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Assumptions Essays (Examples)

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Business Product Liability and Assumption
Words: 1880 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91351892
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... If gun manufacturers are responsible for violence, why not the makers of the steel used in the guns?" (Levy, 2004, p. 80)

The application of the principles of assumption of risk and product liability to incidents that are ever more removed from the ideal usage of the product or service eventually creates a situation in which all are liable for everything and everyone.

The notion of choice upon which assumption of risk original rests is lost if individuals are no longer free to exercise any discretion in the usage of products and services. Yet, in today's climate, businesses must be more aware than ever of the potential liabilities of the products they sell and the services they offer. The bungee jump operator, the auto manufacturer, or the operator of textile mill or coal mine, must be up front about any and all potential dangers involved in the use of…


Clinard, M.B. (1990). Corporate Corruption The Abuse of Power. New York: Praeger Publishers.


Dewees, D., Duff, D., & Trebilcock, M. (1996). Exploring the Domain of Accident Law: Taking the Facts Seriously. New York: Oxford U.S..

El Greco the Assumption of the Virgin
Words: 1457 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4509157
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El Greco

The Assumption of the Virgin

The Assumption of the Virgin is a work of art depicting the Virgin as she ascends to heaven, surrounded by the apostles. The underlying theme of The Assumption of the Virgin is religious as it depicts the assumption of the Virgin, which, to faithful Catholics of El Greco's time was not simply a spiritual or religious theme, but also a historical event. The symbolism used reaffirms the religious aspects of the painting. The apostles are shown, bending to the Virgin in reverence, and angels are shown waiting in heaven for the Virgin.

The work is narrative, because it shows an event and tells the story of that event. The story depicted in the painting was a familiar one to Catholics of El Greco's time, just as it is familiar to Catholics of today. Therefore, it is difficult to separate what story the painting…

Works Cited

Theotokopoulos, Domenicos. The Assumption of the Virgin. The Art Institute of Chicago,


Danger of Assumption Is a
Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94558219
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In "The Story of Daedalus and Icarus," we have a similar lesson regarding knowledge. Icarus, much like Phaeton, does not follow his father's advice. In the air, he is distracted by everything happening below and before long "left his father, / Soared higher, higher, drawn to the vast heaven,/nearer the sun" (188). His mistake is deadly for no one can rescue him from up above. This story is importantbecause it also teaches us that we should never assumewe are something we are not or that we are more than human. Icarus forgot his humanity and "turned his thinking / Toward unknown arts, changing the laws of nature" (187). Daedalus must face his culpability here for it was his idea to leave Crete in a way that was not conventional. He assumed everything would turn out just fine.

In Hippolytus, Theseus assumes he knows the truth regarding Hippolytus and Phaedra. However,…

Work Cited

Ovid. "The Story of Daedalus and Icarus." Metamorphosis. Rolfe Humphries, trans. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 1955.

"The Story of Phaeton." Metamorphosis. Rolfe Humphries, trans. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 1955.

Leadership the Mistaken Assumption That
Words: 670 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46989190
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The self-organization concept refers to the identity, vision, mission, and values of the organization. An organization's identity includes current interpretations of its history, present decisions and activities, and its sense of its future. It is the identity that provides the capacity for evolution and self-organization.

To hold the organization together for an identity, the free-flow of information is considered important. Only when information belongs to everyone in the organization, people begin to organize rapidly and effectively around customers, competitors, and environments (Stewart and Manz, 1995). It is that creates the conditions for the emergence of fast, well-integrated, and effective responses. Also, free flow of information brings together members of an organization for solving the organizational problems (Ashby, 1969). Beyond that, customers become the stakeholders that help in refinement of the organization.

Therefore, one of the prime concerns for leaders become that they avoid the barriers that create hindrance in information…


1. Ashby, W.R. (1969). Self-regulation and requisite variety. In Emery, F.E. (Ed.), Systems Thinking, Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.

2. Ashkenas, R., Ulrich, D., Jick, T. And Kerr, S. (2001). The Boundaryless Organization, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

3. Cherns, a. (1987). Principles of socio-technical design revisited. Human Relations, Vol. 40, pp. 153-62.

4. Cummings, T. (1978). Self-regulating work groups: a socio-technical synthesis. Academy of Management Review, Vol. 3, pp. 625-34.

Leadership the Underlying Assumption of
Words: 639 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85871039
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These factors -- self-awareness, self-concept and emotional intelligence -- will also affect one's leadership style. High levels of these traits would make one a perfect candidate for servant leadership, but if levels of these traits differ, they could guide one to other forms of leadership. For example, a leader with relatively poor social skills is unlikely to be a servant leader, and is more likely to pursue a transactional leadership style. Somebody with great social skills but lacking in self-awareness or self-concept could become a "great man" -- style leader or could become an autocrat (or both, in some political cases).

One's self-concept in particular will guide one's leadership style. How one envisions him- or herself is critical to understanding how he or she will define his or her leadership style. Self-awareness contributes the ability to challenge one's assumed constraints and to celebrate one's points of power (Fowler et al.,…

Works Cited:

Fowler, S.B., Blanchard, K., and Hawkins, L. (2010). Self leadership: The power behind empowerment. In K. Blanchard, Leading at a higher level (pp. 91-103). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Greenleaf, R.K. (1970, 1991). The servant as leader. Indianapolis, IN: Greenleaf Center for Servant Leadership.

2006 Global Terrorism Nie Like Any Intelligence
Words: 998 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57801232
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2006 Global Terrorism NIE

Like any intelligence product, the declassified Key Judgments of the 2006 National Intelligence Estimate "Trends in Global Terrorism: Implications for the United States" relies on certain explicit and implicit assumptions as a part of its analysis. Identifying these assumptions is crucial for evaluating the accuracy of any piece of analysis, and intelligence products in particular. Explicit assumptions may be identified by looking out for key words, while implicit assumptions require more in-depth consideration.

The explicit assumptions in the 2006 NIE are identified by certain key words which inform the reader that the following information is not verified fact, but rather based on an assumption, which itself may or may not be based on specific evidence. These key words include terms like "probably," "likely," "could," and "would," because all of these words signify that the statements being made are conditional, rather than definitive. In other instances, the…


Office of the Director of National Intelligence. (2006) Declassified key judgments of the national intelligence estimate "trends in global terrorism: implications for the United States."

Staff and the Supervision of Higher Education
Words: 1909 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91620791
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staff and the supervision of higher education staff members?

It is the primary assumption regarding the staff as well as the supervision of higher education staff members that they should influence the people around them in such a manner that they would work for the welfare of all rather than working for their own personal causes (Yukl, 2006). This staff acts as a leadership and therefore, they should have high ethical standards along with intrapersonal and interpersonal skills so that they can guide and influence the people around them in a positive manner and prove to be effective leaders (Jossey-Bass, 2003, p. 253).

Assumptions are opinion instinctively created to simplify a persons' rationale for considering and accepting something that one thinks to be right (uggiero, 2004, p. 94-95). I was given the responsibility to consider and decide a number of things regarding the current staff working in the higher education…


Bernhardt, V.L. (2004). Data Analysis for Continuous Improvement (2nd ed.). Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.

Business leadership: A Jossey-Bass reader. (2003). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. (pp.440-445).

Gaetane, Jean-Marie, Normove, Anthony H. (2010). "The Impact of Relational Leadership, Social Justice, and Spirituality among Female Secondary School Leaders." International Journal of Urban Educational Leadership 4(1) pg. 22-24.

Glickman, C.D., Gordon, S.P., Ross-Gordon, J.M. (2010). SuperVision and Instructional Leadership (8th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

CAPM There Are Several Different Models That
Words: 1437 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71158094
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There are several different models that can be used to help determine the cost of capital for a company. Each is based on a model, and can be understood not only in terms of its formula but also in terms of its underlying assumptions. These assumptions will provide the foundation for the model, and will inform the financial manager about the strengths and weaknesses of each model. This report will outline in detail three such major models for determining the cost of capital. The first is the capital asset pricing model, known as CAPM. The second is the dividend discount model, and the third is arbitrage pricing theory.

The capital asset pricing model is the first of the three major models for determining the cost of capital. CAPM is widely used to determine the cost of equity in particular. The underlying theory of CAPM is that stock returns relative…


Investopedia. (2013). Capital asset pricing model. Investopedia. Retrieved September 15, 2013 from 

Investopedia. (2013). Digging into the dividend discount model. Investopedia. Retrieved September 15, 2013 from 

Investopedia. (2013). Definition of arbitrage pricing theory Investopedia. Retrieved September 15, 2013 from

Defense of Abortion the Author of This
Words: 1079 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98219373
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Defense of Abortion

The author of this piece, Judith Jarvis Thompson, supports abortion, she uses descriptive assumptions creatively, and she makes dramatic -- even outrageous -- examples as juxtapositions to develop her argument and make her points. She also employs value assumptions that are effective in her narrative. But Thompson's theses and her Socratic style of argument carry the most weight as she turns of the positions of the "pro-life" movement upside down as a way to make her own positions shine. Thompson presents all of this two years before the U.S. Supreme Court's historic Roe v. ade decision, which is impressive in hindsight, given the intensity of the ongoing debate on abortion.

Is the fetus a human being from the time of conception?

In her first paragraph, Thompson notes that people are expected by pro-life proponents to say that the "fetus us a person from the moment of conception."…

Works Cited

Thompson, Judith Jarvis. "A Defense of Abortion." Philosophy & Public Affairs, 1, no. 1.

Financial Management Analysis
Words: 1128 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66642347
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Financial Analysis

Assumption Use in the Financial Plan

Additional Assumption in Sensitivity Analysis








Investment Value Using At Discounted Rate 5%

est Financial Plan and Option

Assumption Use In The Financial Plan

Additional Assumption in Sensitivity Analysis

It is further assumed that price will increase gradually at the rate of 8% per annum and sales will increase at 7% per annum.

For the purpose of analysis, both the sales price and Kg sales will gradually increase at 5%.

Another scenario will be that the sales price per Kg increase at 10% but the unit sales…


Saltelli, A., Ratto, M., Andres, T., Campolongo, F., Cariboni, J., Gatelli, D. Saisana, M., and Tarantola, S., 2008, Global Sensitivity Analysis.The Primer, John Wiley & Sons.

Sensitivity analysis. (2014). Retrieved Janaury30, 2014, from 


€ Exchange Rate $

Business Requirements Document Miller Inc Looks Forward
Words: 1918 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26792510
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Business equirements Document

Miller Inc. looks forward to creating a data repository for all data collected that is beyond the current relational database it currently uses. The company has currently outgrown the relational database in Oracle that it currently uses. Though it enables data to be stored in different tables that can be linked together using record keys, the amount of keys and records makes it difficult to operate a standard relational database. The company thus needs to adapt database modeling in designing their data warehouse. This is the project. Data modeling extends the online transaction processing models that are common in relational database into data warehousing. The project goal is to develop an appropriate database schema to be designed alongside other components such as identifying metadata. The IT role is to model the data warehouse, implement and test it.


Scope of the project

The scope of the project…


Hughes, R. (2008). Agile Data Warehousing: Delivering World-Class Business Intelligence Systems Using Scrum and Xp. Chicago:

Humphries, M., Hawkins, M.W., & Dy, M.C. (1999). Data warehousing: architecture and implementation. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

Biological Psychology
Words: 712 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Multiple Chapters Paper #: 67244510
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biopsychological approach?

A physiological assumption that relates behavior to the activity of the brain and other organs of the body.

An ontogenetic consumption that describes development of behavior or of a brain structure. C. An evolutionary assumption that examines a brain structure or behavior in terms of evolutionary history.

A functional assumption describing why a particular brain structure or behavior evolved the way it did (Kalat, 2012).

What historical disciplines converge to create biological psychology?

Several areas of psychology are involved in biological psychology including clinical psychology, social psychology, cognitive psychology, evolutionary psychology, and bits and pieces from other areas of psychology. All areas of neuroscience and biology are particularly relevant to biopsychology. Comparative anatomy, physiology, medicine (e.g neurology and psychiatry), research methodology, and statistics also contribute to the creation of biological psychology (Kalat, 2012).

3. What are some of the earliest examples of a biological approach to studying behavior?…


Pinel, J. (2011). Biopsychology 8th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Kalat, J.W. (2011). Biological psychology (11th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson


Strategies for Managing Group Conflict
Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18398531
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fight-Flight Assumptions

Dependency and fight-flight are terms in psychology are used to describe the condition that befalls a group of people with a common agenda in a collective system. They are part of the four conditions suggested by psychologist Wilfred Bion. The other two are pairing assumption and switch between states assumption. Groups develop the conditions because of having anxiety growing in their midst. In this case, they will be trying to negotiate their way out. Dependency refers to that state where the group members will be seeking to find one among them who will lead them out of the mess. In contrast, fight-flight is a condition where the members will be trying to solve their problems as thou they are attempting to run away from a particular state. In the latter condition, cohesion among the members will be so wanting unlike in the former where they are united by…

Environmental Systems in the Past
Words: 12463 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 751326
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Although the research tools provided by the ISO 14001 framework are both qualitative and quantitative, this approach is consistent with the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who points out that, "Both qualitative and quantitative research use several specific research techniques (e.g., survey, interview, and historical analysis), yet there is much overlap between the type of data and the style of research. Most qualitative-style researchers examine qualitative data and vice versa" (p. 16). Indeed, researchers have used qualitative and quantitative surveys to assess consumer reactions to proposed environmental initiatives at the local level (Neuman, 2003).

In fact, quantitative and qualitative research methods are characterized by a number of similarities that lend themselves to environmental systems analyses and development (as well as some differences) (Neuman, 2003). The distinct differences in the qualitative and quantitative research suggest that the use of quantitative data for environmental system development is highly appropriate, but that such…


Bonlac Foods. (2012). Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from

McComb, S. (2010). Green building & green business informatics tool. Elusor. Retrieved from

Recardo, R. & Jolly, J. (1999). Organizational culture and teams. SAM Advanced Management

Journal, 62(2), 4-5.

Ackoff's Management Misinformation Systems
Words: 1515 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30176804
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Ackoff's Management Misinformation Systems

How corporate leaders may make improper assumptions related to accounting information systems and the related information

In most cases, there lacks materials, which, directly pinpoints the Ackoff's Management, challenges faced by the organization. Many companies and their leaders experience challenges that are related to a weak human resource department. In the recent past, the many companies have experienced various mechanical failures that cause these organizations to recall appropriate measure of performance. The mechanical issues are attributed to H issues as the root causes. Organizational employees' failure to make good decisions shows a problem with reward processes, training processes, performance management processes and the hiring processes. Many corporate leaders engage in improper assumptions to accounting information systems when they engage in the following measures (Bauer, 1994).

Poor rewards and recognition system

Many corporate leaders focus on cost cutting characterized by massive retrenchment worldwide as a cost cutting…


Bauer, A. (1994). Shop floor control systems: From design to implementation. London:

Chapman & Hall.

Bruggen, G.H., & Wierenga, B. (2000). Marketing management support systems: Principles, tools, and implementation. Boston [u.a.: Kluwer Acad. Publ.

Jackson, M.C. (2000). Systems approaches to management. New York, NY [u.a.: Kluwer

Correlations and Regression
Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10442438
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Correlation & Regression

A fifth grade science teacher wants to know if there is a relationship between final exam scores and overall coursepoints after adjusting for a quiz score.

In order to determine whether there was a significant relationship between overall coursepoints and final exam scores, after controlling for quiz scores, a hierarchical regression was run. All assumptions were assessed using SPSS. There was independences of residuals, as assessed by a Durbin-Watson statistic of 1.08. An examination of various scatterplots indicated a general linear relationship between variables of interest, although perfect linearity was not observed.

Overall Scatterplot

Partial Regression Plot: Final Exam Score & Quiz Score

Figure 3. Partial Regression Plot: Final Exam Score & Course Points

The assumption of homoscedasticity was violated, as the scatterplot in Figure 1 demonstrates (i.e., the values were not evenly spread across the scatterplot). There was no evidence of multicollinearity as evidenced by no…

Hobbes' State of Nature a War of All Against
Words: 1246 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47113636
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Hobbes believes that the cruel nature of human beings causes the state of nature to be a war of all against all. To do this, we will explain the difference between collective and individual rationality and how it applies to human beings in the Hobbesian state of nature. Also, we will identify the assumptions that cause Hobbes to believe the state of nature is a war of all against all and explain why he needs them. By delving into this assumptions, we can abandon our philosophical heritage from Locke and understand the opposite position of Hobbes.

Of the social contract theorists, Thomas Hobbes is the most extreme in terms of his view of human nature. Hobbes wrote a number of philosophical works, but the English Civil War with its horrible violence left an indelible impression upon him. In his magnum opus Leviathan that he published in 1651 he presents his…


Wolff, J. (1996). An introduction to political philosophy . New York, NY: Oxord Univ.


Woman Suffrage and Woman's Rights
Words: 1006 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48720030
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Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Amelia Bloomer were all instrumental in shifting the status of women in American society. Their writings reveal the personalities, assumptions, and values of the authors. Each of these women took incredible personal risks by challenging the underlying assumptions in the society that women were not valid, valuable members of society. The place of women in American society prior to suffrage was no better than domestic servitude. Anthony forever aligns herself with the likes of Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr., by using the technique civil disobedience to achieve social justice. Each of these women recognized the connection between slavery of African-Americans and slavery of women. They each fought for abolition as well as suffrage, and therefore understood that women's rights were human rights.

When Anthony, Stanton, and Bloomer fought for equality, they did so in a time when more than fifty percent…


Anthony, S. (1872). On women's right to vote. Retrieved online:

Bloomer, A. (1895). Women's right to the ballot. Retrieved online: 

Stanton, E.C. (1898). Eighty Years And More: Reminiscences 1815-1897. New York: T. Fisher Unwin, 1898. Retrieved online:

Qualitative Phenomenon
Words: 465 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 94460966
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Epistemological assumptions

The epistemological assumption of the research is that social media fundamentally changes the way that people relate to one another, specifically how they relate to marketing and brands. It also changes the way that marketers try to reach customers.

Marketers currently face a quandary about the degree to which they must balance the use of social media with more traditional forms of media. While the overall direction of current research suggests that social media will be used more and more as a form of customer engagement, companies often feel it is still important to use other ways to connect with customers because not all consumers are 'online' (this is heavily dependent upon the type of demographic targeted by the industry) and not all customers respond to online messages the same degree they respond to other, more traditional channels. Businesses can also be change-resistant about the idea of incorporating…

Kitchen Remodeling Project Mitigating Future Risks Please
Words: 2494 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12987316
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Kitchen emodeling Project: Mitigating Future isks

Please Betty You initiating assembly risk opportunity plan. The plan finalized reflection impact risks opportunities identified addressed activity 7. Your challenge activity review template basic portions risk opportunity plan omissions errors, oversights.

In order for the kitchen remodeling project to succeeds, there is need to ensure there if effective risk management in order to guarantee an increase in the opportunities available and that risks that arise are mitigated to reduce their effects on the project Beans, 2011.

The type of risk, degree of impact of the risk, likelihood of the risk, prioritization of the risks, tasks that have been effected to date, and mitigation strategies for the risk are important in developing the final risk management plan. This helps to ensure the project manager understands all that is expected and foreseen for the project and also that they develop an effective strategy for any…


Alviniussen, A., Jankensgard, H., & forskning, L. u. I. f. e. (2009). Enterprise Risk Budgeting: Bringing Risk Management Into the Financial Planning Process. Lund, Sweden: Lund Institute of Economic Research, Lund University.

Banaitien?, N., Banaitis, A., & Norkus, A. (2011). Risk management in projects: peculiarities of Lithuanian construction companies. International Journal of Strategic Property Management, 15(1), 60-73. doi: 10.3846/1648715X.2011.568675

Beans, K.M. (2011). Operational Risk Management: Sorry, There's No 'Easy Button'. The RMA Journal, 07(01).

Organizational Behavior Briefly Discuss How
Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 200462
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In evaluating each approach it's clear that the job characteristics has a much more pervasive and integrative approach to defining the total context and impact of a job. The SIP Model and broader social information theory actually address just a component of the job characteristics model and could be foundational to this second theoretical construct of defining a jobs' context and value. Of the two, the job characteristics theory shows illustrates the impact of associates, managers and the structure of the position in relation to these two critical influences in terms of overall job performance.

How does burn out differ from stress? Which do you think is worse and why?

There are major differences between burn-out vs. stress and often it is in the perspective someone takes to a challenging, difficult situation that dictates what their response will be. The intent of this essay is to explain how burn-out differs…

Minds Norman Malcolm Attempts to Highlight the
Words: 932 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94854787
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Minds," Norman Malcolm attempts to highlight the difficulty of establishing the existence of minds other than one's own, specifically by dismantling the so-called "argument from analogy" (Malcolm 969). This actually makes Malcolm's argument a little easier to track, because he constructs it carefully in order to avoid the same logical fallacies he believes the argument from analogy engages in. By carefully tracking Malcolm's argument, one can see not only how the argument from analogy is insufficient as evidence for the knowledge of other minds, but also how Malcolm makes a convincing case for the ultimate impossibility of this knowledge, or at least, that the lack of this knowledge does not actually represent a true problem for philosophy.

Malcolm begins his argument by outlining a number of different variations of the argument from analogy. He begins with the most basic form, which is the idea that "I conclude that other human…

Works Cited

Malcolm, Norman. "Knowledge of Other Minds." Journal of Philosophy. 55.23 (1958): 969-978.


Mao Tse-Tsung How Does One Develop a
Words: 866 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57836664
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Mao Tse-tsung, how does one develop a correct war-Fighting strategy?

One of Mao's major points is that one has to know the actual results and circumstances based on the actions devised and executed. Also, Mao asserted that the primary purpose of war strategy and war in general is stopping the war. He also asserted that the supreme commander of a war must understand the war and how it's being executed but the same is true for the different parts of the war efforts that are led by generals and commanders. These lower commanders have to know exactly what is being done and why just like the higher ups must know the same.

Mao offered some general criteria that can and should be followed when devising a war strategy. First, proper considerations should be given to the relationship between the army you are directing and the enemy that is at hand.…

Complex ANOVA Study
Words: 774 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 77118730
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ANOVA study

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

Analysis of variance is a term used in statistics which involves a collection of statistical models and procedures that are associated with them where the observed variance in a particular variable is partitioned into components that can be attributed to different sources of variations. It is therefore a statistical technique that is useful for evaluation whether there are differences between average values or mean across several population groups. This model also entails that the response variable is continuous in nature while the predictor variables can be categorized. For there to be a test for statistical significance between means then there has to be a comparison i.e. analyzing variances hence the name of the model. There are various concepts in variance analysis these are; the partitioning of sums of squares .at the core of variance analysis is the fact that variances can be divided or…


Shera, J (2006). Statistical Errors (Type I, Type II, Power).Retrieved August 4, 2013 from

Woman and Islam
Words: 1693 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43051773
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Women and Islam

Do Muslim women eally need saving?

Stengths and weaknesses

Between hee and thee: feminist solidaity and Afghan women.

Stengths and weaknesses

Do Muslim women eally need saving? Anthopological eflections on cultual elativism and its othes.

Topic oveview and famewok

The aticle deals with the topic of 'Wa on Teoism', the wa claimed to have been launched fo libeating the Afghan women fom Taliban and an agument with anthopological pespective to deconstuct the essentially flawed epesentation of Afghan women that Wa on Teoism hetoic makes. The aticle is aimed at investigating the nuances of identity that ae essentially devoid of histoical constuction of ole of women in Afghan society. The aticle also aims to identify the pocess though which women's ole in Afghan society is not constucted on anthopological gounds but athe influenced by one's own cultue, identity, and standads of living. Thus, cultual bias is said to…

references: Constructions of gender in the Bush administration discourse on the attacks on Afghanistan post-9/11. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 8(1), 19-41.

Organizational Behaviour This Report Focuses on the
Words: 2228 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41483454
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Organizational Behaviour

This report focuses on the study of organizational behaviour in the hotel industry and most especially in the food and beverage department. Focusing on the organization I am attached to, the aspect of groups and group dynamics is widely explored. The paper first introduces with an introduction in which a brief explanation of the discussion is established. Part of the factors addressed in this section includes the aim and scope of the study. Additionally, the methodology of the research, the assumption, the limitations within the organization and the background of the problem are explored within the discussion. The paper then goes ahead to focus on the literature review. Here, definitions of organizational values and individuals values are provided. Also demonstrated is the manner in which organizational and individual values intersect. Further, the relationship between individual values and organizational structure is established. The report goes further to demonstrate how…


Bilsky, W & Jenh, K (1998) Organizational Culture and Individual Values: Evidence for a Common Structure, Personal Communication

Black, Richard J. (2003) Organizational Culture: Creating the Influence Needed For Strategic Success, London UK

Dean, KW (2011) Value-Based Leadership. How Our Personal Values Impact the Works Place, the Journal of Value-Based Leadership, Valaparaiso University College of Business Management

Kimbro, M, (2012) Organizational Behaviour in the Hospitality Industry, Retrieved From:

How My Perspective About the World Has Changed After Taking This Course
Words: 1547 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52451629
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God calls everyone to himself so that one can know Him personally and follow him (Niswender, 2012). He calls us for a particular reason and purpose. This vocation or calling has implications on occupation and including our giftedness, our weaknesses, and the way we run our lives in the society. This report endeavors to explain about what I believe is my calling, the lessons I have learned from the course and in what ways my assumptions, knowledge, critical thinking and behaviors have changed as a result of this course.

I have learned to identify my purpose as a human being. According to Gordon Smith, one should discover his or her vocation by listening to God's call and ensuring that you become a coworker with God. I have appreciated my need to live with my vocation in the midst of moral challenges and difficult relationships. I have learnt different ways of…


Phillips, G., Brown, W. & Stonestreet, J. (2008). "Making sense of your world." Salem, WI: Sheffield Publishing Company

Ramsey, D. (2003). "Financial peace revisited." New York: The Penguin Group

Smith, G. (2011). "Courage and calling: Embracing your God-given talent." Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press

Niswender, E. (2012). "Connections" Trinity Church of Wheat Ridge 4(4)

Criminology - Theory Understanding Crime
Words: 561 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25210065
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Certainly, the reason that some individuals become criminals has to do with biological predisposition, particularly in the case of many crimes of violence. On the other hand, circumstances, greed, desperation, and opportunity also play an undeniable role in many crimes. Social class and exposure to deviant subcultures also contributes to criminal behavior (Henslin, 2002; Macionis, 2003), but even so, those risk factors do not affect everyone the same; therefore, those approaches also fail to explain crime in many cases (Henslin, 2002; Macionis, 2003).

In some ways, the recent occurrences involving ernard Madoff and several other high profile white collar criminals do not seem to fit any of the traditional criminological theories other than rational choice and possibly psychological disorder. These perpetrators were already the recipients of the considerable benefits of social class and opportunity and were already wealthy even by contemporary American definitions of wealth before resorting to crime to…


Henslin, J.M. (2002). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Macionis, J.J. (2003). Sociology 9th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Schmalleger, F. (2007). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall

Arabic Morphology
Words: 6720 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37761264
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Arabic Morphology

Morph = form or shape, ology = study of Language comprises of words and words have meanings. Meanings give value to words hence they must be given attention in body of knowledge. This is the reason; a study of foundation of meaning is developed. This foundation is called morpheme which is the basic and the smallest entity containing meaning or function in language. This whole study is known as Morphology (Kuthy, 2002).

What Are Morphemes?

It must be noted with concern that word is not the unit of meaning in language. It is because; a word may contain multiple words in meaning (Kuthy, 2002). Below are a few examples when words contain obvious, difficult and medium meanings.

a. obvious: dinnertime, homework, moonlight, classroom

difficult: tenth, walks, dog's, flipped

c. medium: quickly, fearless, fishing, momentary

Morpheme is the most basic element of meaning. If above mentioned words are carefully…


Abdah, D.A. (1979). Frequent words in Arabic. Riyad University, Saudi Arabia (in Arabic).

Abuleil, Saleem and Evens, Martha W. (1998). "Discovering Lexical Information by Tagging Arabic Newspaper Text." Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages, Proceedings of the Workshop.

Ali, N. (1988). "Computers and the Arabic Language." Cairo, Egypt: Al-khat Publishing Press, Ta'reep. Al-Kharashi, I. And Evens,

Anshen, F., & Aronoff, M. (1999). Using dictionaries to study the mental lexicon. Brain and Language, 68, 16 -- 26.

Pro-Formal 5-Year Financial Projection Overview of the
Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62009830
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Pro-Formal 5-Year Financial Projection

Overview of the XYZ Financial Statements

Objective of this report is to provide 5-year pro-formal financial statements of the XYZ Company. The company financial statements reveal that the XYZ records net sales of the $1.74 Million at the end of the first fiscal year while the gross profit is $637, 428. Moreover, the company total operating expenses is $285,850 making the company to record the net profits $144,335. (XYZ Company, n.d).

Overview of the company balance sheet at the end of first fiscal year reveals that company total current assets are $69,525 while the company total fixed assets are $300,000. The company total assets are $369,525. Moreover, the company total liabilities are $146,000. The report provides the strategies that the company will employ to increase the total sales and the net profits with the next five years.

Strategy to Implement to Increase Sales within the Next…

Solution Focused Change
Words: 694 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62283768
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Solution focused coaching involves viewing people as unique, competent, and responsive to suggestions (Visser, 2012). This approach is a respectful change approach (Bodien, 2011) in that it acknowledges and works with the perspective of the client defined solutions that are unique to the client. The solution focused change approach is based on several assumptions (from Bodien, 2011):

Problem analysis and problem diagnosis are not needed to achieve positive change and to solve problems.

This assumption indicates that the focus in the solution focused change approach is on understanding what is desired by the client as opposed to defining and trying to ascertain what factors of the client's history contributed to their current situation or complaint. Thus, solution focused change approach is proactive and allows the client to get right to work as opposed to spending time ruminating on history, causes, etc.

Assumption 2. Vividly describing the desired future is the…


Bodien, G.L.S. (2011). The solution focused mindset at work. Retrieved from .

Visser, C.F. (2012). The solution-focused mindset: An empirical test of solution-focused assumptions. Retrieved from


Rose When Determining the Human Behavior Lead
Words: 819 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 77559274
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rose when determining the human behavior lead to varying answers depending on the presupposed paradigm. (VASILACHIS DE GIALDINO, 1992). In the paper presented by Peterson Armour, I think the topic had the tendency to answers the raised questions differently, depending on whether the Epistemology of the subject is rejected or accepted. The author has tried his best to form a conclusion, which is independent from his personal views.

To discuss the ontological, axiological, and epistemological assumptions made by the author made in this study, a few questions need to be analyzed. How this 'reality' can be realized? What is the association between the knower (in this case the author and the respondents of the survey) and the known (the effects homicide on family members)? What principles, personality and assumptions guide the process of determining the achievements of this study? What is the possibility that this research will be repeated by…


Armour, P. M, (2002), Journey of Family Members of Homicide Victims: A Qualitative study of their post homicide Experience, Austin, Educational Publishing Foundation

Creswell, J.W. (2005). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Flick, Uwe (1998). An introduction to qualitative research. London: Sage.

Morse, Janice M. (2002). Intuitive inquiry. Qualitative Health Research, 12(7), 875.

Acu San Case Study the
Words: 1470 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 45123933
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Arguments for the assumptions: Pat's and Chris's suggestion that the company develop new products and launch them onto different markets is based on the fact that the recent statistics received from the Marketing Department are unsatisfactory.

Evaluating the arguments: The unsatisfactory statistics received from the Marketing Department make a sound argument as the leading position of AcuSan on the market is being challenged by competitors' intense efforts to elaborate new strategies.

Another assumption made by the VP of Product Development is that the "Operation Optimize" plan would only require minimal costs. The argument behind this assumption is an unsound one as later on it has been proved that the operation would also require several additional costs that would raise significant financial difficulties for AcuSan.

1.2 the Conflict

The main responsible for the conflict in AcuSan is the new Marketing Director as she does not take into consideration her colleague's advice.…

Popular Cost of Equity Models Problems and
Words: 1373 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49076042
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Popular Cost of Equity Models: Problems and Potentials in Current Theory and Practice

It is important for any publicly traded business organization to understand and accurately estimate its cost of equity capital, in order to make effective capital-raising resource allocation decisions. There are several models for determining a supposedly accurate valuation for the current cost of equity capital for a given firm, however each of these models is imperfect in its approach and its ultimate assessment. The following pages provide an overview of three popular models for providing this valuation, assessing the models base don ease of use, accuracy of the prediction, and the degree to which the assumptions made or implied by the model are reflective of reality and actual operational capabilities. A final recommendation for a particular model is made following this assessment.

Ease of Use

One of the most straightforward methods for estimating the cost of equity…

References (2012). Financial concepts: capital asset pricing model (CAPM). Retrieved March, 2012, from 

Money Terms (2012). Arbitrage pricing theory. Retrieved March, 2012, from (n.d.). Dividend discount models. Retrieved March, 2012, from

Clinical Implications of Levinson's Stage
Words: 2168 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 69843208
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Mammals will evolve (to choose an analogy) but they do not revert to being reptiles. If the subjects of this research had simply disagreed about the exact biographical dates of the model this would not have been problematic. If research subjects, for example, had argued to extend the period of middle adulthood to fifty rather than forty-five, for example, as people work until they are older than had been the case when Levinson was working, this would have in general supported his findings.

The validity of his model is not dependent on being absolutely precise in his age-related break-points and while Levinson himself might not have acknowledged this, it makes sense that details of the different stages should have to be shifted to meet changes in society. Such an acknowledgement is in fact missing from Levinson's model (as well as from the models of Erikson and Piaget) and must be…

Hansson Private Label Hansson Is
Words: 3683 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 60364966
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Looking at these figures, we can see immediately that the most important assumption Gates has made with respect to free cash flow is that the project will go beyond the initial three years contract. The nominal value of the cash flows associated with those first three years does not equal the initial outlay. Thus, for the project to be profitable, the company must take it well beyond the three-year time horizon.

Weighted Average Cost of Capital

A typical metric that is used in capital budgeting decisions to determine the discount rate is the firm's weighted average cost of capital. There are a number of faults with using the WACC, however. Most of these faults relate to the fact that the WACC is based on current figures. This expansion is a major expansion of the firm therefore the cost of capital is impacted…

Strategically, this project is not as high risk as Hansson currently believes. The firm need not be dependent on a single customer because it is experiencing strong demand and has been able to build its business rapidly even in a mature market. Hansson will likely need this capacity in the coming years anyway. In addition, the increased leverage does not take Hansson into a dangerous position. It leaves the company with more debt than it has ever had, but not a historically high LTD/Equity ratio, as this was higher in 2003. There is little reason to believe that the company is increasing its liquidity risk to a point that would even result in an increase in the cost of debt, so Hansson need not worry much about leverage.

Thus, the question becomes one of capturing a market opportunity and where this fits into overall corporate strategy. If Hansson is to continue to grow, it will need to ride the growth of its major retail partners. The drug stores, retailers and clubs are the strongest source of growth within the industry and for Hansson. The company is growing along with the growth of these customers, and these customers have big ambitions. Hansson needs to take a long-term view of its relationship with these major customers -- it has the opportunity to lay the foundations of that relationship and send a signal to all major private label retailers that Hansson is the company to deal with for personal care products, that it is ready to grow with them to a position of market dominance. Strategically and financially, this investment is a great fit and it is therefore recommended that Hansson sign the contract and make the investment.

Hansson can finance this deal entirely with debt from its bank. It is important that Hansson does not focus strictly on the one customer, but works to fill capacity sooner rather than later by courting other major customers, using this deal as an example of its future outlook as a partner to major retailers. Hansson is not projecting at any point more than 85% utilization of the new facility, which indicates that if the company can bring its capacity utilization up with new contracts from other retailers as well, the net present value of this project can be improved further. All indications are that this opportunity is greater than what is included in Gates' calculations, and that Hansson needs to use this investment as a springboard for another round of growth, not just an one-off investment.

Social Science Research Are Qualitative and Quantitative
Words: 4883 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70439606
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social science research are qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is believed to operate from a subjective, constructionist view of reality, whereas quantitative research operates from an objective, positivist viewpoint of the world. There has been quite a bit of debate over the merits of each of these approaches, often with one paradigm belittling the assumptions of the other. The current literature review explores the philosophical foundations of each paradigm, compares their practical differences, and discusses the strengths and weakness of both approaches as they relate to research in the social sciences and to human resources research. The rationale for mixed-methods research, where the two paradigms are combined, is also discussed.

In recent years there has been substantial interest concerning the role of specific paradigms and philosophical assumptions with regards to doing research. There has been a growing concern regarding the adequacy of research methods in social sciences and…


Anderson, V. (2004) Research methods in human resource management. London, UK: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

Blalock, M. (1984). Basic dilemmas in the social sciences. New York: Sage/

Burrell, G. & Morgan G. (1979). Sociological paradigms and organization analysis. London, UK: Heinemann.

Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: How is it done? Qualitative Research, 6, 97-113.

Statistical Processes
Words: 860 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Methodology Chapter Paper #: 26062280
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A more robust method is to conduct a factor analysis before running the regression analysis, and then to rotate the factors to insure that the factors are independent in the factor analysis ("Statistics Solutions, 2012").

9. Discuss autocorrelation (serial correlation) assumption & implication to student work

Autocorrelation (lagged correlation or serial correlation) occurs when the correlation between values in a random process at different times that is a function of the time lag or of the two times ("Statistics Solutions, 2012"). That is to say that there is a relationship between a variable and itself over intervals of time ("Statistics Solutions, 2012"). These serial correlations occur in repeating patterns when the level of a variable at a time certain affects the variable at a future time ("Statistics Solutions, 2012").

10.Discuss ways to overcome the serial correlation

When using an estimated equation for statistical inference in hypothesis testing, the residuals will…


Geisser, S. And Johnson, W.M. (2006). Modes of Parametric Statistical Inference, John Wiley & Sons.

____. (2012). Statistics Solutions. Retrieved

Treating Allergic Patients Using Homeopathy
Words: 2315 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24976209
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Improved quality of care is one of the major issues that has characterized modern healthcare practices. Ferreri et al. (2016) conducted a study to examine enhanced quality of life and decrease of traditional drugs in homeopathy treatment of allergic patients. The study was carried out in the Centre for Integrated Medicine in Pitigliano, Tuscany. These researchers conducted their study in this healthcare facility because its an innovative hospital that provides homeopathy and acupuncture in combination with conventional clinical care. Therefore, this facility provides integrated medical care for patient treatment, which makes it ideal for examining enhanced quality of life and decrease in conventional drugs. This paper examines the study conducted by these researchers in relation to establishing the reliability of its findings and conclusions as well as the suitability of the research process.
Brief Summary of the Research

Ferreri et al. (2016) conducted a research in which the examined the…

Levinson Part Two Examination of
Words: 866 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18172594
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Tenet of the theory

2. Another tenet of this theory (and one that is connected to certain clinical practices such as those of Rogerian therapy) is that humans are generally inclined to try to achieve greater levels of self-fulfillment, which in turn is linked to greater levels of insight and self-awareness.

Methodological assumptions of this model

. This question is a little more difficult to answer since a model or epistemological framework since the methodological connections to a theoretical framework are strong but not absolute. Any methodological approach to test the validity of Levinson's developmental framework would have to be qualitative since the model reflects complex, subjective states that are not discernible through statistical analyses.

Some of the most interesting potential research topics that could be devised around Levinson's model would be how subjects interpret their own status in terms of where a researcher assesses them to be. Levinson's model…

3. The theory is based on the tenet that individuals, when given an overview of the model, will be able to determine for themselves with accuracy (that is, they would be in agreement with an external observer) where they are positioned in terms of their development.

One study that examines Levinson's model is Dannefer (1984, Feb.) "Adult Development and Social Theory: A Paradigmatic Reappraisal" (American Sociological Review 49(1): 100-116). Dannefer's work, which reflects on theoretical and clinical work produced in a range of fields, argues that Levinson's model is deeply flawed because it ignores the primacy of social relationships as primary influences on an individual's development.

A second very different study (Rush, J.C., Peacock, a.C. & Milkovich, G.T. (1980). Career stages: A partial test of Levinson's model of life/career stages. Journal of Vocational Behavior 16(3): 347-359) examines the relationship between Levinson's model and career development, surveying people as to whether they saw a connection between Levinson's model and their self-assessment of their position in their career path. The subjects were 759 managerial, professional, and technical employees randomly selected from levels and departments of a major public sector employer in the midwest United States. These employees did not connect their own life experiences with Levinson's stages: "Only moderate support for the theory was found with little or no evidence to support the age-linked notion of these stages."