Athlete Essays (Examples)

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Creatine or Glutamine as a Dietary Supplement

Words: 1407 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97202612

Dietary Supplement for Athletes or Bodybuilding

Creatine is a dietary supplement that has been popular for more than thirty years amongst athletes and bodybuilders (Feldman 1999: 45). Its alleged benefits include enhancing muscle-building and recovery. The use of dietary supplements, particularly amongst adolescents and young adult athletes has increased in popularity and may even be endorsed by coaches and parents. Creatine is not recommended for young athletes because of questions about the long-term safety of its use, but pressures to 'be the best' have increased as the margin between first-class and second-class athletes grows ever more razor-thin (Dunn et al. 2001).One study found that "62% of adolescent athletes believed supplements improve performance, with 50% consuming dietary supplements" (Dunn et al. 2001). In another study of attitudes of young athletes Dunn (et al. 2001) found widespread acceptance of the use of creatine and belief in its benefits, even amongst athletes who…… [Read More]

References

Beck TW, Housh TJ, Johnson GO, Coburn DW, Malek MH, Cramer JT. (2007). Effects of a drink containing creatine, amino acids, and protein, combined with ten weeks of resistance training on body composition, strength, and anaerobic performance.

J Strength Cond Res, 21:100-104.

Buford, Thomas W. (et al. 2007). International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand:

creatine supplementation and exercise. Retrieved:
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Sex Appeal to Market Our

Words: 4505 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43931256

They ae thee to play and not to show off thei bodies.

Female athletes with lage body size will find discomfots in the tightly fitted unifoms. This then pesents poblem to safety. The female athletes who will not be at ease to the equied unifom could not focus on the game she is playing. She will, fom time to time, ty to eaange, pull o push some pats o the gament whee she thinks she needs to be coveed. With such attention that will be given to the gament, how can it be assued that the athlete will be safe in pefoming on he spoting event?

Lastly, female athletes who have lage body size will not be motivated to join any spoting activities anymoe because of the fea fo negative judgments fom the cowd and the media. The spots aena is becoming moe of an aea fo the body image…… [Read More]

references of college women basketball players. Master's Thesis

Ford, S., & Feather, B. (May, 1993). Women's basketball uniform analysis. Final report presented to Russell Athletic Corporation.

Gitlin Cara. (November 2000). "Male gawkers have all the fun." The John Hopkins News Letter.

Girls Skip Meals to be like Skinny Models." news.bbc.co.uk. 04 Feb. 2003. BBC Newsround. 8 Aug. 2005.  http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/uk/newsid_2726000/2726279.stm 

Hellmich, Nanci..usatoday.com. "Do thin models warp girls' body image?" 26 September 2006. USA Today. 30 Nov. 2006. http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2006-09-25-thin-models_x.htm
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Inverted U Hypothesis

Words: 1647 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97562588

INVERTED U. HYPOTHESIS

It has been established that competitive state-anxiety normally follows a certain pattern of one-sided feelings of anxiety as well as inadequacy that combines with increased arousal of automatic nervous system (Fazey, 2008). Accordingly, the theory of Inverted U. hypothesis was formulated to explain this aspect, and it is widely applied in sports psychology. Inverted U. hypothesis a theory that suggest that there is a relative amount of anxiety and arousal that triggers one to perform higher- extremely little arousal or anxiety and too much arousal or anxiety will lead to poorer performance. This present paper briefly discusses the Inverted U. hypothesis in sports psychology.

Discussion

Until presently, the traditional Inverted theory had been the key model employed by sports psychologists to explain the arousal-performance relationship. Nevertheless, various sport psychology researchers have criticized this relationship, and the modern trend is a change towards a higher multidimensional perspective of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Fazey, J. (2008). The inverted-U hypothesis: a catastrophe for sport psychology? Leeds, British Association of Sports Sciences.

Pascuzzi, D.L. (2005). The effects of anxiety on gross motor performance a test of the inverted-U hypothesis. Thesis (M.S.) -- Western Illinois University, 1975.

Reeve, J. (2000). Understanding motivation and emotion. Fort Worth, TX, Harcourt College Publishers.

Schnabel, C., & Wagner, J. (2008). Union membership and age: the inverted u-shape hypothesis under test. Luneburg, Univ., Inst. fur Volkswirtschaftslehre.
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Autonomy Supportive Coaching Style

Words: 1179 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26049446

Psychology of Sport Exercise

Conroy, D.E., and Coatsworth, J.D. (2007). Assessing autonomy-supportive coaching strategies in youth sport. Psychology of Sport Exercise, 8(50, 671-684.

Summary of Research Findings: Grounded in the application of self-determination theory to sports, this non-experimental study examines a component of motivational climate commonly referred to as autonomy support. The study was designed to examine whether youth engaged in organized sports could differentiate between the strategies used by their coaches to support the young athletes' autonomy.

The participants in the study consisted of 99 girls and 66 boys (N = 165) between the ages of seven and 18 years. Specifically, data was collected at three points during the six weeks the participants were engaged in a recreational summer swimming league. Measures were taken at the end of weeks 1 and 5 of perceived coaching behavior, and at week 1 and 6 for psychological need satisfaction.

The research instrumentation…… [Read More]

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Cardiovascular Alterations Sudden Death of

Words: 911 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25926719

Therefore, it is very crucial for all the nurses examining the athletes to carefully differentiate the murmurs of the behaviors of athletes and recommend if it is safe for them to continue sports behaviour.

Discussion 2: Anaphylactic Shock

Anaphylaxis shock is a very dangerous and life threatening allergy reaction that needs right, quick and aggressive treatment on time. Due to lack of recognition, the exact evidence of this condition is difficult to know. There are also no laboratory markers or any particular tests that can be used in the emergency to diagnose this situation.

According to the Canadian Pediatric Surveillance Program it is "a severe allergic reaction to any stimulus, having sudden onset and generally lasting less than 24 hours, involving one or more body systems and producing one or more symptoms such as hives, flushing, itching, angioedema, stridor, wheezing, shortness of breath, vomiting, diarrhea or shock" (Simons, Chad and…… [Read More]

References

Bille, K., Figueiras, D., Schamasch, P., Kappenberger, L., Brenner, J., Meijboom, J and Meijboom J. (2006). 'Sudden cardiac death in athletes: the Lausanne Recommendations'.

Eur Journal Cardiovascular Rehabilitation. 2006 Dec; 13(6):859-75.

Maron, B.(2003). Sudden death in young athletes. N Engl J. Med. 2003;349: 1064 -- 75

Simons FER, Chad, ZH and Gold M. (2002). Real-time reporting of anaphylaxis in infants,
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Washing and Use of Testosterone The Action

Words: 960 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41458739

Washing and Use of Testosterone:

The Action of Hand Soap Bacteria:

Hand washing is an important practice for body hygiene because of its seeming effectiveness in preventing the transmission of bacteria. Actually, it is believed that hand washing helps to lessen the risk of bacterial infection through removing and destroying bacterial cells. Generally, the use of hand soap while complying with the good washing practices help an individual to destroy bacteria in the hands, which in turn decreases the spread of diseases or illnesses. The need to wash hands using hand soap is attributed to the accumulation of bacteria on the surface of a person's hands because of numerous opportunities brought by day-to-day activities. For instance, a person encounters bacteria every time he/she touches another individual, touches raw meat, and handles money. The bacteria can get into the individual's hands and under his/her fingernails and spread if he/she touches any…… [Read More]

References:

Angkadjaja, S. (2012). What Makes Antibacterial Soap Antibacterial? Retrieved from Illumin

University of Southern California website:  http://illumin.usc.edu/printer/68/what-makes-antibacterial-soap-antibacterial/ 

Singer, N. (2006, August 10). Does Testosterone Build A Better Athlete? The New York Times.

Retrieved December 4, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/10/fashion/10Fitness.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
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Ephedrine Abuse the Use of

Words: 987 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92079996

However, these studies did not separate the effects of ephedrine from that of caffeine and so more intense research is awaited in this direction. [Robert a] it is to be noted that caffeine and ephedrine work synergistically which could be dangerous in patients with pre-existing cardiac or blood pressure abnormalities. Caffeine affects the adenosine-mediated dilation of blood vessels by antagonizing its receptors. The resulting increased availability of free adenosine monophosphate furthers the activity of ephedrine and catecholamine stimulation resulting in reduced cardiac refractory periods and increased cardiac output and consequently elevated blood pressure. [Charles N. Krome]

It is necessary to look into the inherent risks associated with the use of ephedrine. Ephedrine has a very high percentage of adverse reactions compared to all other herbal supplements. As reported by ent et al. (2003), ephedrine alone accounts for around 64% of all adverse medical reactions due to herbal products. This in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Daniel Ari Kapner, 'Infofacts Resources: Ephedra and Energy Drinks on College Campuses," Accessed 26th April 2008, Available at, http://www.higheredcenter.org/pubs/factsheets/energy-drinks.html

Michael P. Schaefer, Jay Smith, Diane L. Dahm and Matthew C. Sorenson, 'Ephedra Use in a Select group of Adolescent Athletes'. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2006) 5, 407-414, available at  http://www.jssm.org/vol5/n3/6/v5n3-6pdf.pdf 

3) Robert a. Robergs1, Tommy Boone2, Donna Lockner3, "Exercise Physiologists Should not Recommend the Use of Ephedrine and Related Compounds as Ergogenic Aids or Stimulants for Increased Weight Loss," Journal of Exercise Physiology Online, Volume 6 Number 4 November 2003, available at http://faculty.css.edu/tboone2/asep/RobergsV2.doc

4) Charles N. Krome, 'Cardiac Arrhythmia in a Professional Football Player. Was Ephedrine to Blame?' The physician and Sportsmedicine Vol31, No 12, Dec 2003.
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MLB Players MLB Baseball Players

Words: 491 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73274232



easons for MLB Players

Furthermore, MLB owners have enjoyed high double-digit return-on-investment for many years. By showing teenagers that steroids are not the cool nor healthy way to become more physical fit, they finally have the opportunity to show the world that they are not all Montgomery Burns (Saving the Puerto ican League).

If most people believe that the way to get ahead is to work hard, then most people will work hard, and more wealth will be created. On the other hand, if people believe that wealthy people should not have to work, then people will attempt to gain wealth without working, leading to a zero-sum economy. If most people expect public officials to be honest, then dishonest officials will be identified and punished" (eforming Our Beliefs Concerning Health Care).

Conclusion

From there, MLB baseball players participate to prevent teenage athletes' steroid use because they want to present a…… [Read More]

References

Steroid Use in Teen Athletes. http://www.***.ca/lib/essay/69_4.html

Saving the Puerto Rican League.  http://sportslaw.blogspot.com/2007_08_01_archive.html 

Reforming Our Beliefs Concerning Health Care. http://www.tcsdaily.com/article.aspx?id=062107A

Politics.  http://grg51.typepad.com/steroid_nation/politics/index.html
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English Topic Steroid I Specific Details Topic

Words: 2834 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40751721

english topic Steroid. I specific details topic Steroid Use Sports. steroid ? famous types steroid sport function type. good bad effective steroid athletes steroid ? steroid affect short-term long-term.

Steroids: are they a necessary evil?

Society traditionally encouraged people to experience progress in any field that they possibly could and this made it difficult for some to keep up with the fact that the world was constantly changing. In their struggle to keep up and even to be recognized for their contributions, some individuals have turned to using controversial methods. Athletes are provided with difficult choices as they feel the need to satisfy the needs of their fans. Society is indirectly responsible for the fact that some athletes use steroids because of the pressure that it puts on their shoulders. Many athletes today use steroids at the expense of their own health because they know that this is one of…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Dilingham, Michael, "Steroids, Sports and the Ethics of Winning," Retrieved December 4, 2011, from the Santa Clara University Website: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/ethicalperspectives/steriods-ethics.html

Dodgshon, Robert, The Age of the Clans: The Highlands from Somerled to the Clearances (Edinburgh: Birlinn, 2002)

Hecht, Annabel, "Anabolic Steroids: Pumping Trouble," FDA Consumer Sept. 1984

Sender Aaron J. "Anabolic Steroids for non-therapeutic use," Retrieved December 4, 2011, from the New York University Website: http://www.nyu.edu/classes/jaeger/anabolic_steroids.htm
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Do Proteins Help the Body as Related to Sports Exercise and Nutrition

Words: 3010 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90075003

Proteins are often called the building blocks of life. In fact, the very word "protein" implies their importance in the body: it is a Greek word meaning "first place." Approximately fifty percent of the dry weight in animal cells is comprised of protein (Campbell 71). They play a roll in almost everything the body does and "are used for support, storage, transport of other substances, signaling from one part of the organism to another, movement, and defense against foreign substances." (Campbell 71). Proteins are essential to the proper functioning of every organism known to man.

The human genetic code holds the instructions for the making of over ten thousand different types of proteins; all with specific purposes. Additionally, "Proteins are the most structurally sophisticated molecules known." (Campbell 71). In comparison to other molecules, proteins are enormous and come in nearly every shape imaginable. However, despite their variety and size, proteins…… [Read More]

Works Cited

1. Berning, Jacqueline R. And Suzanne Nelson Steen. Nutrition for Sport and Exercise. Gaithersburg: Aspen Publications, 1998.

2. Campbell, Neil A. And Jane B. Reece. Biology: Sixth Edition. New York: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, 2002.

3. Ronzio, Robert, PHD. The Encyclopedia of Nutrition and Good Health: Second Edition. New York: Facts On File Inc., 2003.

4. Ryan, Monique. Complete Guide to Sports Nutrition. Boulder: VELO Press, 1999.
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Deliberate Play Being a Coach

Words: 1222 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12307648

The Sports Imagery Questionnaire provides feedback to the researcher, coach, parents and players on how the player views what he or she is learning and the perceived purpose and benefits of imagery training. The findings from one recent study showed that "Elite and intermediate athletes used imagery more frequently and deliberately and perceived imagery to be more relevant and requiring more concentration than recreational athletes" (Nordin, Cumming, Vincent, McGrory, 2005, p. 346). If these findings are correct, and there is no reason to doubt that they are not, then the way to enhance top level performance in sporting activities is to have the players practice the art of imagery.

It is not surprising that athletes are now incorporating imagery into their training regimes. Advertisers have known for some time the effectiveness of imagery on consumer's spending habits. Many radio advertisements are created with the thought that the consumer must 'see'…… [Read More]

References

Bolls, P.D.; Muehling, D.D.; (2007) the effects of dual-task processing on consumer's responses to high and low-imagery radio advertisements, Journal of Advertising, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 35-47

Cote, J.; (1999) Long-term athlete development, associated coaching pathways, and implications for coach education, Queens University, www.icce.ws/conference/documents/ICCE2005/LTAD.PPT, Accessed April 15, 2008

Da Matta, G.B.; French, K.S. (2002) the influence of Deliberate Practice and social support systems on the development of expert and intermediate female volleyball players in Brazil, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC,

Nordin, S.M.; Cumming, J.; Vincent, J.; McGrory, S.; (2005) Mental practice or spontaneous play? Examining which types of imagery constitutes deliberate practice in sport, Journal of Applied Sports Psychology, Vol. 18, Issue 4, pp. 345-362
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Violence in American Sports Today

Words: 3564 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28418040

Given that people engage in sporting events for a wide range of reasons, the authors assert that it is time for athletes to develop a moral code that embraces higher standards of conduct that will help reverse these recent trends and once again provide American sports with a sense of fair play and respect.

Fredenburg, Karen, Rafer Lutz, Glenn Miller et al. (2005). "Dismissals and Perceptions of Pressure in Coaching in Texas High Schools: Similarities and Differences with Previous Studies Show the Contemporary Face of Coaching Pressure." JOPERD-- The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 76(1):29.

In this essay, the authors report that there have been a number of recent studies and reports that suggest that the pressure in high school sports is growing, rather than declining. The authors cite an article in Sports Illustrated that described the alarming trends of parental misbehavior at youth sport events. The president…… [Read More]

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Program Design Project

Words: 3118 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59976246

Sport: Basketball

More sport and physiological testing has become increasingly common as the interaction between scientists and coaches (tanner & Gore, 2013). When it comes to popular sports that are watched al over the world, team games like basketball generally have a heightened game tempo, a tougher body game and a more acute variability in the techniques and methods used (Singh & Deol, 2012). "An increased performance level can only be achieved by working and training of all major components i.e. technique, coordination, tactics, physical fitness, physiological qualities and psychological qualities. Basketball is one of the most popular team-based sports played and watched throughout the world" (Singh & Deol, 2012). This puts the aspect of physiological testing as an extreme priority for a variety of reasons. "Physiological exercise testing is important in basketball to help identify potential talent but also to provide the players, trainers and coaching staff with some…… [Read More]

References

Bangsbo, J. (2006). Training and testing of the elite athlete.Copenhagen Muscle Research

Centre, 4(1), 1-9.

Changela, P.K., & Bhatt, S. (2012). The correlational study of the vertical jump test and wingate cycle test as a method to assess anaerobic power in high school basketball players. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 2(6), 2-9.

Cissik, J. (2013, February 15). The point guard off-season workout plan. Retrieved from http://www.stack.com/2013/02/15/point-guard-off-season-workout/
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Athletic Injuries

Words: 3570 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68475215

athletic coach I have garnered a wide variety of skills, as well as an extensive understanding of the standard practices and procedures an individual in the field of exercise science should possess. My past experiences have provided me with substantial knowledge of the principles involved in the prevention and care of athletic injuries. With the following, I hope to illustrate that my experiences and subsequent research have provided me with a broad awareness of typical athletic injuries and treatments as they apply to exercise science.

When a member of my dance squad sprained her ankle it became necessary for me to tape it as to provide additional support. I employed the traditional Gibney basket weave procedure. This consists of an interwoven network of stirrup strips "which cover the plantar surface of the hindfoot and extend proximally on both the medial and lateral aspects of the leg, and horseshoe strips, which…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Boyle, Daniel J.M.D. Sports Medicine for Parents and Coaches. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1999.

Brown, Lee E. And Vance A. Ferrigno. Training for Speed, Agility, and Quickness. New York: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, 2000.

Garrick, James G.M.D. And Peter Radetsky, Ph.D. Anybody's Sports Medicine Book. Toronto: Ten Speed Press, 2000.

Levy, Allan M.M.D. And Mark L. Fuerst. Sports Injury Handbook. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1993.
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Conceptual Fit of Coaching Styles

Words: 1370 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66098269

Autonomy-Supportive coaching style is more effective for female than male athletes in team sports.

Gender (nominal)

Gender is a concept which connects directly to the sense of how receptive or non-receptive humans are likely to be regarding all forms of coaching. Gender is one manifestation of the notion of how prosocial or anti-social human beings are likely to be. Some experts have argued that human beings are naturally inclined to be prosocial animals when given the proper nurturing -- such as a namely this type of support mechanism: when this type of support is lacking, it is more than likely that one will substitute it by pursuing extrinsic goals such as fame, ego enhancement or other extrinsic rewards. Such rewards are not something which help to reinforce prosocial behavior (Hodge & Lonsdale, 2011).

Thus, given this research the question becomes whether or not female athletes are more prosocial than male…… [Read More]

References

Bartholomew, K., Ntoumanis, N., & Thogersen-Ntoumani, C. (2010). The Controlling Interpersonal Style in a Coaching Context. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 193-216.

Hodge, K., & Lonsdale, C. (2011). Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior in Sport. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 527-547.

Khaef, M., & Noorbakhsh, M. (2013). Relationship between Perceived Autonomy - Supportive Behaviors of Coaches . Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 229-234.

Mallett, C. (2011). Understanding motivation to enhance the quality of coaching. Retrieved from www.ausport.gov.au: http://www.ausport.gov.au/sportscoachmag/psychology2/understanding_motivation_to_enhance_the_quality_of_coaching
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Internet and Social Networks Affect

Words: 2137 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17301776

The most successful of these hybrid strategies is David Beckham and his approach to making sure his personality pervades the messages over and above the positioning points in any IMC campaign. The undercurrents of social networking require a very high level of interactivity, transparency that leads to trust. In the case of athletes and celebrities who battle gossip media, the best defense is a good offense. Taking the initiates as Derek Jeter has done to stop rumors of conflict with Alex odriguez, Carmelo Anthony discussing his DUI in blogs, and the hybrid strategy of Beckham all show how critical it is for celebrities to keep these broader Web 2.0 dynamics in mind when communicating with their fans. Table 1 in the Appendix provides an overview of Web 2.0 applications.

eferences

Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. 2008. Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management eview 49, no. 3 (April…… [Read More]

References

Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. 2008. Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review 49, no. 3 (April 1): 36-42.  http://www.proquest.com  (Accessed April 3, 2008).

Mary Cowlett (2000, January). Toeing the line of truth in spinworld. Marketing, 23-24. Retrieved May 1, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 48129845).

Von Johnson, Pierre Ollivier. (2007). The Technology Disruption Conundrum. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 12(1), 215-221. Retrieved May 3, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1288122001).

Ava Lawler, Gabrielle Tourelle. (2002). Public relations: The integrated communication tool in the launch of a new software operating system -- a case study. Journal of Communication Management, 7(2), 156-159. Retrieved May 1, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 264328051).
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Diamond-Water Paradox the Diamond Water Paradox Is

Words: 985 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13186700

Diamond-Water Paradox

The diamond water paradox is a classic example of the numerous paradoxes that can be seen in everyday life. According to the diamond water paradox, the cost of diamonds is more than the cost of water despite the fact that water is essential for human existence while diamond is more of an optional luxury item. A good application of this paradox is the difference in the wages of essential employees like teachers and firefighters as against that of the sporting athletes. While the salaries of teachers, firefighters, policemen and other essential services workers are low, those that of the professional athletes is high. So, what is the reason behind this discrepancy? The analysis below will throw more light on this difference.

Wage determination

The first step to understanding the paradoxes that exist in salaries is to understand how wages are determined. Many factors are taken into account while…… [Read More]

References

McLaughlin, Dan. (July 11, 2007). Rich Athletes, Poor Teachers. Mises Daily. Retrieved from: http://mises.org/daily/2626

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2011). Occupational Outlook Handbook 2010-2011 Edition. Retrieved from: http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos251.htm

USA Today. (2011). Major League Baseball salaries. Retrieved from: http://content.usatoday.com/sportsdata/baseball/mlb/salaries/player/top-25
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Professional Teams Keep Community Together

Words: 965 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23696274



The professional athletes shows that winning is not the only reason to play, they play the game for entertainment, sportsmanship and to keep the people united. They don't show any bitterness or hate for the rival team they are having a match with. This helps the community to realize that its always not about win (e.g. there is a practice followed in the games today in which the rivals shake hands before the game starts, which shows that they are not enemies and this promotes the value of peace and harmony).

The athletes not even build a sense of unity in their team but they also try to show it to the community that team work can lead to success. When the event of Olympics takes place athletes and sports officials from over 200 countries join hands and come together for the cause of sports.

It's an event in which…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dyreson, Mark. Making the American Team: Sport, Culture, and the Olympic Experience. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1998

Games and Empires: Modern Sports and Cultural Imperialism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.

Young, David C. The Olympic Myth of Greek Amateur Athletics. Chicago: Ares, 1984.

Baker, William J. Sports in the Western World. Rev. ed. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988.
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Overtraining The Risks 'More Is

Words: 722 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43023550

Then, light exercise, preferably cross-training if the athlete is dealing with overuse issues, may be undertaken. During the initial phase, aerobic exercise should be confined to "heart rates of 120-140 beats per minute ...this can be slowly built up over the period of 6-12 weeks. The emphasis is increasing volume rather than intensity, and volume should be increased gradually up to one hour per day. Once this is volume is reached, intensity can be gradually increased above the lactate threshold" (Peterson 2011).

Preventing overtraining requires moderating the intensity and the duration of work days, and building in one 'cross-training' or rest day into the training schedule. The mental component of overtraining should not be ignored. Not all athletes who train hard experience the syndrome and one reason some athletes are thought to be more vulnerable to overtraining than others is because of personal stresses that can enact an additional toll…… [Read More]

References

Meehan, Heidi. (2011). Overtraining syndrome. Sports Injury Bulletin.

Retrieved November 17, 2011 at  http://www.sportsinjurybulletin.com/archive/overtraining-causes.html 

Peterson, Andrea. (2011). Overtraining. Curtin University. Retrieved November 17, 2011 at http://physiotherapy.curtin.edu.au/resources/educational-resources/exphys/00/overtraining.cfm
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Health Blind Spot

Words: 2386 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51485764

Health and Blind Spot Enlargement in Non-Athletes

Everyone has a blind spot in the visual field caused by an absence of nerves on the retinal wall where the nerve ganglia enter. Our brains "correct" for this blind spot and fill-in the missing information so that we do not notice the blind spot in normal daily activity. As the blind spot represents a physical structure, there has been little study concerning it. There have been a few studies conducted to determine how the brain compensates for the phenomenon.

Recently, there have been studies indicating that in certain people seeking chiropractic treatment that they have unequal blind spots as a result of muscoloskeletal misalignments. This research has been controversial, however, brings up several interesting questions. There are conditions that can damage the retina and this can cause blind spots in the visual field. It is generally assumed that athletes maintain a better…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ballantyne, R. About that Squinty Eye. [Online]

 http://www.ballantyne.com/rjb_resume/Squinty.html  accessed March 2003.

Cai, R.H., & Cavanagh, P. (2002). Motion interpolation of a unique feature into stimulus gaps and blind spots Journal of Vision, 2(7), 30a, http://journalofvision.org/2/7/30 / accessed

Fletcher WA, Imes RK, Goodman D, Hoyt WF. Acute idiopathic blind spot enlargement: a big blind spot syndrome without optic disc edema. Arch Ophthalmol. 1988;106:44-49.
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Increasing Sport Injuries

Words: 2348 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66618732

Sports Injuries

Competitive sports participation opportunities for children continue to grow. Nowadays, children begin their regular sport participation between the ages of 4 to 8 years. Most children enjoy sports and show great enthusiasm for participation. However, the situation changes when young athletes get involved in the elite-level championships organized and directed by adults. Children's play becomes transformed from informal playground games to highly organized sporting events that mirror adult professional sports.

The effects of such intensive training and participation in elite-level competition on young athletes have been investigated. However, most of the research has been devoted to athletes above 10 years of age who are involved in individual sports. Little has been done to explore the impact of the elite-level competition on children under 10 years old participating in team sports.

Indeed, the idea that organized, supervised athletic competition benefits pre-pubertal children is very controversial. However, since more and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AAP. "Organized Athletics for Preadolescent Children." Pediatrics 84, 1989:583-4.

Ad Hoc Committee on Sports and Children of the FIMS Education Commission. Sports and children. Position stand of the International Federation of Sports Medicine and World Health Organization on "Organized Sport for Children." Olympic Coach, Summer 1997: 6-8.

Backx, F. "Injuries in persons and high-risk sports; a longitudinal study of 1,818 school

Children." The American Journal of Sports Medicine 19, 1991:124-30.
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Athletic Ethics and Morality Athletics

Words: 969 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34103176

Prizes have always been a part of contests, a tradition that can be traced back for centuries. In Homer's the Iliad, Achilles hosts a contest in honor of the fallen Patroclus, "The first prize he offered was for the Chariot races -- a woman skilled in all the useful arts, and a three legged cauldron that had ears for handles, and would hold twenty two measures. This was for the man who came first," (Iliad).

Modern day athletes continue to receive prizes for their successes. They receive monetary compensation through endorsements and contracts for their participation in professional programs. The compensation is much more than a useful woman and a cauldron in recent times. The 2006 Top National Football League salaries reached insane heights. According to USAToday.com, Richard Seymour from the NFL Patriots earned a whopping $24,691,160. Another New England Patriot who is a household name thanks to his quarter…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Homer. The Iliad. Book xxiii. Found at:  http://classics.mit.edu/Homer/iliad.23.xxiii.html . On Friday September 21, 2007.

Murphy, Arthur. The Works of Cornelius Tacticus with Essay on His Life and Genius.

Oxford University Press. 1935.

Shakespeare, William. Troilus and Cressida. Penguin Books. New York. 2000.
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Children Out of Wedlock There

Words: 1825 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66317941



Conclusion:

In the end, the epidemic of out of wedlock children by professional athletes is a serious concern. These athletes, whether they like it or not, are role models to the youth of today, and as such, they need to be especially concerned with the moral implications of their actions. By using Kantian morality, one easily begins to see that at no point is having an out of wedlock child a moral decision. From conception, when the mother-to-be is used as a means for the ends of sexual gratification, to the lack of consideration for the effects the stress of paternity suits will have on the team in general, to the complete disregard for the child who had no voice in the decision at all and relied on the two parents to make the best decision possible, each step was fraught with immorality.

eferences

Chan, S. "The Confucian Notion of…… [Read More]

References

Chan, S. "The Confucian Notion of Jing." Philosophy East and West 56(2) Apr. 2006: pp. 229-253. Academic OneFile database. Thomson Gale. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 5, 2006   http://find.galegroup.com  .

Crane, P. "This Week's SI: An Inside Look." Sports Illustrated. 29 Apr. 1998. Sports Illustrated. December 5, 2006 http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/features/1998/weekly/980504/insidelook.html.

May, L., Collins-Chobanian, S., & Wong, K. Applied Ethics: A Multicultural Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2005.

Rachels, J. & Rachels, S. The Elements of Moral Philosophy. Columbus, OH: McGraw Hill, 2006.
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Gaining Weight 25-35Lbs How to

Words: 1329 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86520088

5 gram per pound of bodyweight. Proteins give the muscle energy to grow but carbohydrates are just as important to promote the muscle to heal.

The following is a 3 day meal schedule recommended to the athlete:

Day 1:

reakfast- High energy cereal with whole milk

Fruit of his choice

Apricot nectar juice

Lunch-

aked tuna

aked potato

Lima beans

Frozen Yogurt

Dinner-

Steak

aked potato

Corn and peas

Frozen sherbet

Snack (3)- left up to the athlete

Day 2:

reakfast- Eggs and whole wheat or grain toast

Fruit of his choice

Apple juice

Lunch-

aked or roasted fish

aked potato

Corn

Frozen Yogurt

Dinner-

aked chicken

aked potato

Corn and beans

Frozen sherbet

Snack (3)- left up to the athlete

Day 3:

reakfast- Hot cereal with whole milk

Fruit of his choice

Pineapple juice

Lunch-

Steak or ground beef

aked potato

eans

Frozen Yogurt

Dinner-

aked fish

aked potato…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Coaching Association of Canada. (2010). "Gaining Weight for Athletes." Retrieved on April 16,

2010 from http://www.coach.ca/admin/pdf_admin/pdf/Nutrition_GainWeight_eng.pdf

Riveria, H. (2010). "Weight Gain and Bulking Up Rules for the Natural Bodybuilder."

Retrieved on April 16, 2010 from http://bodybuilding.about.com/od/nutritionbasics/a/bulkingupdiet.htm
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Sports Nutrition the Stuff of

Words: 1524 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70597020



Matt gave Ed two eggs on toast with half-a-grapefruit and orange juice for breakfast (Independent on Sunday, 2002). Ed took fish oils and multivitamins on a daily basis. These were immediately followed by a good fiber and protein meal in minutes or strength during his warm-up sessions. Matt gave Stu chicken, basmati rice, couscous and egg and Jaffa cakes for his "insulin." Matt's intention was to bring extra protein straight into Stu's tired muscles. He also served Stu with nuts for his snacks (Independent on Sunday).

Commercial high-carbohydrate electrolyte sports drinks fill the football player's need, especially within the first 15 minutes after strenuous activity. These drinks also appeal more than plain water while contributing their value (Mannie, 2001).

ILIOGRAPHY

usiness Wire (2004). 3-a-day dairy teams up with national football league to tackle kids' nutrition and fitness in schools. usiness Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning.

Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Business Wire (2004). 3-a-day dairy teams up with national football league to tackle kids' nutrition and fitness in schools. Business Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning.

Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOEIN/is_2004_Sept_8/ai_n6185691/?tag=content;col1

Independent on Sunday (2002). The programme. Independent Newspapers UK Limited

ProQuest Information and Learning Company. Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4159/is_20020922/ai_n1266483/?tag=content;col1
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High and Inside in the Newsweek Magazine

Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89267419

High and Inside

In the Newsweek Magazine article "High and Inside" by Mark Starr, the issue of illegal drug use among professional sports players is given focus. Citing particularly the case of American baseball stars, Starr puts forth the argument that the issue illegal drug use such as subsistence to steroid injections goes beyond the fact that it is illegal -- the bigger issue at hand is that such a system prevails in sports organizations because it is supported and encouraged by everyone in it.

In arguing this primary thesis of the article, Starr exemplifies the case of baseball star Jason Giambi as one of the models of how the proliferation of illegal drug use has made it so common and an imperative requirement for a professional athlete. Chronicling Giambi's career as a professional baseball player, the article details how, just before the peak of his career, he had already…… [Read More]

Work cited

Starr, M. (2004). "High and Inside." Newsweek Magazine. Available at: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6652658/site/newsweek.
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Conceptual Fit

Words: 883 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17583743

Conceptualization and operationalization of variables

Poor communication between young athletes and coaches leads to longer recovery times and increased levels of frustration amongst athletes regarding their prognosis.

Independent Variable: Effective and ineffective communication between coaches and young athletes.

Conceptualization: Sports injuries are a serious concern. There has been a rise in the rate of youth sports injuries in recent decades, an increase partially attributed to a corresponding rise in youth specialization at an early age and year 'round participation in the same type of competitive sports activity, versus varying sports (Merkel & Molony 2013). In some sports, there are also grave concerns about the risk of permanent injury on every level of competition, as manifested in concerns about head trauma amongst football players, making it all the more critical to reduce the likelihood of such injuries occurring when young (Lopate 2013). Overuse injuries are common many popular youth sports: "Preteens…… [Read More]

References

Apache, R.R. (2006). The behavioral assessment of parents and coaches at youth sports:

Validity and reliability. Physical Educator, 63(3), 126-133.

Borggrefe, C., & Cachay, K. (2013). Communicative challenges of coaches in an elite-level sports system: Theoretical reflections on successful coaching strategies. EJSS: European Journal for Sport and Society, 10(1), 7-29.

Caine, D. (et al. 2006). Physical injuries in children's and youth sports:
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Biomechanical Principles

Words: 1555 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68633730

Biomechanical Priciples

Biomechanical Principles

Biomechanics is the study of mechanical and physics principles in relation to motion in sports. Every sport has its biomechanical theories and each one is specialized to that particular skill with equations derived from Newtonian physics and knowledge of the human body and its capabilities. When combined and properly practiced, biomechanics can improve an athletes overall performance, making the athlete superior to their competitors.

The freestyle arm-pull in swimming is a precise study in the art of biomechanics introduced for an efficient result. It is an established fact that water is 773 times as dense as air and 55 times as viscous (Miller, 1975). What this means is that planning an efficient stroke in water is going to require greater strategy than planning an efficient stroke in air. The primary factors that go into creating the ideal stroke in swimming are vectors, motion, force, work, and…… [Read More]

References

Boone, Tommy; Birnbaum, Larry (2005). Exercise Physiology: Professional Issues, Organizational Concerns, and Ethical Trends. Edward Mellen Pr.

Burkett, Brendan (2012). Basic principles for understanding sport mechanics. Human Kinetics. Accessed 14 March 2012 from  http://www.humankinetics.com/excerpts/excerpts/basic-mechanical-principles 

Miller, Doris (1975). Biomechanics of Swimming. Exercise and Sport Sciences. Vol. 3.1, 219-248.

Richardson, AR (1986). The Biomechanics of Swimming: The Shoulder and Knee. Clin Sports Med. Vol 5.1, 103-13.
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Community Prevention Drug Use Among

Words: 1195 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3917255

The selective type would enable me to make optimal use of the specific factors that are relevant to my target group. This IOM type would also enable me to identify cases of prior and current drug use, and to refer these to specialized groups and programs for help. The selective type is therefore optimal for the specific sector of society that I want to target.

Best Practice Program

From the "Best Practice Programs," I chose "Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid teroids: The ATLA Program," because it specifically focuses on high school athletes as a target group. While it focuses mostly on one particular kind of drug, I would perhaps modify it to address the specific problems, risks and protective factors of my target group.

The ATLA program focuses on male high school athletes and aims at reducing the risk factors involved in the use of anabolic steroids and other…… [Read More]

Sources

CASAT. Best Practice: Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids: The ATLAS Program

http://casat.unr.edu/bestpractices/view.php?program=7

Institute of Medicine. Projects: Adolescent Health Care Services and Models of Care for Treatment, Prevention, and Healthy Development http://www.iom.edu/CMS/12552/35625.aspx
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Ambush Marketing Should Tough Rules Be Introduced to Protect Sports Sponsors

Words: 4320 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64007795

Ambush Marketing: Should Tough ules be introduced to Protect Sports Sponsors?

This is a paper that describes the concept of ambush marketing and outlines how it can be detrimental for the official sports sponsors of events such as the World Cup, Tournaments etc. It argues whether there should be laws for curbing this marketing tactic. It has sources.

Lack of business ethics is a problem that is of growing concern in the field of business today. Many individuals and organizations either easily forget or ignore ethical codes when they see business opportunities. This is an issue of immense concern because of the fact that millions of dollars can be jeopardized easily on the part of rightful contractors. Speaking more specifically, this refers to the manner in which sports sponsors at major events are denied their total rights over an event due to interfering investors. These rights are denied as the…… [Read More]

References

Aaker, David. A. Building Strong Brands, New York, NY: The Free Press, 1996.

Donaldson, Michael. Crik: Ambush marketers face jail in South Africa. AAP Sports News (Australia). 2002.

Greising, David. "Run, Jump and Sell: Commercial Exploitation of Sports Explodes." Business Week, July 29, 1996.

Gwinner, Kevin. "A Model of Image Creation and Image Transfer in Event Sponsorship." International Marketing Review 14, 3: 145-58. 1997.
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Anterior Cruciate Ligament or ACL

Words: 2193 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30046943

esearchers believe that incorporating evidence-based prevention methods can decrease the incidence of ACL ruptures, but an understanding of the etiology and mechanisms of sports injury are a necessary to do this (Posthumus, 2009).

The highest prevalence of extrinsic ACL injuries tends to occur in organized sports especially adolescents participating in pivoting type sports such as football, basketball, and team handball (Bahr & Krosshaug, 2005). In addition to any intrinsic factors and adolescent may have, or predisposing factors, environmental factors surrounding organized sports can also play a role in injury. For example, weather conditions (slippery surface), type of surface sport is played on (grass vs. pavement), proper footwear, and protective bracing (Posthumus, 2009).

A growing concern regarding these injuries and the populations that incur them is that these injuries increase the risk of osteoarthritis (Bahr & Krosshaug, 2005). In fact, after ten years, around half of all people that have suffered…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Ageberg, E., Thombe, R., Neeter, C., Gravare Silbernagel, K., Roos, EM. Patients With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Treated With Training and Surgical Reconstruction or Training Only: A Two to Five-Year Followup. Arthritis Care & Research. 2008; 59(12):1773-79.

Bahr, R., Krosshaug, T. Understanding injury mechanisms: a key component of preventing injuries in sport. Br J. Sports Med. 2005; 39:324 -- 329.

Grindstaff, TL., Hammill, RR., Tuzson, AE., Hertel, J. Neuromuscular Control Training Programs and Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Rates in Female Athletes: A Numbers-Needed-to-Treat Analysis. Journal of Athletic Training. 2006; 41(4):450 -- 456.

Health Information Publications (2011). What is the anterior cruciate ligament? eHealthMD retrieved from  http://ehealthmd.com
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Public Figures as Role Models

Words: 3582 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81031304



Take, for instance, a day in the life of an athlete. According to an article written by Deidra Anderson and Tony Morris, athletes live a regimented day from sun up until late into the evening. Their meals are typically pre-mixed and prepared by professional nutritionists to ensure their bodies have the necessary nutrients for their particular needs. After breakfast, they report to their coach for practice. Their may be some press interviews and a game and then their day is done (59-62). In fact, experts have reported that once an athlete retires and enters the working world, they require career and life counseling similar to that which a soldier receives upon returning from duty (Hill 7). If a person is incapable of taking care of themselves properly, then there should be no doubt as to their ineptitude as a role model for young people.

In a recent episode of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, Deidre, and Tony Morris. "Athlete lifestyle programs." Career transitions in sport: International perspectives (2000): 59-80.

Brown, William J., James J. Duane, and Benson P. Fraser. "Media coverage and public opinion of the OJ Simpson trial: Implications for the criminal justice system." Communication Law and Policy 2.2 (1997): 261-287.

Cameron, Jamie. "Does Section 2 (B) Really Make a Difference? Part 1: Freedom of Expression, Defamation Law, and the Journalist-Source Privilege." (2010).

Freedman, Russell. Franklin Delano Roosevelt. New York: Clarion, 1990. Print.
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Boost for Women's Athletics but

Words: 3098 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40019638



Secondly, the report alluded to by CSC asserts that in "gender symmetric" sports there are "far more scholarships available for women (32,656) than for men (20,206)." The third bullet point in the CSC press release points out that men's volleyball is the "by far the most difficult" scholarship at the Division I level; there are reportedly 489 high school athletes for every full ride NCAA scholarship.

The "underlying" data that CSC used to put together their press release comes from two NCAA reports: "1981-82-2006-07 NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rate Report" and "2006-07 NCAA Division I Manual." Also factored into the report is data from the national Federation of State High School Associations. And so what is the College Sports Council calling on the federal government -- and the Department of Education (DOE) -- to do? The press release says that "women are accorded far more opportunities to compete and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Association of University Women. "Report Card on Gender Equity." Retrieved

June 28, 2009, from  http://www.aauw.org . (2004).

Brake, Deborah. "Revisiting Title IX's Feminist Legacy: Moving Beyond the Three-

Part Test." Journal of Gender, Social Policy & The Law, 12(3), 453-473. (2004).
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James Jesse Cleveland Owens Who Lived From

Words: 1098 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44226989

James "Jesse" Cleveland Owens, who lived from 1913 to 1980, and Frederick Carl Lewis, born in 1961, have been two of the United State's greatest track stars. Their lives have some similarities and differences.

Jesse Owens was born in Alabama. His parents were sharecroppers, which means they farmed land owned by someone else. His grandparents had been slaves. Jesse Owens had six older brothers and sisters, and his family lived in poverty in his childhood. His family moved to Cleveland when he was young.

He started setting local track records when he was in junior high, and in high school he won state championships three years in a row and set high school national records.

Jesse chose to go to Ohio State University. This school had no track scholarships at the time, and Jesse worked to support himself and his wife while he attended college. He continued to be an…… [Read More]

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Armour Analysis Under Armour the Under Armour

Words: 1282 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75755473

Armour Analysis

Under Armour

The Under Armour company makes sports clothing as well as accessories. It is an American company. It mainly focuses on sportswear of the hi-tech variety that is marketed to professional athletes. However, anyone can buy clothing from the company. It offers sportswear as well as apparel that is more casual, and also started offering footwear only a few years ago. It has won awards, and has many sponsorship deals with everything from Football to Martial Arts. Discussed here will be sales and revenue information, along with financial and market analyses, the opinion of Under Armour on Wall Street, a brand history of the company, and information about one problem the company faces.

Sales

As of fiscal year 2009, Under Armour saw sales revenue of $856 million (Under, 2009). Naturally, that will fluctuate each year with the economy, new products and lines, and other factors that can…… [Read More]

References

Barnett, Gigi. New Under Armour product revealed. WJZ 13 Baltimore. 2008.

Terry, Robert J . Analysts: Brand crossover risky for Under Armour. Baltimore Business Journal. 2010.

Under Armour. 2008 Annual Report. 2009.
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Lifespan IT's Very Interesting to Discuss an

Words: 3695 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53800908

Lifespan

It's very interesting to discuss an individual's life in detail, especially when done so in a thoughtful manner. Through these conversations, one garners a distinct appreciation for life and the obstacles it presents. It also provides a great sense of the importance of perseverance in regards to success. Allen exemplifies the term "perseverance," in his behaviors throughout life. I personally had to the opportunity to meet Allen during a job fair. He was representing Macy's and immediately seemed approachable. He is warm hearted and very engaging. Little did I know that his background was one that was anything but warm.

Family background

Not much is known about Allen's father, who was appropriate named Allen himself. As the third, the younger Allen never made physical contact with his father. From the information garnered from his mother, Allen Sr. was an expert guitarist. His hobbies included playing instruments and teaching music.…… [Read More]

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Gender Matter in Sports There

Words: 2514 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10104952

234). Culturally, trainers may simply be paying more attention to girls' injuries due to our culture's tendency to protect females more than males (Tierney, et al., 2005, p. 278) and/or boys may simply under-report concussions due to "macho" tendencies to play through pain in order to continue playing (Covassin, et al., 2012, p. 926). Hormones may contribute to the greater incidence of concussions among female high school athletes because researchers have found that estrogen protects male rats from brain trauma but actually makes female rats more vulnerable to brain trauma (Makdissi, et al., 2013, p. 319). Whether caused anatomically, culturally, hormonally or for some other reason, the fact remains that girls are reportedly highly more likely to sustain concussions in sports such as soccer and basketball. Consequently, gender matters in the sports injury of concussion.

3. Conclusion

Development of a masculine identity is psychologically fundamental for males and particularly for…… [Read More]

References

Allan, E.J., Gordon, S.P. & Iverson, S.V., Fall 2006. Re/thinking Practices of Power: The Discursive Framing of Leadership in the Chronicle of Higher Education. Review of Higher Education, 30(1), pp. 41-68.

Bourdieu, P., 1978. 'Sport and Social Class,' Social Science Information, 17(6): 819-840. [Online]

Available at:  http://ssi.sagepub.com/content/17/6/819.ciatation  [Accessed 21 May 2013].

Chesebro, J.W. & Fuse, K., Summer 2001. The Development of a Perceived Masculinity Scale. Communication Quarterly, 49(3), pp. 203-278.
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Communication Competence Between Male and Female College

Words: 567 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14168619

Communication Competence Between Male and Female College Athletes Survey Questions

How old are you?

Are you male or female?

Male

Female

What is your ethnicity?

Caucasian

African-American

Pacific Islander

F. Native American

Freshman

Sophomore

Junior

Senior

The next 8 questions are on a scale from 1 to 7, 1 being strongly disagree, 4 being no opinion, and 7 being strongly agree

Do you think coaches are an important part of a team's success?

Do you think females exaggerate injury symptoms?

Do you think most coaches have your interest in mind?

Do coaches put the needs of the team above the need of the individual?

Are males are expected to be strong and invulnerable in athletics?

Do you think that being honest with your coaches is important for individual and the team welfare?

Can you go to your coach for guidance and help?

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

12.…… [Read More]

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Positive Effects of Extracurricular Activity

Words: 4686 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48354620



Objectives

During the proposed study's process, the researcher plans to fulfill the following objectives.

Objective 1: Address each of the proposed study's research questions during literature review:

Examine the effect athletic participation has on student GPAs;

Identify the effect athletic participation has on student DC CAS math scores;

Determine the effect athletic participation has on student DC CAS English eading scores;

Explore the effect music participation has on student GPAs;

Investigate the effect music participation has on student DC CAS math scores;

Discover the effect music participation has on student DC CAS English eading scores.

Objective 2:

Complete study with 150 tenth grade student participants in the first semester of school year 2008-2009.

Objective 3:

Analyze test results and compare with findings from literature reviewed.

One of the Best Investments

Despite current reported budget cuts and constraints in education, high school activity programs continue to constitute one of the best…… [Read More]

References

Baker, Christina. (2008, August). Under-represented college students and extracurricular involvement: the effects of various student organizations on academic performance. Social Psychology of Education, Volume 11 (3). Retrieved January 27, 2009 at http://www.springerlink.com/content/b6432j1361233004/

The case for extracurricular activities. (2008). National Federation of State High School Association. Retrieved January 23, 2009 at http://richwoodstrack.com/extracurricular_case.htm

The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). Columbia University Press, New York. Retrieved January 27, 2009 from www.bartleby.com/66/.

Draper, Michelle. (2008, September 7). Vic: Principals link mental health to academic achievement. (www.highbeam.com/Search.aspx?q=publication:%22AAP+General+News+(Australia)%22&sort=DT&sortdir=DAAP General News (Australia). Retrieved January 28, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1-156068940.html
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Interscholastic Sports & Academics What Effect if

Words: 1234 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11056307

Interscholastic Sports & Academics

hat effect if any do interscholastic sports have on a young person's academic achievements? A great deal of the literature indicates that playing interscholastic sports can help a student become more proficient and successful in his or her academic pursuits. This paper references studies that present the facts regarding the mainly positive effects that interscholastic sports can have on a middle school or high school student's success in the classroom.

An article in Kappa Delta PI Record (Lumpkin, et al., 2010, p. 124) references the National Federation of State High School Associations' (NFHS) data that shows "…more than 7,000,000 interscholastic athletes in the United States" are doing better academically than students that are not out for sports. Lumpkin refers to NFHS data that shows: a) those seven million students overall "have higher grade-point averages"; b) they also have "lower dropout rates, better daily attendance, and fewer…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Din, Feng S. (2006). Sport Activities vs. Academic Achievement for Rural High School

Students. National Forum of Applied Educational Research Journal-Electronic, 19(3E),

1-10.

Lumpkin, Angela, and Stokowski, Sarah. (2011). Interscholastic Sports: A Character-Building
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Attributions in Sports Psychology What Is Attribution

Words: 1115 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33391261

Attributions in Sports Psychology

hat is attribution theory? It is a "cognitive approach to motivation that focuses on how individuals interpret the causes of success and failure," according to an article in the Australian Psychologist (Grove, et al., 1995, 92). In that regard, studies that Grove and colleague reference show that high achieving athletes tend to use internal attributions more readily after success than failure, which is reasonable considering that a successful baseball pitcher knows when he has his best "stuff" and when he wins a game, the attribution is rightly aimed at his skill. hen that same pitcher loses, he can chalk it up to the fact that he faced outstanding hitters. And an athlete with less ability tends to use internal attributions "…more after failure than success" (Grove, 92). He might say, "I just didn't come up with the right pitches at the right time." This paper delves…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Grove, J.R., and Prapavessis, H. (1995). The Effect of Skill Level and Sport Outcomes on Dimensional Aspects of Causal Attributions. Australian Psychologist, 30(2), 92-95.

Rees, T., Ingledew, D.K., and Hardy, L. (2005). Attribution in sport psychology: seeking

Congruence between theory, research, and practice. Psychology of Sport and Exercise,

Vol. 6, 189-204.
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Cartels Should Be Illegal In

Words: 750 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17602474

orkers can increase their own value in the workplace by improving their work assets, through education, effort or tenure.

In addition, the U.S. economy would not necessarily benefit. A higher national minimum wage would distort the market for labor in some states that currently face conditions leading to lower wages. This disruption of the market could reduce demand for labor and could also result in a less efficient market. In addition, increases in production costs are often passed on to consumers. hile the minimum wage worker may earn more, inflation will increase, essentially transferring wealth from all consumers to a small group of workers. This does not imply the creation of new wealth, only a redistribution of it in a manner that increases economic inefficiency. In addition, a higher minimum wage entices workers into the job market to the detriment of other workers, and many minimum wage earners are young…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Mui, Y. & Barnes, R. (2007). High court overturns century-old antitrust rule. Washington Post. Retrieved October 5, 2010 from  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/06/28/AR2007062802370.html 

Gibson, M. (2010). A brief history of OPEC. Time Magazine. Retrieved October 5, 2010 from http://www.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,2019120,00.html

Garfield, R. (1996). The case against a higher minimum wage. Joint Economic Committee Report. Retrieved October 5, 2010 from http://www.house.gov/jec/cost-gov/regs/minimum/against/against.htm
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Are East African Runners Unbeatable Due to Genetic Gifts

Words: 1177 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14643620

East African Athletes

East African unners

The achievement of long distance runners from East Africa especially Kenya as well as Ethiopia promoted a tradition of East Africans as genetically talented, indomitable, overriding for the reason of their biology. esearch has been undertaken to analyze this issue but nothing conclusive has been found as genes definite to East Africans that may perhaps justify their distance talent.

According to Scott A, H Wilson, W Goodwin, V Onywera, M Boit, YP Pitsiladis, (2006) a lot of Epstein's work surrounds the manner in which particular genes as well as some genetic markers profoundly control character that decide an individual's capability of becoming an athletics star. Among the instances that were looked into by the Epstein lies a Kenyan tribe known as the Kalenjin. esearchers have more than once pointed out that elongated as well as skinny legs are supplementary resourceful when it comes to…… [Read More]

Reference

Scott RA, RH Wilson, W Goodwin, V Onywera, M Boit, YP Pitsiladis.(2006) Mitochondrial DNA Lineages and Haplotype Diversity of Elite Kenyan Athletes. American College of Sports Medicine, Annual Meeting, Denver, USA. Retreived on November 27, 2013    http://www.ku.ac.ke/schools/human_sciences/images/stories/docs/onywera_vincent_2013.pdf   

Scott, R.A., Moran, C., Wilson, R.H., Onywera, V.O., Boit, M.K., Goodwin, W.H., Montgomery, H., Pitsiladis, Y.P. (2005) ACE Genotype Is Not Associated With Elite Endurance Athlete Status in Kenyans. American College of Sports Medicine, Annual Meeting, Nashville, Tennessee, USA. Retreived on November 27, 2013