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In these cases, it has been mentioned that only those diabetics can benefit from the use of aspirin that have had a heart attack in the past. Thus, the usage of aspirin can help in prevention of any future heart attacks3 (p. 2365).
Analysis of Chosen studies
The first study "Use of aspirin for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients in an ambulatory care setting in Spain," has been conducted on diabetic patients. It has mentioned that diabetics are at an increased risk of cardiovascular malfunction as compared to normal population. As the title of the study indicates, the focus is on the diabetics in Spain. They study has focused on the effects of using certain drugs and medications in order to reduce or to prevent the risk of heart attacks in diabetics. The study has mentioned that the usage of salicylic acid for…
1. Chan KLF, Jessica YL, Ching MPH, Lawrence CT, Hung MD, Wong VSW, Leung KSV, Kung NN, Hui, AJ, Wu JCY, Leung KW, Lee WYV, Lee K, Lee TY, Lau WY, to FK, Chan HLY, Chung S, and Sung JJY. Clopidogrel vs. Aspirin and Esomeprazole to Prevent Recurrent Ulcer Bleeding. N Engl J. Med. 2005; 352:238-244.
2. Falk E, and Fernandez-Ortiz a. Role of thrombosis in atherosclerosis and its complications. American Journal of Cardiology. 1995: 75: 5B-11B.
3. Smith CS, Allen J, Blair JN, Bonow or, Brass LM, Fonarow, CG, Grundy, MS, Hiratzka L, Jones D, Krumholz, HM, Mosca L, Pasternak CR, Pearson T, Pfeffer MA, and Taubert KA. AHA/ACC Guidelines for Secondary Prevention for Patients With Coronary and Other Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease: 2006 Update, Endorsed by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Circulation. 2006; 113: 2363-2372.
4. Keith a. Regulating Information About Aspirin and the Prevention of Heart Attack. The American Economic Review. 1995: 85: 96-99.
Aspirin -- Wonder Drug
Today, we pretty much take aspirin for granted, but when it was developed it was a true "wonder" drug that could cure a variety of ills, and today, it still fits that bill. Aspirin was first discovered in 1897 by a German chemist, Dr. Felix Hoffman, who worked for the Bayer Company. He was looking for some kind of medication to help his father's suffering from rheumatism. What he came up with became what people regarded as a wonder drug at the time, because it was such an effective painkiller. Bayer obtained an original patent in Germany for the medication in 1899, and patented it in the United States in 1900. Initially, the drug only came in powder form, and the manufacturer sent it to pharmacies in bulk. The pharmacists dispensed it to patients in paper bags that held one gram of the medication.
"Aspirin." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.
Editors. "The World of Aspirin." Aspirin.com. 2005. 22 Aug. 2005.
Flieger, Ken. "Aspirin: A New Look at an Old Drug." FDA Consumer Jan.-Feb. 1994: 18+.
Aspirin from when it was first discovered to its relevant use today, and include when Aspirin was first discovered and its initial therapeutic use. It will also discuss today's therapeutic use to its initial market use. When Aspirin was first discovered, people considered it a wonder drug, and today, it is still one of the most commonly recognized and used drugs in the world. Aspirin has been replaced in many therapies by synthetic derivatives, but Aspirin is still a vital drug for treating a variety of aches, pains, fever, and even reduce the threat of heart attacks.
Technically, aspirin is an acetyl derivative of salicylic acid (ASA), used to "lower fever, relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and thin the blood" ("Aspirin"). A chemist at the Bayer Company in Germany first created Aspirin in 1897. Dr. Felix Hoffmann, the discoverer, was looking for something to help ease his father's rheumatism when he…
Aspirin." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000.
Editors. "The World of Aspirin." Aspirin.com. 2004. 12 April 2004. http://www.aspirin.com/world_of_aspirin_en.html#
Gribbin, August. "Plastic Aspirin Gets Rave Reviews." Insight on the News 2 Oct. 2000: 28.
Schizophrenia is considered to be one of the most sever psychiatric disorders. The incidence of the condition each year is approximately 15 in every 100,000 people, and the lifetime risk of developing schizophrenia is 0.7% (Tandon et al., 2008). Family history and genetics have been identified as contributing to the development of schizophrenia in 80% of cases (Tandon et al., 2008). Some environmental factors associated with increased likelihood of the development of schizophrenia include prenatal malnutrition or infection, use of cannabis, birth complications, and winter birth (Tandon et al., 2008). However, the mechanisms by which genetic and genetic-environmental factors interact to cause the onset of schizophrenia are not well understood. It is important that effective treatments be developed to help individuals cope with this serious and debilitating psychiatric disorder. What types of therapies outside of pharmaceuticals have been found to be successful in the treatment of schizophrenia? Is any type…
Eack, S.M., Hogarty, G.E., Cho, R.Y., Prasad, K.M., Greenwald, D.P., Hogarty, S.S., Keshavan, M.S. (2010). Neuroprotective effects of cognitive enhancement therapy against gray matter loss in early schizophrenia: results from a 2-year randomized controlled trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(7), 674-82.
Gorczynski, P., Faulkner, G. (2010). Exercise therapy for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 12(5), CD004412.
Laan, W., Grobbee, D.E., Selten, J.P., Heijnen, C.J., Kahn, R.S., Burger, H. (2010). Adjuvent aspirin therapy reduces symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorders: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 71(5), 520-7.
Tandon, R., Keshavon, M.S., Nasrallah, H.A. (2008). Schizophrenia, "just the facts" what we know in 2008. Schizophrenia Research, 102(1-3), 1-18.
The pricing of a product or service is an important aspect of the marketing mix. The pricing of a product will need to be set at a level that will support the firms' long-term profitability; even were there are short-term market penetration strategies or loss leading prices, the ultimate aim of the firm is for the generation of revenues and creation of profit. The pricing strategy chosen by a firm will depend on a number of factors; these will include the market conditions and strategies of the competing or complimentary products, as well as the level of differentiation and the market position that the firm us seeking to gain (Kotler and Keller, 2011). Two examples may be used to assess the way pricing strategies may be formulated; a media distributor and aspirin.
A media distributor, such as NetFlix or Love Film, has a limited amount…
Drury, C, (2012), Management and Cost Accounting, Cengage Learning EMEA
Hooley G; Nicouland B; Piercy, N, (2011), Marketing Strategy and Competitive Positioning, Financial Times/Prentice Hall
Kotler Philip; Keller Kevin, (2011), Marketing Management (13th Edition), Prentice Hall.
Mintzberg Henry, Ahlstrand Bruce, Lampel Joseph B. (2008), Strategy Safari: The Complete Guide Through the Wilds of Strategic Management, Financial Times / Prentice Hall
Efficacy and Safety of Dabigatran vs. Warfarin for Stroke
After more than five decades as the preferred anticoagulant worldwide, warfarin is being challenged by a new rival that doesn't require careful dosage monitoring. Pradaxa (dabigatran) was unanimously approved by the FDA on October 19, 2010 for treating atrial fibrillation (AF) patients, who are at an increased risk for suffering stroke and systemic embolisms (.S. Food and Drug Administration). Dabigatran acts by binding directly to thrombin. Warfarin (Coumadin) is an anticoagulant that functions by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors (Lemos et al., 770-771). Variations in the levels of vitamin K in the diet can influence how effective a given dose of warfarin is for a patient, so appropriate therapeutic dosages are determined on an individual basis periodically through a standardized clotting test (international normalized ratio [INR]). Even though warfarin can reduce the risk of stroke in AF patients…
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. "FDA News Release: FDA approves Pradaxa to prevent stroke in people with atrial fibrillation." U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 19 Oct. 2010. Web. 22 Jan. 2011.
Schulman, Sam, Kearon, Clive, Kakkar, Ajay K., Mismetti, Patrick, Schellong, Sebastian, Eriksson, Hentry, Baanstra, David, Schnee, Janet, and Goldhaber, Samuel Z. "Dabigatran vs. warfarin in the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism." New England Journal of Medicine 361 (2009): 2342-2352. Web.
Wallentin, Lars, Yusuf, Salim, Ezekowitz, Michael D., Alings, Marco, Flather, Marcus, Franzosi, Maria Grazia, Pais, Prem, Dans, Antonio, Eikelboom, John, Oldgren, Jonas, Pogue, Janice, Reilly, Paul A., Yang, Sean, Connolly, and Stuart J., on behalf of the RE-LY investigators. "Efficacy and safety of dabigatran compared with warfarin at different levels of international normalized ratio control for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: an analysis of the RE-LY trial." Lancet 376 (2010): 975-983. Web.
In any market, there is bound to be a strategy that is used to decide on the prices that the commodities or the services that the potential clients will be in need of. Since the goods or the services availed are always targeted at making a profit at the end o the day, pricing is one of the most fundamental focuses that the entrepreneurs have to keenly look at in order to strike a balance between making profit and retaining clients for the item offered.
In the case scenario below, the pricing methods that should b used in determining the prices of canned vegetables and Aspirin are looked at, the various methods that can be used and how different the pricing methods are as well discussed.
Pricing method for canned vegetables
Taking into account that almost each food outlet has canned vegetables, with several alternatives floated by each…
Scott Allen, (2012). Pricing Methods: Four Models for calculating your Pricing. Retrieved November 27, 2012 from http://entrepreneurs.about.com/od/salesmarketing/a/pricingstrategy_2.htm
Commonwealth of Australia, (2009). Policies, Procedures and Methods Used in the Recommendations for Pricing of Pharmaceutical Products 2009. Retrieved November 27, 2012 from http://www.health.gov.au/internet/publications/publishing.nsf/Content/health-pbs-pbpa-pricing-policiesdoc~pricing-methods
Brand Names: Will 'iPad' Become Generic Word for Tablet?" was published by the U.S.A. Today, with the central premise concerning a relatively unknown yet ubiquitous phenomenon known as genericide. According to the article, which was compiled by the Associated Press (AP), Apple Inc. And its proprietary iPad tablet computing device is poised to alter the English lexicon through its supremacy within a particular market segment. Like the Band-Aid and Kleenex before it, the iPad has become so synonymous with a niche product that consumers invariably refer to competitor's offerings by the same name, and Apple Inc.'s executive management structure must now wade through the quagmire of intellectual property rights and trademark protection law to determine the course of action that preserves the company's duly earned domination of the market. The article presents the iPad's emergence as the standard bearer for tablet computing devices as a mixed bag of sorts for…
Associated Press. (2012, April 08). Brand names: Will 'iPad' become generic word for tablet?. USA Today. Retrieved from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/companies/story/2012-04-07/apple-iPad-generic- name/54110024/1
Coverdale, J.F. (1984). Trademarks and Generic Words: An Effect-on-Competition Test. The University of Chicago Law Review, (51), 868-891. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/1599488?uid=3739552&uid=2&uid=4&uid=3739 256&sid=21101868846423
McKenna, M. (2007). The normative foundations of trademark law. Notre Dame Law Review, 82(5), 1839. Retrieved from http://www.inta.org/Academics/Documents/finalndlawreview.pdf
Alzheimer's Disease: An Overview
Disease description and possible misconceptions
Alzheimer's disease is one of, although not the only type, of dementia elderly patients may suffer. The most common form of the illness occurs after age 60. Early-onset Alzheimer's disease before the age of 60 is less common, but the symptoms and worsening of the illness tends to be swifter in nature. Early-onset Alzheimer's disease has a known genetic component. "Certain genes...such as APOE epsilon4 allele" are linked to a greater likelihood of developing Alzheimer's (Jasmin 2010). In older patients, the difference between dementia and Alzheimer's can be difficult to determine. "The only way to know for certain that someone has AD is to examine a sample of their brain tissue after death," to determine if the tissue sample exhibits neurofibrillary tangles, "twisted fragments of protein within nerve cells that clog up the cell;" neuritic plaques, "abnormal clusters of dead and…
Gwyther, L.P. (2004). Ask the expert: Common questions about Alzheimer's disease.
National Women's Health Report, 26(6), 7-7. Retrieved:
Harman, D. (2000). Alzheimer's disease: A hypothesis on pathogenesis. Age, 23(3), 147-161.
Lewis, have had the opportunity to look over the letter you prepared for Ms. Smith regarding her safety concerns about our product. The letter is very professional and I commend you on your efforts. I only see one or two areas that I believe can be reworded for a more effective delivery and as we go through my evaluation we will address those areas.
A like the fact that you immediately draw the name of the EPA into the discussion. It assures the customer immediately that we are not speaking out of our own opinion, or desire to protect the company, but from studies conducted by a respected federal agency. I further commend you on comparing the ratings to common household goods that the customer can relate to in a tangible fashion. Often times just presenting numbers or percentages provides a too abstract picture for the customer. You showed her…
By helping to solve their problems voluntarily, Bayer can avoid circumstances like the aspirin debacle by building a stockpile of goodwill to be used later.
One step Bayer should undertake is to continue to be aggressive in meeting FDA guidelines on the taking of Cipro. The company should include these recommendations, in English, on supplies sent to Mexico, because they know that some of these will end up in the U.S. Given the nature of the anthrax scare, however, Bayer should increase its labeling standards. Consumers are more likely to take the drug inappropriately under these circumstances. Although Bayer would not have had any way to knowing it at the time, they could have faced significant risk if their labeling, in light of the panic, was considered to be inadequate (yeth v Levine, 2008). Therefore, Bayer should support the recommendations of the CDC, as that should meet the standard for…
Wyeth v Levine. 2008. Supreme Court of the United States. Retrieved November 15, 2009 from http://www.supremecourtus.gov/opinions/08pdf/06-1249.pdf
Dunne, A. (no date). Rent seeking and the social cost of monopoly. Trinity College of Dublin. Retrieved November 15, 2009 from http://www.maths.tcd.ie/local/JUNK/econrev/ser/html/rent.html
Sterckx, S. (2006). The moral justifiability of patents. Ethical Perspectives. Retrieved November 15, 2009 from http://www.ethical-perspectives.be/page.php?LAN=E&FILE=ep_detail&ID=109&TID=973
Equal Protection Clause of 14th Amendment
The equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment extended to protections of the Bill of ights to all Americans, including pregnant women. Therefore, it is fundamentally unconstitutional under the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to criminalize pregnant women who take illegal drugs for fetal abuse or neglect without applying the same conditions on pregnant women who endanger their unborn child by drinking alcohol, smoking, or otherwise failing to provide the best possible nurturing environment for the fetus. This paper reviews the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature together with the precedential case law concerning these issues to support this view, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
A growing body of research concerning fetal development together with innovations in modern healthcare technologies have provided researchers with new insights about what can harm or nurture…
Blank, R.H. (2002). Mother and fetus: Changing notions of maternal responsibility. New York:
Flavin, J. (2009). Our bodies, our crimes: The policing of women's reproduction in America.
New York: New York University Press.
elationship between cardiac arrest and coronary cardiac disease
The heart is an essential organ in the human body, it keeps the individual alive. Understanding how the heart operates and functions is essential to help protect your heart from heart disease. Cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease are significant heart related illness that has a high mortality rate. It is important for individuals with pre-existing heart disease to understand the symptoms of cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease, since these are both leading causes of fatality in the United States. Understanding how the heart works, the individuals risk for heart disease, and how to prevent or delay heart disease is essential. In this paper I will address the relationship between cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease. I will also explain how the heart functions and discuss some ways of preventing cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease.
Antonini-Canterin et. al. (2009). Association between carotid and coronary artery disease in patients with aortic valve stenosis: an angiographic study. Angiology 60 (5) 596-600
CDC. (2010). Heart disease. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/
Dewey et. al. (2004). Coronary artery disease: new insights and their implications for radiology. European Radiology. 14 (6) 1048-1054
Escolar et. al. (2006). New imaging techniques for diagnosing coronary artery disease. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 174 (4) 487-495
Pharmacokinetics explains the process by which a drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and eliminated from the body. These processes are dependent on the amount of the drug administered, the method of administration (which affects the rate of absorption, biotransformation, and even excretion), and how the drug binds in the tissues. In essence, a drug's ability to transverse the cellular membranes depends on its solubility and molecular size and shape. The passive diffusion of the drug across cellular membranes depends on its lipid solubility as well as concentration gradients outside and inside the cellular membrane and the pH differences across the membrane. Active transport of the drug occurs when the drug is actually moved by components of the membrane. This can allow a drug move against concentration and electrochemical gradients but it requires energy, can be selective, and can be inhibited by similar molecules. The absorption rate is influenced…
Gender variation in clinical decision-making was measured, including (1) the number, types, and certainty levels of diagnoses considered and (2) how diagnoses vary according to patient characteristics, when patients have identical symptoms of CHD (Maserejian et al., 2009).
This was a factorial experiment presenting videotaped CHD symptoms, systematically altering patient gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES) and race, and physician gender and level of experience. The primary end point was physicians' most certain diagnosis. The results: Physicians (n=128) mentioned five diagnoses on average, most commonly heart, gastrointestinal, and mental health conditions. Physicians were significantly less certain of the underlying cause of symptoms among female patients regardless of age, but only among middle-aged women were they significantly less certain of the CHD diagnosis. Among middle-aged women, 31.3% received a mental health condition as the most certain diagnosis, compared with 15.6% of their male counterparts. An interaction effect showed that females with high…
Chou, Anne F., Sarah Hudson Scholle, Carol S. Weisman, Arlene S. Bierman, Rosaly
Correa-de-Araujo, & Lori Mosca (2007). "Gender Disparities in the Quality of Cardiovascular Disease Care in Private Managed Care Plans." In Women's Health
Issues 17: 120 -- 130.
DeVon, H., Ryan, C.J., Ochs, a.L., & Shapiro, M. (2008). "Symptoms Across the Continuum of Acute Coronary Syndromes: Differences Between Women and Men." In Am J. Crit Care 17:14-24.
(NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008)
The Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are stated to be "recommended as first-line treatment in all people with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) "with or without symptoms of heart failure." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008) Additionally it is stated that strong evidence exists that ACE inhibitors "...increase life expectancy in people with LVSD and reduce the risk of hospitalization -- the effect is greatest in those with more severe LVSD or more severe symptoms, but benefit occurs for all degrees of severity." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008)
Prescribed for individuals who are intolerant of ACE inhibitors due to cough are
Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists which provide an alternative to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008) There is stated to be evidence that AIIRAs supports life expectancy improvement and symptoms for those with heart failure due to…
Clinical Practice Guideline for Heart Failure Due to Left-Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction (2000) Kaiser Diagnostic and Treatment Documents. February 2000. Online available at: http://*****/cajud/heart/leftven.html
Heart Failure: Age from 16 Years Onwards (2008) Clinical Knowledge Summaries. NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement. Online available at: http://www.cks.nhs.uk/heart_failure_chronic/evidence/references#
NHS Confederation and BMA (2005) New GMS contract. Department of Health. www.dh.gov.uk.
NICE (2002) Guidance on the use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion for smoking cessation. Technology appraisal no.39. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. www.nice.org.uk [Accessed: 19/06/2007]. [Free Full-text]
sound rationale(s) for each component of the primary survey that the egistered Nurse will undertake.
The geriatric male patient was admitted to the Emergency Department under triage supervision. Primary survey assessment (Considine, 2011) determines the patient's immediate physical condition pertinent to life or death. These include the patient's Airway, Breathing, Circulation, Disability, Discomfort. The patient scores a 14/15, which indicates his eyes are open, appears oriented with succinct and clear verbal responses, and displays exacting and swift motor response and coordination.
Patient respiration is accelerated with shallow yet painful breathes. Lung capacity appears to be compromised, unsure of whether the left or the right is specifically effected but perhaps the onset of pneumonia is the thought. Blood pressure is low, rapid and painful breathing coupled with low blood pressure are symptomatic and are important to monitor for further changes.
Pulse of 90 bpm is somewhat rapid and irregular with 90%…
Considine D. (2011) Patient assessment Primary and secondary survey. Deakin University-Northern Health Clinical Partnership
Also no pill will change everything. One must be willing to change their lifestyle as well.
hy do some people still need an antihyperlipidemic agent even though they have reduced their dietary intake of cholesterol and saturated fats?
hy is it better to sue selective beta2 agonists, rather than non-selective beta-adrenergic agonists, for a patient who has both asthma and heart disease?
hy is the combination of a glucocorticoid and a beta2 adrenergic agonist used sometimes in treating asthma? hat is the difference in their mechanisms of action?
http://lungusa.org/asthmato answer: (a) what is a peak flow meter and how is it used in asthma clients? (b) Is low or high humidity in the home better for asthma clients? - hat aspects of weather are triggers for asthma?
Based upon your knowledge of the mechanism of action of the following drug classes, explain the rationale for using the following to…
Harris, Gardener (17 Feb 2005) "Medical Panel Poses Pointed Questions to Drug Makers Over Risks of Painkillers." The New York Times. Sunday Edition. Retrieved 19 Feb 2005 at http://www.nytimes.com/2005/02/17/health/17fda.html?pagewanted=
Perhaps the some of the most infamous research studies conducted in recent years were the ones currently undergoing FDA scrutiny, regarding the safety of the once-popular COZ-2 inhibitor drugs such as Vioxx and Bextra and Celebrex. An early Vioxx study found that patients taking the medication had more than four times the risk of undergoing a heart attack as those individuals in the control group. Those patients in the control group were taking Naproxen, another common pain pill but not a COX-2 inhibitor. The Merck Company has since stated it believed that the difference might have resulted because Naproxen protected against heart problems in a manner similar to aspirin.
This raises an important question validating the hypothesis of the research study…
Finally, anybody hoping to conserve money in a recession must avoid spontaneous expenses, whether at the grocery store or the mall. Purchases should always reflect what one actually needs and never spontaneous impulses to buy anything for which the consumer did not already have a conscious need in advance. Purchasing milk at the grocery store after forgetting to list it is one thing; purchasing a new pair of shoes at the mall "because they were on sale" when one already has a closet full of shoes at home is quite another matter.
Clark, K., Gibbs, L., and Poppick, . "Three reasons to LOVE the slowdown." (28 ep
2011). Retrieved from CNN Money Magazine at:
Kadlec, D. "Five Ways to Prepare for a Double Dip." (20 ep 2011). Retrieved from Time Moneyland at:http://moneyland.time.com/2011/09/20/5-ways-to-prepare-
Nance-Ash, . "New Freshman 15: Financial Tips for College tudents." (1 Aug 2011).…
Clark, K., Gibbs, L., and Poppick, S. "Three reasons to LOVE the slowdown." (28 Sep
2011). Retrieved from CNN Money Magazine at:
Kadlec, D. "Five Ways to Prepare for a Double Dip." (20 Sep 2011). Retrieved from Time Moneyland at: http://moneyland.time.com/2011/09/20/5-ways-to-prepare -
Continued use of some anti-migraine drugs has been found to lead to what is known as "rebound headache," a condition marked by frequent and chronic headaches, especially in the early morning hours. The condition can be prevented if the patient takes the drugs only on a doctor's supervision and when taken only in minimal doses. Those suffering from frequent attacks may need preventive therapy (Robinson 1999).
There are alternative treatment modes aimed at preventing migraine (Robinson 1999). ecause it is often linked with food allergies and intolerances, the identification and elimination of the offending foods can contain or decrease the frequency of the attacks. Herbal therapy with the use of feverfew or chrysanthemum parthenium can work this way. iofeedback training may also help prevent some vascular changes when an attack begins by increasing the flow of blood to the extremities. The patient must put the lights down low, put his…
Community Plan of Action
There are many responsibilities that have to be met to satisfy the needs for personal satisfaction, and this may need changes in work schedules and adjustments. The objective here is to judge the possibilities of obtaining satisfaction from three different types of activities that can be conducted -- helping pregnant teenagers, teaching the methods of care to individuals who have recently found out that they are diabetics, and helping the elderly get on with their daily lives. The first of these is the problem of teenage pregnancy, and the best method to help such teenage children in not getting pregnant. Once they are pregnant, then a lot of other social questions come up and the most important of that is that we should not interfere in the personal lives of people. For teenagers not to get pregnant, they require close monitoring. (Teen Pregnancy Prevention)
Lauerman, John. F. "The Prescription Paradox" Brown Alumni Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.brown.edu/Administration/Brown_Alumni_Magazine/99/3-99/features/paradox.html Accessed 10 September, 2005
"Medications and Older People" (September-October, 1997) FDA Consumer Magazine.
Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/1997/697_old.html
Accessed 10 September, 2005
This is a 12 lead ECG taken for Mr. Long at the Emergency Department. He presented with a two hour history of chest pain radiating to his left arm. The ECG is suggestive of an antero-septal Myocardial infarction. Further scrutiny of the ECG displays a normal sinus rhythm, with a rate of 75 bpm that is regularly regular. There is no axis deviation with a P interval of 200 ms and normal qrs complexes. Leads I and aVL also show a q wave which may be suggestive of an old high lateral wall MI. Leads I, V1, V2, V3 and aVL show ST segment elevation of greater than 2 mm and ST segment depression in leads II and III. Mr. Long is suffering from a fully evolved ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.
A correlation can be made with the area of myocardium involved and the vessel involved. The antero-septal…
B, Deborah, Diercks. (2010). Mission Lifeline: Developing a STEMI regonal care. American Heart Association. -. Print.
Jois, P. (2011). Nstemi and stemi: therapeutic updates 2011. The Practical Journal for Emergency Physicians, 32(1), 1-7.
Katzung, B., & Masters, S. (2011). Katzung's pharmacology. (9 ed.). United States of America: Mc-Graw Hill.
Kumar, V., & Robbins, (2007). Basic pathology. (8 ed.). London: Saunders Company.
This would clearly be preferable to performing surgery, but may be more applicable in cases of type B than type a polydactyly. Of a total of 21 cases which were examined, this procedure resulted in a slight complication in only one case, where the digit had to be removed surgically due to failure of removal by suture ligation. The only real side effect of this simple treatment is that there was found to be a small bump remaining at the site in 43% of cases.
Although there has been some work into the genetic basis of polydactyly, advances in examination of the human genome may create a better understanding of the condition in the future. A large amount of the work done so far has been focused on animal models, and there is still room for further work to discover the genetic basis of the different types of polydactyly…
Ataru, S., Park, S. & Ryo, Y. (2005). Surgical treatment for lateral ray polydactyly of the foot: Toe selection and interdigital space reconstruction using a planter flap. Japanese Journal of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, 48(2): 155-159.
Boeing, M., Cassia F. Paiva, L., Lima Garcias, G., Graca Martino Roth, M. & Santos, I.S. (2001). Epidemiologia das polidactilias: Um estudo de casos e controles na populacao de Pelotas-RS. Journal de Pediatria, 77(2); d.o.i.: 10.1590/S0021-7557200100017.
Borisch, N., Stunitz, B. & Blauth, W. (1995). Case histories surgical treatment of polydactyl of the little toe involving proximal and middle phalanx. Orthopedics and Traumatology, 4(4): 246-253.
Gurnett, C.A., Bowcock, a.M., Dietz, F.R., Morcuende, J.A., Murray, J.C. & Dobbs, M.B. (2007). Two novel point mutations in the long-range SHH enhancer in three families with triphalangeal thumb and preaxial polydactyly. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 143(1): 27-32.
Video Tape and Disc ental
Health and Personal Care Stores
Table 2: Comparisons of Most isky Small Business (BizStats.com, cited by Telberg, 2003)
An Engine of Economic Growth
More and more, Craig, Jackson and Thomson (2007) argue, policymakers perceive the small business sector "as a potential engine of economic growth. Policies to promote small businesses include tax relief, direct subsidies, and indirect subsidies through government lending programs." These authors stress that encouraging lending to small business purports the Small Business Administration's (SBA's) primary policy objective of the loan-guarantee program. In their study, Craig, Jackson and Thomson (2007) implement empirical research to focus on SBA-guaranteed lending, utilizing a panel data set of SBA-guaranteed loans, they assess whether SBA-guaranteed lending discernibly impacts local economic performance. Ultimately, these authors cautiously conclude that "There is a positive (although small) and significant relationship between the level of SBA-guaranteed lending in…
Authority, purpose and scope. (2002). EXTENSIONS of CREDIT by FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS (REGULATION a). Retrieved November 10, 2007, at http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=57016e116171461106934124459aa8aa&rgn=div5&view=text&node=1-2:188.8.131.52.1&idno=12#12:184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108945401
Bannock, G. (2005). The Economics and Management of Small Business: An International Perspective. New York: Routledge. Retrieved November 12, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108945415
Bielski, L. (2006). On the Hunt for the Meaningful Segment: With a Deluge of Customer Information to Choose from, Bankers Struggle to See Their Customers in More Refined, Specific Ways. ABA Banking Journal, 98(9), 45+. Retrieved November 12, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017258794
Brew, J. (2007). Taxes: The Forgotten Piece of Bank Profits Investigating Two Overlooked Strategies Could Put You on Your Way to Cutting Taxes by Half. Got Your Attention?. ABA Banking Journal, 99(5), 22+. Retrieved November 12, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5020964964
It should not be taken with aspirin or other aspirin-like compounds. It should not be taken with, "benzodiazepines, flecainide (Tambocor), iron, ketoconazole (Nizoral), lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid), methenamine (Hiprex, Urex), methotrexate, quinidine, sulfa-containing antibiotics, tetracycline (Sumycin), or vitamins" (4). It can exacerbate certain conditions such as high blood pressure, congestive heart failure, kidney disease, or ulcers (4). It should be consumed while pregnant or breastfeeding, only under the direction of a physician (4). Sodium is used to increase the effectiveness of sulfanomides (5).
Sodium bicarbonate increases the sodium level in the body (4). A physician might prescribe a low or reduced sodium diet while on Sodium bicarbonate. The individual needs of each patient must be addressed by their own personal physician. Sodium carbonate can produce certain side effects in some people. These side effects include increased thirst, stomach cramps, and extra gas (4). Several symptoms may indicate serious conditions for which…
1. JTBaker. "Sodium Bicarbonate: Material Safety Data Sheet." http://www.jtbaker.com/msds/englishhtml/s2954.htm (accessed 25Mar07).
2. Solvay Chemicals. "Sodium Bicarbonate: Material Safety Data Sheet." http://www.solvaychemicals.us/static/wma/pdf/6/7/5/9/SODBICARB.pdf (accessed 25Mar07).
3. Holleman, a. And Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001.
4. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., "Sodium Bicarbonate" http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/medmaster/a682001.html (accessed 25Mar07).
2003, p. 247).
The use of NSAID has been associated with increased risks of gastrointestinal bleeding in unselected patients, approximately five-fold for musculoskeletal pain and two fold for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease with low-dose aspirin (Clinical Guideline 17: Dyspepsia 2004). Therefore, depending on the level of pain management required, a simple analgesic that can be used for pain management is paracetamol; this preparation does not cause bleeding of the stomach and it has been found to be highly effective in relieving mild to moderate pain; furthermore, it can be purchased without a prescription from chemists and supermarkets (Henderson & Wood 2000).
Discussion of Health Education Advice Required.
The U.K. Department of Health recommends the following educational advice and support for people suffering from gastrointestinal bleeding:
Patients and their relatives should be offered as much information as they want. GPs should ask what they would like to know, and give…
Barve, S., Hill, D., Marsano, L.L., Mcclain, C.J., & Mendez, C. (2003). "Diagnosis and Treatment of Alcoholic Liver Disease and Its Complications." Alcohol Research & Health 27(3):247.
Dyspepsia: Management of dyspepsia in adults in primary care. NICE Clinical Guideline 17. [Online]. Available: http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/CG17/niceguidance/word/English .
Garcia, N., Jr., & Sanyal, a.J. (2001). "Portal hypertension." Clinics in Liver Disease, 5(2):509- 540.
Govoni, R., Mann, R.E., & Smart, R.G. (2003). "The Epidemiology of Alcoholic Liver Disease." Alcohol Research & Health 27(3):209.
Patient Satisfaction Scorecard
This dashboard page reviews and specifies how satisfied patients attending the hospital were, or were not, based on the service they received at the hospital. The data breaks down into specific areas of concern for patients in terms of the service they received.
There are 24 categories for patient input as to the quality of service they received. The hospital sent out 1,232 surveys and 954 people (former and presumably present patients) responded to the survey (450 males and 504 females; 250 new patients and 704 returning patients). The ages reflect a very diverse community of patients, including: 19 that were 10 years of age or younger; 57 between 11 and 20; 124 were between 21 and 30 years of age; 219 were between 31 and 40; 172 were between 41-50; 153 were between 51-60; 113 were between 60 and 70; and…
One of the immediate things that nurses and other healthcare professions do when a new patient arrives is to give that person aspirin. This was done 100% of the time in January, 2009. And 87% of the patients received aspirin (prescribed at discharge). Patients with heart trouble were given ACEI or ARB for their left ventricle systolic dysfunction (90% of the patients) and counseling for people who smoke cigarettes was given 67% of the patients in 2009. The list is quite long but of particular interest is influenza vaccination (75% of patients received it), blood cultures were taken for 78% of the patients, and 76% of patients that had undergone colorectal surgery received "immediate postoperative normothermia."
As to the how this hospital's core measures stack up on a national basis, the barometer graph on the lower right side of this dashboard shows that this hospital meets national averages 80% of the time.
Overall Summary: When a hospital goes to the trouble of presenting specific data regarding how it serves its patients -- and this should be required / expected in today's healthcare environment -- any potential or past patient can easily see the thoroughness therein.
Third Class Of Drugs
In the United States, all pharmaceutical products: from Advil to Zoloft, are sold either as over-the-counter remedies or as prescription drugs. Over-the-counter remedies like Advil, aspirin, and Tylenol, can be purchased by any consumer at any store that chooses to sell them. Therefore, an eight-year-old can go into a convenience store and buy a bottle of aspirin. On the other hand, if an eighty-year-old man wanted to try Viagra, he would need to consult a physician and retrieve a prescription, and from there he would need to buy the drug from a licensed pharmacist. The two-class division evolved from a series of acts and resolutions passed in conjunction with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The most significant landmark in the creation of a specific prescription-only class of drugs was the Durham-Humphrey Amendment, passed in 1951. The Amendment, which revised a 1938 congressional act called the…
Chan, Kwai-Cheung "Value of a Pharmacist-Controlled Class Has Yet to be Demonstrated." U.S. General Accounting Office. Aug 1995. Online at < http://www.gao.gov/archive/1995/pe95012.pdf >.
Hoffman, William. "The Pharmacist as Statesman." The Doric Column. 3 April 2001. Online at < http://mbbnet.umn.edu/doric/humphrey.html >.
Hoffman, William. "Indispensable." Reprinted with permission from Minnesota Medicine, August 1995. Online at < http://mbbnet.umn.edu/hoff/hoff_pharm.html >.
Labbe, Carl R. "Do We Need a Third Class of Drugs?" The Phar Side: ASU Pharmacy Newsletter. Issue 26. Online at < http://www.asu.edu/health/pharside%2026.htm >.
(the pulse of health care is wireless: The future medical enterprise)
The Pocket PCs and the PDA's are just only the tools but it is the software that drive these hand held devices that allow for providing better health care services. Starting from an individual medical practitioner and moving on to the communities of professional the use of these hand held devices allow them to work cooperating with each other and through the health care enterprise. The Electronic Medical ecords - EM, Clinical Drug eferences, Patient Management Systems - PMS, Patient Scheduling Systems, e-Prescription writers and such other enterprise functionalities can be made more widely available to the medical professionals by the use of Pocket PCs and PDA's. These combinations of the Health care enterprise functionalities and the medical professionals aided by these handheld devices would go a long way in providing the best practice of health care service for…
Freudenheim, Milt. Digital Rx: Take Two Aspirins and E-Mail Me in the Morning. March 2, 2005. Retrieved at http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1353923/postsAccessed on March 8, 2005
Horrigan, Darren. Pocket PCs advance on Palm. October 15, 2002. Retrieved at http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2002/10/13/1034222638972.html?oneclick=true Accessed on March 8, 2005
Sciannamea, Michael. Duke Caregivers Leveraging PDAs for Patient Care. October 6, 2004.
Retrieved at http://telemedicine.weblogsinc.com/entry/1805781712401103/. Accessed on Shah, Sandeep. The pulse of health care is wireless: The future medical enterprise. Mobile Computing News. December 16, 2003. Retrieved at http://searchmobilecomputing.techtarget.com/originalContent/0,289142,sid40_gci941579,00.html . Accessed on March 8, 2005
Fish Oil Supplements Great for the Heart," discusses the benefits of fish-oil supplements in controlling atherosclerosis, which can lead to heart disease. Studies show that fish-oil helps break down triglycerides, that can cause atherosclerosis, and people who exercise regularly show the most benefits from taking fish-oil supplements. The research used test subjects, and a variety of situations to test results, and showed that those who exercised and took fish-oil could reduce their triglyceride levels by 50%. This article indicates that fish-oil supplements could replace some other drug therapies for heart disease, and that it is a good idea to begin and exercise program and take fish-oil supplements if you want to reduce your risk of heart disease. I do not take fish-oil now, but I think I will start.
The second article, "Heart of the Matter," discusses several different supplements that are supposed to help prevent heart disease, including fish…
Some of these nutrients are extremely valuable to humans, such as the salicylic acid that can be found in tomatoes and is the same chemical found in aspirin (orthington 990-991). Considering the benefits identified with aspirin use, who wouldn't rather get the same effects from a natural and pleasant tasting source instead of a bitter pill?
Not only can organic produce provide valuable nutrients better than traditional produce, but the absence of pesticides and other chemicals used on conventional farms is also a boon to the consumer. Synthetic chemical pesticides and herbicides have a notorious history of being dangerous carcinogens. The highest death rates in the United States of certain cancers can be found in the rural farming areas of the country. Migrant workers have also demonstrated abnormally high rates of cancer that have been shown to be linked to herbicide and pesticide use (Steingraber 64). If these substances are…
United States Department of Agriculture. Organic Food Standards and Labels. Brochure.
Dauncey, Guy. "Ten Reasons Why Organic Food is Better." Common Ground, April 2002: 17-19.
Worthington, Virginia. "The Effects of Agricultural Method on Nutritional Quality."
Alternative Therapies, 1998:4.
Boulton, Martha (2005) Exploring alexithymia, depression, and binge eating in self-reported eating disorders in women. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
Dahm, Lori (2005) Obesity update: are we getting any thinner?(Special Report)
Private Label Buyer
Merrick, Joav (2005) Psychosomatic reasons for chronic pains.(Editorial)
Southern Medical Journal
____(2006) Obese people may be more sensitive to pain.(NEWS Breaks)(Brief article) Nutrition oday
PORER, LAWRENCE C. WAMPLER, RICHARD S (2000) Adjustment to Rapid Weight Loss. Families, Systems & Health
Rubin, Jay J. (2005) Psychosomatic pain: new insights and management strategies.(CME opic: Psychosomatic Pain) Southern Medical Journal
ucker, Miriam E. (2005) Depression tied to poor adherence to cardiac Rx: results of two studies show that use of aspirin and [beta]-blockers was lower in depressed patients.(Psychosomatic Medicine) Clinical Psychiatry News
his study will seek to determine whether or not obese post operative patients have a higher incidence of psychosomatic disorders and illnesses than non-obese post op…
The need for this study is evident. The cost factor of psychosomatic illnesses may be reduced if it can be determined whether or not the obese patient population has a higher incidence of psychosomatic illness in post op. If it does then future steps can be taken to better prepare the obese patient population for surgery to reduce the incidence of post op psychometric illness.
Tucker, Miriam E. (2005) Depression tied to poor adherence to cardiac Rx: results of two studies show that use of aspirin and [beta]-blockers was lower in depressed patients.(Psychosomatic Medicine) Clinical Psychiatry News
NICE Compliance Standards eview
NICE has developed a set of guidelines and standards to help minimize the risk of VTE and ensure healthcare protocols are in place to educate patients about the risks of VTE. The purpose of this literature review is to examine a tool to access a Hospital Trust compliance with the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) published standards on Venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention. The tool will have the capability to monitor, report, and disseminate relevant information.
National Institute for Clinical Excellence
The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, or NICE, is an institution whose goals including providing clinical quality guidelines and standards to help manage a nationwide database. The purpose of this database includes help improve total healthcare at multiple levels, including at the cardiovascular, vascular, mental, neurological at other levels of health (NICE, 2011). The goals of NICE include prevention of disease,…
Department of Health (DH). (2010 March). "Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) Risk
Assessment." Department of Health. Retrieved July 23, 2011: Publications PolicyAndGuidance
NHS Evidence. (2011). NHS Evidence: Evidence in Health and Social Care. NHS Evidence,
Retrieved July 23, 2011: http://www.evidence.nhs.uk/
Strokes and African-Americans
African-Americans are reported to be nearly twice as likely to experience a stroke as their white counterparts however, African-Americans are much less likely to know the risk-factors and symptoms of stroke or to seek early treatment. The purpose of this study is to examine the issue of African-Americans and stroke. The significance of this study is the additional knowledge that will be added to the already existing base of knowledge in this area of study. The methodology employed in this study is of a qualitative and interpretive nature and has been conducted through a review of literature in this area of study.
Strokes and African-Americans
African-Americans are reported to be nearly twice as likely to experience a stroke as their white counterparts however, African-Americans are much less likely to know the risk-factors and symptoms of stroke or to seek early treatment.
Purpose of the Study
National Stroke Association (2010) What is Stroke? Retrieved from: http://www.stroke.org/site/PageServer?pagename=STROKE
The Office of Minority Health (2010) U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved from: http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/templates/content.aspx?ID=3022
National Stroke Association (2010) African-Americans and Stroke. Retrieved from: http://www.stroke.org/site/PageServer?pagename=AAMER
Neipris, Louis (1998) African-Americans and Stroke Risk. My Optum Health. Retrieved from: http://www.wtvm.com/global/story.asp?s=12834243
Counterbalance of Sugar and Fat Content between Insulin and Glucagon
Physical survival depends on the sustained availability and use of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate or ATP from sufficient levels of a substance, called glucose (owen, 2001). The use of energy depends on the varying levels of activity. Hence, the amount of glucose needed for activity likewise varies each day. Too much or too little glucose is damaging to the body, hence the need for some system to regulate the availability of glucose. It must be present at the precise time and amount that it is needed in order to maintain what is called glucose homeostasis. Homeostasis is the tendency of the body to maintain internal stability and balance through the coordinated responses of body parts to stimuli or conditions (owen).
Insulin and Glucagon
The regulation of glucose availability begins with the pancreas, primarily by…
Biomed (2002). Insulin/glucagons. Brown University. Retrieved on November 25, 2013
Bowen, R.A. (2001). Hormones, receptors and control systems. University of Colorado.
Retrieved on November 25, 2013 from http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/basics/index.html
Future of Marijuana in America:
Marijuana or cannabis was first identified by the Chinese in c. 2737 BCE and has since been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. The introduction or arrival of medicinal cannabis in America was characterized with an amazingly colorful and checkered history. Medicinal cannabis was characterized with initial robust use in the United States, which faded after the development of aspirin and opioids. The decreased used culminated in the criminalization of cannabis in America in 1937 despite of the contradictory advice of the American Medical Association, which was submitted on record to Congress. However, the use of marijuana has emerged as a major issue in the past few decades because of the renewed interest in medicinal cannabis. Actually, several stakeholders in the health care sector including the American College of Physicians, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Institutes of Health have supported further research and…
Aggarwal et. al. (2009, June). Medicinal Use of Cannabis in the United States: Historical
Perspectives, Current Trends, and Future Directions. Journal of Opioid Management, 5(3), 153-68.
Cardinale, A. (2014, January 14). A Brief History of How Marijuana Became Illegal in the U.S.
Retrieved July 16, 2014, from http://mic.com/articles/78685/a-brief-history-of-how-marijuana-became-illegal-in-the-u-s
Myocardial Infarction Minimizing Hospital Readmission
Phase 1: EBP for Effective Patient Care Transition
Donald, an acute myocardial infarction (MI) patient, has undergone angioplasty, a procedure in which a catheter is inserted into clogged arteries in a patient’s heart to widen them and improve blood flow. To supplement the angioplasty, Donald has had cardiac stents placed to prop the affected arteries open and reduce their risk of narrowing again. Studies have shown that several complications could result from angioplasty procedures and the insertion of stents as in Donald’s case. The most common complications include bleeding or vascular complications (6 percent of patients), acute renal failure (5 percent of patients), and stroke (0.3 percent of patients) (Dunlay et al., 2012). A study analyzing readmission rates among MI patients in Minnesota found that bleeding was the most common complication after angioplasty, affecting 6 percent of patients (Dunlay et al., 2012). The most common…
Borghi, C., & Ambrosioni, E. (1996). Primary and Secondary Prevention of Myocardial Infarction. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension, 18(3), 547-58.
CMS (n.d.). Guide to Reducing Disparities in Readmissions. Center for Medicare and Medicaid. Retrieved from https://www.cms.gov/About-CMS/Agency-Information/OMH/Downloads/OMH_Readmissions_Guide.pdf
Dunlay, S., Weston, S. A., Killian, J., Bell, R. M., Jaffe, A. S., & Roger, V. L. (2012). Thirty Day Hospital Readmissions Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Community Study. Ann Intern Med, 157(1), 11-18.
Jones, R., Arps, K., Davis, D. M., Blumenthal, R. S., & Martin, S. S. (2018). Clinician Guide to the ABCs of Primary and Secondary Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease. American College of Cardiology. Retrieved from https://www.acc.org/latest-in-cardiology/articles/2018/03/30/18/34/clinician-guide-to-the-abc s
Karunathilake, S. P., & Ganegoda, G. (2018). Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases and Application of Technology for Early Diagnosis. Biomed Research International, doi: org/10.1155/2018/5767864
Lambert, P., Chaisson, K., Horton, S., Petrin, C,…& Brown, J. (2017). Reducing Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury: How Nurses can Improve Patient Safety, a Qualitative Investigation. Critical Care Nursing, 37(1), 13-26.
NR 601 Week 5 Case StudyNR 601 Week 5 Case StudyThe World Health Organization (WHO) defines diabetes as a disease that affects the bodys ability to prepare or produce the hormone insulin, resulting in abnormal metabolism of blood glucose and elevated levels of the same in the blood (WHO, 2021). When an individual has diabetes, their body either does not make sufficient insulin or fails to make use of insulin as it should, causing elevated levels of blood sugar in the bloodstream. There are three types of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes, and Gestational Diabetes (CDC, 2020). The Center for Diseases Prevention and Control (CDC) estimates that 34 million (representing 1 in every 10) Americans have diabetes, and 90-95 percent of these patients have Type 2 diabetes (CDC, 2020). The high prevalence of diabetes calls for adequate understanding on the part of healthcare providers to ensure effective diagnosis…
ReferencesADA Standards of Medical Care (2021). Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2021 Abridged for Primary Care Providers. American Diabetes Association. Retrieved from https://clinical.diabetesjournals.org/content/diaclin/early/2020/12/02/cd21-as01.full.pdfBibiloni, M., Salas, R., Garza, Y., Villareal, J., Sureda, A., & Tur, J.(2016). Serum Lipid Profile, Prevalence of Dyslipidemia and Associated Risk Factors among Northern Mexican Adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 63(5), 544-49.Bigelow, A., & Freeland, B. (2017). Type II Diabetes Care in the Elderly. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 13(3), 181-86.CDC (2021). Diabetes Symptoms. Center for Diseases Prevention and Control (CDC). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/symptoms.htmlCDC (2020). What is Diabetes? Center for Diseases Prevention and Control (CDC). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/diabetes.htmlFDA (2017). Glucophage. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved from https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2017/020357s037s039,021202s021s023lbl.pdfGalicia-Garcia , U., Benito-Vicente, A., Jebari, S., Larrea-Sebal, A., Siddiqi, H., Uribe, K., Ostolaza, H., & Martin, C. (2020). Pathophysiology of Type II Diabetes Mellitus. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(17), 6275-81.Hill, M., & Bordoni, B. (2021). Hyperlipidemia. Treasure Island, FL: Statpearls PublishingHuang, W., Xu, W., Zhu, P., Yang, H., Su, L., & Tang, H.(2017). Analysis of Blood Glucose Distribution Characteristics in a Health Examination Population in Chengdu (2007-2015). Medicine, 96(49), Doi: 1097/MD.0000000000008765Molugulu, N., Yee, L., Ye, Y., Khee, T., Nie, L., Yee, N., Yee, T., Liang, T., & Kesharwani, P. (2017). Systematic Review of Metformin Monotherapy and Dual Therapy with Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitor (SGLT-2) in Treatment of Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 132(1), 157-68.NIH (2021). Diabetes Tests and Diagnoses. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Retrieved from https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/tests-diagnosis#whichtestsPiva , S., Susko, A., Khoja, S., Josbeno, D., Fitzgerald, G., & Toledo, F. (2015). Links between Osteoarthritis and Diabetes: Implications for a Physical Activity Perspective. Clinical Journal of Geriatric Medicine, 31(1), 67-87.Storey, H. L., Pelt, M., Bun, S., Daily, F., Neogi, T., Thompson, M., McGuire, H., & Weigl, B. (2017). Diabetes and Endocrinology, 8(3), 1-8.WHO (2021). Diabetes. World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved from https://www.who.int/health-topics/diabetes#tab=tab_1
The "pain" caused to the heart due to tissue damage can be misplaced in the body due to these nerve pathways and connections; heart attacks are often felt in the left arm and elsewhere on that side of the body between the heart and brain.
Diuretics would encourage the elimination of sodium and a lessened fluid retention, easing the pressure in his arteries.
The increased acidity in J.M.'s blood indicates reduced heart functionality and creatine phosphokinase levels are elevated which indicates muscle damage; low-normal lactate dehydrogenase suggest no recent prior infarctions, however, and without further tests this particular measure is not especially edifying.
The drug relaxes blood vessels, allowing easier passage of blood reducing chest pain (which elevates stress and blood pressure) and easing the underlying problem, as well
Aspirin inhibits the collection of platelets at the site of a plaque rupture, preventing a full blockage…
Occurrence of inherited hemophilia is slightly more likely in Caucasians (1.3%) as opposed to African-Americans (1.1%) and Hispanic (1.2%). Asian populations appear to inherit the gene far less likely, about 1/4 of that of Caucasians. However, modern demographics result in marriage between ethnic types far greater than previous, and statistics show a blending to about 1% of most populations (Soucie, et.al., 1998.)
Abnormality -- as a genetic occurrence, hemophilia infects about 1 in 5,000 male births, but carried in another 5,000 female births. The disease is recessive in females (carried on X-chromosome). Thus, a carrier female has a 50% chance of passing on the defective X chromosome to her daughter, while a male who is affected will always pass on that defect to progeny.
Screening/Testing -- Genetic testing based on family history is the primary mechanism for discovering hemophilia, but certain other tests help quantify the assurance:
Pronounced bleeding at…
Agaliotis, D., et.al. (2009). "Hemophilia -- Overview." EMedicine. Cited in:
Handin, R., et.al., eds. (2003). Blood Principles and Practice of Hemotology."
The Tuskegee Syphilis Study still remains as one of the most outrageous examples of disregard of basic ethical principles of conduct not to mention violation of standards for ethical research. The suspicion and fear produced by the Tuskegee Syphilis Study are still evident today. Community workers often report mistrust of public health institutions within the African-American community. ecently Alpha Thomas of the Dallas Urban League testified before the National Commission on AIDS saying that many African-American people do not trust hospitals or any of the other community health care service providers because of that Tuskegee Experiment (esearch Ethics: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 2010).
In 1990, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), which is one of the country's major civil rights organizations, conducted a survey among 1056 African-American Church members in five cities. They found that 34% of the respondents believed that AIDS was an artificial virus, 35% believed that AIDS…
Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study. (2009). Retrieved March 9, 2010, from University of Virginia Health System Web site:
Boskey, Elizabeth. (2007). What Is the Tuskegee Syphilis Study? Retrieved March 10, 2010,
from About.com Web site: http://std.about.com/od/stdsinthemedia/f/tuskegeefaq.htm
" (AAF, nd)
The Health Maintenance Organization further should "…negotiate with both public and private payers for adequate reimbursement or direct payment to cover the expenses of interpreter services so that they can establish services without burdening physicians…" and the private industry should be "…engaged by medical organizations, including the AAF, and patient advocacy groups to consider innovative ways to provide interpreter services to both employees and the medically underserved." (AAF, nd)
One example of the community healthcare organization is the CCO model is reported as a community cancer screening center model and is stated to be an effective mechanism for facilitating the linkage of investigators and their institutions with the clinical trials network. It is reported that the minority-based CCO was approved initially by the NCI, Division of Cancer revention Board of Scientific Counselors in January 1989. The implementation began in the fall of 1990 and the program was…
Principles for Improving Cultural Proficiency and Care to Minority and Medically-Underserved Communities (Position Paper) (2008) AAFP -- American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/policy/policies/p/princcultuproficcare.html
Volpp, Kevin G.M. (2004) The Effect of Increases in HMO Penetration and Changes in Payer Mix on In-Hospital Mortality and Treatment Patterns for Acute Myocardial Infarction" The American Journal of Managed Care. 30 June 2004. Issue 10 Number 7 Part 2. Onlineavaialble at: http://www.ajmc.com/issue/managed-care/2004/2004-07-vol10-n7Pt2/Jul04-1816p505-512
Darby, Roland B. (2008) Managed Care: Sacruificing Your Health Care for Insurance Industry Profits: Questions You must ask before joning an HMO. Online available at: http://www.rolanddarby.com/br_managedhealth.html
Use tools and equipment that are properly designed to reduce the risk of wrist injury, (Zieve & Eltz 2010)
Workstations, tools and tool handles, and tasks can be redesigned to enable the worker's wrist to maintain a natural position during work, (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke 2010).
Ergonomic aids, such as split keyboards, keyboard trays, typing pads, and wrist braces, may be used to improve wrist posture during typing, (Zieve & Eltz 2010)
Training and awareness; the encouragement of frequent breaks; yoga classes offered for free at the workplace; job rotation.
Employers can develop programs in ergonomics, the process of adapting workplace conditions and job demands to the capabilities of workers, (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke 2010)
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and other nonprescription pain relievers, may ease symptoms that have been present for a short time or have been caused by strenuous…
"Tension Neck Syndrome" (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.rsi.org.uk/text_only/conditions/tension_neck_syndrome.asp
Zieve, D. & Eltz, D.R. (2010). Carpal tunnel syndrome. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001469
From the fact that two individuals were able to keep their hands in for 5 seconds longer than that of the other participants it seems as though the motivational approach may be more effective than sensory discriminative in quelling pain. Nonetheless, this study is severely limited in that the sample was extremely small, and that I was a biased facilitator (ideally such a study should be conducted with at least three other experimenters who are unaware of the purpose and hypothesis of the study), as well as in the fact that it was conducted in limiting circumstances (the bathroom near a bathtub).
Also to be considered is the fact that other confounding circumstances may have induced the resilient individual to have kept her hands in for longer. he may, for instance, be thicker-skinned than the others, or have some other physiological characteristic that may make her naturally more resilient to…
Brewer, B.W, & Karoly, P. (1989). Effects of attentional focusing on pain and perception. Motivation and Emotion, 13, 193-203.
Gentle, M.J. (2001). Attentional shifts alter pain perception in the chicken. Consciousness, cognition and animal welfare, 10, S187-S194.
Hackett, G., & Horan, J.J. (1980). Stress inoculation for pain: What's really going on? Journal of Counseling Psychology
Melzack, R. (1993). Pain: Past, present, and future. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 47, 615.
One food blogger, comparing the price of organic crackers noted that "Carr's crackers were only $3.79 at Whole Foods" but "$4.39 at Haight Street Market, $4.25 at Say Cheese" in her area (Levin 2011).
This seems to be a wise strategy for Whole Foods, given that it cannot compete on price without sacrificing its core values. "There has been much consolidation in the supermarket industry in recent years. The surviving players have realized that they cannot be all things to all people. Instead, they are attempting to do the things they do best better than their competition" (Inlay 2006). In contrast, SuperValu's strategy has been to expand as swiftly as possible and offer value-based savings on a wide variety of goods, including fuel and pharmaceutical items as well as foods. It acquired the Albertson's grocery chain (another mega-store), further increasing its outreach across the nation.
One of the dangers of…
Hughlett, Mike. (2011, January 6). SuperValu to close stores. Star Tribune. Retrieved March 25,
2011 at http://www.startribune.com/business/113050249.html?elr=KArks:DCiU1OiP:DiiUiacyKUnciaec8O7EyUr
Imlay, Thom. (2006, May). Challenges in today's U.S. supermarket industry.
Microsoft retail and hospitality. Retrieved March 25, 2011 at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa479076.aspx#chlussprmrkt_topic1
(of course, the same is true of paper records under lock and key, which can be broken into by old-fashioned burglars). Citizens are afraid that their sensitive electronic health data might fall into the wrong hands. They worry employers, health insurance companies, and even physicians could reject them, based upon the information that is available regarding their health status online.
Public officials and civic leaders must educate the citizenry about how e-Prescribing can be beneficial to their welfare. While jokes about physician's handwriting abound, misread prescription names and dosages can have serious consequences for patient health. The benefits for patients must be put into terms that they can understand. Once patients comprehend that e-Prescribing can reduce medication errors, lower drug costs because of reduced administrative overhead, and ensure that the information conveyed to their physicians is more complete, they will support its widespread use. e-Prescribing and greater expansion of electronic…
Hardy, Kyle. (2009, June 17). Docs get wired in California e-Prescribing initiative.
Healthcare News. Retrieved July 6, 2010 at http://www.healthcareitnews.com/news/docs-get-wired-california-e-prescribing-initiative
Practical esearch Finding Implementation and Experimentation Stage -- Phase I
The experimenter did not set out to determine specifically which of the various contributing factors (or combinations of factors) identified by the empirical research of medial tibial stress syndrome was most responsible for the experimenter's symptoms. However, since the initial attempts to resolve the symptoms incorporated changes to all of the external variables except a change in running surface, the experimenter immediately sought a softer running surface and temporarily abandoned running on any hard surface that magnified instead of minimized the physiological trauma associated with running on harder surfaces.
Because the empirical research also implicated poor running stride mechanics and excessive vertical elevation, the experimenter devoted considerable attention to making the following specific changes to the running stride: (1) shorter strides to minimize travel of the body while neither foot is in contact with the running surface; (2) conscious attempts…
AOS. (2007). Shin Splints. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Retrieved October 20, 2009, from: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00407 .
Braver, R. "How to Test and Treat Exertional Compartment Syndrome: Why the ECS
Diagnosis Is Often Missed" Podiatry Today; Vol. 15 (May 1, 2002). Retrieved
October 20, 2009, from: http://www.podiatrytoday.com/article/382
Further research is needed for determination of type and strain, as well as longitudinal graphing of various populations at risk for HHV-3. In addition, dormancy issue and likelihood of shingles is an important area of future research (Orrin and Goldman, 2006). Additionally, when chickenpox becomes fatal in children, it appears that the liver becomes compromised, either with anti-inflammatory drugs or through burdening it with other toxins. Further research into this phenomenon is clearly necessary (Krasner 1999).
Arvin, a. And a. Gershon, eds. Varicella-Zoster Virus: Virology and Clinical
Management. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Varicella-Chickenpox. April 2009. Cited in:
"Chickenpox -- Healthier You." CPM Medica. 2008. Cited in:
Krasner, G. "Chickenpox: Why Do Children Die?" Coalition for Informed Choice.
1999, Cited in:
Orrin, S. And G. Goldman. The Chickenpox Vaccine: A New Epidemic of Disease and Corruption. Viritualbookworm.com, 2006.
Poland, G. "The…
Arvin, a. And a. Gershon, eds. Varicella-Zoster Virus: Virology and Clinical
Management. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Varicella-Chickenpox. April 2009. Cited in:
The bus stop where we waited for public transportation back to the campus was much closer to my home than the school and I asked for permission to take the bus that would get me home in approximately ten minutes instead of returning all the way back to school with my class on a different bus and then take the school bus home from school. That route represented an additional hour or more to my trip home, so I tried to explain to my teacher that I just wanted to take the same bus that I routinely used to get around town. My teacher refused to allow me to go home directly because he said that the school would be responsible if anything happened to me on the way home and I had to return all the way to the school before going home.
Exceptions to the Teacher's Authority Justified…
I am not sure what I expected about my check-up. I suppose I thought that the new relationship I had the OBGYN because of my pregnancy would continue on as a special relationship. I was wrong. My visit was, once again, the sterile, medical kind, and not the kind that I had with him while I was pregnant. My OBGYN performed the post surgical exam, and then spoke with me briefly.
"You're healthy," he said, "and I would recommend beginning again, as soon as you're ready, to get pregnant again. If that's what you." Then he was gone, and the nurse came in with a prescription.
"This, she said, is a prescription for a mild pain killer for cramping. Really, it's just a prescription strength aspirin." Then she looked at me and added, "I know what you're going through."
I thought she was the connection I needed. Someone who had…
Kohner, Nancy, and Alix Henley. When a Baby Dies: The Experience of Late Miscarriage, Stillbirth, and Neonatal Death. New York: Routledge, 2001. Questia. 11 May 2009 .
Seftel, Laura. Grief Unseen: Healing Pregnancy Loss through the Arts. London: Jessica Kingsley, 2006. Questia. 11 May 2009 .
Any brain injury is serious and Julie should not have continued the climb. Seeking immediate medical attention as soon as the injury occurred may have saved Julie's life. The severe headache and ringing in her ears is another sign that the bump on the head was not so light, but still consistent with a Grade 1 concussion. Although Julie did not lose consciousness, she still had the key signs of a concussion.
The treatment of a concussion includes rest and inactivity. Aspirin should be avoided, as it may contribute to continued internal bleeding. Continuing the hike may have caused Julie's blood pressure to remain high, contributing to the inability of her body to form clots at the injury points. The onset of severe headache was a sign that things had become critical. Julie's life may have been saved had the severity of the injury been recognized from the beginning and…
I think that I would have to personally review any experiments conducted by that person, to assure myself that they did not contain the same types of ethical flaws. Furthermore, I would report the person to their appropriate governing body, so that they would at least be aware of the potential ethical problems that could be created by the researcher. If I were to enter into management and discover that one of the studies under me was being conducted in a manner like the Tuskegee study, I would not immediately end the study.
Instead, I would order that all study subjects be given effective medication to treat their disease and then end the study. One ethical question that I cannot answer is whether I would inform the patients that they had been subjected to years of useless treatments and then try to convince them that I was going to give…
Brunner, B. (2008). The Tuskegee syphilis experiment. Retrieved November 5, 2008 from Tuskegee University
Web site: http://www.tuskegee.edu/Global/Story.asp?s=1207586
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008). U.S. Public Health Service syphilis study at Tuskegee: Home. Retrieved November 5, 2008, from Centers for Disease Control
Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/tuskegee/index.html
1. Direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing is a key means of developing and maintaining brand awareness and brand loyalty.
2. Aggressive product placement via health care practitioners remains a major means of keeping Lilly's market share of antidepressants at an optimal level. Promoting Prozac and other Lilly products at psychiatric conventions, seminars, hospitals, and private practices ensures that the drug will be highly visible, its name virtually synonymous with the treatment of depression and other mood disorders. By keeping the name Prozac on top consumers are more likely to ask for Lilly products, and psychiatrists are more likely to prescribe it.
3. Divert attention away from Prozac and toward emerging antidepressant and antianxiety medications. This alternative entails devoting more resources to research and development and less to marketing and would involve decisions at upper levels of management.
Lilly needs to maintain a major slice of the antidepressant market share regardless…
"Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening metabolic problem caused by inability of the kidneys to excrete potassium, impairment of the mechanisms that move potassium from the circulation into the cells, or a combination of these factors "FN12. The article states that acute episodes of hyperkalemia are commonly triggered by the introduction of a medication affecting potassium, and that illnesses and dehydration can also be factors. The physician must also be aware therefore that a common positive response by patients in these circumstances was to a sodium bicarbonate supplementation.
Another bit of information that might be important to the diagnosing physician would be that "elevated serum aldosterone causes the renal cortical collecting ducts to excrete potassium and retain sodium, further lowering serum potassium" FN13. Potassium levels should be monitored in an ongoing fashion to determine whether they are stable or not. Additional monitoring should take place for hypertension since twenty to sixty…
Pietrow M.D., P.K.; Karellas, M.D., M.E.; (2006) Medical management of common urinary calculi, American Family Physician, Vol. 74, No. 1, pp. 86-94
Wolf, Jr. J.S., MD, FACS, Bloom, D.A. (2008) Nephrolithiasis, eMedicine.com, http://www.emedicine.com/MED/topic1600.htm#section~AuthorsandEditors , Accessed June 12, 2008
National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse,(2007), http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/iganephropathy/ , Accessed June 11, 2008
Thorp, M.L., D.O., M.P.H.; (2005) Diabetic nephropathy: Common questions, American Family Physician, Vol. 72, No. 1, pp. 96-99
However, Harvard Medical School (HMS) reports that in that study of 1,400 patients, 222 "composite events occurred." Those "events" included 65 deaths, 101 "hospitalizations for congestive heart failure, 25 myocardial infarctions and 23 strokes."
In an understatement, the HMS report - written by Dr. Singh - concluded that while improving the lives of patients with CKD is "of paramount importance," this particular study reveals, "...Aiming for a complete correction of anemia is associated with increased risk, increased cost and no quality of life benefits." The study was published in the November 16, 2006 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Meantime, the National Institutes of Health / Medline Plus (www.nim.nih.gov) explains that epoetin alfa is also used with people who have HIV, it is used prior to surgery and after surgery "to decrease the number of blood transfusions needed" in the predicable loss of blood during surgery. It is…
Harvard Medical School. (2005). Blood test can accurately diagnose heart failure in patients
With kidney dysfunction. Retrieved February 10, 2008, at http://www.hms.harvard.edu .
Harvard Medical School. (2006). Higher Doses of Anemia Drug for Chronic Kidney Disease
Does Not Improve Quality of Life and Increases Risk for Cardiovascular Events. Retrieved February 9, 2008, at
As a result, it is not stable to say that the balance of benefits and harms of routine use of supplements of vitamins a, C or E; multivitamins with folic acid; or antioxidant combinations for the prevention of cancer or cardiovascular disease (U.S. Preventive Services ask Force (USPSF).
From other evidence, it does not seem that the experiments of this article were not conducted long enough to prove its thesis because supplements do not help with cancer. If they were trying to prove supplements did not help, their testing would be valid. As it can be seen from other evidence, the objective can be proven false because other research prove tat their thesis cannot be accurate.
he Canadian ask Force on Preventive Health Care (CFPHC) concludes that there is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the use of routine vitamin E supplementation for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease…
The Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (CTFPHC) concludes that there is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the use of routine vitamin E supplementation for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in the general population and in male smokers (Grade I recommendation) ("MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study," 2002 [I, good]; de Gaetano, 2001 [I, fair]; Virtamo et al., 1998 [I, fair]) (the role of vitamin E supplements in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer).
The most important outcome of the report will be greater recognition that it is time to concentrate on teaching nutrition, promoting regular physical activity, and strongly encouraging smoking cessation and particularly increasing outreach to women of racial and ethnic minorities. From there, although vitamin E is not a successful primary prevention strategy for women, one should not make the mistake of concluding that it will not turn out to be beneficial for men. There is the importance of recognizing biological differences between the sexes in cardiovascular research by providing valuable sex-specific data on primary prevention (Vitamin E May Not Prevent Heart Disease or Cancer in Healthy Women)
Despite the fact the objective was proven false, the article did make good points about women's health. "A total of 999 cardiovascular events were reported during the trial. For the composite outcome, vitamin E was associated with a nonsignificant 7% reduction in events. Vitamin E also had no significant effect on total rates of MI or stroke when each of these outcomes was examined individually. However, study subjects receiving vitamin E were 24% less likely to die from CVD, a significant difference attributable in large part to a reduction in sudden deaths and other CVD deaths besides MI and stroke.Vitamin E appeared to have a stronger effect in reducing the risk of cardiovascular death as the study progressed from years 6 to 10. Noncompliance did not appear to alter the study's main findings, nor did randomization to receive aspirin or placebo (Vitamin E May Not Prevent Heart Disease or Cancer in Healthy). Even though the article proves that vitamin E does not help to some degree, it can be concluded that further evidence needs to be provided in order to prove further prevention.
A behavior resulting from injury or disease behavior resulting from experience behavior resulting from disease or drugs biologically determined behavior
Evidence that learning has occurred is seen in published research studies changes in thinking changes in behavior emotional stability
Change in performance is preceded by bad reviews scientific research the behavior of others change in disposition
If-then statements may also be referred to as principles generalization hypothesis laws
Statements which summarize relationships are restricted to the physical sciences known as hypothesis known as generalization never used in the social sciences
Rules which govern the gathering of information are known as rigid and dogmatic scientific method being flexible
APA rules for research studies
Informed consent is given by the researcher judicial review the American Psychological Association the research subject
Laws are to beliefs as truth is to untruth accuracy is to inaccuracy convictions are to facts are to convictions
There are two constant irritations in U.S. pharma companies' relationships internationally:
Some developing nations, such as India, razil and South Africa, are chipping away at the patent situation, trying to shorten the time until the drugs can be brought out in generic form.
The U.S. has supported high prices as the cost for innovation. Since other countries are not playing along, this means that their citizens are benefiting from the innovation paid by Americans.
ig Pharma is at a crossroads today. The previous "great" chronic diseases, like diabetes, heart disease, infectious disease (viral and bacterial) have now been tackled by "blockbuster" drugs.
The high regulatory pressures, price pressures and lack of future such blockbuster markets dictates that pharma companies will have to innovate a lot more in niches -- more products, smaller markets. The large pharma companies which grew up in a time of plenty will therefore have to…
Bureau, U.S. Census. (2001). An Aging World. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
Economist. (2007, October 25). The Pharmaceutical Industry: Beyond the Pill. Economist, p. n.p.
Economist. (2007). World Atlas. London: Economist.
Herper, M. (2007, October 29). Drug Drought. Forbes, p. n.p.
European pharmaceutical dispensing customs and laws are significantly different than in the U.S. In Germany, for example, one cannot buy vitamins (above a certain small dosage) or aspirin anywhere but a pharmacy. Most drugs we consider OTC are still limited to the pharmacy in many European countries.
In considering whether to push for DTC advertising in Europe, American pharmaceutical companies will have to tread carefully, and be mindful of the special political clout carried by pharmacies and physicians.
Culture' and the limits of innovation in marketing: Ernest Dichter, motivation studies and psychoanalytic consumer research in Great ritain, 1950s -- 1970s (Schwarzkopf, 2007)
This study from the University of London talks about the attempt of American companies and advertising agencies to bring the results of psychoanalysis to Great ritain in the 1950's to the 1970's, and the difficulties encountered. America pioneered in consumer motivational research, which was popularized by Vance Packard…
Economist. (2007, April 26). Counter-attacking the Kremlin. Economist, p. n.p.
Guthrie, P. (2007). Direct-to-consumer advertising debated. CMAJ, n.p.
Pfanner, E. (2007, March 22). Marketers Have Eyes on the 'Third Screen'. New York Times, p. n.p.
Schwarzkopf, S. (2007). 'Culture' and the limits of innovation in marketing: Ernest Dichter, motivation studies and psychoanalytic consumer research in Great Britain, 1950s -- 1970s. Management and Organisational History, 219-236.