusion
In the State of Confusion, trucks that travel through must use a B-type hitch on all trucks and towing trailers, however, Tanya Trucker, who lives in another state, Denial, but must have her trucks travel through Confusion, does not like the added expense the B-type hitch law requires. She wants to take the State of Confusion to court and challenge the law, especially since the federal government has made no such regulations involving the hitches on trucks. She feels that the extra regulation imposed by the State of Confusion is an undue burden on her business and wants the courts to stop Confusion from enforcing this law. There are many issues involved in this case, such as, the relationship between states and the federal government, which court will hear the case, is the regulation even Constitutional.
Since Tanya Trucker's…
Carroll, Michael. (2011). "The Supremacy Clause v. S.B. 1070..." Albany Government
Law Review. Retrieved from http://aglr.wordpress.com/2010/07/18/the-supremacy-clause-v-s-b-1070-can-arizona%E2%80%99s-strict-illegal-immigration-law-withstand-constitutional-challenge/
Radcliffe, Mark. Diane Brinson. "The U.S. Legal System." Findlaw.com. Retrieved from http://www.brainmass.com/homework-help/business/business-law/364932
Undocumented tudents Equity to in-tate Tuition:
Reducing The Barriers
There exist policy ambiguities and variations at federal, state, and institutional levels related to undocumented student access to and success in higher education and this has created problems for these students. This study investigated specific policies and procedures to provide the resources and capital to assist undocumented students as well as reviewed key elements of showing the correlation of these difficulties with ethnic identity in access and equity to higher education that would help eliminate student's frustration. The study also illustrated that there is no accountability system surrounding the success of undocumented student's postsecondary education divide significant structure. Three research questions guided the study; a) Without the fundamental requirements met how will undocumented students achieve their goal to attain a degree, and seek a rewarding career? b) Is it unjust to extradite an illegal alien who has been living a constructive…
Scott, W.R. (2004). Institutional theory: Contributing to a theoretical research program. Retrieved from http://icos.groups.si.umich.edu/Institutional%20Theory%20Oxford04.pdf
Spickard, P. (2007). Almost all aliens: Immigration, race, and colonialism in American history and identity. New York, NY: Routledge.
Taylor, E. (2009). The foundations of critical race theory in education: An introduction. In E. Taylor, D. Gillborn & G. Ladson-Billings (Eds.), Foundations of critical race theory in education (pp. 1-13). New York, NY: Routledge.
Twenty-six men walked in, twelve got out to tell the story. The numbers are pretty good, considering these men were walking the Devil's Highway. Human trafficking is a phenomenon that testifies to the political and social inequities and injustices that currently plague Mexico and have since the conquest. Therefore, the existence of the Devil's Highway can be easily traced to the time of the Conquistadors. In the Florentine Codex, which is reproduced in part in Michael Johnson's eading the American Past, the Nahuatl account of the invasion illustrates the extent to which the Spaniards oppressed the natives with the use of brute force. The descriptions of the iron swords are followed soon by even more saddening depictions of the plunder. The Spaniards "went everywhere, scratching about in the hiding places, storehouses, places of storage all around. They took everything that pleased them…" (cited by Johnson, 2009 p. 30).…
Ewing, W.A. (2012). Opportunity and exclusion: A brief history of U.S. immigration policy. Immigration Policy Center. Retrieved online: http://www.immigrationpolicy.org/sites/default/files/docs/Opportunity_Exclusion_011312.pdf
Johnson, Michael P. (2009). Reading the American Past, Vol. 1. Boston: Bedford's.
"Mexican-American War," (2012). PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.history.com/topics/mexican-american-war
Urrea, L.A. (2005). The Devil's Highway. Back Bay.
Allowing more legal migrants from Mexico will not only save lives, it will decrease the terrible practice of smuggling, and it will free up the Border Patrol to concentrate on more important issues, such as drug smuggling and national security. Legal migration is an important issue that needs to be addressed by Congress, so that more people can enjoy the freedom and prosperity of living in America - legally and without fear of reprisal or deportation.
Annerino, John. Dead in Their Tracks: Crossing America's Desert Borderlands. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1999.
Borjas, George J., and Eric O'N. Fisher. "Dollarization and the Mexican Labor Market." Journal of Money, Credit & Banking 33.2 (2001): 626.
Dunn, Timothy J. "Border Militarization Via Drug and Immigration Enforcement: Human ights Implications." Social Justice 28.2 (2001): 7+.
Ladik, Steven M. "On Strengthening U.S./Mexican elations: The Unfinished Agenda." American Immigration Lawyers Association. 16 April…
Annerino, John. Dead in Their Tracks: Crossing America's Desert Borderlands. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1999.
Borjas, George J., and Eric O'N. Fisher. "Dollarization and the Mexican Labor Market." Journal of Money, Credit & Banking 33.2 (2001): 626.
Dunn, Timothy J. "Border Militarization Via Drug and Immigration Enforcement: Human Rights Implications." Social Justice 28.2 (2001): 7+.
Ladik, Steven M. "On Strengthening U.S./Mexican Relations: The Unfinished Agenda." American Immigration Lawyers Association. 16 April 2002. 24 Nov. 2004. http://www.aila.org/contentViewer.aspx?bc=9,576,2199,579
The Trafficking Victims Protection eauthorization Act
Final Project / Dissertation
Degree: Juris Doctorate Specialized
Specialization: Constitutional Law
The Trafficking Victims Protection eauthorization Act
This paper reviews the rights and protection that a state and federal government official provides to citizens that have been the subject of human trafficking crimes. Citizens need the protection of the police and other law enforcement officials to report human trafficking crimes and to protect and assist those that need their assistance. This paper will seek to explain the definition of human trafficking, how it works, victim support, issues with upholding and implementing legislature and the solutions which can be used to satisfy the public.
Table of Contents
Elements of Human Trafficking
Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000
Alien Smuggling, Harboring and Transportation
New York State's Human Trafficking Law…
1. The Crime of Human Trafficking: A Law Enforcement Guide to Identification and Investigation. (n.d.). http://www.vaw.umn.edu/documents/completehtguide/completehtguide.pdf
2. Trafficking in Persons Report. (2006). Washington, DC.: U.S. Department of State.
3. United States Constitution Bill of Rights. (n, d.). http://topics.law.cornell.edu/constitution/billofrights
4. 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery (1865). (n.d.)
There are several patterns and outcomes that are fairly common in the realm of political science. Similarly, there are some subjects and points of study that are more common than others. Just a few that come to mind include the ethics of congressional staff, whether third party candidates could or should be a viable option and the demarcation that could or should exist between federal and state authority. For each of these three major examples, there will be an example given of such a thing and an analysis of the overall paradigm and question. While there are some ideas and concepts that make a lot of sense to the common voter, the people in Washington seem to be less than inclined to listen.
One member of Congress that has been accused of ethics violations would be Charles Rangel, the former Democrat member of the House of Representatives. It…
In the opinion of the reporter George Putnam, while one fights for freedom somewhere else in the world, one could at that moment be in fact losing one's own freedom. He also states, on air as well as in other media that the United States of America is being invaded by an inordinate number of aliens, and unless this is controlled, the citizens of America could well lose their own freedom. He goes on to emphasize on the fact that being a Californian, and sharing a common border with Mexico, has meant that he has been suffering both economically as well as culturally, in the hands of foreign illegal invaders, who have been completely responsible for violating the very sovereignty of the state. This in turn has led to the miserable state of affairs present in the 'Immigration and Naturalization Services Department', and, in the opinion of the reporter…
Activists say Minutemen causing fear, ACLU offers training in El Paso. Associated Press. 28
August, 2005. Retrieved From
Accessed 31 August, 2005
United States of America Anti-Immigrant Orders
In the recent times, the public has been regularly discussing about The United States immigration law. This law which is meant to rule over the movement of immigrants into a country that only belongs to God has been put in the public eye, as a result of the amendments which have been added to it especially after the current administration of Donald Trump was incepted. In a period of less than two years into Donald Trump’s term, immigration has been highly limited with some people being permanently banned from migrating into the country. This law has been taken as biased and unjust by analysts and other stakeholders because it is associated with religious and racial undertones.
As he strove towards eliminating terrorists from other countries in USA, the president has developed multiple executive bills on immigration. These orders inclusive of the one about border…
America's private prison system has led to drastic changes in the criminal justice system. Beginning in the early 1980's profiting from running prisons first started with the Corrections Corporation of America. They pictured inmates like selling real estate, hamburgers, and cars (Aviram, 2015). While corporate-run prisons only account for eight percent of the American inmate population, it has generated a significant change in how criminals are prosecuted and handled in the criminal justice system. It all began with the founder of the world's first private prison company, Corrections Corporation of America.
Founders T. Don Hutto and Thomas Beasley introduce Corrections Corporation of America in 1983. A year later the company operated a Tennessee-based juvenile detention center and county jail. CCA then opens a Houston-based privately owned facility that held immigration detainees. In 1985 CCA tried a $250 million offer to lease Tennessee's entire prison system for 99 years. They were…
Allen, J. & Sawhney, R. (2014). Administration and Management in Criminal Justice. SAGE Publications.
Aviram, H. (2015). Cheap on Crime: Recession-Era Politics and the Transformation of American Punishment. Univ of California Press.
BJS,. (2016). Total Correction Population. BJS. Retrieved 7 October 2016, from http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=11
The criminal justice system, according to Karl Marx, is thought to work for the rich while the resulting policies are more concerned with controlling the poor. Seigel and Welsh state that, "conflict theorists observe that while spending has been cut on social programs during the past few years, spending on the prison systems has skyrocketed." This leads to the conclusion that when there is a disparity between police and public and the rich and the poor, the conflict creates or influences antisocial or deviant behavior ( ).
The Secure Communities program exists in certain states and is a Department of Homeland Security initiative, which aims to identify and remove criminal aliens. Law enforcement officials in certain states will fingerprint every person booked into jail and those fingerprints will be run through Homeland Security's national database to check for illegal immigrant status. Morton believes the program could transform the face of…
Reavy, Pat. (2010) "Program aids to better identify illegal immigrants." Deseret News.
Retrieved on May 20, 2010, from the Website:
To prove either side of the argument, the sensitivity and impact needs to be assessed -- there is no blanket rule of everything being transparent, or everything being private; it is dependent upon the sensitivity and overall impact of the issue at hand.
3. ources: Hunold, C. And B. Peters. (2004). "Bureaucratic Discretion and Deliverative Democracy." Transformation in Governance. IGI Publishing; Holzer, M. And K. Yang. (April 1, 2005). "Administrative Discretion in a Turbulent Time: An Introduction. Public Administration Quarterly. Cited in: www.highbeamresearch.com.
4. How does a cost-benefit analysis used in the determination of due process?
Using, for example, Miranda v Arizona, a cost-benefit analysis is used to determine due-process in the sense of the decision's impact on law enforcement and the community needs to be taken into consideration before a ruling of using Miranda, 5th Amendment Rights, and basic procedures. The Rehnquist Court's decision in the idea of cost-benefit,…
Sources: Administrative Procedure Act of (1946); Federal Administrative Procedure Act, Cited in: http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/Courses/study_aids/adlaw/
4. Distinguish among the following three terms: procedural rules, interpretive rules, and substantive rules. Explain the meaning and use of each.
a. Procedural Rules are rules that govern how prosecutions are conducted. The rules, which may be Federal or State, and may also govern different types of legal proceeding, e.g. criminal, are designed as a guide or template for the manner in which the Court proceeds on a given matter -- what it hears, what happens, and in what manner are issues resolved. The rules are designed to protect due process and ensure a fair and consistent application across the board. Essentially, Procedural Rules outline a "means" of conducting a court action. Creation of law.
b. Interpretive Rules -- Used in various ways depending on Federal, State, or local, they are the Court's view of the specific rule and the interpretation of its meaning. Known sometimes as the "legal effect" test, sometimes interpretive rules suggest or even engender new law. At times, law is so complex in specific cases or events, that a greater "interpretation" of the intent
The Court rejected Medellin's argument that the President's 2005 Memorandum was binding on state courts. The Court accused the President of attempting to unilaterally converting a non-self-executing treaty into a self-executing one." The government had also claimed that the Memorandum was an exercise of the President's authority to resolve international claims under his executive authority. The Court recognized that this was a long-standing practice, but prior uses of executive authority to settle international disputes had occurred in narrow circumstances, and did not involve the complete setting aside of state law, as the Medellin sought.
In the Medellin v. Texas oral argument, Justice Scalia says, "Usually when we have treaties that are not self-enforcing, the judgment of whether that international law obligation shall be made domestic law is a judgment for the Congress. Congress passes a law to enforce the treaty. " the United States must abide by its international commitments…
eforming any major national policy such as the immigration policy can be tedious at best. The current policy may not be perfect, but it is certainly working in any number of areas, as many studies indicate. These writers note, "We must recognize that in a multicultural, multiethnic, multi-perspective American society, the immigration debate must not be submerged in a unicultural, labor-economic perspective only, it must be examined multidimensionally" (Asumah and Bradley). Thus, reform may not be the answer. Instead, creating a new entity to deal totally with illegal immigration may be the best way to deal with the problems it entails. Immigration has always been the backbone of our country, and it must remain in place. Controlling illegal immigration, in all areas, is a better solution to the immigration policy dilemma, but it will not be easy.
Asumah, Seth N., and Matthew Todd Bradley. "Making Sense of U.S. Immigration…
Asumah, Seth N., and Matthew Todd Bradley. "Making Sense of U.S. Immigration Policy and Multiculturalism." The Western Journal of Black Studies 25.2 (2001): 82+.
Briggs, Vernon M. "Immigration Policy and the U.S. Economy: An Institutional Perspective." Journal of Economic Issues 30.2 (1996): 371+.
Delaet, Debra L.U.S. Immigration Policy in an Age of Rights. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2000.
Editors. "Immigration Impact - Texas." Federation for American Immigration Reform. 2002. 15 Nov. 2004. http://www.fairus.org/Research/Research.cfm?ID=1511&c=9
I had no idea that black people were brutally assaulted for just sitting on the wrong bench or that the police were part of the problem at that time.
The new appreciation for the factual understanding of what the American civil rights era was about scared me in some ways because it reminded me that human beings have a certain natural capacity for illogical group loyalties and prejudices. It is something that I also recognize in my country of origin and also between different Asian races of people as well. The course also changed my view of the way that white and black Americans may view one another. Even in today's era of civil rights, racial equality, and appreciation for cultural diversity, there must be some resentment remaining in many black Americans, especially those who remember life in the U.S. before the 1960s.
To be perfectly honest, I think…
That is why I became Treasurer of the ives Club, out of gratefulness for this extended family. I know many people of my generation struggle to find 'who they are' but the structure of the military offers a potent and compelling answer to that question. To serve means always to be at home amongst people who understand exactly what you are going through: "Home is the place where, when you have to go there, they have to take you in" (Frost 118-119).
Being in the military does not mean, contrary to conventional wisdom, that one must obey an unthinking policy of 'my country right or wrong.' The men and women in the military must obey because soldiers cannot afford to question every order and live, however, this does not make them unthinking automatons -- far from it. In fact, soldiers think more about the great questions of life and death,…
Frost, R. (2009). The death of the hired man. In G. Perkins, & B. Perkins (Eds.), The
American Tradition in Literature (12 ed., Vol. 2, pp. 888-891). New York City:
McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Iyer, P. (2000). The empire. In The global soul: Jet lag, shopping malls, and the search for home. (pp. 234-265). New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Eric Jones and declare under the penalty of perjury that the following is true and correct to the best of my knowledge.
Honorable field office director of The United States Citizenship and mmigration Services; my name is Eric Jones am a very close friend of Mr. Sam -, despite his busy schedule Sam and speak or see each other at least three times a week. was born in Tucson Arizona and am currently employed as a project engineer with Raytheon Missile Systems, have been employed with this company for eleven years. am writing this letter in support of Mr. Sam's appeal regarding the denial of his efforts to become a United States Citizen. am compelled to write this letter not only because Sam is a true and great friend but also to help alleviate the sense of devastation that he felt upon learning his petition to become a naturalized U.S.…
I first met Sam in 1992 at Pueblo High School which is located in Tucson Arizona. Even as a young teenager Sam exhibited all the exceptional qualities that are the essential components of having a good moral character. Even as a sophomore in high school Sam was very mature, honest and kind. He treated everyone with respect and compassion regardless of their race, social class or physical traits. He was always there to help out anyone who needed it without expecting compensation or rewards. He truly was back then, and still is now a selfless man, always looking out for the welfare of others instead of thinking of himself. All the positives in his character that attracted me towards his friendship in those days still remain in Sam's person. A have never known Sam to lie or be dishonest about anything, not even the smallest detail.
He is the ideal candidate to receive the esteemed title of United States Citizen. Sam exemplifies all the values that this country was built upon. He is selfless, hardworking, dedicated, and patriotic. He holds freedom and liberty in the highest of regards. Sam is an exceptional member of his community and also a great father and supportive husband to his wife. His whole life is dedicated to ensuring their prosperity and well being. Sam loves his kids and is intent on providing the best life possible for them, which is one of the main reasons he wants to become a naturalized United States citizen. Sam did one of the most thoughtful and kind acts a man can make, he adopted a young feeble and desperate child. He did this for no other purposes than to help a child in need, and to enrich the life of his family. In the state of Arizona in order to adopt a child a candidate must pass a thorough and extensive process that validates the good character and proper legal standing of the candidate. The state of Arizona and the authoritative agencies responsible for adoptions procedures have deemed Sam to be of good moral character. I ask you to please reconsider his case and approve his petition to become a citizen of this great nation. He is a man that strictly follows all rules, regulations and laws as a lawful permanent resident, and I am sure that his efforts to be an outstanding member of his community will double if he is bestowed the honor of citizenship. He understands the honor and privileges that come with being a U.S. citizen and would never do anything to jeopardize them. Please carefully reconsider your decision and allow Sam who is a worthy citizenship candidate to become a full fledge member of this beautiful and great nation. Thank you.
While this opinion might be considered unpopular, the reality is that these repetitive stops are reasonable. These repetitive stops represent a phenomenon known as criminal profiling. Criminal profiling is done simply because it does catch criminals. For example, criminal profiling was precisely what helped police investigators catch a criminal known as George Metesky, a bomber who had eluded the police for over 15 years. The frustrated police force asked investigator James Brussel (the assistant commissioner of mental hygiene) to come up with a detail description of the subject based on crime scene photos, notes, and other details provided. Brussel came up with the following description of the subject: "He would be unmarried, foreign, self-educated, in his 50s, living in Connecticut, paranoid and with a vendetta against Con Edison -- the first bomb had targeted the power company's 67th street headquarters" (Winerman, 2004). As experts do admit,…
Belkin, L. (1990, March 20). Airport Drug Efforts Snaring Innocents Who Fit 'Profiles'. Retrieved from NYTimes.com: http://www.nytimes.com/1990/03/20/us/airport-drug-efforts-snaring-innocents-who-fit-profiles.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm
Bruce, B. (2012, April 17). Muslim Woman Forced To Remove Headscarf In Jail. Retrieved from Fox2now.com: http://fox2now.com/2012/04/17/muslim-woman-forced-to-remove-headscarf-in-jail/
Debatewise.org. (2013). The Police Should Use Racial Profiling To Tackle The Problems Of Illegal Immigration. Retrieved from Debatewise.org: http://debatewise.org/debates/2242-the-police-should-use-racial-profiling-to-tackle-the-problems-of-illegal-immigration/
Goyette, B. (2010, October 7). Racial Profiling Is Ineffective and Wrong, So Why Does It Keep Happening? Retrieved from genprogress.org: http://genprogress.org/voices/2010/10/07/15828/racial-profiling-is-ineffective-and-wrong-so-why-does-it-keep-happenin/
Majority of the immigration policies are centralised and come from Federal level. However, local and state governments are taking more interest in solving problems related to immigration. Lately steps have been taken on local and state level to set up sanctuary cities, laws passed to prevent illegal immigrants to get a job and formation of official link between Immigrations and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and police departments (Johnson and Hill, 2011).
Majority of the policies have been passed by the local and state governments as a result of the failure of federal immigration policy and majority have aimed at limiting service of illegal immigrants. Four States call for every employer to authenticate the position of their employees while twenty-one states require state employers or contractors to use a federal electronic verification system (recognized as E-Verify) to find out every potential worker's legal position. The city of Mission Viejo in…
Johnson, H. And Hill, L. (2011). Illegal immigration. At Issue; Public Policy institute of Califormia.
Fitz, M, Martinez, G. And Wijewardena, M. (2010). The Costs of Mass Deportation: Impractical, Expensive, and Ineffective. Center For American Progress.
Further bolstering our cost argument is the Senate's regrettable decision to add several pork items to the bill, including the construction of a figure skating hall of fame in Maine. We could convey our dissatisfaction that Congress has played politics with what was supposed to be border security legislation. This message should resound well with the public and will help establish your credentials as a fighter of government waste.
A also believe we can attack this bill based on the cultural perceptions it creates. While 57% of the public may support a border fence, that figure dips to 38% among people between the ages of 55-70. Baby boomers, who lived through the construction and deconstruction of the Berlin Wall, seem to be more opposed to the idea of a wall separating nations. We may be able to gain traction with this politically important group. Further, since NAFTA was passed, America's…
The fact that industrial control systems may be vulnerable to infiltration by other citizens, or international parties puts laws pertaining to intersection of systems transmission at the forefront of priorities for us all.
At present, telecommunications interference of private citizens holds an up to a five-year prison sentence by U.S. federal law. How cyberterrorism is addressed, when the stakes are heightened, leaves a whole host of opportunities for citizens, and legislators to voice their opinion as new technologies for privacy invasion come on the market.
Every ISP access point imaginable is cited within the literature on cyberterrorism, including direct access networks, maintenance of dial-up modems, and of course the internet, remote systems architectures. Exponential information like SCADA systems create an incredibly vulnerable area for hackers interested in "knowledge sharing" network data toward sabotage of industrial operations and state military interests. DHS strategic responsibilities take care of the broad brush stroke…
Amendments to Section 225 Cyber Security Enhancement Act, 2002 (2003). Washington, D.C.: Department of Homeland Security.
Antal, J. Counter-terrorism multipliers needed (2010). Military Technology, 34(4), 4.
Ashley, Col. (S) B.K, USAF (2004). The United States Is Vulnerable to Cyberterrorism. Signal Online. Retrieved from: http://www.afcea.org/signal/articles/templates/SIGNAL_Article_Template.asp?articleid=32&zoneid=10
Bivens v. Six Unknown Named Agents of Federal Bureau of Narcotics, 409 F.2d 718, (U.S.App. LEXIS 12867 2d Cir. N.Y., 1969).
This paragraph serves as the introduction to this contract proposal report. The contract will be written from the government's perspective as far as the fencing project goes and will cover the seven main points asked for in the assignment parameters. In order, those parameters are the purpose of the federal program and the historical context therein. Second, the small business set-aside program (SBSP) will be evaluated based on eligibility to participate and other details. Third, the dollar threshold reserved for business contracts in this scenario will be described. Fourth, an analysis of the contract formats for government contracts will be evaluated to include universal and commercial formats. The format to be used for this situation will be described in this scenario, per the assignment parameters. Fifth, the purpose of source selection will be evaluated for the purposes of this plan. Sixth, the ranking of criteria for the evaluation…
DoD. (2013, August 18). United States Department of Defense (defense.gov). United States Department of Defense (defense.gov). Retrieved August 18, 2013, from http://www.defense.gov/
E-Verify. (2013, August 18). USCIS - E-Verify. USCIS Home Page. Retrieved August
18, 2013, from http://www.uscis.gov/portal/site/uscis/menuitem.eb1d4c2a3e5b
9 ac89243c6a7543f6d1a/?vgnextoid=75bce2e261405110Vgn VCM100000
Comparative Analysis of Human Trafficking in the United States with the orld
Specialized Field Project
Human Trafficking is a very serious issue that affects every country around the world. Human Trafficking is also known as "Sex Trafficking," or "Modern Day Slavery," which reflects the primary reasons people are bought and sold today -- sex trade and involuntary labor. The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) defines sex trafficking as
"the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for a commercial sex act, is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age."
Moreover, labor trafficking is defined as
"the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, using force, fraud, or coercion for subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage or slavery." (CNHTR, n.d.)…
Wayne, O. & Genelle, B. (2011). Major Principles of Media Law, 2012 Edition, Chapter 10, Cengage Learning.
Wheaton, E. M., Schauer, E. J., & Galli, T. V. (2010). Economics of Human Trafficking. International Migration, 48(4), 114-141. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2435.2009.00592.x
Wyler, L.S. (2013). Trafficking in Persons: International Dimensions and Foreign Policy Issues for Congress. Congress Research Service
S.-Mexico boarder. Not only this, but the strengthening of the drug trade, as well as the potential for human trafficking and the smuggling of terrorists poses a potential catastrophe for the United States. While the U.S.-Mexico boarder has always been an area of contention among policy makers, the MS-13 gang makes the argument less about social policy and the future of immigration, but about criminal activity and the safety of citizens. If the gang is able to successfully organize, a network of criminals stretching between some of the world's most dangerous regions and the United States will have been established, allowing for the potential crumbling of the United States from within. At this point, the criminals would not even need to cross the boarder to communicate, as they could engage in communication through electronic means or word-of-mouth without even risking an attempt to cross the boarder. A second terrorist attack…
Department of Justice. (2009, April 22). MS-13 Leader Found Guilty of 2007 Murder in Springfield. [Press Release]. Virginia: United States Attorney's Office.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2009, May 1). A Courageous Victim Taking a Stand
Against MS-13. Retrieved May 22, 2009, from the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Web Site: http://www.fbi.gov/page2/may09/ms13_050109.html
Federal Bureau of Investigation: Baltimore (2009, May 11). MS-13 Member Sentenced to
Irish Culture Background
Ireland is a rather cultural place. The most ancient stories from the country are partly about mythological personages that appear to have been known as deities, whom they referred to as Tuatha De Danann. They are also partly about the chivalry of some heroes and heroines, who had Cuchulain as their central figure (Hull, 1931). Emain Macha' Ulster was the group's chief center. Within the district are indications of burial-places, chariot-paths and forts. The neighborhood here still has old traditions and names that are correspondent to the heroes, as they appear in writing on the 10 thcentury and 11th century manuscripts. Disputes have erupted regarding the period when the five provinces were formed. There is an ancient tradition that states that the first segmentation took place during the Firbolg era. The Firbolg were, one among the pre-Gaelic Ireland people. Later on, the Clann Mileadh, also known as…
"Cesar Chavez - Facts & Summary - HISTORY.com."History.com -- American & World History. Web. 31 Oct 2016. .
Eleanor, Hull. A History of Ireland and Her People. Vol. 1. London: 1931. Print.
Eleanor, Hull. A History of Ireland and Her People. Vol. 2. London: 2015. Print.
"Irish-Americans - History, Irish emigration, Immigration until the famine years." World Culture Encyclopedia. Web. 16 Oct 2016. .
Alonso, Alex. 18th Street Gang in Los Angeles County Street Gangs.com, 2002 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.streetgangs.com/18thstreet.html.
estofSicily. The Mafia estofSicily.com, 2008 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.bestofsicily.com/mafia.htm.
urton, Fred. Mara Salvatrucha: The New Face of Organized Crime? Strategic Forecasting, Inc., 2006 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.stratfor.com/mara_salvatrucha_new_face_organized_crime.
CrimeLibrary. Yakuza: Origins and Traditions CrimeLibrary.com, 2008 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.crimelibrary.com/gangsters_outlaws/gang/yakuza/1.html.
Franco, Celinda. "The Ms-13 and 18th Street Gangs: Emerging Transnational Gang Threats?" 21. Washington, D.C.: Domestic Social Policy Division, 2008.
Friedman, Robert I. Red Mafiya: How the Russian Mob Has Invaded America. 1st ed. oston: Little, rown, 2000.
SonofItaly. Omerta SonOfItaly.freeservers.com, 2008 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://sonofitaly.freeservers.com/photo2.html.
Valdemar, Richard. Exceptions to the Gang Rules: How the Intricacies and Idiosyncrasies of the Gangs in Your Jurisdiction. Policeman.com, 2007 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.policemag.com/Channels/Gangs/2007/08/07/Exceptions-to-the-Gang-Rules.aspx.
Valdez, Al. California's Most Violent Export StreetGangs.com,…
Alonso, Alex. 18th Street Gang in Los Angeles County Street Gangs.com, 2002 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.streetgangs.com/18thstreet.html .
BestofSicily. The Mafia BestofSicily.com, 2008 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.bestofsicily.com/mafia.htm .
Burton, Fred. Mara Salvatrucha: The New Face of Organized Crime? Strategic Forecasting, Inc., 2006 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.stratfor.com/mara_salvatrucha_new_face_organized_crime.
CrimeLibrary. Yakuza: Origins and Traditions CrimeLibrary.com, 2008 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.crimelibrary.com/gangsters_outlaws/gang/yakuza/1.html.
o determine which views are most accurate we will examine the short and long terms effects that immigration are having on the U.S. economy.
Since the 19th century, the United States has been one of the places where immigrants will go to, seeking out economic prosperity and a new life. As time went by, an increasing number of immigrants would begin coming to the country for a host of reasons. In some cases, these people were immigrating lawfully, while others were entering the nation illegally. his is in response to the demand for their services and the economic benefits that they provide to communities. At the same time, each person has the ability to experience some form of economic upward mobility. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than a study that was conducted by the National Venture Capital Association. Where, they found that…
Then, when you combine this with the fact that many are breaking the law, this only adds to the underlying amounts of anger. To determine which views are most accurate we will examine the short and long terms effects that immigration are having on the U.S. economy.
Since the 19th century, the United States has been one of the places where immigrants will go to, seeking out economic prosperity and a new life. As time went by, an increasing number of immigrants would begin coming to the country for a host of reasons. In some cases, these people were immigrating lawfully, while others were entering the nation illegally. This is in response to the demand for their services and the economic benefits that they provide to communities. At the same time, each person has the ability to experience some form of economic upward mobility. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than a study that was conducted by the National Venture Capital Association. Where, they found that 25% of all venture capital backed projects were established by immigrants. In the technology sector, this number is as high as 40%. This is significant, because it shows the total contributions that immigrants are making to the economy over the long-term. With a number of the top technology companies having organizers who were born outside of the U.S. To include: Google, Yahoo and EBay. (Hausen, 2010) What this shows, is the total contribution of immigrants to the economy is considerable. As they are playing a part, in helping redefine the way everyone lives their daily lives. To fully understand this role requires examining how economic development has been influenced by immigration. This will take place by conducting
History of Discrimination in the United States
The Europeanization of North America
Greater than 99% of the population of the United States originated from another country, having immigrated here between the time of Christopher Columbus' arrival and the present day (Spickard, 2007, p. 4). Despite estimates that suggest close to five million Native Americans were living on land that would eventually become the United States in 1492, diseases such as smallpox, typhoid, and cholera wiped out an estimated 95% of this demographic at a relatively rapid pace, thus helping to pave the way for European immigration into North America (Spickard, 2007, pp. 36-37).
The earliest permanent (successful) white settlements included the Spanish in the southwestern territories that would become Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California, and on the east coast in Florida (Spickard, 2007, pp. 37-40). The primary goal of the Spanish settlements was economic, but this was not…
Hagy, J.W. (1991). Mosquitoes, leeches and medicine in Charleston, South Carolina (1670-1861). Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis, 2, 65-68.
Min, Pyong Gap. (2002). Mass migration to the United States: Classical and contemporary periods. New York: Altamira Press.
Spickard, Paul. (2007). Almost all aliens: Immigration, race, and colonialism in American history and identiy. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Fancis Group
U.S. Census Bureau. (2011). National Population by Race, United States: 2010. Retrieved August 30, 2011 from http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/.
And Vela-Gude's article offers several of the main points of this paper's research; the services must be ready, and the counselors must be thoroughly informed and knowledgeable about the cultural implications as well as the academic realities facing those Latino students (2009).
Racism Against Latinos
This paper alludes to the high number of Latinos in California and Texas, but according to the Southern Poverty Law Center's research, the South is home to one of the "fastest growing populations of Latinos in the country" (Bauer, et al., 2009, p. 4). But though the typical Latino immigrant comes to the South to escape "crushing poverty in their home countries" they often encounter "…widespread hostility, discrimination and exploitation" (Bauer, 2009, p. 4).
hat kinds of discrimination do Latinos come up against in the South? Mary Bauer and her chief researcher, Sarah Reynolds, claim that Latinos are "…routinely cheated out of their earnings…
Barneclo, Nick Anthony. (2008). El Laberinto del exito: A Mixed methods investigation of resilience within the context of Mexican-American late adolescents lives. Dissertation at New Mexico State University in Counseling Psychology. ProQuest Publication Number:
Cannon, Edward, and Levy, Marielle. (2008). Substance-Using Hispanic Youth and Their
Families: Review of Engagement and Treatment Strategies. The Family Journal: Counseling
Hernandez vs. Texas and its Importance to Latinos in the U.S.
Studies conducted in the past have clearly indicated that some racial groups are overrepresented in the U.S. criminal justice system. There have been claims that some stages of the criminal justice system disadvantage some groups, with some of the disadvantaged groups being Asian-Americans, Hispanics, and African-Americans. This text largely concerns itself with the U.S. Supreme court ruling of Hernandez vs. Texas, a landmark Court ruling that has had a significant impact on the civil rights of Mexican-Americans. In so doing, it will, amongst other things, speculate on the relevance of this particular court ruling to Latinos in the U.S.
In basic terms, the Hernandez case "involved the exclusion of Mexican-Americans from serving as jurors, which, like voting, is a primary duty and privilege of U.S. citizenship" (Soltero, 2009, p. 38). Accused of murdering Joe Espinoza, Hernandez was indicted…
American Civil Liberties Union - ACLU. (2014). About the ACLU. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/about-aclu-0
Bado, A. (2013). Fair Trial and Judicial Independence: Hungarian Perspectives. New York, NY: Springer
Carson, E.A. (2014). Prisoners in 2013. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p13.pdf
Cyndi, B. (2009). Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE.
The former might be, 'What specific...' [while] Less structure might be exemplified by: "Please respond to the following in your own words: I....'" (Dereshiwsky, 1999) in addition:
adding some open-ended items such as these to a more traditionally scaled quantifiable survey, such as one with Likert-scaled attitudinal items, and/or "check/off" questions on demographic background variables, is a good way to make the survey "multimethod" in nature. This is because you'd be using that "single" data collection vehicle (survey instrument) to collect your data (responses) in more than one form: quantitative and qualitative! You could ask the same general questions in both forms and then compare the two alternative forms of responses to see if they 'converged,' or agreed, regarding the phenomenon that you are trying to measure via the survey (e.g., attitudes towards school climate). If they do, you can have greater assurance that "there's something real being captured/measured" regarding…
Area Sales of Luxury SUVs in High Gear; Gas Prices Don't Slow Down Affluent Buyers. (2007, April 28). The Washington Times, p. C10. Retrieved April 24, 2008, from Questia database:
Mexico faces an array of drug-related problems ranging from production and transshipment of illicit drugs to corruption, violence, and increased internal drug abuse. Powerful and well-organized Mexican organizations control drug production and trafficking in and through Mexico, as well as the laundering of drug proceeds. These organizations also have made a concerted effort to corrupt and intimidate Mexican law enforcement and public officials. In addition, the geographic proximity of Mexico to the United States and the voluminous cross-border traffic between the countries provide ample opportunities for drug smugglers to deliver their illicit products to U.S. markets. The purpose of this study was to develop informed and timely answers to the following research questions: (a) How serious is the trade in illicit drugs between Mexico and the United States today and what have been recent trends? (b) How does drug trafficking fund terrorist organizations in general and trade between Mexico and…
Delaware fact sheet. (2014). Friends of Narconon, International. Retrieved from http://www.friendsof narconon.org/drug_distribution_in_the_united_states/delaware_drug_facts/delaware_fact
Drug threats in Wilmington. (2014). Drug Enforcement Edu.org. Retrieved from http://www.
Although Friedman claims that the use of religion as a common bond among early Americans is no longer relevant, there are scores of Americans who still believe that the nation is essentially a Christian one. The identity of Tea Party people is inextricably tied into an identity that may seem outmoded to many Americans. Yet to the Tea Party, their identity is more American than any apple pie.
Most Americans throughout most of American history considered it perfectly fine to deny half the (white) population the right to vote on the basis of gender. Being female was considered a handicap, which systematically denied women the right to be Americans even if they identified with the culture of the United States. Asian men who worked on the railroads in nineteenth century America were not even permitted to start families because their Otherness was too much for the ASP majority. Now, Asians…
Alba, Richard. Ethnic Identity. Yale University Press, 1992.
Friedman, Michael J. "American Identity: Ideas, Not Ethnicity." 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.america.gov/st/peopleplace-english/2008/February/20080307154033ebyessedo0.5349237.html
Huntington, Samuel P. Who Are We: The Challenges of America's National Identity.
Rorty, Richard. Achieving Our Country. Harvard, 1998.