Asian Philosophy Essays (Examples)

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Philosophy Plato Lived a Century

Words: 1010 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90251846

This idea was accepted by most of the philosophical schools of the time, including the Atomists.

Plato took quite a different approach and found that ideas, as noted, and saw idas as existing outside of human consciousness. Plato's doctrine of recollection holds that learning is the remembering of a wisdom that the soul enjoyed prior to its incarnation, another aspect of the idea that there are ideal forms "remembered" by the soul in this world, and this is actually a mythical statement of this view that neither reason nor the intelligible order that it reveals is alien to the human soul. The soul is seen as existing before life here on earth and as remembering the ideals it knew before birth. Protagoras would not have engaged in this sort of argument, jus as he avoided arguments about the existence of the gods as being outside of sensory experience.

3. Plato's…… [Read More]

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asian bioethics and towards reconciliation

Words: 1742 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67860412

Bioethics has been dominated by a European model, with European worldviews and philosophies dominating the discourse. This is true in academia as well as in public policy.

The need for global bioethics discourse is pressing, because the life sciences are no longer regional or provincial in scope.

For example, there has been a lot of speculation as to the progress made in East Asian cloning laboratories, particularly in China and South Korea.

Claims that scientists have successfully cloned human beings are unsubstantiated.

However, the speculation does give rise to an important need to discuss bioethics from an East Asian perspective, using East Asian ethical frameworks like Confucianism.

Recent Progress

In 2006, the International Association for Bioethics' (IAB) held its world congress in Beijing, a sure sign that the global bioethics community is becoming less Euro-centric in its approach.

Bioethics is starting to integrate non-European ethical and philosophical traditions.

It is…… [Read More]

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Asian Museum Exhibit the Museum of Asia

Words: 701 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68106746

Asian Museum Exhibit

The Museum of Asia and India (MIA) is proud to host the traveling exhibition of Art and Society in Japan and China: Floral epresentation through the Centuries. The exhibit will run for three months at the MIA before traveling to other venues across the globe in the two-year schedule. Museums in Amsterdam, Copenhagen, London, Madrid, Munich, New York, Nice, Oslo, Prague, San Francisco, Sydney, Toronto, and Zurich will play host to the special exhibit from November 2011 through May of 2012.

The exhibit provides glimpses into the impact of religion, philosophy, language, and culture on Asian art. With artistic grounding in writing as an art form, Chinese and Japanese art often includes the written word as a visual element in art. Often, the writing conveys a wise aphorism or a blessing that exists harmoniously with the subject of the art. The influence of Confucius in Asian art…… [Read More]

References

The Gallery of China. Retrieved  http://www.galleryofchina.net/floral.html 

Culture of Japan, Every Culture. Retrieved  http://www.everyculture.com/Ja-Ma/Japan.html#ixzz1biccnYtM 

All Posters. (2011). Retrieved http://www.allposters.com/-sp/Chrysanthemums-Posters_i1585174_.htm?aid=1203620802&LinkTypeID=1&PosterTypeID=1&DestType=7&Referrer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww%2Epaintingsoncanvas%2Enet%2Fprint-8042-1585174%2Fchrysanthemums-giclee-print%2F

Cargile, S. (2009). Cherry Blossoms in Japanese Art and Culture. Retrieved http://www.stolaf.edu/people/kucera/YoshidaWebsite/evolution/essay_pages/stephanie_cargile.htm
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Asian Parental Influence a Popular Scientific Debate

Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48566683

Asian Parental Influence

A popular scientific debate asks whether we are more likely shaped by 'nature' or 'nurture.' In other words, how much of our individuality and personality comes from our genetic makeup and how much of it comes from the influences around us? This is a debate that is directly relevant to the subject here, which asks what influence Asian parents tend to have on the development of their children. The answer, this discussion will show, is that the tight family bonds typical in Asian cultures result in a heavy influence by parents but that heredity is likely a substantial effecter as well.

In terms of the influence created by culture, there is a long-standing course of biological, psychological and sociological research which says that one's upbringing is unmatched in terms of influencing the personality, psychological orientation and ethical development of an individual. The impact that parents have on…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

LaFollette, H. (1980). Licensing Parents. Philosophy and Public Affairs, 182-197.

Spett, M. (1998). Is It True That Parenting Has No Influence on Children's Adult Personalities? NJ-ACT.org.
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Philosophy -- Society and Identity Is There

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21765399

Philosophy -- Society and Identity

Is there such a thing as true identity? To what extent does our concern about how people perceive us affect our identity? Do you feel the society brands you as a man, a woman, a teenager, a college student, an Asian, a Middle Eastern, an American, etc. And places expectations on you accordingly? Is it possible to discover the real us? How? While pondering, look around you. Your room, your clothes, your belonging, how much of it represents you, and how much represents the current style?

There is such a thing as a "true" identity, but it can be very hard to differentiate that from our superficial identity, mainly because so much of what the average person's identity is a function of social conditioning and all of the external influences that shape who we are in our communities and societies. Much of the typical person's…… [Read More]

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Asian Financial Crisis of 1997 the Economies

Words: 3782 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2889666

Asian Financial Crisis of 1997

The economies of the so-called "Asian Tigers" were looked at with envy by the rest of the world in the early 1990s. These Southeast Asian countries -- South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Thailand had shown impressive (in most cases double-digit) growth rates for the preceding decade and more; thus becoming "darlings" of liberal capitalism and globalization in the post-cold war era. Other developing countries were looking to follow their example, and indeed Indonesia and Philippines were straining at the leash to join the "tiger" club. Investors, bankers, and fund managers from all over the world were queuing up to be part of the Asian "economic miracle" -- and perhaps make a quick buck or two in the process. What's more -- the "trickle down effect" was actually pulling the poverty line in the region steadily downwards giving rise to a growing and…… [Read More]

References

The Asian Financial Crisis: Causes, Contagion and Consequences." (1999). Edited by Pierre-Richard Agenor etal. Global Economic Institutions. Cambridge University Press: UK

Das, Dilip K. (December, 2000). "Asian Crisis: Distilling Critical Lessons." UNCTAD Discussion Papers

Chronology of the Asian Currency Crisis and its Global Contagion" Based on Information from Several News Sources. Retrieved on September 24, 2002 at http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~nroubini/asia/AsiaChronology1.html

Crash of '97: How the Financial Crisis is Reshaping Asia." (1998). Edited by Dan Biers. A Far Eastern Economic Review Book. Review Publishing Company: Hong Kong
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The Philosophy of Neo-Confucianism

Words: 3169 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18424065

Neo-Confucianism is a philosophy which was born from the need to explain the existence of man and the universe in a manner which was just as complex as the uddhist one. The philosophers which belong to this school of thought took the core of the Confucian philosophy and enriched it with contributions from other philosophies. It can also be stated that neo-Confucianism is a reaction to various provocations of philosophical character coming from uddhism, neo-Daoism and the yin-yang tradition.
Its purpose was to come up not just with a comprehensive abstract explanation of the world, but also with the rightful principles and laws that would guide everyday behaviour. Naturally, there had to be a synergetic relation between the two categories. The revival of the Confucian thought began in the ninth century and reached important levels of creativity in the eleventh century during the northern Song dynasty.
It must be underlined…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Angurarohita, Pratoom (1989). Buddhist influence on the neo-Confucian concept of the sage. Retrieved from Sino-Platonic papers march 14, 2009 from http://www.sino-platonic.org/complete/spp010buddhistconfuciansage.html
Daoism, Retrieved from Encyclopaedia Britannica march 14, 2009 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/582972/Daoism/42165/Daoism-and-other-religions
Fung, YU-Lan (1952) . A history of Chinese philosophy. Trans. Derk Bodde. Princeton University Press.
Ivanhoe, P (2000). Confucian moral self cultivation. Indianapolis, Hackett Publishing Company.
Jiahua, Cheng, Buddhism and the Chinese culture. Retrieved march 14, 2009 from philosophy.cass.cn/facu/chengjianhua/09.do
Jensen, L. (1997). Manufacturing Confucianism: Chinese traditions and universal civilization. NYC, Duke University Press
Koller, John, M. (2006) Asian philosophies. Prentice Hall.
Neo-Confucian philosophy. Retrieved from The internet encyclopaedia of philosophy http://www.iep.utm.edu/n/neo-conf.htm
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Philosophy of Social Work in

Words: 4090 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83832506

The general problem of the social assistance concept is the eligibility issue. Conditions are very restrictive, and so they should. Too much benefits would lead people into thinking that the Government will provide for them, at the expense of others, which is not what politicians desire (maybe communist rulers do, but this is not the object of this paper). On the other hand, few benefits or no benefits at all would mean that the purpose of the program - i.e. social protection - is not achievable.

One other aspect of the way U.S. citizens (and people from other countries, for that matter) look at the social assistance programs is the stigmatization such a program brings to an individual. No one likes to admit that he/she is in desperate need of help, so people are reluctant to apply. Perhaps some media campaigns against that perception would make a difference.

Another method…… [Read More]

References

1. Wineman, Steven. Power-Under: Trauma and Nonviolent Social Change.," Cambridge, 2003 http://www.gis.net/~swineman/Power_Under.pdf

2. www.policyamerica.org

3. www.cato.org

4. www.prrac.org
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Long Tradition of East Asian Political Thought

Words: 1604 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69590992

Asian

Explain three quotes from ether Confucius, Mencius, or Xun-Zi

Mencius is in the privileged position of providing political advice to King Xuan of Qi. Mencius offers a clear political philosophy rooted in ethical principles. The core ethical principles are humanitarian in nature, based on Mencius's core belief in the essential goodness of human nature. Mencius's political philosophy is grounded in just and humane leadership. There are several core tenets of Mencius's political philosophy, and he advises the king accordingly. The first primary tenet is that leaders need to ensure equitable wealth distribution because poverty and injustice breed criminality and other social problems. The second tenet is that righteousness is important in its own right; that even though the leader ensures his own continued power and respect by being a good king, self-serving interests are insufficient to ensure one's efficacy as a ruler. It is more important to be genuinely…… [Read More]

References

de Bary, W.T., et al. 1999. Sources of Chinese Tradition. Vol I: From Earliest Times to 1600. Columbia University Press

Lecture Notes.

Richey, J. (n.d.). Mencius. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online: http://www.iep.utm.edu/mencius/
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Eastern Philosophy Think Don't Think

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68182564

I am doing this now as I type this sentence. I find that when I type I am not thinking where the letters are on the keyboard or how even my brain is sending the messages from the thoughts to my fingers then the keys and to eventually wind up on the monitor. In fact, when I do stop to think about it I find myself fumbling for the keys and the process is unable to flow smoothly with the act. This thinking about it is committing the error of overdoing that was quoted earlier.

What Western culture calls "second nature" such as typing, walking, driving a car, etc., are all high level orders of activity. These also represent times when the doer of the action is at one with the act and flowing with it, effortlessly, not thinking about it but simply doing it or being one with it.…… [Read More]

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Traditional Se Asian Bamboo Flutes

Words: 28549 Length: 95 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64807002

The organization of the five chapters in the study includes:

Chapter I: Chapter I includes the design of the study, the study's research problem and three research questions, study objectives, the scope and limitations of the study, significance of the study of DNA, research methodology and philosophy of the studies from different related literature.

Chapter II: During Chapter II, the researcher presents information to address the first research question; presented in the introduction for the thesis: What evidence points to the origin of flutes in SEA? During Chapter II, the researcher relates the kinds of flute in SEA that have been passed on from one generation to the next and their physical structure hich attributes scale, sound, expressions, melody, and rhythm. In Chapter II, the researcher also discusses the studies on ethnic groups of SEA and their flutes, and additionally notes studies on history of geology and aboriginals' migration map…… [Read More]

works cited:

Purple highlight means reference from his thesis, chapters 1-5

Blue highlight means reference from his raw research that was sent (17 files)

Yellow highlight means that writer could not find reference; one of the 17 files received

Gray highlight means writer found this source
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Eastern Influences on Western Philosophy Culture Literature Art Film

Words: 3310 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47749173

East/West

An Analysis of Eastern Influence in Western Art

The American/English poet T.S. Eliot references the Upanishad in his most famous poem "The Wasteland," a work that essentially chronicles the break-up of Western civilization and looks to Eastern philosophy for a kind of crutch in the wake of the abandonment of Western philosophy. Since then, Westerners, whether in literature or in film, have continued to look to the East for inspiration and representation of virtuous or right living. Hollywood, for example, has for decades been borrowing themes and narratives from Hong Kong cinema, whether in the works of artin Scorsese, Quentin Tarantino, or the Wachowski Brothers. This paper will look at the ways Eastern philosophy has influenced the West in terms of culture -- primarily through the medium of literature and film and the avenue of spirituality.

The Spirit of the East: Karma

Karma may be defined as the cycle…… [Read More]

Morris, M. (2004). Transnational imagination in action cinema: Hong Kong and the making of a global popular culture. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 5(2), 181-199.

Pollard, M. (2004). 'Kung Fu Hustle', Kung Fu Cinema. Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web/20070502050543/http://www.kungfucinema.com/reviews/kungfuhustle_082205.htm

Sikora, J. (2002). Religions of India. Lincoln, NE: Writer's Club Press.
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Role of Asian Billionaires and

Words: 1382 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83008631

This is because they are interested in increasing their overall bottom line numbers at all costs. While, their American counterparts want to see an increase in market share and address a host of social issues. As they believe that the community is playing a vital role in helping to support the organization and its success. This is significant, because it shows how American entrepreneurs want to offer everyone some kind of program that will help to address a host of problems affecting their communities. (Studwell)

A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than idu.com. What happened was the firm was established by Google based on a desire to rapidly expand into China. At first, Google was considered to be the dominant player in the industry. However, the Chinese government began to impose a host of restriction on what content was available. Reluctantly, the company agreed…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Jeffries, Ian. Political Developments in Contemporary Society. New York: Rutledge, 2010, Print.

Studwell, Joe. Asian Godfathers. London: Profile Books, 2007. Print.
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Analects of Confucius Philosophy

Words: 1569 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53381332

Confucius was a Chinese philosopher and his thought is referred as Analects of Confucius composing of his ideas and sayings. For over thousand years after his death, his thought was still relevant in the Chinese thought. Confucius was born in 551 a couple of centuries before Socrates taught ethics and logic. Confucius was being identified as the Chinese first teacher whose his ideas had been implemented in several countries in Eastern Asia that include Korea, Vietnam, Japan and Western civilization. The Analects is the selected sayings and ideas of Confucius, which he used to preach his philosophical thoughts. The Analects composed of more than 500 independent passages, which were divided into 20 books, and some of these books had separate bundles with the dominated themes.

There are a group of the key contexts in the books that consist of Ren, Junzi, and Li. The literary meaning of Ren is revered…… [Read More]

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East Asian Politics When Compared

Words: 2622 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47847982

It must be recognized that religion in East Asia has had a complex and long history, including its influence upon the law. itual and religion in the region have been much more integrated and for a much longer time in history than has been the case for the Western paradigm. Hence, although the country appears to have adopted the basic paradigms of Western legislation, it is also true that the heart of the region remains in its history, and is likely to be extracted only by time and patience.

Xinping notes that there are two opinions that relate to the religious paradigm as it relates to the Chinese context specifically. The first views religion in the country on a positive and active platform; where religion adapts itself the socialist and contemporary society of the region. eligion is thus easily and actively able to adapt itself to the applicable laws of…… [Read More]

References

Glenn, H. Patrick. Legal Traditions of the World: Sustainable diversity in law. Oxford University Press, 2007.

Qin, Guoji. The Thinking Way of Confucianism and the Rule of Law. Journal of Politics and Law Vol. 1, No. 1. March, 2008.

Xinping, Zhuo. Religion and Rule of Law in China Today. Brigham Young University Law Review. 1 May 2009. http://www.allbusiness.com/society-social/religion-spirituality-religion/13411800-1.html
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east asian history questions

Words: 1831 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96605375

.....Zhu Xi understood daotong ( "transmission of the dao" or Confucian orthodoxy). What texts, in sequence, were to be studied? Keeping in mind the context in which he wrote, accept, qualify or refute his position.

Central to the evolution of Confucian orthodoxy, the teachings of Zhu Xi understood the transmission of the dao, the daotong, in terms of the natural ordering and hierarchy of the universe, and of universal laws. Daotong is conceptualized as a flow, a transmission of actual energy from a source higher on the cosmological hierarchy, or from the principle of Heaven, tianli (Adler 143). Moreover, the transmission of the dao is presented as an ongoing flow, more like a waterfall than a tap that gets turned off or on according to the will or desire of the human being. Zhu Xi's understanding was, however, ironically rigid and inflexible. His teachings deeply conflicted with prevailing Confucian ideology,…… [Read More]

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Filial Piety in Many Asian

Words: 1397 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60064587

In this culture, filial piety in its ancient form is as restrictive as that in the Chinese culture. According to Kim Jun-hee, filial piety in this context takes the form of extreme restriction in the name of "proper behavior." For sons, proper behavior constitutes taking a wife and producing sons in order to perpetuate the family name. For daughters, this meant that their family obligations shifted upon marriage from the original home to the husband's family. As such, the woman was seen as a vessel for producing an heir, and little more. Much of a woman's honor was also inherent in her ability to bear healthy sons. o extreme was this directive in the past, that men were allowed to take a second or third wife, or even to adopt a male family member, for the purpose of perpetuating the family name.

While filial piety is still seen as extremely…… [Read More]

Sources

Hui, Wei. Shanghai Baby. Simon & Schuster, 2001

Jun-hee, Kim. "Dutifully Yours - Filial Piety in Korea." Invest Korea Journal. Nov-Dec. 2005. http://www2.gol.com/users/coynerhm/dutifully_yours_filial-piety.htm

Sung, Kyu-taik. "Filial Piety: The Traditional Ideal of Parent Care in East Asia." Aging & Spirituality. Spring 1998. http://www.asaging.org/networks/forsa/a&s-101.html

Wikipedia. "Filial Piety." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filial_piety
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Supervision Portfolio Personal Philosophy and Supervision Forms

Words: 2593 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37659791

The experience I had accumulated in my secondary days as a supervisor in mathematics also assists me in my place of work.

I also had experience as a supervisor in my workplace, which enhanced my development level as a supervisor. My development level as a supervisor also continues in my workplace before getting admission into the university. Before I got admission in into the university, I had worked in series of companies notably manufacturing companies. For example, I worked with Toyota Company for 5 years as an assistant supervisor. My working experience in the company has assisted my development level as a supervisor. In my working experience, I understand that it is critical for a supervisor to build working relationships with supervisees. Typically, supervisory-supervisees relationships enhance mutual alliance between the two parties. The supervisor and supervisees share responsibility of developing empathy, genuineness, warmth, emotional and reliability engagement to develop key…… [Read More]

References

Arthur, M.E. (2012). Application of the Discrimination Model of Supervision for Residency Education, Annals of Behavioral Science and Medical Education,18 (1):32-37.

Bernard, J.M. (1979). Supervisor training: A discrimination model. Counselor Education and Supervision, 19, 60-68.

Bernard, J.M., Goodyear, R.K. (1992). Fundamentals of clinical supervision. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Bernard, J.M., & Goodyear, R.K. (2009).Fundamentals of clinical supervision, (4th Edition). Columbus, OH: Merrill.
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Educational Philosophy and the Nature

Words: 5286 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25649946

Here the emphasis is on complete neutrality, the child being exposed to all different ways of thinking and believing (Cahn, p. 421). In the end the child will make his own choice as to what is best. Such complete freedom; however, rests upon a notion that children might indeed make incorrect choices; ones that are base don incomplete knowledge of the real world. The need to make rational choice requires that some limitations be placed on children's own personal developmental choices and possibilities (Cahn, p. 423). The author's own notion of the Democratic State is largely derived from this last concept. Education must be divided between a concept of absolute individual choice and societal necessity. Societal necessity demands that children be allowed enough choice for free and individualized expression, while at the same time being prohibited from choosing lifestyles that take as their express point-of-view the idea that they are…… [Read More]

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Post Colonial India and South Asian Identity

Words: 1737 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40885514

Post Colonial India and South Asian Identity

"Pakistan is often perceived as merely one of those far-away places that serve as breeding grounds for extremism and violence," yet this is not a clear image of the truth (Perner 23). Pakistan is in the midst of an internal conflict, with those who want to embrace globalism and those fighting to get rid of it for a misguided view of life before international influence. In many ways, Hamid's novel Moth Smoke is much different than other post-colonial literature in the idea that the west is not entirely responsible for the divides in cultural identity in regional politics. Rather, the west simply brought with it new tools to help distinguish those with access to the elite social circles and those without. Still, Hamid does show some positive benefits from a globalized identity in the image of a much stronger female role within an…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hamid, Mohsin. Moth Smoke. Penguin. 2012.

Jay, Paul. "The Post-Post Colonial Condition: Globalization and Historical Allegory in Mohsin Hamid's Moth Smoke."

Perner, Claudia. "Tracing the Fundamentalist in Mohsin Hamid's Moth Smoke and the Reluctant Fundamentalist." Ariel: A Review of International English Literature, 42(3-4), 23-31.

Yaqin, Amina. "Mohsin Hamid in Conversation." Wasafiri. 2008.
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Buddhism Religion and Philosophy Founded in India

Words: 1368 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18990769

Buddhism, religion and philosophy founded in India c.525 B.C. By Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha. There are over 300 million Buddhists worldwide. One of the great world religions, it is divided into two main schools: the Theravada or Hinayana in Sri Lanka and SE Asia, and the Mahayana in China, Mongolia, Korea, and Japan. A third school, the Vajrayana, has a long tradition in Tibet and Japan. Buddhism has largely disappeared from its country of origin, India, except for the presence there of many refugees from the Tibet region of China and a small number of converts from the lower castes of Hinduism ("Buddhism").

Buddhism is a blend of philosophy, religious belief and educational principles that focuses on personal spiritual development. Although the distinction may be somewhat blurred, strictly speaking, Buddhists do not worship gods or deities, and the Golden Buddha's people pray to are supposed to be merely aids…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Buddhism." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition (2009): 1. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web. 18 Sept. 2010.

"BUDDHISM." The Essentials of Philosophy and Ethics. Abingdon: Hodder Education, 2006. Credo Reference. Web. 17 Sept. 2010.

Jacobson, Doranne. "Buddhism and meditation." Calliope 5.4 (1995): 40. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web. 18 Sept. 2010.

Van Biema, David, Jeanne McDowell, and Richard N. Ostling. "Buddhism in America. (cover story)." Time International (South Pacific Edition) 49 (1997): 50. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web. 17 Sept. 2010.
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Autobiographic Summary What Value Philosophy and Attributes

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91112842

autobiographic summary. What value, philosophy and attributes describe you? What qualities define your character? Describe what significant events you believe influenced your character. Note any special activity or organization in which you have been involved. Consider what makes your desired profession relevant to you. What assets do you possess that will contribute to your success as a professional?

Change is something we can face with either trepidation or anticipation. I have always liked immersing myself in new experiences and situations. I come from a traditional Chinese culture that believes there are both Yin and Yang; that everything in life has an opposite and something to balance it. Unfortunately, it seamed I had a little too much "Yang" as my family had a number of problems that prevented me from enjoying a happy childhood. If I had believed in good karma, I would have concluded that growing up in Chinese-Vietnamese family…… [Read More]

At that time, however, I was fortunate to have had Dr. Lin, a Taiwanese professor, and my classmate Michael, (who would later become my husband), to help me through the transition of recovering my self-worth and purpose. They helped me put my life back together again. Both of them had a great deal of experience dealing with cultural adjustments, and they guided me through these difficult times by giving me support and by listening to the concerns of my daily life. Their efforts enabled me to understand the importance of listening empathetically, and inspired me to become an active listener when I am working to help others.

Just after Christmas in 2001, my son was born. Just as one might turn the page of a book to the next chapter, I became a new person. From a carefree twenty-year-old sophomore, I suddenly realized that I am not only responsible for my own actions, but also for my family's well being. Through this experience, I felt released from the bitterness trapped within me since my childhood, and I have changed the direction my life was headed, finding it within myself to fulfill my potential in everything I do.

I am very observant and I adapt well to new changes, but, when you are from a foreign country you are faced with many challenges. Fortunately, my husband and in-laws helped me to adapt to my new environment with their patience and love. This was the first time I became aware of the importance of family support. While my family educated me about the American way of life, they respected my differences and accepted my choice for living an Asian lifestyle in America. Therefore, I was able to make some adjustments to compromise with their lifestyle without losing my own identity. Even though I could have stayed the same as the first day I arrived in Indiana, I realized the benefits of
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Modern Asian History

Words: 1546 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49793411

Nationalism and Anthony Smith's anti-primordialism in his view of modern Asiatic history and the construction of what is 'Asia'

Nationalism and what makes a nation a cohesive and functioning unit has been one of the essential questions of modern political philosophy, particularly in Asia today, where in India, China, Tibet, Japan, Vietnam, and Korea, a plurality of different regional and religious identities fight to dominate particular national territories. Anthony D. Smith is one of most important contemporary scholars of nationalism and is the author of many books on the subject including such classics as his 1986 The Ethnic Origins of Nations, a book of supreme relevance in particular for the region, given the frequent rhetorical role of ethnic identity in a people's claim to territory and nationhood.

According to Smith, the idea of essential ethnic origins of nations has caused some scholars to assume nationalism and nations as preexisting entities,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Singh, Gurharpal. Ethnic Conflict in India: a case study of Punjab. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000.

Smith, Anthony D. "Gastronomy or geology? The role of nationalism in the reconstruction of nations." Nations and Nationalism 1. Bo. 1 (1994): 3-23.

Smith, Anthony D. The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1986.
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Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

Words: 2352 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

Breast Cancer

How Genes Influence Breast Cancer

Director of the National Cancer Institute

How Genes Influence Breast Cancer

Many environmental factors can affect a person's risk of breast cancer, but they are not the only issues to consider. Genetics also play a strong role in whether a person develops breast cancer or avoids it. A strong family history of the disease can predispose a person to breast cancer, but it is not a guarantee that the person will acquire the disease. Conversely, people with no family history have also contracted breast cancer, so genetics are not the only issue. They are merely a part of the puzzle. The research here indicates that genetics may be a larger part of the puzzle than first thought, however, and proposes recommendations to spend more time and financial resources on discovering the significance of genes and how they influence breast cancer. Recommendations for action…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cao, Qiang, Qin, Chao, Meng, Xiaoxin, Ju, Xiaobing, Ding, Qi, Wang, Weilin, Zhu, Jian, Wang, Wei, Li, Pu, Jiawei, Chen, Zhang, Zhengdong, and Yin, Changjun. Genetic Polymorphisms in APE1 Are Associated With Renal Cell Carcinoma Risk in a Chinese Population. Molecular Carcinogenesis, 50: 863-870. 2011. Print.

Chang-Claude, Jenny, Popanda, Odilia, Tan, Xiang-Lin, Kropp, Silke, Helmbold, Irmgard, von Fournier, Dietrick, Haase, Wulf, Sautter-Bihl, Marie Luise, Wenz, Frederik, Schmezer, Peter, and Ambrosone, Christine B. Association between Polymorphisms in the DNA Repair Genes, XRCC1, APE1, and XPD and Acute Side Effects of Radiotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients. Clinical Cancer Research, 11: 4802-4809. 2005. Print.

Kang, Huafeng, Dai, Zhijun, Ma, Xiaobin, Ma, Li, Jin, Yaofeng, Liua, Xiaoxu, and Wang, Xijing. A genetic variant in the promoter of APE1 gene (?656 TNG) is associated with breast cancer risk and progression in a Chinese population. Gene, 531: 97-100. 2013. Print.

Poletto, Mattia, Di Loreto, Carla, Marasco, Daniela, Poletto, Elena, Puglisi, Fabio, Damante, Giuseppe, and Tell, Gianluca. Acetylation on critical lysine residues of Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1(APE1) in triple negative breast cancers. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 424. 2012. Print.
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Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

Words: 1543 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

life experiences. It include explanation examples previous experiences implications future applications.

Universal Healthcare: Averting Crisis in the United States

A crisis is a unique moment of extreme pressure, exceptional in character and high in significance. Decisions made at the time of a crisis are qualified by the multiplicity of factors all demanding solutions at the same time. One mark of a good leader is the ability to make the right decisions during moments of crisis as well as in placid reflection. The political system of democracy is not well-suited to crises. Many voices piping up and arguing fail to develop consensus, and in spite of the good arguments of some, democratic politics cannot survive a crisis. In a crisis, only a few make the grade and emerge as leaders. The decisions facing leaders in the United States take into account the long-term goals of the world's largest economy, and also…… [Read More]

References

Dean, Howard. Howard Dean's Prescription for Real Healthcare Reform: How We Can Achieve Affordable Medical Care for Every American and Make Our Jobs Safer. Chelsea Green Publishing Company, 2009: White River Junction, VT.

Reid, T.E. The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Healthcare. Penguin Books, 2010: New York.
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Buddhism Is a Religion and Philosophy Founded

Words: 468 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84032913

Buddhism is a religion and philosophy founded in India around 525 B.C. By Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha (Buddhism pp). There are two main schools of Buddhism, Theravada or Hinayana, which is found in Stri Lanka, Southeast Asian, and the Mahayana, which is found in China, Mongolia, Korea, and Japan (Buddhism pp). A third school, called Vajrayana, is traditional in Tibet and Japan (Buddhism pp).

The basic doctrines of Buddhism include the "four noble truths," which state that existence is suffering, called dukhka, the cause of suffering is due to craving and attachment, called trishna, the cessation of suffering is called nirvana, and the path to the cessation of suffering includes the "eightfold path" of right views, "right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration" (Buddhism pp). Buddhism describes reality in terms of process and relation rather than entity and substance (Buddhism pp).…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Deegalle, Mahinda. "Is violence justified in Theravada Buddhism?"

The Ecumenical Review; 4/1/2003; pp.

Buddhism. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition; Columbia University: Gale

Group. 2005; pp.
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Global History in Middle East and Asian

Words: 854 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99631716

Taoism and Later World Religions

Laozi -- the legendary author of the Dao Dejing -- may not have been a real person, since his name is simply the Chinese for "Old Master." Yet the Dao itself would not want this fact to get in our way inquiring what Laozi himself would have thought of something -- after all, the Dao teaches that "the name that can be named is not the enduring and unchanging name." Indeed, the Dao's insights are particularly interesting in considering developments in world religion after the time in which the Dao Dejing was composed (somewhere between about 500 and 300 B.C.E.). I hope to apply the principles of Laozi to take a Daoist view of the two major religions to rise out of Judaism -- Christianity and Islam.

A Daoist view of Islam would be somewhat contradictory. Islam itself means submission unto the will of Allah.…… [Read More]

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Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

Words: 1645 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

E-Trash

Most of the world's electronic trash -- especially old computers -- is dumped in the third world countries, resulting severe environmental problems and illnesses among residents. A latest news agency declares that about 80% of the world's electronic trash is imported to Asia every year, and about 90% of which ends up in China (Chandran, 2002). The large amount of electronic trash dumped in Chinese cities has created serious health hazards for residents living across these cities. Although Chinese authorities have listed Guangdong's towns of Guiyu, Longtang and Dali and other areas as the country's major collection and distribution centers for electronic trash, these areas now have become a health hazard. The health problems arise through cathode ray tubes (CTs), and any device that might hold them. CTs contain lead and other chemicals that leach from landfills into groundwater. The pollutants are released into the air during burning.

ecently,…… [Read More]

References

Bartholomew, Doug (2001). E-Business Commentary -- PC Makers: Haul Your Own Trash. Industry Week, August, pp.21-24.

Berger, Sandy (2004). Recycling Computers & Electronic Equipment. Compu-Kiss, pp. 1-2.

Chandran, Rina (2002). Trash e-trash. Business Line, April 10, pp. 4-5.

Markoff, John (2002). Technology's Toxic Trash Is Sent To Poor Nations. Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition, pp.7-8.
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Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

Words: 2360 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

Leading and Managing Professional Development Through an Inquiry-Oriented Professional Learning Communities

Today, reading ability is widely recognized as being a critical part of the skill set needed to succeed academically and professionally, and helping young people become better readers therefore represents a valuable and important enterprise. To this end, this paper reviews the relevant literature including the five sub-questions posed by Yendol-Hoppey and Dana (2010, pp. 100-102) to determine how a reading leader can lead teachers of reading in an inquiry-oriented professional learning community (PLC) that will serve to strengthen the motivation to read by elementary school students in a Midwestern school district. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the application of PLCs for these purposes are presented in the paper's conclusion.

What is the degree of comfort that exists with PLCs at your school?

The term professional learning community (or PLC) is typically used to…… [Read More]

References

Applegate, A. J. & Applegate, M. D. (2010). A study of thoughtful literacy and the motivation to read. The Reading Teacher, 64(4), 226-234.

George, M. (2009, December). Online-learning communities: The next generation of professional development. Multimedia & Internet@Schools, 14(6), 14-19.

Khalid, F. & Joyes, G. (2013, November). Teachers' involvement in communities of practice: An implication with regard to the current approach of teachers' professional development in Malaysia. Asian Social Science, 9(16), 102-105.

Neuman, W. L. (2011). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, (7th Ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
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Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

Words: 5010 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

Cell Phones (Technology) On Communication

Cell phones and other cellular communication equipment are omnipresent in today's digital age, with roughly 1.5 billion cellular phones used, at present, across the globe; on an average, 75 billion SMSs are sent globally, in a month (Merry, Domlija & Mackenzie, 2005). While the use of cellular communication has greatly contributed to the area of communication, cellular interferences have hampered functioning in various contexts, including driving, parenting task completion, and enrolment in academic courses. Strayer and colleagues (2005) proved that cognitive impairments linked to cell phone usage while driving may be the same as those linked to drunken driving. Impacts of distractions from cell phones have been observed in laboratory as well as naturalistic settings. Here, the word 'distraction' implies the unintentional inattention to the task at hand, which is characteristic of unlooked-for events (e.g. a call on one's cell phone). By contrast, the word…… [Read More]

References

Adler, I. (2013 January 17). How our digital devices are affecting our personal relationships. WBUR. Retrieved on 4 December 2015 from http://www.wbur.org/2013/01/17/digital-lives-i

Baron, N.S. (2008). Always on: Language in an online and mobile world. New York: Oxford.

Brignall, T.W., & van Valey, T. (2005). The impact of Internet communications on social interaction. Sociological Spectrum, 335-348.

Campbell, S.W. & Kwak, N. (2011). Mobile communication and civil society: Linking patterns and places of use to engagement with others in public. Human Communication Research, 37, 207-222.
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Wuwei in the Daodejung the

Words: 2804 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76398655



An excellent example of this principle is the art of cooking. hen one cooks, they may follow a recipe. However, if they find in the middle of the recipe that the dish is cooking too quickly, they may have to exercise flexibility and make adjustments to avoid ruining the dish. They cannot follow the recipe without thought, but must make adjustments as they go along. Flexibility must occur spontaneously and must be integrated into what the situation requires (Fox).

Practicing the uwei produces a seamless dance in which the elements are not noticed of their own accord (Fox). hen the actions are appropriate to the situation and the proper amount of flexibility is applied, no one will notice the transitions that have taken place. If one turns down the flame on the stove, naturally, as if without effort, no one will notice. However, if one were to choose to follow…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fox, a. Reflex and Reflectivity. Wuwei in the Zhuangzi. Asian Philosophy, Volume 6:1 (1996), pp. 59-72. http://www.udel.edu/Philosophy/afox/reflex.htm. Accessed February 10, 2009.

Goddard, D. & Borel, HLaotzu's Tao and WuWei.. 1919.  http://www.sacred-texts.com/tao/ltw/index.htm  Accessed February 10, 2009.

Kardash, T. Jade Dragon Taoism - the Wu-Wei Principle, Part 4. Online June 1998.  http://www.jadedragon.com/archives/june98/tao.html . Accessed February 10, 2009.

Lawson, S. Wu Wei. http://www.crudeoils.us/shawn/write/WuWei.pdf. Accessed February 10, 2009.
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Confucius Construction of an 'Analects of Confucius'

Words: 301 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69751976

Confucius

Construction of an 'Analects of Confucius' knowledge base including pragmatics information. (Yang, 2011)

One study proposes an approach to constructing a knowledge base for the Analects of Confucius, which aims to promote a correct understanding of this text. The content of the Analects has not been categorized by topic and it always contains broader meanings. Thus, it is necessary to create a framework that can be used to manage and build the knowledge base for the text. Therefore, the present paper sets up a categorization system for the Analects, which is used to create a knowledge base by using pragmatics information, based on the utterance interpretation method in pragmatics.

Knowing to Act in the Moment: Examples from Confucius' Analects. (Lai, 2012)

Many scholars note that the Analects, and Confucian philosophy more generally, hold a conception of knowing that more closely approximates 'knowing-how' than 'knowing-that'. However, this author argues that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lai, K. (2012). Knowing to Act in the Moment: Examples from Confucius' Analects. Asian Philosophy, 347-364.

Yang, Y.T. (2011). Construction of an 'Analects of Confucius' knowledge base including pragmatics information. Electronics & Communications in Japan., 1-8.

Yao, X. (2012). INTRODUCTION: CONCEPTUALIZING VIRTUES IN THE ANALECTS OF CONFUCIUS. Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 3-7.
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Culture on Learning Styles Multiculturalism

Words: 5049 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 583446

Following are Hofstede's four categories and what they measure:

Power Distance (PD) is the "extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally" (Hofstede 1998) with a small PD meaning more equality in the society, and a large PD meaning less.

Individualism (ID) defines whether the society expects people to look after themselves or not. Its opposite is Collectivism, which Hofstede (1998) defines as "the extent to which people in a society from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout people's lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty."

Masculinity (MA) defines the degree of distinction of gender roles. High MA means men are supposed to be "assertive, tough, and focused on material success; women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life" (Hofstede 1998). Its…… [Read More]

References

Al-Mekhalfi, A.G. (2001). Instructional media for teachers' preparation. International Journal of Instructional Media, 28(2), 191. Retrieved January 31, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Arab World (2005). Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved January 29, 2005 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_arab_world.shtml

Australia. (2005) Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved January 29, 2005 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_australia.shtml

Bilimoria, P. (1995). Introduction to the Special Issue: Comparative and Asian philosophy in Australia and New Zealand. Philosophy East & West, 45(3), 151-169.
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Complementary and Alternative Therapies the

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88901352



In addition to this situation, a variety of situations exist in which the spirit may influence illness. Asian philosophies often discuss the spirit's relation to the body and illness, suggesting that those who can maintain their spirits also do a service to their bodies. For example, the ancient art of Shiatsu teaches that the body, mind, and spirit are all connected by energy, and that the Hara, located in the abdomen, is the center of the body that connects it to the spiritual world. Thus, by "centering" oneself, illness, pain, and even mental anguish can be overcome. Asian medical and spiritual arts like Shiatsu have come to influence the modern movement based on what is termed the law of attraction. This theory suggests that all living things are made of energy, and so the creation of positive energy through positive thoughts and an open spirit leads to better health.

While…… [Read More]

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Humanistic Tradition and Seven 1995

Words: 2380 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14993786

Humanistic Tradition

The crime rates in the western countries started when the Europe experienced a growth rate, which was the time of the 19th century industrial era. During the period, there was an influx of immigration from different part of the world that led to the urbanization and growth of the cities. Moreover, different thoughts were emanated during the period such as romanticism, modern western industrialization, rationalization of enlightenment, and Darwin theory of evolution. The book, "The Humanistic Tradition," (Fiero, 2010 p 1) illustrates the emergence of different thoughts that include realism and romanticism of the 19th century (Fiero, 2010). However, different thoughts in the books are reflected in the film titled the Seven (1995). The chapter 27 of the books reveals the industrial progress of the 19th century, the idealistic thought, nature of European literature, and Asian literature. However, the crime rates was part of the major characteristics of…… [Read More]

Reference

Fiero, G.K. (2010). The Humanistic Tradition Book 5: Romanticism, Realism, and the Nineteenth-Century World.(6th Edition). Chicago. Humanities & Social Science.

Claire, K. (2015). Synopsis for Seven (1995) . Amazon Company.
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Japan Korea and China Different or Similar

Words: 1187 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95118879

Asian Studies

Countries are very much representative of human nature. If you were to examine a microcosm of a nation at its basic level, it would be a local community or neighborhood. The people who live in the same community usually tend to share similar economic levels and cultural attitudes. Neighbors also influence the behaviors of each other. For example, affluent neighborhoods tend to have good school systems, active kids (as in after school programs), and involved parents. To a certain degree, these things are expected. This notion is applicable to the nations of China, Korea, and Japan. This paper will examine similarities and differences between these counties in a historical context. China and Japan were traditional societies that responded differently to the external stimuli of foreign relations. Korea is also similar in this regard but their foreign invaders were Japanese not estern imperialists. All three nations also suffered under…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Cumings, Bruce. "We look at it and see ourselves." London Review of Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. .

Hedges, Frank. "Japan is Speeding Korean Education." New York Times [New York City ] 6 Aug. 1939: 12. Print.

Takaki, Ronald T.. Strangers from a different shore: a history of Asian-Americans. Boston: Little, Brown, 1989. Print.

Thomson, James Claude, Peter W. Stanley, and John Curtis Perry.Sentimental imperialists: the American experience in East Asia. New York: Harper & Row, 1981. Print.
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Socrates Said That the Unexamined

Words: 1051 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44339997

His view is Asian in that it mirrors the view that meaning is found by searching within, that imposing a specific doctrine is not the way to find enlightenment, and that a teacher is a guide rather than a figure of authority. Such ideas are expressed in Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Confucianism, and other Asian philosophical and religious systems. Socrates takes a very self-effacing position in keeping with the way he subordinates himself to the need of society and so does not challenge the death sentence pronounced against him, nor does he escape when he can because he believes more in the right of the social order to exert its authority over him than he does in his personal welfare. The sublimation of the personal in service of the greater good is also an Asian element that Socrates expresses in his own way, and the way his followers argue with him…… [Read More]

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How Did Gandhi Influence Martin Luther King

Words: 1888 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60362372

Gandhi Influenced Martin Luther King

Martin Luther King Jr. is a historical figure as he helped to win civic liberties and social equality for the Black Americans during the 1950s and 1960s. His approach towards the struggle was based on nonviolent civil disobedience as opposed to armed struggle. In that, he was inspired by the philosophy of nonviolence used by Gandhi to gain independence for India against the British. Despite belonging to two different cultures and historical periods, there is great fundamental similarity in the philosophies of both the leaders. At the same time, King adopts a more active approach and gives relatively less stress on personal suffering and endurance.

hat King adopted from Gandhi's Philosophy

Gandhi initiated the civil disobedience movement against the British rule in the Indian subcontinent. Since the British had military superiority over the local Indian population, Gandhi devised a novel and effective strategy to highlight…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Center for Compassionate Living. Principles of Nonviolence. Center for Compassionate Living, 2012. Accessed on 25 April 2012.

King, Mary, E. Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr.: The Power of Nonviolent Action UNESCO Publishing. 1999. Print

Nojeim, Michael, J. Gandhi and King: The Power of Nonviolent Resistance Greenwood Publishing. 2004. Print

The King Center. The King Philosophy. The King Center, 2012. Accessed on 25 April 2012.
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I Ching Classical Understand vs Aleister Crowley

Words: 4178 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7416253

I Ching Classical Understand vs. Aleister Crowley

Any belief, whether it is a self-made system or is bestowed upon us from above, can be taken as a religious view, for how does one define religion except as a system which sets upon humans a certain lifestyle to follow. The definition might seem vague at the least, but to define religion is becoming increasingly difficult, as more and more new sources of religious believes emerge. In all sense of the world, there is a message, however it may or may not be from an omnipotent, invisible God; it can be from a messiah or a man who has been raised to the level of a Messiah by his/her followers, as is the case of Buddha. [1: END NOTES Connelly, Paul. Definition of Religion and Relates Terms. 1996. 23rd March 2012 .]

The same has been the fate of many of the…… [Read More]

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Japan Be Seen as a Model for

Words: 2568 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40698857

Japan be seen as a Model for Understanding of 'Asian Modernities'

This is an essay which explores the reasons behind the perception of the west which regards Japan as a model of Asian Modernities'. It has 5 sources.

Gender studies have revealed that men and women think differently, and both are confused about each others thoughts. Perhaps such a dichotomy does exist between the western world and the Asian world. As the era of globalization marches forward it has become a necessity for the west to expand its knowledge and understanding of the east. Such an understanding is not only important for global trade but is also important for peace and stability between the nations of the world. Understanding and the search for common objectives would not have been possible if Japan had not surprised the world with its rapid development and prosperity during the years after World War II.…… [Read More]

Koizumi, Junichiro. Message of Prime Minister of Japan Junichiro Koizumi

Commemorating ASEAN-Japan Exchange Year 2003. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Retrieved at  http://www.mofa.go.jp/region/asia-paci/asean/year2003/message-1.html .

Nakasone, Yasuhiro (1986). The New Asia Pacific Era. Britannica Book of the Year 1986. Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. (1986).
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Dawenkou Culture and the Emergence of Social Complexity in Neolithic China

Words: 2118 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24029086

Dawenkou Culture

The Emergence of Social

Complexity in Neolithic China

This work will focus on the burial assemblages of the Dawenkou site in Shandong Northern China and will revolve around the main idea that these burial sites present convincing evidence of an emerging social complexity. A second focus will be to provide proof that the Dawenkou culture played a major role in the emerging complexity of the Neolithic Chinese period.

Until recently, archaeologists had believed that the Chinese civilization began in the center of China around the Yellow River valley and eventually migrated from there. However, new discoveries have revealed an extremely more complex version of Neolithic China. It is more viable today that China developed from multiple cultures from different regions of the land as opposed to a single or bi- cultural evolution. "As in other parts of the world, the Neolithic period was marked by the development of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Thorp, Robert L., and Richard Ellis Vinograd. Chinese Art and Culture. New York: Abrams, 2000.

Underhill, Anne P. "An Analysis of Mortuary Ritual At The Dawenkou Site, Shandong, China." Journal of East Asian Archaeology. Vol. 2, (2000):(Neolithic Tomb at Dawenkou) 93-127.

Watson, William. Archaeology in China. London: M. Parrish, 1960.

Dawenkou Culture
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Aesthetic and Religious Significance of

Words: 1057 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 359250

"Over the course of time, there will be a new world era entailing that one day there will a dawn after destruction. This system for the earth continues throughout eternity and is managed by three gods: Brahma, Shiva and Vishnu or the divine trinity." (Eck, 1996) of these, Shiva was or is the destroyer. The Hindu divinities are worshipped through art on temples and in the majority of homes. By viewing different examples Shiva, we can see the iconography to the mythology association with the figure. (Indian Heritage, 2005)

In other words, the views of Hinduism hold many opposing theories that describe aspects of an eternal truth. For example, one underlying focus is that a desire for liberation from earthly evils is and should be a life ambition. These notions and concepts can be clearly witnessed in the region's art as Hinduism plays a major role in what is and…… [Read More]

References

Eck, Diane L. (1996). Darsan. New York: Columbia University Press.

Indian Heritage. (n.d.). Siva. Retrieved on May 28, 2005, at http://www.indian-heritage.org/gods/godimages/siva2s.jpg

Singh Brothers. (n.d.). Shivnetra - Eye of Shiva. Retrieved on May 28, 2005, at http://www.thesinghbrothers.com/S_015.jpg

Hindu
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Buddhism the Foundations and Travels

Words: 1437 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73749002

(owland, 1953, p. 204) (Hallisey, 2003, p. 696)

The Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] Chronicle (Mah-mvam-sa)) is primarily a history of Buddhism in Ceylon though it gives reliable information on political history. It is perhaps unjust to maintain that India had no sense of history whatever, but what interest she had in her own past was generally concentrated on the fabulous kings of a legendary golden age, rather than the great empires which had risen and fallen in historical times. (Basham, 1954, p. 44)

Literature and art reflected the lives of the ruling class along side those historical narratives of Buddha, as can be seen in the first example. Medieval revivals also attempted to rejoin these depictions through restorative works that demanded the attention of many to the idea of a foreign king effectively expressing the Sinhalese culture. (Holt, 1996, p. 41) the tradition is long standing in the region and…… [Read More]

References

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6357199

Basham, a.L. (1954). III History: Ancient and MedievalEmpires. In the Wonder That Was India: A Survey of the Culture of the Indian Sub-Continent before the Coming of the Muslims (pp. 44-78). New York: Grove Press. Retrieved May 13, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6357327

Basham, a.L. (1954). The Wonder That Was India: A Survey of the Culture of the Indian Sub-Continent before the Coming of the Muslims. New York: Grove Press.

This work demonstrates the historical context of the region, in relation to faith and art as well as the political. It demonstrates the modern emphasis on rediscovering treasures of ancient and modern faiths.
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Ontology 1-3 Epistemology and Methodology

Words: 3653 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75331223

The research too has to be reliable and valid cohering to an internal and external scientific definition of reality that is more physical and eschews the metaphysical and the abstract.

Ontological Basis

Positivism accepts a certain reality of existence and insists that this reality can be discovered by universal and immutable scientific / mathematical principles (Tribe, 2009) .

Epistemological Basis

The researcher has to distance himself as much as possible from his research in order to come to verifiable attempts. The scientific approach can help hims distance himself.

Interpretive Paradigm

An alternate rendering of this can be the constructionist paradigm where the approach depends upon the researcher in question and is often inductively created. It is subjective and avowedly so and the meaning / conclusions / perspective is generated from one's particular experiences, way of thinking, and origin (Oakes & Minca 2004, p. 30).

Ontological Basis

The researcher acknowledge existence…… [Read More]

Sources

Armstrong, DM (1973). Belief, Truth and Knowledge. Cambridge University Press

Catarina Marques, Elizabeth Reis & Joao Menezes (2010): Profiling the segments of visitors to Portuguese protected areas, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18:8, 971-996

Hartmann, Nicolai. 1953. New Ways of Ontology. Chicago, IL: H. Regnery Co.

Knorr-Cetina, K. (1999). Epistemic Cultures: How the Sciences Make Knowledge. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
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Freemasonry in Pre-1917 Russia Free

Words: 3982 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81981926

I. Novikov. It is not clear whether Bolotov himself was a Mason, but he certainly personally belonged to the same social circles as many leading Freemasons in Russia. In his Entsiklopediia, 128, 990, Serkov mentions Bolotov as a possible member of the Konigsberg military lodge of Joanna Krestitelia (John the Baptist) working in Elagin's system around 1773. (Cross, 105)

The Freemasons continued to grow and improve Russian society until the death of Peter III, when his wife Catherine took over the throne. During the reign of Peter III, the numbers and lodges grew substantially and it became fashionable in Russia to be a member of the Freemasons. In fact, many nobles from other countries were traveling to Russia to be a part of the new and growing movement.

Catherine the Great

One of the longstanding rules and traditions of the Freemasons is that members must be men, as women were…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Wolff, Larry. Inventing Eastern Europe: The Map of Civilization on the Mind of the Enlightenment. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1994. Print.

Hosking, Geoffrey a. Russia and the Russians: A History. Cambridge, MA: Belknap of Harvard UP, 2001. Print.

Riasanovsky, Nicholas V.A History of Russia. New York: Oxford UP, 1984. Print.

Dmytryshyn, Basil. Modernization of Russia under Peter I and Catherine II. New York: Wiley, 1974. Print.
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Political Thinkers Throughout the Ages Have Considered

Words: 1695 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83719215

Political thinkers throughout the ages have considered the meaning of citizenship and the relationship that does and/or should exist between the citizen and the state. The meaning of citizenship has been addressed in different ways by various schools of thought, beginning with the Greeks. Citizenship means the state of belonging to a collective, a state, and an important element that emerges from Greek, Roman, and early Christian thinkers is that citizenship both confers rights and requires the fulfillment of responsibilities for an individual to be considered a good citizen. Definitions of being a good citizen include clarifying the relationship between the individual and his or her society, as can be seen in the political writings of Plato and the philosophical and ethical writings of Confucius. Plato identifies the good man with the good citizen, and what makes the individual good also makes the individual a good citizen. Confucius would agree…… [Read More]

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Political Science Comparison of Leadership

Words: 3091 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3700418

(Ng, 1994, p. 93)

The philosophy of Confucius was based essentially on that of human relationships expanded to the sphere of the state, and even beyond into the cosmos. ight conduct and proper action among individuals and groups would result in an ordered universe, one that operated according to the proper laws. By cultivating these believes and following these rules one could hope to produce a society that was perfectly ordered and self-perpetuating. The Confucian ideal of leadership has endured today among many, not only in China, but in many parts of East Asia, and has even attracted followers in the West, for it addresses the issue of responsibility as a metaphor for virtue and harmony.

Far less idealistic were the ideas of the enaissance thinker, Niccolo Machiavelli. Machiavelli lived in Italy at a time when its various princes were contending for power. The region was riven by war and…… [Read More]

References

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97002683

Bassnett, S. (1988). Elizabeth I: A Feminist Perspective. Oxford: Berg Publishers.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=37111890

Hanh, T.N. (2000). Three Zen Buddhist Ethics. In Striking a Balance: A Primer in Traditional Asian Values (pp. 98-140). New York: Seven Bridges Press.
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Tajikistan to the North of Tajikistan Lies

Words: 1847 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43107630

Tajikistan

To the north of Tajikistan lies Kyrgyzstan, to the west lies Uzbekistan, to the east lies China and to the south lies Afghanistan. This state was formed due to the split of Central Asia in 1920 under Soviet rule. It covers an area of 143,100 sq. km. [1]

Early history

Soghdiana, the northern part of today's Tajikistan, was settled by Iranian tribes between 1,000 and 500 C. Important cities of Tajikistan today Khujand and Panjkakent belonged to Soghdiana in ancient times. During their tarvelling to China and to the west, Soghdians adopted other religions such as Zoroastrianism, Christianity, huddism and they also shared their knowledge with people whom they met on their way. During sixth to fourth centuries .C, Tajikistan belonged to ancient Persia's Achaemenid Empire that was ruled by Darius I. In 333 .C., Alexander the Great conquered it. [2][3][4]

Arab rule

In early Eighteenth Century, Islamic Arabs…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

[1] Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov (accessed February 18, 2013)

[2] The Land of Tajiks,  http://www.oocities.org/tajikland/History.html  (accessed February 18, 2013)

[3] Early History,  http://countrystudies.us/tajikistan/3.htm , (accessed February 18, 2013)

[4] Tajikistan - History & Background,  http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1503/Tajikistan-HISTORY-BACKGROUND.html , (accessed February 18, 2013)
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Japan it May Be Called a Period

Words: 1478 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65587666

Japan, it may be called a period of "Chinese fixation."

Chinese Fixation in Japan

The Japanese were concerned about adopting attitudes brought from China during the country's early years. Prince Shotoku in particular was interested in introducing Chinese ideas into his community because he appreciated the fact that the Chinese were well organized and that their political system was structured so as for it to address the needs of both the people and their leaders. Emperor Kotoku was also concerned about adopting behaviors that would make the Japanese state more similar to the Chinese one and established the Taika reforms in an attempt to promote Confucian thinking and philosophies from China. hile some of these reforms were meant to help Japan experience progress in a series of domains, they were generally purposed to restructure the political system in order for a strict hierarchy to dominate the Japanese social order.

Political…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Biswas, Sampa, "Indian Influence on the Art of Japan," (Northern Book Centre, 2010)

De Barry, William Theodore, "Sources of Japanese Tradition: From earliest times through the sixteenth century," (Columbia University Press, 2001)

Foot, Sara, and Robinson, Chase F., "The Oxford History of Historical Writing: Volume 2: 400-1400," (Oxford University Press, 25.10.2012)

Lebra, Takie S., "Japanese Patterns of Behaviour," (University of Hawaii Press, 1976)
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Politics of Difference in Nursing

Words: 5961 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51968345

But the real world was a whole and perfect entity." (Philosophy Is a Way of Life)

The theory of dualism and its implications in term ethics and politics can be derived from the following concise but insightful analysis.

A dualistic view of reality understands there to be two (thus dualism) levels of existence. The top level... is ultimate reality, and consists of ideas, such as truth, beauty, goodness, justice, perfection. In other words, the ultimate reality is non-corporeal, or non-physical. It is the level of spirit and deity. The lower level is the physical world which in which we live. It is the opposite of ultimate reality, thus it is not real in the sense that it is not ultimate. It contains the imperfect physical manifestations of the ideas that exist in the perfect plane, so by definition it is characterized by falsehood, ugliness, evil, injustice, imperfection.

Bratcher D.)

Note…… [Read More]

References

Allen DG. (2006) Whiteness and difference in nursing. Nurs Philos. 7(2):65-78. Bratcher D. Body and Soul. Greek and Hebraic Tensions in Scripture: Thoughts on the Di-/Trichotomous Debate. Retrieved July 19, 2008, at http://www.cresourcei.org/bodysoul.html

Chadwick, Henry. (1984) Early Christian Thought and the Classical Tradition:

Studies in Justin, Clement, and Origen. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Engebretson, Joan.(2002) Hands-on: The persistent metaphor in nursing.
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REM Koolhaas Modern Architect

Words: 1962 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9595040

Rem Koolhaas: A survey of his work and aesthetic philosophy

The radical Dutch architect and architectural theorist Rem Koolhaas is often called one of the world's best -- and one of the world's most controversial -- architects. Koolhaas is as much known for his aesthetic philosophy as he is for his work. "Koolhaas' most provocative -- and in many ways least understood -- contribution to the cultural landscape is as an urban thinker…he has written half a dozen books on the evolution of the contemporary metropolis and designed master plans for, among other places, suburban Paris, the Libyan desert and Hong Kong" (Ouroussoff 1). Koolhaas does not merely wish to create buildings but also change the way in which the world conceptualizes buildings and aesthetic space.

One of Koolhaas' most famous buildings is the French convention hall the Congrexpo, located in Euralille, a shopping and entertainment complex in Lille, France.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Craven, Jackie. "Metabolism." About.com.7 Apr 2014.

http://architecture.about.com/od/M-Architecture-Terms/g/Metabolism.htm

"Interview with Dutch Architect Rem Koolhaas: 'The World Needs Europe'." Spiegel Online.

30 October 2008. Retrieved on 6 Apr 2014.  http://www.spiegel.de/international/europe/interview-with-dutch-architect-rem-koolhaas-the-world-needs-europe-a-587436.html
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Culture Refers to the Accumulated

Words: 4685 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87152746

In histoy, in most of the Indian families, the inheitance of the estates of the family is left to the lineage of males in the family. Though since the yea 1956, the law in India has always teated females and males as equals in mattes of inheitance whee thee is no legal will witten. Cuently, Indians have become wise and ae using legal wills fo the inheitance and succession of popety. The usage of legal wills at of the yea 2004 stands at about 20%.

The ate of divoce in India is extemely low. It stands at 1% as compaed to 40% which is expeienced in the U.S. These statistics of divoce do not, howeve, give a complete pictue of the divoce situation in India. This is because many maiages that end up being split do so without a fomal divoce. Thee is a eseach gap in the scientific studies…… [Read More]

references. [Article]. Journal of Food Science, 69(4), SNQ191-SNQ192. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2004.tb06362.x

Johnson, H. (2007). 'Happy Diwali!' Performance, Multicultural Soundscapes and Intervention in Aotearoa/New Zealand. [Article]. Ethnomusicology Forum, 16(1), 71-94. doi: 10.1080/17411910701276526

Kurien, P.A. (2006). Multiculturalism and "American" Religion: The Case of Hindu Indian-Americans. Social Forces, 85(2), 723-741.

Mandair, a. (2007). Interdictions: Language, Religion & the (dis)Orders of Indian Identity. [Article]. Social Identities, 13(3), 337-361. doi: 10.1080/13504630701363978

Mintz, S.W., & Bois, C.M.D. (2002). The Anthropology of Food and Eating. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31(ArticleType: research-article / Full publication date: 2002 / Copyright © 2002 Annual Reviews), 99-119.
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China An Amazing Culture Society

Words: 2555 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85454704

The holistic theory of health, "Therefore... looks for the signs of disharmony in the external and internal environment of a person in order to understand, treat and prevent illness and disease." (Traditional Chinese Medicine: NHS)

It is also important to note that the Chinese medical theory is closely linked to their ways of thinking or philosophy. This includes the theory of complementary opposites such Yin-yang, the Five Elements, the human body Meridian system and others. (Traditional Chinese medicine) the following quotation clearly shows the way in which Chinese medicine attempts cures and better health by looking at the overall situation of the individual. This is a very different approach to the conventional estern method focusing only on the central area of illness or concern.

Traditional Chinese medicine has a "macro" or holistic view of disease. For example, one modern interpretation is that well-balanced human bodies can resist most everyday bacteria…… [Read More]

Works Cited

China. July 12, 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China

Chinese Art. July 13, 2006. http://library.thinkquest.org/26469/contributions/artintro.html

Chinese cuisine. July 13, 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_cuisine

Chinese Herbal Medicine. July 13, 2006. http://library.thinkquest.org/26469/contributions/harbalmedicine.html
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Weltanschauung of My Country Korea

Words: 1647 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88878939

The Modernization approach and industrial policy in the period of Park Chung-Hee were considered to be much influenced by the South Korean social learning and accepting of Japanese ideologies and institution. The colonial modernity, localization of division of labor, government assisted bilateral cooperation were considered detrimental to the strategic parameters of economic development and industrialization, modernization strategy and industrial policy replicated the emulation of Japanese ideologies and institution.

Most of the Koreans believe Japan to be a perennial evil. The colonial domination by Japan over the Korea have led to massive economic exploitation and also called upon the national dignity severely. However, ever since 1980 a revisionist thought was initiated to being formed around the concepts of the perspective of colonial continuity, the notion of horizontal division of labor, and the movement towards the export led growth. The influence of the ideology of 'Fokoku Kyohei' and the emerging Modernization strategy…… [Read More]

References

Between Learning and Policy Innovation: Japanese Economic Institutions and South Korea's

Economic Policy in the 1960s. Prepared for presentation at the annual convention of the International Studies Association. New Orleans Marriot Hotel. March 24-27, 2002. Retrieved at http://www.isanet.org/noarchive/moon_nishino.html. Accessed 16 September, 2005

Lee, Grace. The Political Philosophy of Juche. Retrieved at http://www.stanford.edu/group/sjeaa/journal3/korea1.pdf. Accessed 16 September, 2005

Sigmund Freud (1932): Lecture XXXV-Philosophy of Life. Retrieved at http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/at/freud.htm. Accessed 16 September, 2005
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Conflict in Tibet

Words: 3323 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24152157

Tibetan Conflict

Tibet has received much attention from the est. It is described as having a rich cultural heritage. It is viewed as being a victim of Communist aggression. It is hailed as a tourist destination. Each of these has some truth to it. But what is not always ascertained is the geopolitical importance of Tibet in Eurasian economics. Known as the "rooftop of the world," it contains in its plateaus a treasure trove of water, minerals, and energy (Samphel). For this reason and others, it has been the source of conflict and contention over throughout its long and storied history. This paper will discuss the history of the international conflict associated with Tibet and show how and why it has been depicted in various lights.

The documentary feature Tibet Situation: Critical by Jason Lansdell is a film that showcases the brutal oppression of Tibetans by the Chinese government. Its…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Bold New Proposals." The Economist. 22 June 2013. Web.



Chang, Jung; Halliday, Jon. Mao: The Unknown Story. UK: Vintage, 2006. Print.

Chellaney, Brahma. Water: Asia's New Battleground. NY: HarperCollins, 2011. Print.
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Political Ideas in Conflict One

Words: 1371 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19320204



In his book, Government and Politics: A Documentary History of Kong, Steve Tsang (1995), discussed the pre-transitional government and history of that government in Hong Kong. For all intents and purposes, the government in China's influence over Hong Kong was virtually non-existent since the UK's presence on the island (271). In fact, the political environment in Hong Kong was one that made it safe for the island to receive political refuges (Ash et al. 199). There was concern that those individuals would be very much at risk in a post hand over environment.

In a study conducted by Lee-In Chen Chiu, Ding Yi, Si Joong Kim, on Bae Kim, Reginald Yin-ang Kwok, Hong Yung Lee, Karen Eggleston Lee, Li uwei, Shelley M. Mark, Manuel F. Montes, Richard Pomfret, Alvin Y. So, Shi Min, Sung Shou ei, Yibo Xu, Zhang Zhongli, Lishui Zhu, Sumner J. La Croix, Michael Plummer, Keun Lee;…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98000082

Ash, Robert, Peter Ferdinand, Brian Hook, and Robin Porter, eds. Hong Kong in Transition: The Handover Years. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2000. Questia. 11 Dec. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98000084.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=91896558

Chiu, Lee-In Chen, et al. Emerging Patterns of East Asian Investment in China: From Korea, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. Ed. Sumner J. La Croix, Michael Plummer, and Keun Lee. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1995. Questia. 11 Dec. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=91896560.
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Cracking India by Bapsi Sidhwa

Words: 2056 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1765168

Thus, these castes being born twice in Hinduism, the principles behind Karma and Reincarnation applies to them. Karma refers to the corresponding reaction to an action or deed that an individual had done to another living thing/s. This means that if the deed was bad or considered evil, the corresponding reaction or karma will also be bad or evil. A similar analogy is applied to goodness/good deeds. Reincarnation is the return of some metaphysical part of the self into a new body -- a process of rebirth for the individual, characteristic of the concept of two births exclusively only to members of the three higher castes.

Jainism is an old religion prevalent in India and other nations in the Asian region. Originally a part of the Buddhist religion, Jainism believes not in the concept of a God, but the authority of the saints or prophets. Its religious principles are simple…… [Read More]

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Human Aspects in Cyber and IT Security

Words: 1757 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93880048

Human Aspects in IT and Cybersecurity

An innovation in IT (information Technology) has revolutionized the method organizations store, record and retrieve information. Moreover, a large percentage of business organizations has taken the advantages internet technology to offer their businesses online where customer's data such as credit cards, SSN (social security number), tax information, and other personal information are recorded in the organizational databases. A major benefit that internet technology offers to organizations is that it assists businesses to transact businesses globally without establishing entities in other countries. The strategy has assisted organizations to achieve competitive market advantages. Despite the benefits associated with IT, businesses face the ethical implications in business transactions because they are faced with a hacking dilemma.

The primary goal of ethics is to promote ethical practices that will enhance availability, confidentiality, and integrity of organizational informational resources. To achieve this objective, employees are to demonstrate a highest…… [Read More]

Resources Management Association.

Whitman, M.E. & Mattord, H.J. (2014). Principles of Information Security. New York. Cengage Learning.
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Korean History The Climate and Culture of

Words: 4763 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64026784

Korean History: The Climate and Culture of Foreign Business

The challenge of any cultural history undertaken to determine the foreign business fitness of a location is to make sure that there is due respect afforded the society with regard to issues that might not be seen as directly affecting the bottom line. So much of the time in the business world we are collectively focused on the ideas that surround the continued development of the global world economy, without regard for the existence of prior national issues. An easily made mistake for a researcher addressing issues of Korea from the United States would be to distill Korean history into a form that only include the interests of this country after the Korean-American ar.

This account will attempt to address those issues by addressing the culture through its earliest history to its present state through modern demographics, religion, education, housing, leisure…… [Read More]

Works Cited

North Korean crisis starts to hurt South Korea economically." February 11, 2003. American

City Business Journals Inc. February, 11 2003 (http://tampabay.bizjournals.com).

South Korea gross national income soars." February 9, 2003. American City Business Journals

Inc. February 11, 2003. (http://tampabay.bizjournals.com).