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However, the purpose of the article is to explain how 9/11 changed the approach to psychological intervention. The article discusses advances that have been made in a variety of areas, including different ways to assess needs, screen potential clients, determine the efficacy of programs, and look at how different programs impact survivors (Watson, 2011). What the article reveals is that there have been significant differences in how psychological interventions are conducted post 9/11. Not surprisingly, they found that traumatic bereavement counseling is not yet an adequately developed area. First, they suggested that disaster response could be better coordinated to respond to huge disasters like 9/11. Next, they discussed how policy decisions are needed to enhance federal funding and access to services. They also discuss the fact that traumatic bereavement represents an area for critical future research.
This article is important in the approach to both interview and diagnosing, not so…
Pedersen, P.B. (1997). Managing culturally learned assumptions. In Culture-centered counseling interventions: Striving for accuracy, (pp.27-43). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Watson, P., Brymer, M., & Bonnano, G. (2011). Postdisaster psychological intervention since
9/11. American Psychologist, 66(6), 482-494.
Seeking to strip his conception of knowledge to the bare minimum by removing all notions which can subject to reasonable doubt, Descartes differentiates between assumptions and true knowledge because, in his estimation, any perception based solely on sensory input is inevitably flawed, as the human sensory system is known to be fallible (Collingwood). By rejecting the role of assumptions in forming knowledge, Descartes devises perhaps the most well recognized philosophical postulations ever formed: Cogito ergo sum (I think, therefore I am).
Despite the revelations of Descartes' epistemological theories, it is clear that much of the modern human experience is based on widely held assumptions that have been collectively mistaken for knowledge. Cultural beliefs engrained over dozens of generations, religious doctrine issued through official edicts, and erroneous conclusions accepted at face value are examples of assumption usurping the place of empirical examination and logical reasoning. ith the advent of anonymously contributed…
Collingwood, Robin George. An Essay on Philosophical Method. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2005. Print.
Grube, George Maximilian Antony. Five Dialogues: Euthyphro, Apology, Meno, Crito, Phaedo. 2nd. Indianapolis, in: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 2002. Print.
Gulley, Norman. Plato's theory of knowledge. Greenwood Press, 1986.
Ichikawa, Jonathan Jenkins and Steup, Matthias, "The Analysis of Knowledge," the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2012 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.),
However, the sum total of the organization's output extends beyond the realm of the quantifiable. Qualitative measures also exist, and they can impact on the quality of the organization's output as well. It can be argued that even qualitative outputs will eventually impact on quantitative outputs. Ford's loss of reputation as the result of the Pinto scandal, for example, cannot be quantified but the sales and profit decreases that flow from the scandal can be quantified. The implications, however, of the damaged reputation cannot be avoided once the damage has been done. Thus, it is important for managers to control the qualitative output before the impacts appear in quantitative form. It may be impossible to control the impacts once the damage has already occurred.
In this way, the notion of quality as typically defined in production-oriented theories like Six Sigma or TQM, proves inadequate. As Ordonez, et al. (2009) showed,…
Ordonez, Lisa D,; Schweitzer, Maurice E.; Galinsky, Adam D. & Bazerman, Max H. (2009). Goals Gone Wild: The Systematic Side Effects of Overprescribing Goal Setting. Academy of Management Perspectives.
Wood, J.C. & Wood, M.C. (2002). F.W. Taylor: Critical Evaluations in Business and Management, Vol. 1. Taylor and Francis: London.
Hashmi, Khurram. (2009). Introduction and Implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM). iSixSigma.com. Retrieved September 6, 2009 from http://www.isixsigma.com/library/content/c031008a.asp
Kouzes, Jim & Posner
Kelly has made many assumptions that Pat does not know anything about how the iScanner product works and the basics of quality control. He thinks that Pat is trying to undermine him by talking to one of his programmers and appears to be basing, in part, some of the requirements for the retail product on products used at airports that may require higher security features.
Pat assumes that Kelly and his team do not share the same vision and commitment as the rest of the company. With little evidence presented for likely market acceptance, Pat is convinced that the retail solution will be a dream product. She believes customers will be happy that the company is first to market even with a product that has incomplete features. Pat also believes that the product should be able to meet delivery times based on one conversation with a programmer that mentions an…
Bellamy's own assumptions or presuppositions about human nature, social institutions, history, and ideal social relationships. Analyze his assumptions in some or all of these areas."
Introduction to the Book
Looking Backward: 2000-1887 (1945/1888) by Edward Bellamy filled the empty space felt by the Americans of that era, desiring the utopian substance of society without the presence of "Associationism." Though the book is not predominantly notable as the writer's invention, it addresses the longings of the people struck by socio-economic frights and breakdown through the proposal of a Paradise-like society wherein warfare, starvation, and hatred were removed from the community. The story embodies the amazement of Julian est, a person who wakes up after sleeping for 113 years in Boston, 2000 A.D. The book revolves around the author's portrayal of a society formed after a revolution that liberated the people from the terrors of capitalism. In this idealized version of the…
Abrash, M. (1991). Looking backward: Marxism Americanized: In M.S. Cummings & N.D. Smith (Eds.)., Utopian Studies IV (pp. 6-9). Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
Bellamy, E. (1945/1888). Looking backward: 2000-1887. Cleveland: The World Publishing Company.
Rhodes, H.V. (1967). Utopia: In American political thought. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press.
I figured that in the lifelong journey of self-development brought about by leadership self-reflection is indeed essential and crucial. It is indeed important to be self-aware before pursuing leadership. It is essential that one fully knows his or her own values before leading others. One should not only be aware of his or her values; he or she should also understand these values and have a strong conviction in standing by these values. In the same way, it is also important to put a conscious effort in leading others.
One should treat leadership with utmost care and put high value to it. Leadership is not to be taken lightly for it is a heavy responsibility. I also believe that it is indeed easy to get carried away when we hold power. Being powerful and important are tempting. Abusing our power becomes easy when we are powerful and important to others.…
America, for every 10.000 people having a home, twenty other are experiencing homelessness, as indicated by a report from the Homelessness esearch Institute (HI) (2013, p. 5). Nevertheless, it was only when the author of this paper was given the possibility to volunteer in a shelter that the penny dropped and we realized homeless people were nothing like we thought. Not all of them, in any case. When growing up, what we were usually told was to avoid any contact with homeless people. This warning did not necessarily come in verbal terms, but once you have been pulled away from their surroundings a number of times, your mind registers the "danger" and is taught how to react thereon. We have come to realize since that society usually inoculates the idea that homeless people are not productive members, that they are usually violent, thus to be avoided. It would not be…
National Alliance to End Homelessness (2013). The State of Homelessness in America 2013. Retrieved from http://documents.lahsa.org/Communication/pressrelease/2013/NAEH_State_of_Homeleness_in_America_2013.pdf
San Diego Police Department (n.d.). Prevention tips: Dealing with Homeless People. Retrieved from http://www.sandiego.gov/police/services/prevention/tips/homeless.shtml
Butterfly, David Hwang questions many assumptions about Asian women that are apparent in Madame Butterfly. In Madame Butterfly, the beautiful young Japanese geisha, Butterfly, sacrifices her family ties, religion, and eventually her life for an American, Lieutenant Pinkerton, who never intends to take her back to America. Hwang's M. Butterfly, in contrast, tells the story of an American man in China during the Vietnam era, Gallimard, who falls in love with a Chinese woman, only to claim he is shocked when he discovers, several years later, that his lover is a man.
Perhaps the most obvious assumption Hwang tackles is the stereotype that all Asian women are docile and submissive. In Madame Butterfly, Butterfly truly lives up to this stereotype, as she repeatedly rejects suitors and a more suitable life to remain faithful to Lieutenant Pinkerton. In contrast, in Hwang's M. Butterfly, the Chinese woman is only pretending to be…
Hwang, David Henry. 1994. M. Butterfly. Plume Books.
Madame Butterfly. Director: Frederic Mitterrand. 2002. Columbia Tri-Star.
The parents, teachers, and other adults express their id desires on South Park too. The core human instincts that Freud discussed in his theories, such as instinctual aggression, become common motifs on South Park. elated to the aggression instinct, Freud's theory of the death wish is also present on almost every episode of the show. Until recent years of the production, the character Kenny was killed in every show. The creators of South Park have honed in on the instinctual desire for aggression in the human species, depicting violence in comedic but intense ways. The depiction of violence on South Park would seem to suggest that Freud was correct in his assumption that aggression pervades human nature. Many of the characters on the show throw tantrums, kill each other, and in general express their aggression. The huge following that the show enjoys also illustrates that Freud might not have been…
David Hume." Wikipedia. Online at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Hume .
Soren Kierkegaard." Wikipedia. Online at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kierkegaard .
South Park. Television series on Comedy Central.
Thomas Hobbes." Wikipedia. Online at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hobbes .
system of concepts, assumptions, expectations, etc. that supports and informs the research. So as I understand it, this section (F) is basically outlining and recapping the research done from the literature review. Section G. is the methods exploration. This is a discussion of some of the potential research methods that could be used, and perhaps coming to a final conclusion about the research method that will be used. There are several different research methods that might conceivably make sense for any given research paper, so it is a valuable exercise to run through these different options to make sure you are using the best method.
As to which I expect to be the most difficult, clearly F. I think that G, the research methods, is first and foremost a very important exercise. Even if it is difficult, you have to work through this. The research on this will be informative…
Johnson, R. & Onwuegbuzie, A. (2004). Mixed methods research: A research paradigm whose time has come. Educational Researcher. Vol. 33 (7) 14-26.
Kenny, A., Nankervis, K., Kidd, T. & Connell, S. (2012). Models of nursing student employment: An Australian action research study. Nurse Education Today. Vol. 32 (2012) 600-605.
McNiff, J. (2014). Action research: Practice and principles. Routledge.
Witell, L., Gustafsson, A. & Johnson, M. (2014). The effect of customer information during new product development on profits from goods and services. European Journal of Marketing. Vol. 48 (9-10) 1709-1730.
Assumptions Should be Avoided Unless They are Productive
An assumption is an opinion or belief often held without evidence or proof to support it. Assumptions tend to be based on preconceived ideas about certain people, places, things or events. One forms an opinion, consciously or unconsciously, without actually having all the information that a critically thinking individual would require before formulating an opinion on the matter. There are many types of assumptions and they all impact people and their lives in different ways. This paper will describe the various types of assumptions, how they impact us and why we should not make assumptions.
There are three main types of assumptions: 1) paradigmatic, 2) prescriptive, and 3) casual. Paradigmatic assumptions are the most difficult to identify, usually because a person does not know how to identify them. These are assumptions that are ingrained in our worldviews. They inform the frameworks by…
Esser, James K., and Joanne S. Lindoerfer. \\\\"Groupthink and the space shuttle Challenger accident: Toward a quantitative case analysis.\\\\" Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 2.3 (1989): 167-177.
“Identifying and Validating Assumptions.” https://quizlet.com/20621786/identifying-validating-assumptions-flash-cards/
Martin, Kirsten, and Bidhan Parmar. \\\\"Assumptions in decision making scholarship: Implications for business ethics research.\\\\" Journal of Business Ethics 105.3 (2012): 289-306.
Spacey, John. “12 Types of Assumptions.” https://simplicable.com/new/assumptions
Turk, Daniel, France Robert, and Bernhard Rumpe. \\\\"Assumptions underlying agile software-development processes.\\\\" Journal of Database Management (JDM) 16.4 (2005): 62-87.
... If gun manufacturers are responsible for violence, why not the makers of the steel used in the guns?" (Levy, 2004, p. 80)
The application of the principles of assumption of risk and product liability to incidents that are ever more removed from the ideal usage of the product or service eventually creates a situation in which all are liable for everything and everyone.
The notion of choice upon which assumption of risk original rests is lost if individuals are no longer free to exercise any discretion in the usage of products and services. Yet, in today's climate, businesses must be more aware than ever of the potential liabilities of the products they sell and the services they offer. The bungee jump operator, the auto manufacturer, or the operator of textile mill or coal mine, must be up front about any and all potential dangers involved in the use of…
Clinard, M.B. (1990). Corporate Corruption The Abuse of Power. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Dewees, D., Duff, D., & Trebilcock, M. (1996). Exploring the Domain of Accident Law: Taking the Facts Seriously. New York: Oxford U.S..
The Assumption of the Virgin
The Assumption of the Virgin is a work of art depicting the Virgin as she ascends to heaven, surrounded by the apostles. The underlying theme of The Assumption of the Virgin is religious as it depicts the assumption of the Virgin, which, to faithful Catholics of El Greco's time was not simply a spiritual or religious theme, but also a historical event. The symbolism used reaffirms the religious aspects of the painting. The apostles are shown, bending to the Virgin in reverence, and angels are shown waiting in heaven for the Virgin.
The work is narrative, because it shows an event and tells the story of that event. The story depicted in the painting was a familiar one to Catholics of El Greco's time, just as it is familiar to Catholics of today. Therefore, it is difficult to separate what story the painting…
Theotokopoulos, Domenicos. The Assumption of the Virgin. The Art Institute of Chicago,
The people from the new company are assuming that Jeffrey will come in and do the job required of him, not necessarily recognizing that Jeffrey's ego will have to be continually stroked.
Jeffrey needs to validate his assumptions by talking to his boss concerning the hiring of the new individual and the fact that he is not being recognized nor rewarded. Perhaps, if both individuals were on the same page, employee burnout would not be issue that it is, especially in Jeffrey's case.
Since I am a very straightforward individual, I would have followed a different alternative. I would have gone to my boss directly, from the beginning, to let him know that I was not happy and that my work was suffering accordingly. I would tell him if things did not change then I would be forced to look elsewhere for employment.
As the NLR seeks to bring diverse research communities together to confront and solve complex challenges "of building network architecture, end-to-end performance, and scaling," (Tash 32-33), the thought presented from Disraeli stressing that a leader must "follow the people," (Smith, and Cohon) aptly portrays the thought this researcher contends best relates the conclusion gained from this study. Just as a leader "follows" and notes the needs of people he/she serves, if NLR notes the needs of those it serves, it will in turn, lead in its field in its quest to "light the future." (National LambdaRail)
National Lambdarail Launches Transit and Peering Project. (2006, April 20) Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center, Carnegie Mellon University, University of Pittsburgh PA. 10 Feb. 2008 http://www.psc.edu/publicinfo/news/2006/200604-20nlr.php
NLR National Lambda Rail...light the future." (2008) http://www.nlr.net" National LambdaRail. 10 Feb. 2008 http://www.nlr.net/researchers/guide/.
Tash, illiam R. Ph.D. (2006). Evaluating Research Centers and Institutes for…
National Lambdarail Launches Transit and Peering Project. (2006, April 20) Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center, Carnegie Mellon University, University of Pittsburgh PA. 10 Feb. 2008 http://www.psc.edu/publicinfo/news/2006/200604-20nlr.php
NLR National Lambda Rail...light the future." (2008) http://www.nlr.net " National LambdaRail. 10 Feb. 2008
infused my original assumptions with greater specificity over the course of the gathering of my information. At first, I conducted a literature review of my topic (human trafficking) to establish that there is a recorded tendency that women are more likely to be trafficked than men. But after exploring the data collection process further of these research studies, I began to understand that certain factors can affect even statistical evidence, such as the fact that certain forms of trafficking may be more likely to be detected than other forms. For example, women seem to be more apt to be trafficked into the sex industry. Since all forms of prostitution are illegal in most states, this makes it easier to detect than coerced labor in the agricultural and garment industries and in domestic service (Hepburn & Simon 2010). This highlighted that there will likely always be gaps in whatever data that…
Watergate was a viable accusation because it could be proved with recordings of the entire affair. Clinton's sexgate could be proved because there were people, individuals, who could vouch for what had happened. However, in this case, there is no actual proof, only mere assertions.
One of the things that is entirely bothersome in this book, tied to what was mentioned previously, is the fact that Michael Moore seems to find an incredible talent of blaming any insignificant dysfunctional issue in the American society on the White House and the Administration in general. In my opinion, one of the very strong examples in this sense is revealed in the very first chapter of the book, entitled "The Sad and Sordid Whereabouts of bin Cheney and bin ush."
Already, the title itself expresses the very aggressive, subjective stance that Michael Moore is choosing to use in this book. You can actually…
1. Moore, Michael. Stupid White Men...and Other Sorry Excuses for the State of the Nation! Regan Books; 1 edition (February 19, 2002
Stupid White Men: Online Chapters "The Sad and Sordid Whereabouts of bin Cheney and bin Bush" a Free Online Chapter addition to "Stupid White Men" Part One: "What Does a 99-cent Bic Lighter Tell Us About the Bush War on Terrorism?." On the Internet at http://www.michaelmoore.com/books-films/stupidwhitemen/onlinechapters/part01.php.Last retrieved on June 8, 2007
Sex in the City: Reflecting Common Assumptions About Women, But Not Women's Real Lives
The popular HBO comedy series Sex in the City portrayed the fortunes of four upscale Manhattan women looking for love. The feminist or liberated nature of the show was much-debated, throughout its duration. On one hand, the close relationship of the protagonists -- Carrie, Samantha, Miranda, and Charlotte -- was the one constant amongst the sea of changes in all of the characters' lives. These changes encompassed marriages, births, cancer, and other life-altering events. However, on the other hand, the characters' relationships with men formed the primary focus of the series. Their sexual and romantic troubles drove the series' plots and were more important dramatically than the characters' work lives or even their hobbies. The cultural myth that women, no matter how successful, are obsessed with finding the right man, and are only fully 'female' when…
Critical Thinking Action Project
The assumptions that can be reached through deductive reasoning -- that there are most definitely problems between the home office and the foreign office; and that the two offices have different objectives -- are certainly not rocket science. These kinds of problems create tension and conflict, which detract from the objectives and mission of ExtraVert. The solution (or solutions) to the problem presented by this assignment -- what has gone wrong with ExtraVert and can the problem be solved -- will be presented in this paper. Solutions can almost always be arrived at if careful, thoughtful, thorough understanding and courtesy is the strategy and theme of the problem-solving project.
Cultural Differences and Constructive Behaviors
Clearly, with any global operation, there needs to be clear-cut communication established between the home office and the foreign office -- or offices, if there is more than one foreign unit as…
Chan, A.W.H., and Cheung, H.Y. (2012). Cultural Dimensions, Ethical Sensitivity, and Corporate Governance. Journal of Business Ethics, 110(1), 45-59.
Van Hove, N. (2012). Successful Global S&OP: Leadership, Change Management, Behavior,
& Cross-Cultural Differences. Journal of Business Forecasting, 31(3), 4-20.
Ian Teford. My assumptions of his motivations.
Telford's motivation seems to be money, although he also seems to be a person who cannot be content with one project, is restless and ambitious, and constantly rushing onto something new. e is also current with the times and is aware of opportunity when he sees. Recognizing that the Internet posed great opportunity and that he could use it, Telford saw where he could connect one thing with another (the epoxy business, operated by Dow Chemicals, with a dot.com presence) and proceeded to do so. Telford, too, was a pragmatic person. e focused on the bottom line: money, and realized that customers more than anything else wanted something that was cheap. In this way, Telford proves himself to be a practical person who focused on what customer's wanted, evaluated the need within the opportunities of the times and combined both to move ahead…
Highbeam research. Japanese economic success: timing, culture, and organisational capability.(Special Issue on The Origins of Japanese Industrial Power: Strategy, Institutions and the Development of Organisational Capability)
Stanley works company history http://www.stanleyblackanddecker.com /
In Hippolytus, Theseus assumes he knows the truth regarding Hippolytus and Phaedra. However,…
Ovid. "The Story of Daedalus and Icarus." Metamorphosis. Rolfe Humphries, trans. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 1955.
"The Story of Phaeton." Metamorphosis. Rolfe Humphries, trans. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 1955.
This will allow the company to build share in large projects, phasing out small projects gradually as prices are increased. If the point comes where the company is faced with resource constraints and therefore needs to choose between mutually exclusive projects, it should focus on the larger of these projects because of the direct correlation between project size and profitability.
4. In preparing the projection of income, some assumptions should be made. The first is with respect to the number of projects undertaken. The company should assume some growth, based on historic organic growth in large projects and it should also assume that its new focus will result in some growth. A no-growth scenario (i.e. worst case) should also be examined to provide some sensitivity analysis to the discussion.
The second major assumption that should be utilized is that the company will be able to reduce overhead and staffing costs.…
Student Technology Teachers' Values and Assumptions: How They Impact on Teaching Practice" by endy J. Dow. The study that Dow conducted involved a phenomenological evaluation of student teachers' experiences of learning which led to her conclusions about the fixed nature and structure of knowledge. Even though the study methodology was unorthodox and limiting in some respects, the study findings appear to support Dow's conclusions regarding teacher education courses.
The study methodology departed from the norms that typically use in-depth semi-structured interviews or pencil and paper measures to explore epistemological beliefs. Instead, the study used in-depth analysis of third-year students' reflective journals over the course of a university term. hile this departure from the accepted methodology had the benefit of accessing a record of the students' independent and voluntary reflections on their progress or lack thereof, it raises questions about the study findings. The article does not present enough information on…
Dow, W.J. (n.d.). Student technology teachers' values and assumptions: how they impact on teaching practice. (n.d.). Retrieved October 31, 2011 from: http://www.iteaconnect.org/Conference/PATT/PATT19/Dowfinal17.pdf
The self-organization concept refers to the identity, vision, mission, and values of the organization. An organization's identity includes current interpretations of its history, present decisions and activities, and its sense of its future. It is the identity that provides the capacity for evolution and self-organization.
To hold the organization together for an identity, the free-flow of information is considered important. Only when information belongs to everyone in the organization, people begin to organize rapidly and effectively around customers, competitors, and environments (Stewart and Manz, 1995). It is that creates the conditions for the emergence of fast, well-integrated, and effective responses. Also, free flow of information brings together members of an organization for solving the organizational problems (Ashby, 1969). Beyond that, customers become the stakeholders that help in refinement of the organization.
Therefore, one of the prime concerns for leaders become that they avoid the barriers that create hindrance in information…
1. Ashby, W.R. (1969). Self-regulation and requisite variety. In Emery, F.E. (Ed.), Systems Thinking, Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
2. Ashkenas, R., Ulrich, D., Jick, T. And Kerr, S. (2001). The Boundaryless Organization, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
3. Cherns, a. (1987). Principles of socio-technical design revisited. Human Relations, Vol. 40, pp. 153-62.
4. Cummings, T. (1978). Self-regulating work groups: a socio-technical synthesis. Academy of Management Review, Vol. 3, pp. 625-34.
These factors -- self-awareness, self-concept and emotional intelligence -- will also affect one's leadership style. High levels of these traits would make one a perfect candidate for servant leadership, but if levels of these traits differ, they could guide one to other forms of leadership. For example, a leader with relatively poor social skills is unlikely to be a servant leader, and is more likely to pursue a transactional leadership style. Somebody with great social skills but lacking in self-awareness or self-concept could become a "great man" -- style leader or could become an autocrat (or both, in some political cases).
One's self-concept in particular will guide one's leadership style. How one envisions him- or herself is critical to understanding how he or she will define his or her leadership style. Self-awareness contributes the ability to challenge one's assumed constraints and to celebrate one's points of power (Fowler et al.,…
Fowler, S.B., Blanchard, K., and Hawkins, L. (2010). Self leadership: The power behind empowerment. In K. Blanchard, Leading at a higher level (pp. 91-103). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Greenleaf, R.K. (1970, 1991). The servant as leader. Indianapolis, IN: Greenleaf Center for Servant Leadership.
2006 Global Terrorism NIE
Like any intelligence product, the declassified Key Judgments of the 2006 National Intelligence Estimate "Trends in Global Terrorism: Implications for the United States" relies on certain explicit and implicit assumptions as a part of its analysis. Identifying these assumptions is crucial for evaluating the accuracy of any piece of analysis, and intelligence products in particular. Explicit assumptions may be identified by looking out for key words, while implicit assumptions require more in-depth consideration.
The explicit assumptions in the 2006 NIE are identified by certain key words which inform the reader that the following information is not verified fact, but rather based on an assumption, which itself may or may not be based on specific evidence. These key words include terms like "probably," "likely," "could," and "would," because all of these words signify that the statements being made are conditional, rather than definitive. In other instances, the…
Office of the Director of National Intelligence. (2006) Declassified key judgments of the national intelligence estimate "trends in global terrorism: implications for the United States."
staff and the supervision of higher education staff members?
It is the primary assumption regarding the staff as well as the supervision of higher education staff members that they should influence the people around them in such a manner that they would work for the welfare of all rather than working for their own personal causes (Yukl, 2006). This staff acts as a leadership and therefore, they should have high ethical standards along with intrapersonal and interpersonal skills so that they can guide and influence the people around them in a positive manner and prove to be effective leaders (Jossey-Bass, 2003, p. 253).
Assumptions are opinion instinctively created to simplify a persons' rationale for considering and accepting something that one thinks to be right (uggiero, 2004, p. 94-95). I was given the responsibility to consider and decide a number of things regarding the current staff working in the higher education…
Bernhardt, V.L. (2004). Data Analysis for Continuous Improvement (2nd ed.). Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.
Business leadership: A Jossey-Bass reader. (2003). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. (pp.440-445).
Gaetane, Jean-Marie, Normove, Anthony H. (2010). "The Impact of Relational Leadership, Social Justice, and Spirituality among Female Secondary School Leaders." International Journal of Urban Educational Leadership 4(1) pg. 22-24.
Glickman, C.D., Gordon, S.P., Ross-Gordon, J.M. (2010). SuperVision and Instructional Leadership (8th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
There are several different models that can be used to help determine the cost of capital for a company. Each is based on a model, and can be understood not only in terms of its formula but also in terms of its underlying assumptions. These assumptions will provide the foundation for the model, and will inform the financial manager about the strengths and weaknesses of each model. This report will outline in detail three such major models for determining the cost of capital. The first is the capital asset pricing model, known as CAPM. The second is the dividend discount model, and the third is arbitrage pricing theory.
The capital asset pricing model is the first of the three major models for determining the cost of capital. CAPM is widely used to determine the cost of equity in particular. The underlying theory of CAPM is that stock returns relative…
Investopedia. (2013). Capital asset pricing model. Investopedia. Retrieved September 15, 2013 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/capm.asp
Investopedia. (2013). Digging into the dividend discount model. Investopedia. Retrieved September 15, 2013 from http://www.investopedia.com/articles/fundamental/04/041404.asp
Investopedia. (2013). Definition of arbitrage pricing theory Investopedia. Retrieved September 15, 2013 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/a/apt.asp
Defense of Abortion
The author of this piece, Judith Jarvis Thompson, supports abortion, she uses descriptive assumptions creatively, and she makes dramatic -- even outrageous -- examples as juxtapositions to develop her argument and make her points. She also employs value assumptions that are effective in her narrative. But Thompson's theses and her Socratic style of argument carry the most weight as she turns of the positions of the "pro-life" movement upside down as a way to make her own positions shine. Thompson presents all of this two years before the U.S. Supreme Court's historic Roe v. ade decision, which is impressive in hindsight, given the intensity of the ongoing debate on abortion.
Is the fetus a human being from the time of conception?
In her first paragraph, Thompson notes that people are expected by pro-life proponents to say that the "fetus us a person from the moment of conception."…
Thompson, Judith Jarvis. "A Defense of Abortion." Philosophy & Public Affairs, 1, no. 1.
Assumption Use in the Financial Plan
Additional Assumption in Sensitivity Analysis
FIRST TWELVE MONTH CASHFLOW RESULT
HOW MUCH SHOULD NORMAN PAY FOR THE EXCLUSIVE RIGHT?
FORECASTED CASHFLOW FOR THE NEXT FIVE-Year
CASH FLOW WITH A LOAN AT 8% PER ANNUM
THE SALES PRICE AND kg SALES GRADUALLY INCREASE AT 5%
THE SALES PRICE PER kg INCREASE AT 10% UT THE UNIT SALES REMAIN AT 5%.
Investment Value Using At Discounted Rate 5%
est Financial Plan and Option
Assumption Use In The Financial Plan
Additional Assumption in Sensitivity Analysis
It is further assumed that price will increase gradually at the rate of 8% per annum and sales will increase at 7% per annum.
For the purpose of analysis, both the sales price and Kg sales will gradually increase at 5%.
Another scenario will be that the sales price per Kg increase at 10% but the unit sales…
Saltelli, A., Ratto, M., Andres, T., Campolongo, F., Cariboni, J., Gatelli, D. Saisana, M., and Tarantola, S., 2008, Global Sensitivity Analysis.The Primer, John Wiley & Sons.
Sensitivity analysis. (2014). Retrieved Janaury30, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sensitivity_analysis
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Business equirements Document
Miller Inc. looks forward to creating a data repository for all data collected that is beyond the current relational database it currently uses. The company has currently outgrown the relational database in Oracle that it currently uses. Though it enables data to be stored in different tables that can be linked together using record keys, the amount of keys and records makes it difficult to operate a standard relational database. The company thus needs to adapt database modeling in designing their data warehouse. This is the project. Data modeling extends the online transaction processing models that are common in relational database into data warehousing. The project goal is to develop an appropriate database schema to be designed alongside other components such as identifying metadata. The IT role is to model the data warehouse, implement and test it.
Scope of the project
The scope of the project…
Hughes, R. (2008). Agile Data Warehousing: Delivering World-Class Business Intelligence Systems Using Scrum and Xp. Chicago: iUniverse.com.
Humphries, M., Hawkins, M.W., & Dy, M.C. (1999). Data warehousing: architecture and implementation. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
A physiological assumption that relates behavior to the activity of the brain and other organs of the body.
An ontogenetic consumption that describes development of behavior or of a brain structure. C. An evolutionary assumption that examines a brain structure or behavior in terms of evolutionary history.
A functional assumption describing why a particular brain structure or behavior evolved the way it did (Kalat, 2012).
What historical disciplines converge to create biological psychology?
Several areas of psychology are involved in biological psychology including clinical psychology, social psychology, cognitive psychology, evolutionary psychology, and bits and pieces from other areas of psychology. All areas of neuroscience and biology are particularly relevant to biopsychology. Comparative anatomy, physiology, medicine (e.g neurology and psychiatry), research methodology, and statistics also contribute to the creation of biological psychology (Kalat, 2012).
3. What are some of the earliest examples of a biological approach to studying behavior?…
Pinel, J. (2011). Biopsychology 8th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Kalat, J.W. (2011). Biological psychology (11th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson
Dependency and fight-flight are terms in psychology are used to describe the condition that befalls a group of people with a common agenda in a collective system. They are part of the four conditions suggested by psychologist Wilfred Bion. The other two are pairing assumption and switch between states assumption. Groups develop the conditions because of having anxiety growing in their midst. In this case, they will be trying to negotiate their way out. Dependency refers to that state where the group members will be seeking to find one among them who will lead them out of the mess. In contrast, fight-flight is a condition where the members will be trying to solve their problems as thou they are attempting to run away from a particular state. In the latter condition, cohesion among the members will be so wanting unlike in the former where they are united by…
Although the research tools provided by the ISO 14001 framework are both qualitative and quantitative, this approach is consistent with the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who points out that, "Both qualitative and quantitative research use several specific research techniques (e.g., survey, interview, and historical analysis), yet there is much overlap between the type of data and the style of research. Most qualitative-style researchers examine qualitative data and vice versa" (p. 16). Indeed, researchers have used qualitative and quantitative surveys to assess consumer reactions to proposed environmental initiatives at the local level (Neuman, 2003).
In fact, quantitative and qualitative research methods are characterized by a number of similarities that lend themselves to environmental systems analyses and development (as well as some differences) (Neuman, 2003). The distinct differences in the qualitative and quantitative research suggest that the use of quantitative data for environmental system development is highly appropriate, but that such…
Bonlac Foods. (2012). Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from http://investing.business week.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=883342.
McComb, S. (2010). Green building & green business informatics tool. Elusor. Retrieved from http://www.environmentalaccountingtools.com/magazine/tag/building.
Recardo, R. & Jolly, J. (1999). Organizational culture and teams. SAM Advanced Management
Journal, 62(2), 4-5.
Ackoff's Management Misinformation Systems
How corporate leaders may make improper assumptions related to accounting information systems and the related information
In most cases, there lacks materials, which, directly pinpoints the Ackoff's Management, challenges faced by the organization. Many companies and their leaders experience challenges that are related to a weak human resource department. In the recent past, the many companies have experienced various mechanical failures that cause these organizations to recall appropriate measure of performance. The mechanical issues are attributed to H issues as the root causes. Organizational employees' failure to make good decisions shows a problem with reward processes, training processes, performance management processes and the hiring processes. Many corporate leaders engage in improper assumptions to accounting information systems when they engage in the following measures (Bauer, 1994).
Poor rewards and recognition system
Many corporate leaders focus on cost cutting characterized by massive retrenchment worldwide as a cost cutting…
Bauer, A. (1994). Shop floor control systems: From design to implementation. London:
Chapman & Hall.
Bruggen, G.H., & Wierenga, B. (2000). Marketing management support systems: Principles, tools, and implementation. Boston [u.a.: Kluwer Acad. Publ.
Jackson, M.C. (2000). Systems approaches to management. New York, NY [u.a.: Kluwer
Correlation & Regression
A fifth grade science teacher wants to know if there is a relationship between final exam scores and overall coursepoints after adjusting for a quiz score.
In order to determine whether there was a significant relationship between overall coursepoints and final exam scores, after controlling for quiz scores, a hierarchical regression was run. All assumptions were assessed using SPSS. There was independences of residuals, as assessed by a Durbin-Watson statistic of 1.08. An examination of various scatterplots indicated a general linear relationship between variables of interest, although perfect linearity was not observed.
Partial Regression Plot: Final Exam Score & Quiz Score
Figure 3. Partial Regression Plot: Final Exam Score & Course Points
The assumption of homoscedasticity was violated, as the scatterplot in Figure 1 demonstrates (i.e., the values were not evenly spread across the scatterplot). There was no evidence of multicollinearity as evidenced by no…
Hobbes believes that the cruel nature of human beings causes the state of nature to be a war of all against all. To do this, we will explain the difference between collective and individual rationality and how it applies to human beings in the Hobbesian state of nature. Also, we will identify the assumptions that cause Hobbes to believe the state of nature is a war of all against all and explain why he needs them. By delving into this assumptions, we can abandon our philosophical heritage from Locke and understand the opposite position of Hobbes.
Of the social contract theorists, Thomas Hobbes is the most extreme in terms of his view of human nature. Hobbes wrote a number of philosophical works, but the English Civil War with its horrible violence left an indelible impression upon him. In his magnum opus Leviathan that he published in 1651 he presents his…
Wolff, J. (1996). An introduction to political philosophy . New York, NY: Oxord Univ.
Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Amelia Bloomer were all instrumental in shifting the status of women in American society. Their writings reveal the personalities, assumptions, and values of the authors. Each of these women took incredible personal risks by challenging the underlying assumptions in the society that women were not valid, valuable members of society. The place of women in American society prior to suffrage was no better than domestic servitude. Anthony forever aligns herself with the likes of Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr., by using the technique civil disobedience to achieve social justice. Each of these women recognized the connection between slavery of African-Americans and slavery of women. They each fought for abolition as well as suffrage, and therefore understood that women's rights were human rights.
When Anthony, Stanton, and Bloomer fought for equality, they did so in a time when more than fifty percent…
Anthony, S. (1872). On women's right to vote. Retrieved online: http://womenshistory.about.com/gi/o.htm?zi=1/XJ&zTi=1&sdn=womenshistory&cdn=education&tm=443&f=00&tt=14&bt=0&bts=0&zu=http%3A//www.historyplace.com/speeches/anthony.htm
Bloomer, A. (1895). Women's right to the ballot. Retrieved online: http://www.apstudent.com/ushistory/docs1851/suffrge1.htm
Stanton, E.C. (1898). Eighty Years And More: Reminiscences 1815-1897. New York: T. Fisher Unwin, 1898. Retrieved online: http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/stanton/years/years.html#XV
The epistemological assumption of the research is that social media fundamentally changes the way that people relate to one another, specifically how they relate to marketing and brands. It also changes the way that marketers try to reach customers.
Marketers currently face a quandary about the degree to which they must balance the use of social media with more traditional forms of media. While the overall direction of current research suggests that social media will be used more and more as a form of customer engagement, companies often feel it is still important to use other ways to connect with customers because not all consumers are 'online' (this is heavily dependent upon the type of demographic targeted by the industry) and not all customers respond to online messages the same degree they respond to other, more traditional channels. Businesses can also be change-resistant about the idea of incorporating…
Kitchen emodeling Project: Mitigating Future isks
Please Betty You initiating assembly risk opportunity plan. The plan finalized reflection impact risks opportunities identified addressed activity 7. Your challenge activity review template basic portions risk opportunity plan omissions errors, oversights.
In order for the kitchen remodeling project to succeeds, there is need to ensure there if effective risk management in order to guarantee an increase in the opportunities available and that risks that arise are mitigated to reduce their effects on the project Beans, 2011.
The type of risk, degree of impact of the risk, likelihood of the risk, prioritization of the risks, tasks that have been effected to date, and mitigation strategies for the risk are important in developing the final risk management plan. This helps to ensure the project manager understands all that is expected and foreseen for the project and also that they develop an effective strategy for any…
Alviniussen, A., Jankensgard, H., & forskning, L. u. I. f. e. (2009). Enterprise Risk Budgeting: Bringing Risk Management Into the Financial Planning Process. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Economic Research, Lund University.
Banaitien?, N., Banaitis, A., & Norkus, A. (2011). Risk management in projects: peculiarities of Lithuanian construction companies. International Journal of Strategic Property Management, 15(1), 60-73. doi: 10.3846/1648715X.2011.568675
Beans, K.M. (2011). Operational Risk Management: Sorry, There's No 'Easy Button'. The RMA Journal, 07(01).
In evaluating each approach it's clear that the job characteristics has a much more pervasive and integrative approach to defining the total context and impact of a job. The SIP Model and broader social information theory actually address just a component of the job characteristics model and could be foundational to this second theoretical construct of defining a jobs' context and value. Of the two, the job characteristics theory shows illustrates the impact of associates, managers and the structure of the position in relation to these two critical influences in terms of overall job performance.
How does burn out differ from stress? Which do you think is worse and why?
There are major differences between burn-out vs. stress and often it is in the perspective someone takes to a challenging, difficult situation that dictates what their response will be. The intent of this essay is to explain how burn-out differs…
Minds," Norman Malcolm attempts to highlight the difficulty of establishing the existence of minds other than one's own, specifically by dismantling the so-called "argument from analogy" (Malcolm 969). This actually makes Malcolm's argument a little easier to track, because he constructs it carefully in order to avoid the same logical fallacies he believes the argument from analogy engages in. By carefully tracking Malcolm's argument, one can see not only how the argument from analogy is insufficient as evidence for the knowledge of other minds, but also how Malcolm makes a convincing case for the ultimate impossibility of this knowledge, or at least, that the lack of this knowledge does not actually represent a true problem for philosophy.
Malcolm begins his argument by outlining a number of different variations of the argument from analogy. He begins with the most basic form, which is the idea that "I conclude that other human…
Malcolm, Norman. "Knowledge of Other Minds." Journal of Philosophy. 55.23 (1958): 969-978.
Mao Tse-tsung, how does one develop a correct war-Fighting strategy?
One of Mao's major points is that one has to know the actual results and circumstances based on the actions devised and executed. Also, Mao asserted that the primary purpose of war strategy and war in general is stopping the war. He also asserted that the supreme commander of a war must understand the war and how it's being executed but the same is true for the different parts of the war efforts that are led by generals and commanders. These lower commanders have to know exactly what is being done and why just like the higher ups must know the same.
Mao offered some general criteria that can and should be followed when devising a war strategy. First, proper considerations should be given to the relationship between the army you are directing and the enemy that is at hand.…
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Analysis of variance is a term used in statistics which involves a collection of statistical models and procedures that are associated with them where the observed variance in a particular variable is partitioned into components that can be attributed to different sources of variations. It is therefore a statistical technique that is useful for evaluation whether there are differences between average values or mean across several population groups. This model also entails that the response variable is continuous in nature while the predictor variables can be categorized. For there to be a test for statistical significance between means then there has to be a comparison i.e. analyzing variances hence the name of the model. There are various concepts in variance analysis these are; the partitioning of sums of squares .at the core of variance analysis is the fact that variances can be divided or…
Shera, J (2006). Statistical Errors (Type I, Type II, Power).Retrieved August 4, 2013 from http://www.herkimershideaway.org/writings/type12.htm
Women and Islam
Do Muslim women eally need saving?
Stengths and weaknesses
Between hee and thee: feminist solidaity and Afghan women.
Stengths and weaknesses
Do Muslim women eally need saving? Anthopological eflections on cultual elativism and its othes.
Topic oveview and famewok
The aticle deals with the topic of 'Wa on Teoism', the wa claimed to have been launched fo libeating the Afghan women fom Taliban and an agument with anthopological pespective to deconstuct the essentially flawed epesentation of Afghan women that Wa on Teoism hetoic makes. The aticle is aimed at investigating the nuances of identity that ae essentially devoid of histoical constuction of ole of women in Afghan society. The aticle also aims to identify the pocess though which women's ole in Afghan society is not constucted on anthopological gounds but athe influenced by one's own cultue, identity, and standads of living. Thus, cultual bias is said to…
references: Constructions of gender in the Bush administration discourse on the attacks on Afghanistan post-9/11. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 8(1), 19-41.
This report focuses on the study of organizational behaviour in the hotel industry and most especially in the food and beverage department. Focusing on the organization I am attached to, the aspect of groups and group dynamics is widely explored. The paper first introduces with an introduction in which a brief explanation of the discussion is established. Part of the factors addressed in this section includes the aim and scope of the study. Additionally, the methodology of the research, the assumption, the limitations within the organization and the background of the problem are explored within the discussion. The paper then goes ahead to focus on the literature review. Here, definitions of organizational values and individuals values are provided. Also demonstrated is the manner in which organizational and individual values intersect. Further, the relationship between individual values and organizational structure is established. The report goes further to demonstrate how…
Bilsky, W & Jenh, K (1998) Organizational Culture and Individual Values: Evidence for a Common Structure, Personal Communication
Black, Richard J. (2003) Organizational Culture: Creating the Influence Needed For Strategic Success, London UK
Dean, KW (2011) Value-Based Leadership. How Our Personal Values Impact the Works Place, the Journal of Value-Based Leadership, Valaparaiso University College of Business Management
Kimbro, M, (2012) Organizational Behaviour in the Hospitality Industry, Retrieved From: http://voices.yahoo.com/organizational-behavior-hospitality-industry-13137.html
God calls everyone to himself so that one can know Him personally and follow him (Niswender, 2012). He calls us for a particular reason and purpose. This vocation or calling has implications on occupation and including our giftedness, our weaknesses, and the way we run our lives in the society. This report endeavors to explain about what I believe is my calling, the lessons I have learned from the course and in what ways my assumptions, knowledge, critical thinking and behaviors have changed as a result of this course.
I have learned to identify my purpose as a human being. According to Gordon Smith, one should discover his or her vocation by listening to God's call and ensuring that you become a coworker with God. I have appreciated my need to live with my vocation in the midst of moral challenges and difficult relationships. I have learnt different ways of…
Phillips, G., Brown, W. & Stonestreet, J. (2008). "Making sense of your world." Salem, WI: Sheffield Publishing Company
Ramsey, D. (2003). "Financial peace revisited." New York: The Penguin Group
Smith, G. (2011). "Courage and calling: Embracing your God-given talent." Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press
Niswender, E. (2012). "Connections" Trinity Church of Wheat Ridge 4(4)
Certainly, the reason that some individuals become criminals has to do with biological predisposition, particularly in the case of many crimes of violence. On the other hand, circumstances, greed, desperation, and opportunity also play an undeniable role in many crimes. Social class and exposure to deviant subcultures also contributes to criminal behavior (Henslin, 2002; Macionis, 2003), but even so, those risk factors do not affect everyone the same; therefore, those approaches also fail to explain crime in many cases (Henslin, 2002; Macionis, 2003).
In some ways, the recent occurrences involving ernard Madoff and several other high profile white collar criminals do not seem to fit any of the traditional criminological theories other than rational choice and possibly psychological disorder. These perpetrators were already the recipients of the considerable benefits of social class and opportunity and were already wealthy even by contemporary American definitions of wealth before resorting to crime to…
Henslin, J.M. (2002). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Macionis, J.J. (2003). Sociology 9th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Schmalleger, F. (2007). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall
Morph = form or shape, ology = study of Language comprises of words and words have meanings. Meanings give value to words hence they must be given attention in body of knowledge. This is the reason; a study of foundation of meaning is developed. This foundation is called morpheme which is the basic and the smallest entity containing meaning or function in language. This whole study is known as Morphology (Kuthy, 2002).
What Are Morphemes?
It must be noted with concern that word is not the unit of meaning in language. It is because; a word may contain multiple words in meaning (Kuthy, 2002). Below are a few examples when words contain obvious, difficult and medium meanings.
a. obvious: dinnertime, homework, moonlight, classroom
difficult: tenth, walks, dog's, flipped
c. medium: quickly, fearless, fishing, momentary
Morpheme is the most basic element of meaning. If above mentioned words are carefully…
Abdah, D.A. (1979). Frequent words in Arabic. Riyad University, Saudi Arabia (in Arabic).
Abuleil, Saleem and Evens, Martha W. (1998). "Discovering Lexical Information by Tagging Arabic Newspaper Text." Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages, Proceedings of the Workshop.
Ali, N. (1988). "Computers and the Arabic Language." Cairo, Egypt: Al-khat Publishing Press, Ta'reep. Al-Kharashi, I. And Evens,
Anshen, F., & Aronoff, M. (1999). Using dictionaries to study the mental lexicon. Brain and Language, 68, 16 -- 26.
Pro-Formal 5-Year Financial Projection
Overview of the XYZ Financial Statements
Objective of this report is to provide 5-year pro-formal financial statements of the XYZ Company. The company financial statements reveal that the XYZ records net sales of the $1.74 Million at the end of the first fiscal year while the gross profit is $637, 428. Moreover, the company total operating expenses is $285,850 making the company to record the net profits $144,335. (XYZ Company, n.d).
Overview of the company balance sheet at the end of first fiscal year reveals that company total current assets are $69,525 while the company total fixed assets are $300,000. The company total assets are $369,525. Moreover, the company total liabilities are $146,000. The report provides the strategies that the company will employ to increase the total sales and the net profits with the next five years.
Strategy to Implement to Increase Sales within the Next…
Solution focused coaching involves viewing people as unique, competent, and responsive to suggestions (Visser, 2012). This approach is a respectful change approach (Bodien, 2011) in that it acknowledges and works with the perspective of the client defined solutions that are unique to the client. The solution focused change approach is based on several assumptions (from Bodien, 2011):
Problem analysis and problem diagnosis are not needed to achieve positive change and to solve problems.
This assumption indicates that the focus in the solution focused change approach is on understanding what is desired by the client as opposed to defining and trying to ascertain what factors of the client's history contributed to their current situation or complaint. Thus, solution focused change approach is proactive and allows the client to get right to work as opposed to spending time ruminating on history, causes, etc.
Assumption 2. Vividly describing the desired future is the…
Bodien, G.L.S. (2011). The solution focused mindset at work. Retrieved from http://progressiegerichtwerken.com/en/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/reader-solution-focused-mindset-at-work.pdf .
Visser, C.F. (2012). The solution-focused mindset: An empirical test of solution-focused assumptions. Retrieved from http://www.m-cc.nl/The%20Solution-
rose when determining the human behavior lead to varying answers depending on the presupposed paradigm. (VASILACHIS DE GIALDINO, 1992). In the paper presented by Peterson Armour, I think the topic had the tendency to answers the raised questions differently, depending on whether the Epistemology of the subject is rejected or accepted. The author has tried his best to form a conclusion, which is independent from his personal views.
To discuss the ontological, axiological, and epistemological assumptions made by the author made in this study, a few questions need to be analyzed. How this 'reality' can be realized? What is the association between the knower (in this case the author and the respondents of the survey) and the known (the effects homicide on family members)? What principles, personality and assumptions guide the process of determining the achievements of this study? What is the possibility that this research will be repeated by…
Armour, P. M, (2002), Journey of Family Members of Homicide Victims: A Qualitative study of their post homicide Experience, Austin, Educational Publishing Foundation
Creswell, J.W. (2005). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Flick, Uwe (1998). An introduction to qualitative research. London: Sage.
Morse, Janice M. (2002). Intuitive inquiry. Qualitative Health Research, 12(7), 875.
Arguments for the assumptions: Pat's and Chris's suggestion that the company develop new products and launch them onto different markets is based on the fact that the recent statistics received from the Marketing Department are unsatisfactory.
Evaluating the arguments: The unsatisfactory statistics received from the Marketing Department make a sound argument as the leading position of AcuSan on the market is being challenged by competitors' intense efforts to elaborate new strategies.
Another assumption made by the VP of Product Development is that the "Operation Optimize" plan would only require minimal costs. The argument behind this assumption is an unsound one as later on it has been proved that the operation would also require several additional costs that would raise significant financial difficulties for AcuSan.
1.2 the Conflict
The main responsible for the conflict in AcuSan is the new Marketing Director as she does not take into consideration her colleague's advice.…
Popular Cost of Equity Models: Problems and Potentials in Current Theory and Practice
It is important for any publicly traded business organization to understand and accurately estimate its cost of equity capital, in order to make effective capital-raising resource allocation decisions. There are several models for determining a supposedly accurate valuation for the current cost of equity capital for a given firm, however each of these models is imperfect in its approach and its ultimate assessment. The following pages provide an overview of three popular models for providing this valuation, assessing the models base don ease of use, accuracy of the prediction, and the degree to which the assumptions made or implied by the model are reflective of reality and actual operational capabilities. A final recommendation for a particular model is made following this assessment.
Ease of Use
One of the most straightforward methods for estimating the cost of equity…
Investopedia.com (2012). Financial concepts: capital asset pricing model (CAPM). Retrieved March, 2012, from http://www.investopedia.com/university/concepts/concepts8.asp
Money Terms (2012). Arbitrage pricing theory. Retrieved March, 2012, from http://moneyterms.co.uk/apt/
Pages.stern.nyu.edu (n.d.). Dividend discount models. Retrieved March, 2012, from http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~adamodar/pdfiles/valn2ed/ch13.pdf
Mammals will evolve (to choose an analogy) but they do not revert to being reptiles. If the subjects of this research had simply disagreed about the exact biographical dates of the model this would not have been problematic. If research subjects, for example, had argued to extend the period of middle adulthood to fifty rather than forty-five, for example, as people work until they are older than had been the case when Levinson was working, this would have in general supported his findings.
The validity of his model is not dependent on being absolutely precise in his age-related break-points and while Levinson himself might not have acknowledged this, it makes sense that details of the different stages should have to be shifted to meet changes in society. Such an acknowledgement is in fact missing from Levinson's model (as well as from the models of Erikson and Piaget) and must be…
Looking at these figures, we can see immediately that the most important assumption Gates has made with respect to free cash flow is that the project will go beyond the initial three years contract. The nominal value of the cash flows associated with those first three years does not equal the initial outlay. Thus, for the project to be profitable, the company must take it well beyond the three-year time horizon.
Weighted Average Cost of Capital
A typical metric that is used in capital budgeting decisions to determine the discount rate is the firm's weighted average cost of capital. There are a number of faults with using the WACC, however. Most of these faults relate to the fact that the WACC is based on current figures. This expansion is a major expansion of the firm therefore the cost of capital is impacted…
Strategically, this project is not as high risk as Hansson currently believes. The firm need not be dependent on a single customer because it is experiencing strong demand and has been able to build its business rapidly even in a mature market. Hansson will likely need this capacity in the coming years anyway. In addition, the increased leverage does not take Hansson into a dangerous position. It leaves the company with more debt than it has ever had, but not a historically high LTD/Equity ratio, as this was higher in 2003. There is little reason to believe that the company is increasing its liquidity risk to a point that would even result in an increase in the cost of debt, so Hansson need not worry much about leverage.
Thus, the question becomes one of capturing a market opportunity and where this fits into overall corporate strategy. If Hansson is to continue to grow, it will need to ride the growth of its major retail partners. The drug stores, retailers and clubs are the strongest source of growth within the industry and for Hansson. The company is growing along with the growth of these customers, and these customers have big ambitions. Hansson needs to take a long-term view of its relationship with these major customers -- it has the opportunity to lay the foundations of that relationship and send a signal to all major private label retailers that Hansson is the company to deal with for personal care products, that it is ready to grow with them to a position of market dominance. Strategically and financially, this investment is a great fit and it is therefore recommended that Hansson sign the contract and make the investment.
Hansson can finance this deal entirely with debt from its bank. It is important that Hansson does not focus strictly on the one customer, but works to fill capacity sooner rather than later by courting other major customers, using this deal as an example of its future outlook as a partner to major retailers. Hansson is not projecting at any point more than 85% utilization of the new facility, which indicates that if the company can bring its capacity utilization up with new contracts from other retailers as well, the net present value of this project can be improved further. All indications are that this opportunity is greater than what is included in Gates' calculations, and that Hansson needs to use this investment as a springboard for another round of growth, not just an one-off investment.
social science research are qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is believed to operate from a subjective, constructionist view of reality, whereas quantitative research operates from an objective, positivist viewpoint of the world. There has been quite a bit of debate over the merits of each of these approaches, often with one paradigm belittling the assumptions of the other. The current literature review explores the philosophical foundations of each paradigm, compares their practical differences, and discusses the strengths and weakness of both approaches as they relate to research in the social sciences and to human resources research. The rationale for mixed-methods research, where the two paradigms are combined, is also discussed.
In recent years there has been substantial interest concerning the role of specific paradigms and philosophical assumptions with regards to doing research. There has been a growing concern regarding the adequacy of research methods in social sciences and…
Anderson, V. (2004) Research methods in human resource management. London, UK: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
Blalock, M. (1984). Basic dilemmas in the social sciences. New York: Sage/
Burrell, G. & Morgan G. (1979). Sociological paradigms and organization analysis. London, UK: Heinemann.
Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: How is it done? Qualitative Research, 6, 97-113.
A more robust method is to conduct a factor analysis before running the regression analysis, and then to rotate the factors to insure that the factors are independent in the factor analysis ("Statistics Solutions, 2012").
9. Discuss autocorrelation (serial correlation) assumption & implication to student work
Autocorrelation (lagged correlation or serial correlation) occurs when the correlation between values in a random process at different times that is a function of the time lag or of the two times ("Statistics Solutions, 2012"). That is to say that there is a relationship between a variable and itself over intervals of time ("Statistics Solutions, 2012"). These serial correlations occur in repeating patterns when the level of a variable at a time certain affects the variable at a future time ("Statistics Solutions, 2012").
10.Discuss ways to overcome the serial correlation
When using an estimated equation for statistical inference in hypothesis testing, the residuals will…
Geisser, S. And Johnson, W.M. (2006). Modes of Parametric Statistical Inference, John Wiley & Sons.
____. (2012). Statistics Solutions. Retrieved http://www.statisticssolutions.com/academic-solutions/resources/directory-of-statistical-analyses/assumptions-of-multiple-linear-regression/#sthash.hirr3Y2x.dpuf
Improved quality of care is one of the major issues that has characterized modern healthcare practices. Ferreri et al. (2016) conducted a study to examine enhanced quality of life and decrease of traditional drugs in homeopathy treatment of allergic patients. The study was carried out in the Centre for Integrated Medicine in Pitigliano, Tuscany. These researchers conducted their study in this healthcare facility because its an innovative hospital that provides homeopathy and acupuncture in combination with conventional clinical care. Therefore, this facility provides integrated medical care for patient treatment, which makes it ideal for examining enhanced quality of life and decrease in conventional drugs. This paper examines the study conducted by these researchers in relation to establishing the reliability of its findings and conclusions as well as the suitability of the research process.
Brief Summary of the Research
Ferreri et al. (2016) conducted a research in which the examined the…
Tenet of the theory
2. Another tenet of this theory (and one that is connected to certain clinical practices such as those of Rogerian therapy) is that humans are generally inclined to try to achieve greater levels of self-fulfillment, which in turn is linked to greater levels of insight and self-awareness.
Methodological assumptions of this model
. This question is a little more difficult to answer since a model or epistemological framework since the methodological connections to a theoretical framework are strong but not absolute. Any methodological approach to test the validity of Levinson's developmental framework would have to be qualitative since the model reflects complex, subjective states that are not discernible through statistical analyses.
Some of the most interesting potential research topics that could be devised around Levinson's model would be how subjects interpret their own status in terms of where a researcher assesses them to be. Levinson's model…
3. The theory is based on the tenet that individuals, when given an overview of the model, will be able to determine for themselves with accuracy (that is, they would be in agreement with an external observer) where they are positioned in terms of their development.
One study that examines Levinson's model is Dannefer (1984, Feb.) "Adult Development and Social Theory: A Paradigmatic Reappraisal" (American Sociological Review 49(1): 100-116). Dannefer's work, which reflects on theoretical and clinical work produced in a range of fields, argues that Levinson's model is deeply flawed because it ignores the primacy of social relationships as primary influences on an individual's development.
A second very different study (Rush, J.C., Peacock, a.C. & Milkovich, G.T. (1980). Career stages: A partial test of Levinson's model of life/career stages. Journal of Vocational Behavior 16(3): 347-359) examines the relationship between Levinson's model and career development, surveying people as to whether they saw a connection between Levinson's model and their self-assessment of their position in their career path. The subjects were 759 managerial, professional, and technical employees randomly selected from levels and departments of a major public sector employer in the midwest United States. These employees did not connect their own life experiences with Levinson's stages: "Only moderate support for the theory was found with little or no evidence to support the age-linked notion of these stages."