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Athletes and Steroids
Historical issue in sports
The use of steroids by athletes is unfair and can be very dangerous to both the body and mind
Athletes today are quite competitive, and every athlete desire is to be the winner. The audience has extremely high expectation for the athletes, and most athletes do not wish to disappoint the expectations of the spectators. The coaches put too much pressure to the athlete, which sometimes is far much beyond expectation. The athlete requires working tremendously hard to achieve the expected results. This requires the athlete to put so much time on training, diet and discipline. The use of steroids provides the athlete with a quicker and easier way of achieving the expected results without too much strain. The circumstances surrounding the athlete put him into the temptation of using steroid. In most cases, the athletes do not have enough information about the…
Schunk, DH (2008). Learning Theories. An Educational Perspective, Pearson Education
Donna F.G. (2009). Admistering Medications, Pharmacology for Health Careers McGraw-Hill Company.
Doweiko.E. H (2009). Concepts of Chemical Dependancy, Belmont, C.A: Cengage Learning.
Nevid, J.S., Rathus, S.A., & Greene, B. (2010). Abnormal psychology. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson Education.
Proper ankle taping is generally understood to reduce plantarflexion and inversion of the ankle, and this has been shown to be the most common mechanism associated with ankle sprain injuries."
Nonetheless, the benefits of taping are reduced after about an hour of sporting practice. esearchers assert that taping becomes loose and cuts down the support to nearly negligible levels (around 40%). This is further decreased after a couple of hours of sporting activity. Furthermore, researchers have also criticized the cost associated with using tape in the long run. Mickel (2006) compares the cost-effectiveness of both ankle taping and bracing and concludes, "One study reported a cost of $1.75 per ankle when taping was used to prevent ankle sprains, resulting in a cost of more than $400 per athlete over 1 college football season. For these reasons, a number of ankle braces, both laced and semi-rigid with Velcro straps, have been…
Boyce, S.H., Quigley, M.A. And Campbell, S. (2005). Management of ankle sprains: a randomised controlled trial of the treatment of inversion injuries using an elastic support bandage or an Aircast ankle brace. British Journal of Sports Medicine.39:91-96
Dizon, J., & Reyes, J. (2010). A systematic review on the effectiveness of external ankle supports in the prevention of inversion ankle sprains among elite and recreational players Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13 (3), 309-317.
Ivins D. (2006). Acute ankle sprain: an update. American Family Physician. 74(10):1714-20.
Meadows, M. (2006). Taking Care of Your Feet. FDA Consumer. 40: 2.
Athletes as ole Models
The media's role in the portrayal of athletes as role models in history
ay it ain't so, Joe.' During the infamous 1919 Black Sox scandal, in which the team deliberately 'threw' the World Series for a bribe, the players' betrayal was depicted as being particularly hurtful to young people who idolized the SOX (Everstein 1998). Babe uth was also portrayed as a hero during this era, as he slugged out record numbers of hits, often specifically asked to do so by his adoring young fans. Even today, whenever a new scandal about an athlete erupts, from steroids to Michael Phelps smoking pot, the media seldom portrays this as bad behavior by an individual. ather it is portrayed as cultural event, and a betrayal of all the fans, particularly the young fans, of the sport. As athletics have become more and more central to everyday life --…
Everstine, Eric W. (1998). 1919 Black Sox Scandal. MD.U.S.. Retrieved September 27, 2011 at http://www.mc.cc.md.us/Departments/hpolscrv/blacksox.htm
Ma, Kai. (2007). Cheaters sometimes win. Nerve. . Retrieved September 27, 2011 at http://www.nerve.com/regulars/lifeswork/stevenortiz
Today's athletes do not deserve the high price tags that come with signing them to play for professional sports today. Their high incomes increase the cost of sales, the cost of products that bear their name, the cost of products that they help advertise; and they create false hope in young sports fans, and distract the attention of young adolescents who dream of one day being a big income earning athlete - an unrealistic goal.
In a Duke Law Journal article by researcher Sarah E. Gohl, the author writes about the unrealistic dreams of youngsters who have become less focused on the competition of sport, and more on the amenities associated with high incomes. She writes:
young boy sits in English class, staring out the window at the empty basketball court on the playground. He wonders why he has to learn that "ball" is a noun and that "round" is…
Crowe, Cameron (dir), Jerry Maguire (Motion Picture) (2006), Sony Pictures Entertainment/Tristar Picture, USA.
Gohl, Sarah E. "A Lesson in English and Gender: Title IX and the Male Student-Athlete." Duke Law Journal 50.4 (2001): 1123. Questia. 28 Jan. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000989849 .
Payton, Walter, Football Hall of Fame, found online at profootballhallof.com/hof/member.jsp?playher_id=174, retrieved 28 January 2008.
Athletes in Training and Competition
According to the studies examined by Monroe-Chandler, et al. (2004), research has shown that athletes can enhance their performance and technique by setting goals. Of course, other studies indicate that research into goal setting has not examined this thoroughly enough and, therefore, has not accurately established whether the setting of goals varies between training and competition. The study analyzed here used a qualitative approach in order to investigate the kinds of goals that are set by athletes, in both training and competition situations (Monroe-Chandler, et al., 2004). Based on previous research, a framework was generated that allowed for the examination of 249 athletes who represented 18 individual sports. They were asked about the goals that they set in competition and their goals in training. The results of the study indicated that the goals were very similar whether they were set for training or for competition…
Creswell, J.W. (2001) Educational research: Planning, conducting and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. OH: Merrill/Prentice-Hall.
Creswell, J.W. (1994). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative approaches. Sage Publications, Inc. Thousand Oaks: CA.
Monroe-Chandler, K.J., Hall, C.R., & Weinberg, R.S. (2004). A qualitative analysis of the types of goals athletes set in training and competition. Journal of Sport Behavior, 27(A1): 58-74.
Interactionist Theory and the Female Athlete
The social role is the group of expected behaviors that a person in a certain social situation has given to him or her. Role confusion is when an individual has difficulty figuring out what the expected behaviors are in a certain situation. Role strain is when fulfilling the expectations of one social role conflicts with filling those of another social role. Social roles, as well as these two elements of the social role, are important to interactionist theory, which may also be referred to as the social action theory. The concept of the role was adapted from anthropology, and to interactionists it represents the constantly changing and adapting set of expected behaviors which are negotiated between the people in a situation. The interactionist social role is rather meaningless if looking at one individual isolated from others, as it develops only through the…
'Role." Sociology. Wikipedia. 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Role
Athlete Training egimen
In the sport of running, the distance someone goes will determine how they prepare and train. Those who run in the half and full marathons will often use various training methods to improve their endurance, strength and flexibility. These factors enable their bodies to perform more efficiently. To achieve these objectives requires establishing a training regime over years. This will be accomplished by looking at the sport / systems, pre / post tests, program design, prescribed activities and physiological factors. Together, these elements will illustrate the importance of this program for the athlete in reaching their goals. (Henderson, 2004)
Describe the sport/position, specific motions performed, musculature used and energy systems activities
Long distance running dates back to days of ancient Greece. This is when the marathon was started in 490 B.C. By a Greek soldier named Pheidippides. He ran 26.2 miles from the Battle of Marathon to…
Henderson, J. (2004). Marathon Training. Champaign, IL: Human Kinnetics.
Higdon, H. (2005). Marathon. Columbus, OH: Rodale Press.
Dying a premature death may earn him the admiration of his neighbors, but a fully lived life depends on how many lives one has touched instead of the number of medals one has accumulated or the number of victories one has won in his lifetime.
The poet's attitude towards death connotes that it seems better to die young and having lived a glorious life than to die old but see other people transcend one's victories and fame. He has a rather cynical view on death for his poem connotes that the people who died young appear to be lucky. In real life, one has to accept or acknowledge the fact that there will come a day when a person will be born who will be far better than you - smarter, faster, etc.
Cummings, Michael. "To an Athlete Dying Young: A Poem by a.E. Housman." Cummings Study Guides. 2007.…
Cummings, Michael. "To an Athlete Dying Young: A Poem by a.E. Housman." Cummings Study Guides. 2007. Cummings Study Guides. 3, Apr. 2007 http://www.cummingsstudyguides.net/Guides3/Housman.html .
Gale, Thomson. "Encyclopedia of World Biography on Alfred Edward Housman." BookRags. 2006. Encyclopedia of World Biography. 3, Apr. 2007. http://www.bookrags.com/biography/alfred-edward-housman/.
Athlete-Coach Communication and Injury eporting Amongst Male and Female Athletes
Although physical activity is a necessary component of a healthy lifestyle, there is great alarm that injuries are escalating amongst athletes at every level of sporting competition. In sports such as football and hockey, there are growing concerns about head trauma; in sports such as gymnastics and track and field, there are growing concerns about overuse injuries (Lopate 2013; Caine et al. 2006). Although the physiological and psychological factors which can increase the risk of injury will vary on an individual basis from sport to sport and athlete to athlete, one possible factor that can contribute to injury is the characteristics of the communication which occurs between athlete and coach. Of course, the nature of coach-athlete communication can be positive or negative; helpful or unhelpful. eflecting this, a number of measurement scales have been developed to critically assess effective communication…
Caine, D. (et al. 2006). Physical injuries in children's and youth sports:
Reasons for concern? British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40:749-760.
Sullivan, P.J., & Callow, N., (2005). A Cross-cultural examination of the factor structure
Of the Scale for Effective Communication in Team Sports, Group Dynamics: Theory Research, and Practice, 9(2), 87-92.
Athletes Train both Physically and Psychologically as They Prepare for and Participate in Competitive Sports, by Joe Palca. Specifically, it will summarize and react to the essay.
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPOTS
This transcript of a live call in show on National Public adio (NP) discusses the psychology of winning in sports, and why some athletes simply win more because of their attitudes. Palca speaks with athletes Joanna Zeiger, a member of the U.S. Olympic triathlon team, and Casey Fitzandolph, a member of the U.S. speed skating team and a 1998 Winter Olympian, to discover how they prepare themselves before competitions, and with several experts to discover what they have studied about the successful psychology of winning in sports. The athletes also discuss how they deal with losing. The experts discuss the successful strategies some athletes use for mentally preparing before competitions, and find that most successful athletes use some form…
Palca, Joe. "Analysis: How Athletes Train both Physically and Psychologically as They Prepare for and Participate in Competitive Sports." Talk of the Nation Science Friday (NPR), 4 Aug. 2000.
Critically evaluate the use of questionnaires to research the coach-athlete relationship
In this paper, we aim to present arguments for and against the use of questionnaires to conduct research on the overall relationship that exists between an athlete and his/her coach. The paper starts off by explaining some of the inconsistencies that have existed in studies using questionnaires to study the same phenomenon; the paper then moves towards explaining the basics of what a questionnaire is meant to measure and how. The paper then moves on to making 3 arguments and counter arguments for the use of questionnaires in research that is pertaining to studying the relationship between an athlete and a coach.
Past use of questionnaires
eing an expert or a novice doesn't make a difference when it comes to reading journal articles pertaining to the relationship between coach and athlete. This is so since it isn't…
Anon., 2013. Exploring psychological aspects of athletic development. 1 ed. Milton Keynes: The Open University.
Anon., n.d.. Research & Consultation Guidelines. Kirklees Council. Retrieved from: https://www.kirklees.gov.uk/community/yoursay/Questionnaires.pdf
Bowling, A. (1997) Research Methods in Health. Open University Press, Buckingham
Milne, J., n.d.. Questionnaires: some advantages and disadvantages. Retrieved from: http://www.icbl.hw.ac.uk/ltdi/cookbook/info_questionnaires/printable.pdf
Paying them to play sports in college would devalue their education and encourage them to continue on a path that will never be profitable in the long-term (Hill, 2007).
As can be seen, there are two sides to the story. There are good reasons to avoid paying athletes, but there are also good reasons why paying them could be helpful and beneficial. Whichever is decided, it is clear that there will be a high level of disagreement from those who are opposed to the decision that is ultimately made. When people are uncertain about what to do in any given situation, it also helps to focus on what has been done in the past, or what has worked for others. With the issue of paying or not paying college athletes, that is not something that can be undertaken. In other words, because it has not been done before, there…
Eassom, Simon (1994). Critical Reflections on Olympic Ideology. Ontario: The Centre for Olympic Studies. pp. 120 -- 123.
Hill, Michael (20 July 2007). In Pursuit of Excellence: A Student Guide to Elite Sports Development. New York: Taylor & Francis.
Nocera, Joe (2011). Let's start paying college athletes. The New York Times.
College Athlete Pay
The question of payment for college athletes may seem trivial at first glance, when one considers the variety of other, seemingly more pressing issues facing universities today, but upon closer examination it becomes clear that the question of whether or not college athletes should be payed for playing actually cuts to the heart of budget crises plaguing so many American universities. For example, according to Forbes magazine, in 2011 the University of Texas Longhorns football team brought in $129 million dollars for the school, a not insubstantial amount considering that so many universities are being forced to reduce their budgets (Smith, 2011). However, this emphasis on the return has led to troubling practices, including improper benefits and exploitative contracts. Paying student athletes would likely reduce some of these back-door deals and exploitative practices, but formally turning these students into employees runs the risk of transforming sports programs…
Acain, M.P. (1997). Revenue Sharing: A Simple Cure for the Exploitation of College
Athletes. Loy. LA Ent. LJ, 18, 307.
Byers, W. (1997). Unsportsmanlike conduct: Exploiting college athletes. University of Michigan
athlete concerning intimidation, eligibility and elimination, technology in sports, commercial sports, ergogenic aids, violence and principles and exceptions. The explanation is going to be based on the types used, how effective they are and the consequences of them in the field of athlete. Violence is the act of using great force or doing something which one accompanies by great force. Intimidation can be described as to frighten someone to make him/her to do something sometimes by threatening her/him.
Elimination is to do away with while eligible is where one meet the qualifications required. Principles are rules that governs someone's behaviors on the other hand exception can be described as principles that are not being followed. Technology is whereby in the industry the knowledge are applied to practical task systematically and commercial can be referred to as to make money out of. Ergogenic is the use of drugs for specific reason…
Marc D. Silver MD (2001)vol 9 No 1 61-70 January/February by American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons
NCAA (2009)" Div. I Baseball College World Series Bracket" (in column 1 (Regionals), click on Austin box; then click on Texas -- BC box), NCAA.com (NCAA).
Sarah Jane Gilbert (October 29, 2007)'Managing the Athlete Endorsement' by Harvard Business School
Wes Sime, Ph.D., M.P.H ., Thomas W. Allen, Ed.D., and Catalina Fazzano, Ph.D.( 2000 ) Helping Athletes Find Their "Zone of Excellence" Draft submitted for publication, Biofeedback,
Besides the fact that they are dangerous they taint the game as a whole. In the game of baseball the elusive home runs record that was chased for a very long time was a big deal, and when it was finally broken there was a lot of excitement that surrounded the game. But after hearing about all of the steroid and performance enhancing drug use that was going on during that time, it makes one question the entire validity of the record all together. If the record was not achieved without the use of drugs or steroids then it shouldn't be counted and thus not the real records that stands. It is highly unfair to those who set the record in the first place, drug free.
Court Documents Show Barry Bonds Tested Positive for 3 Types of Steroids. (2009). etrieved
June 23, 2009, from FoxNews.com Web site:
Court Documents Show Barry Bonds Tested Positive for 3 Types of Steroids. (2009). Retrieved
June 23, 2009, from FoxNews.com Web site:
O'Keefe, Michael. (2007). Barry Bond's ex-mistress details stars steroid use, temper. Retrieved June 23, 2009, from MyDailyNews Web site:
Gender on Concussion eporting in Division 1 College Athletics
Joesaar, H., Hein, V., & Hagger, M.S. (2011). Peer influence on young athletes' need satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and persistence in sport: A 12-month prospective study. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12(5), 500-508.
Prior research has demonstrated that teens play a critical role in helping establish the motivational atmosphere of their sports teams. Motivational environments with supportive peers have a greater association with behavior patterns in teen athletes than individual ego orientation. Therefore, the type of training climate facilitated by the coach can help determine the team's success.
Hypotheses / esearch Questions
The aim of the study was to examine the role of a peer-created motivational climate in place of an adult-leader created motivational climate. The second purpose was to test a four-stage causal sequence model. The hypothesis was that the peer motivational climate would influence athletes' perception of need satisfaction for…
Angelini, J.R. (2008). Television sports and athlete sex: Looking at the differences in watching male and female athletes. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 52(1), 16-32.
Anshel, M. (2009). Racial and gender differences on sources of acute stress and coping style among competitive athletes. The Journal of Social Psychology, 149(2), 159-177.
Docheff, D.M. (2011). Dealing with differences: A coach's perspective. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 82(8), 33-35, 39.
Joesaar, H., Hein, V., & Hagger, M.S. (2011). Peer influence on young athletes' need satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and persistence in sport: A 12-month prospective study. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12(5), 500-508.
Many ethical issues were raised when Fantasia Goodwin decided to continue with the basketball season while she was carrying a baby in her womb. The ethical issues are associated with the well being of the fetus and the mother as well along with the official recommendations that have been issued pertaining to pregnant athletes. The first ethical issue that should be highlighted with respect to Fantasia's case study is that by preferring the sport over her pregnancy, Fantasia put her fetus (that developed from a mass of cells into a living being) at stake. This implies that she endangered a human life, which was obviously a wrong thing to do. Another ethical issue found in this scenario is the violation of the official recommendations of the American Gynecological and Obstetric Association. The Association recommends that any pregnant woman should refrain from contact sports since this can lead…
Anthony, L. (2002). Pre- and Post-Natal Fitness. Monterey, CA: Healthy Learning Books and Videos.
Clapp, J. (2002). Exercising Through Your Pregnancy. Champaign, Il: Human Kinetics.
Longstaff, Simon (2001). Pregnancy in sport. St. James Ethics Center.
NCAA (2008). The NCAA Pregnant and Parenting Student-Athletes.
Professional Athlete Pay
Wages, like other prices, are determined most basically by supply and demand, and this basic understanding allows for the explanation of two apparent paradoxes both dealing with large gaps between perceived value and relative cost: the gap between teacher's salaries and those of professional sports players, and the difference in price between water and diamonds. While one might be tempted to view the two gaps as of a fundamentally different kind, at least economically, they function in very much the same way, and even the fact that those selling their labor often have much less negotiating power than those selling diamonds or water relates back to the connection between supply and demand.
The gap between teacher's salaries and those of professional sports players is well-known, and as Murray Chass noted in the New York Times, in 2002 "the average player [made] $2.4 million, an all-time high. In…
"Alex Rodriguez Statistics and History." (2010). Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved
on November 15, 2010 from: http://www.baseball-
Chass, M. (2002). Scoring the Big Money. Retrieved on November 15, 2010 from:
Officers of the USADA attended the athletes' training or visited them at home to conduct drug tests. Officials and Association experts found that many athletes would risk harmful side effects or disqualification just to take these substances. Professional athletes, like Adam Nelson, however, won a silver medal at the 2000 Olympics. He was open and vocal against the use of steroids in sports. He was particularly opposed to the use of steroids in sports because of the promised "brute strength" from their use. He was willing to speak about alco, THG and other issues about steroids as well as on how Olympian winners could turn their proper training and experience into successful corporate careers. Jeff ukantz shone because of unrelenting determination, hard work and defensive playing style. He said he took after his father, a four-time Olympic Games competitor. Jeff attained 5th and 6th place rankings. Cindy ailey was a…
Brunk, Doug. Athletes Using Steroids Are Wasting Money. Family Practice News:
International Medical News Group, 2000
Business Editors. International Society for Sport Psychiatry Discusses Impact of Steroids on Mental Health. Business Wire: Gale Group, 2005
Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence. Anabolic Steroids. Gale Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence: Gale Research
However, the United States is not a socialist society. Individuals get paid for the work they do and some jobs simply pay more than others. A lawyer is always going to make more than a manager at McDonalds even though both likely work equally as hard for their families. orking hard does not always equal increased pay. College football and basketball are simply the most revenue-generating sports sponsored by the NCAA and those will inevitably be the ones with departments that can offer their student-athletes paychecks to supplement or substitute for their scholarships. Furthermore, if the football or basketball departments can afford to pay coaches the high salaries they deserve then the students also deserve to see some of the money that the school is generating for itself from the sweat of its students.
College athletes are also adults. As adults and residents of the United States, college athletes cannot…
Korman, Chris. "End the debate, pay college athletes." Feb 20, 2003. The Daily Collegian. Retrieved May 27, 2008 at http://www.collegian.psu.edu/archive/2003/02/02-20-03tdc/02-20-03dsports-column-01.asp
Meshefejian, Krikor. "Pay to Play: Should College Athletes Be Paid?" March 23, 2005. The Illinois Business Law Journal. Retrieved May 27, 2008 at http://iblsjournal.typepad.com/illinois_business_law_soc/2005/03/does_it_make_se.html
Whiteside, Kelly. "College Athletes Want Cut of Action." USA Today. Aug 31, 2004. Retrieved May 27, 2008 at http://www.usatoday.com/sports/2004-08-31-top-ten-number-7_x.htm
Omega-3 Fat Intake and Athlete's Health
How helpful is it for athletes to take omega-3 fatty acids? hat are the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids and what are the possible negative impacts? This paper will review and critique those issues, utilizing the available literature including original research articles. According to the New York Times-owned About.com website, the health benefits for anyone taking omega-3 -- including athletes -- include first of all "heart health." Taking omega-3 is a way of reducing cholesterol levels, lowering blood pressure, and reducing the risk of heart attacks (ong, 2013). For the athlete engaged in a strenuous workout or competitive activity, omega-3 can -- among other benefits -- "…reduce morning stiffness and reduce swollen joints" (ong).
The Literature on Omega-3
Meanwhile, looking deeper into the subject of athletes and omega-3, an article in Athletics eekly points out that among of the best-known benefits of taking omega-3…
Atashak, S., Sharafi, H., Azarbayjani, M.A., Stannard, S.R., Goli, M.A., and Haglighi, M.M.
(2013). Effect of Omega-3 Supplementation on the Blood Levels of Oxidative Stress,
Muscle Damage and Inflammation Markets after Acute Resistance Exercise in Young
Athletes. Kinesiology, 45(1), 22-29.
TICKET PICES AND ATHLETE SALAIES NEGATIVELY AFFECTED POFESSIONAL SPOTS?
Professional sports are a multi-billion dollar global industry and these events contribute a great deal to a nation's economic performance. As the global economy continues to recover from the lingering aftershocks of the Great ecession of 2008, though, the pressing issues of skyrocketing ticket prices and athlete salaries and how they have negatively affected professional sports have assumed new importance and relevance for public policymakers. Because sports fans are confronted with a number of factors in formulating their decision whether to attend a professional sports event or not, the pricing of tickets requires a careful assessment concerning how much should be charged. Ticket prices, though, are affected by several additional factors such as the size, level of affluence, and demographic composition of the sports teams' markets, as well as the prices charged for concessions, parking and most especially athlete salaries and…
Barrett, W.M. (1999, January). Crying all the way to the bank. USA Today, 123(2596), 59.
Berry, R.C., Gould, W.B. & Saudohar, P.D. (1996). Labor relations in professional sports.
Dover, MA: Auburn House.
Coates, D. & Humphreys, B.R. (2007). Ticket prices, concessions and attendance at professional sporting events. International Journal of Sport Finance, 2(3), 161-164.
In the case of Fantasia Goodwin, the central ethical issue is whether she should put the pregnancy at risk and hide it in order to continue playing on the team. This is a major problem because it forms the basis of the alternative decisions that she can make. It is a central issue because the consequences to both the mother and the baby can be major and may bring liability to other organizations such as the school athletics department for allowing the student to play while pregnant. Other ethical issues that arise involve whether it is right for her to abort the pregnancy in order to continue playing. Abortion in certain states is considered as illegal and immoral therefore there is the issue of legality and morality of abortion. She is also faced with the ethical issue of being benched when the school finds out she is…
Brady, M. (1998). Laying the Foundation for Girls' Healthy Futures: Can Sports Play a Role? Studies in Family Planning, 29(1), 79-82. doi: 10.2307/172183
Evenson, K.R., Siega-Riz, A.M., Savitz, D.A., Leiferman, J.A., & Thorp, J.M., Jr. (2002). Vigorous Leisure Activity and Pregnancy Outcome. Epidemiology, 13(6), 653-659. doi: 10.2307/3703478
Feldman, F. (1978). Introductory Ethics. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Kupperman, J.J. (2009). Virtue in Virtue Ethics. The Journal of Ethics, 13(2/3), 243-255. doi: 10.2307/40345403
junior high school athletes and their grade point averages. The writer addresses why the students only maintain C. averages during eligibility season and what the education field attributes this to. In addition the writer discusses the average GPA nationwide for junior high school athletes. There were four sources used to complete this paper.
Each year the competition to get into a good college becomes tougher. Students across the nation are vying for fewer and fewer spots and one of the ways they have found to gain entry is an athletic scholarship. While the schools are being overwhelmed with superior grade point averages and long resumes of activities, the athletic scholarship is still a bit elusive and requires long-term planning to aim for. Whether the student is planning for an athletic scholarship or simply enjoys playing sports the push to succeed begins in junior high school. Junior high school athletes often…
PLAYER ELIGIBILITY TAKEN SERIOUSLY IN SCHOOL SPORTS.(PEOPLE & PLACES)
Middle School Athletics http://www.new-albany.k12.oh.us/middle/handbook/msathletics.html
ATHLETICS MS. Athletic Director: C. Anderson
MS Athletic Department
.'. Babe Ruth and Herbert Hoover have commanded huge payments. The social obsession with sport and celebrity stems from the human need to display physical and psychological prowess and the sport evolves for the 'body and spirit'. The culture of a place assigns different values to different sport, and they that excel in the sport and make a name for themselves make a mark and command more of the revenue for themselves.
It is observed that celebrities are a marketable commodity by them. They command following, and many individuals aspire to imitate them and hold them as role models. The reach and influence of celebrities differ in the sectors that they attain fame. Persons in the media like Britney pears command a different set of returns and create a totally new kind of revenue potential as do many film stars, and musicians. Their use is also for such economic…
Scott Rosner; Kenneth L. Shropshire. The Business of Sports. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. 2004. p. 383.
Paul D. Staudohar. Playing for Dollars: Labor Relations and the Sports Business. Cornell University Press. 1996. p. 1
Staudohar, p. 1
Communication Competence: An Assessment of Male Verses Female College Athletes Underreporting Injuries to Coaches
The interaction between the coach of the team and the players is considered to be one of the most important factors that influence the performance of the team. Many analysts believe that it is very important for the players to have a comfort level with the coach so that they can communicate with them without any hesitation. Communication between the coach and the players implies that the players report to the coach even if they face a petty problem pertaining to the team or sport and vice a versa. However, it has been noted that many players do not inform the coach when they get injured. This has particularly been observed in the case of male athletes. The reporting of slightest injuries to the coach is important because this can have an impact on the performance…
Professional Student Athletes
The Raw Numbers
Advantages of Sport
Research Questions or Research Hypotheses
Selection of Subjects
Assumptions or Limitations
Data Processing and Analysis
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Questions related to academic priority
Questions related to role models
Questions related to advantages
Implications for Practice
Questions related to support and pressure
Implications for Practice
Implications for Research and Resultant Recommendations
High school sports are for some students a fond memory, for other students the golden ticket to the land of opportunity. For most students, it is an extracurricular activity. High school sports has transitioned from a core basis in family values, ethics and participation to big money sponsorships, televised games, recruiters and scholarships. It's no wonder controversy surrounds the ideas of the benefits and drawbacks. And it's no wonder that some are attempting to regulate participation. We will have an opportunity to examine present trends, current issues, data and…
- -- Data not available.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, "National Education Longitudinal Study of
1988," First and Second Followup surveys. (This table was prepared March 1994.)
Paying college athletes has been an ongoing debate for a very long time. Everyone seems to have an opinion regarding the debate and they all have different opinions. The reality is that soon athletes might start being paid, but until then the debate rages on. The regulations imposed by the NCAA are deemed unfavoring for the promotion of the sport and the money collected from ticket sales, broadcasting rights, and endorsements only benefit the association and the colleges. The students are left to suffer struggling to make ends meet if they do not come from well to do backgrounds. The association earns billions of dollars annually for regulating college athletics (Debate Club p.1). The NCAA argues that the athletes are paid in terms of free education, but most of the athletes do not complete college, which means they do not graduate, and the education is irrelevant. The argument that the…
Debate Club. "Should Ncaa Athletes Be Paid?" U.S. News & World Report LP. n.d. Web.
Horace Mitchell. "Students Are Not Professional Athletes." U.S. News & World Report LP. 2014. Web.
Johnson, Dennis A, and John Acquaviva. "Point/Counterpoint: Paying College Athletes." The Sport Journal 15.1 (2012). Print.
Johnson, James A. "It Is Not Time to Pay College Athletes." NYSBA, Entertainment Arts and Sports Law Journal 25.1 (2014). Print.
Establishment of Blood Screening Protocols for Collegiate and Endurance Athletes
The goal of this action research proposal is to establish blood screening for endurance athletes at the college, which the researcher is employed at as there is currently no system in place by which the athletic department, athletic training room, and health center work together to screen athletes that exhibit symptoms of non-anemic iron deficiency.
The standard testing protocols to determine anemia at most health centers do not adequately diagnose non-anemic iron deficiency in elite endurance athletes.
There is a need for standard testing protocols at the college health centers for accurate diagnosis of non-anemic iron deficiency in elite endurance athletes.
The work of Eichner (2001) entitled "SSE #81: Anemia and Blood Boosting" states that athletes, "especially endurance athletes, tend to have slightly low hemoglobin levels as judged by general population norms." Eichner reports that low blood hemoglobin…
Fallon, Kieran E. (2004) Utility of Hematological and Iron-Related Screening in Elite Athletes. 3 May 2004, Retrieved from: http://adalpt.com/2007/Dakar/Artigos/Medicina%20Desportiva/Anemia/Utility%20of%20Hematological%20and%20Iron-Related%20Screening%20in%20Elite%20Athletes.pdfClin J. Sport Med • Volume 14, Number 3, May 2004
Eichner, E. Randy (2001) SSE #81: Anemia and Blood Boosting. Sports Science Library. 81, Vol 14. No. 2. Retrieved from: http://www.gssiweb.com/Article_Detail.aspx?articleid=276
Eichner, E.R., and W.A. Scott (1998). Exercise as disease detector. Phys. Sportsmed. 26: 41-52.
Eichner, E.R. (2001a). Fatigue of anemia. Nutr. Rev. 59: S17-19.
Coach's Discourse And Communication With Athletes
The success of any sport team is partly dependent on the establishment of effective communication systems. Coaches play a crucial role in the developing essentials for communication development or maintenance of the existing communication systems. Coaches also play a crucial role in enforcing the aspects of collective effort, team leadership, and time management through his/her own communication. Notably, the coach's discourse has a considerable impact on communication with athletes. A discourse can be described as the established ideologies, beliefs, and power structures that are ultimately reflective of those social constructions. In this case, the significance of the coach's discourse in communication with athletes is attributed to how influence is realized in and through talk.
Significance of the Coach's Discourse in Communication with Athletes
Discourse is a term that is commonly used to describe and explain the coaching process in relation to its impact on…
Cassidy, T., Jones, R. & Potrac, P. (2009). Understanding sports coaching: the social, cultural, and pedagogical foundations of coaching practice (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
Kacur, P. (2012). Coach's Communication Discourse and Players Emotional Living in Football.
Scientific Review of Physical Culture, 3(4), 44-50.
Potrac, P.A. & Jones, R.L. (1999). The Invisible Ingredient in Coaching Knowledge: A Case for Recognizing and Researching the Social Component. Sociology of Sport Online, 2(10). Retrieved from http://physed.otago.ac.nz/sosol/v2i1/v2i1a5.htm
Stress in Athletes
Marriam-ebster defines an athlete as "a person who is trained or skilled in exercises, sports, or games requiring physical strength, agility, or stamina" which can represent a diverse group of people (Merriam-ebster, N.d.). This group might include elite athletes, average people, and even children. Moreover, their socioeconomic status and demographics distribution is widely ranged. Although this group is diverse in most of their characteristics, they still face the same stress factors. Those stressors can influence athletes both mentally and physically in their daily life and during sporting events and practice. Because of these issues, it is important to analyze this group from a stressor perspective.
There were four categories of stress or strain that athletes usually face. The first one is competitive concerns. This was one of the most stressful factors that athletes cannot avoid as competition is part of what sports are about. Athletes compete…
Merriam-Webster. (N.d.). athlete. Retrieved from Merriam-Webster: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/athlete
Nicholls, A., Polman, R., Levy, A., Taylor, J., & Cobley, S. (2007). Stressors, coping, and coping effectiveness: Gender, type of sport, and skill differences. Journal of Sport Sciences, 1521-1530.
Pritchard, M. (2005). Comparing Sources of Stress in College Student Athletes and Non-Athletes.
Weinberg, R., & Gould, D. (2014). Foundations of Sport and Excercise Psychology, 6E. Human Kinetics.
coach-Athlete elationship (bob Bowman and Michael Phelps)
Coach-Athlete elationship: Bob Bowman and Michael Phelps
Over the years, intense focus on sports has been on the coach -- athlete relationships and their link to athlete performance. Along the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation cognitive evaluation theory, there is a hierarchical model of motivational sequence proposed in developing coaches' personal orientation for coaching. The focus culminates the context within which they operate while making their perceptions of behavior and motivation of athletes and influencing component of coaching outcomes. The paper identifies personality and social processes aimed at determining favorable coaching behaviors. This study focuses on the coach -- athlete relationship model presented by Bob Bowman and Michael Phelps whilst describing how coaches can influence the motivation of their athletes.
The Bob Bowman and Michael Phelps case shows that coaches' behaviors take the autonomy-supportive form of behaviors in providing involvement structure (Mageau & Vallerand,…
Armour, K. 2014. Pedagogical Cases in Physical Education and Youth Sport. New York: Routledge.
Beauchamp, M.R., & Eys, M.A. 2014. Group Dynamics in Exercise and Sports Psychology. New York: Routledge.
Burg, J.M. 2008. The Relationship Between the Quality of the Coach-athlete Relationship and Perceptions of the Motivational Climate. New York: ProQuest.
Flores, D. 2013. The Coach-athlete Relationship: A CrossFit Perspective. New York: ProQuest.
Lauren Lappin was at the pinnacle of her lifelong passion sport after she adapted to any role in the softball field. Peace that fueled Lappin's success came from accepting the role she struggled to embrace. In an interview, Lappin highlighted her understanding as an openly gay athlete during the 2008 Beijing Olympics as well as her experiences of coming out to her teammates and family, and the increasing acceptance of lesbians and bisexuals in elite sports. She indicated that being gay remains a source of ostracism and a reason for social stigma in many areas. Also, Lappin indicated that playing softball made her an easy target for profiling in those prejudices, regardless of whether utterances were merely meant to be comic hyperbole, or some sinister things. Hence, she shows that softball can paradoxically be a fertile ground for promoting intolerance among individuals seeking to assert a place in the…
Fynes, J. (2014). "It Starts with Having a Conversation": Lesbian Student-Athletes' Experience of U.S. NCAA Division I Sport.
Griffin, P. G. (1998). Strong women, deep closets: Lesbians and homophobia in sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Hays, G. (2010). Stereotypes haunt softball. Retrieved November 7, 2015, from http://sports.espn.go.com/ncaa/columns/story?columnist=hays_graham&id=5671978
Hogan, H. (2009, April 9). Olympian softball player Lauren Lappin talks about being out in professional sports - After Ellen. Retrieved November 7, 2015, from http://www.afterellen.com/general-news/48425-olympian-softball-player-lauren-lappin-talks-about-being-out-in-professional-sports
pay college athletes, and whether or not they are being exploited for their work on the field, remains a hot topic of contention in both scholarly and mainstream media. Both mainstream media and scholarly literature address a wide range of topics related to the issue of student-athlete compensation, albeit with the scholarly literature focusing more on financial data and legal analyses too technical for publication in popular magazines. In "Exploitation in College Sports," for example, Van heenen (2013) discusses the ways it may be possible to measure exploitation quantitatively using a calculation based on surplus value and marginal revenue product. Van heenen (2013) also includes the issue of race in college sports, discussing the graduation rate disparity and other "cultural divisions of opportunity," p. 550). In the Time magazine cover story on the same topic, Gregory (2013) avoids the issue of race but spends considerable time arguing in favor of…
Gregory, S. (2013). It's time to pay college athletes. Time. 16 Sept, 2013. Retrieved online: http://estrada-cloud.newhaven.edu/612904.pdf
Van Rheenen, D.V. (2013). Exploitation in college sports: Race, revenue, and educational reward. International Review for the Sociology of Sport 48(5): 550-571.
Wireless Technology in the Athlete's Shack
As The Athlete Shack continues to grow, it needs room for expansion. The only way to really connect ten branches of the store is to provide them with a secure method for communication. The solution is a wireless strategy that secures strength within the wireless devices to help improve productivity.
The business benefits of wireless connections are numerous. The primary goal for wireless connectivity is increased productivity at all levels within the organization. Business processes are allowed to grow greater potential with this added productivity level. Moreover, "operational benefits include lower costs of management and lower capital expenditure" (Karpen, 2014). Yes, there is an initial upfront cost with WiFi, but it quickly redeems itself with the increased level of productivity and capabilities the individual branches will enjoy. Overall, a strong wireless strategy helps increase individual employee productivity through increased connection and communication between resources…
Afshar, Vala. (2014). 50 incredible WiFi statistics that businesses must know. Huffington Post. Web. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/vala-afshar/50-incredible-wifi-tech-s_b_4775837.html
Gupta, Sachin. (2011). Choosing a wireless implementation strategy and applications. Invensys. Web. Retrieved from http://wina.org/sites/default/files/WP%20-%20Choosing%20Wireless%20%28IPS%29.pdf
Karpen, Jim. (2014). iPads in the workplace. iPhone Life. Web. Retrieved from http://www.multimediaplus.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/iPhone_Life_Mag_March_April_2014.pdf
Mah, Paul. (2012). How to set up a business-grade WiFi network. CIO. Web. Retrieved from http://www.cio.com/article/2391495/wifi/how-to-set-up-a-business-grade-wi-fi-network.html
"the Myth of the Sexual Athlete"
What does this article have to do with socialization?
Socialization is one of the primary elements of the article. The author writes of the various settings and describes the methods by which males are likely to be socialized about sexuality before adulthood. The article describes the socialization of western, male sexuality within the context of sports. Later, the article explains the tension between how males feel, what they want, and how they have been socialized as sexual beings. The article may not directly state that a certain paragraph or point is about socialization; nonetheless, socialization is a pervasive theme in this article.
What agents of socialization do we see at work in this article?
The author mentions several agents of socialization at work in this article. Sports locker rooms are one such agent. The gymnasium, weight room, and/or playing field additionally are agents…
alcohol abuse and what can be done by the trainer to curtail it.
Alcohol Abuse in Athletes
The excessive and addictive use of alcohol is one of the most severe public issues facing both educational institutes and professional athletes. What is worse is its extensive effects and costs. Abuse has now taken the shape of an all-encompassing dilemma and student athletes are no less a part of it. Although it would not be true to say that all athletes indulge into excessive use but a good number do. Attaining a fall in alcohol abuse has been mediocre in recent years (National Center for Health Statistics). Apart from this students trainers have a role to play in this reduction.
Drinking alcohol in many ways has become imbedded within the culture of college life. This is not however the problem. The issue is not even limited to many college students being underage…
National Center for Health Statistics. Healthy People 2000 Review, 1998-99. Hyattsville, MD, Public Health Service, 1999. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hp2k99.pdf . Accessed September 11, 2000
Williams MH: Alcohol, marijuana and beta blockers, in Lamb DR, Williams MH (eds): Perspectives in Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, vol. 4: Ergogenics -- Enhancement of Performance in Exercise and Sport. Dubuque, IA, Brown & Benchmark, 1991, pp 331-372
Koziris LP: Alcohol and athletic performance. Current Comment from the American College of Sports Medicine, April 2000
Gordon GG, Lieber CS: Alcohol, hormones, and metabolism, in Lieber CS (ed): Medical and Nutritional Complications of Alcoholism: Mechanisms and Management. New York City, Plenum Medical, 1992, pp 55-90
But when its effects were tested on series of performance events, and element of fatigue was present, the creatine appeared to improve strength, (Balsom et al., 1995).
So when there is an element of fatigue, creatine can be used with good results. Hence the supplements works effectively when there are repeated bouts of activity involving possible fatigue. Without creatine, the athlete is likely to feel fatigued and his performance may deteriorate. So when creatine is used, this deterioration can be stalled. Thus positive ergogenic effects of creatine have been displayed in repeated bouts of high-intensity cycling (Greenhaff et al., 1994), running (Aaserud et al., 1998), swimming (Peyrebrune et al., 1998) and vertical jumping (Bosco et al., 1997).
In most cases, the effects were found more prominently in later stages of exercise and not in the first. Hence we can safely say that creatine works in improvement endurance that helps an…
Aaserud, R., Gramvik, P., Olsen, S.R. And Jensen, J. (1998) Creatine supplementation delays onset of fatigue during repeated bouts of sprint running. Scand.J. Med. Sci. Sports,8, 247-251.
Balsom, P.D., Soderlund, K., Sjodin, B. And Ekblom, B. (1995) Skeletal muscle metabolism during short duration high-intensity exercise. Acta Physiol. Scand.,154, 303-310.
Bosco, C., Tihanyi, J., Pucspk, J. et al. (1997) Effect of oral creatine supplementation on jumping and running performance. Int. J. Sports Med.,18, 369-372.
Greenhaff, P.L., Constantin-Teodosiu, D., Casey, a. And Hultman, E. (1994) the effect of oral creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle ATP degradation during repeated bouts of maximal voluntary exercise in man. J. Physiol,476, 84P.
Moses Malone was a basketball prodigy many years before it was considered commonplace for a richly talented kid to come out of high school and go directly to the professional leagues. Moses was, in fact, in addition to his sterling Hall of Fame career, a youthful pathfinder in a highly competitive sport many years before prep stars-turned-NBA-superstars like Kevin Garnett and Kobe Bryant came along. And of course, Moses was an icon well prior to the latest high school prodigy, 19-year-old LaBron James, of the Cleveland Cavaliers, who recently became the youngest player in the history of the NBA to win the "ookie of the Year" award.
What kind of reception did Moses receive in pro-basketball?
Meanwhile, one of the pertinent questions, in hindsight, is, how was Moses, a kid out of high school competing against some of the best players on the planet, received by the fans and by…
Hunt, Donald. (2002). Parting the waters: newly-minted hall-of-famer Moses Malone wasn't only an underappreciated player, he was a true pioneer in today's preps-to-pros
NBA. Basketball Digest, 29, 38-44.
Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, Inc. (2003). Moses Malone Biography.
Retrieved April 22, 2004, at http://www.hoophall.com/halloffamers/Malone.htm .
Participation in multi-sport has emerged as one of the most vital components towards college recruitment including division 1 recruitment. The significance of multi-sport background in high school in enhancing college division 1 recruitment rankings and opportunities is evident in the fact that 100% of college football award winners in 2016 played another sport in high school (Spilbeler, 2016). While seven of these award winners played three different sports during their high school years, nine were track and field athletes, eight were basketball players, one was a wrestler, one played soccer, and one played Australian Rules football (Spilbeler, 2016). These statistics highlight the influence of a multi-sport background in enhancing ranking, opportunities and success for college division 1.
Single-sport participation has traditionally been utilized as the premise for college recruitment and rankings. However, the past few decades have been characterized by increased recognition of the role and significance of a multi-sport…
Felder, M. (2013, March 8). The Inside Info on What College Football Recruiters Really Look for in Prospects. Bleacher Report. Retrieved November 13, 2017, from http://bleacherreport.com/articles/1558720-the-inside-info-on-what-college-football-recruiters-really-look-for-in-prospects
Spilbeler, B. (2016, December 8). All National College Football Award Winners Played Multiple Sports in High School. Tracking Football. Retrieved November 13, 2017, from https://www.trackingfootball.com/blog/national-college-football-award-winners-high-school-multiple-sport-backgrounds/
Athletes and Crime
hat situations can you think of where an amateur or professional athlete was charged with a crime, or in your opinion should have been charged with a crime, for physical conduct beyond the rules of the game?
There are a number of professional athletes that have barely escaped legal prosecution for their criminal behavior. One example that illustrates this point well is Lance Armstrong. The world renowned cyclist was at the top of his profession for many years. However, during his reign as the world's top cyclist he was using performance enhancing drugs that were illegal. Not only did he take them himself, but he also pressured other cyclist that belonged to his team when he was representing the United States to take them as well. He was basically the advocate for the use of illegal drugs for team USA that competed in a number of events.…
Gibson, O. (2013, February 6). Lance Armstrong could still face criminal charges in America. Retrieved from The Guardian: http://www.theguardian.com/sport/2013/feb/06/lance-armstrong-criminal-charges-america
They ae thee to play and not to show off thei bodies.
Female athletes with lage body size will find discomfots in the tightly fitted unifoms. This then pesents poblem to safety. The female athletes who will not be at ease to the equied unifom could not focus on the game she is playing. She will, fom time to time, ty to eaange, pull o push some pats o the gament whee she thinks she needs to be coveed. With such attention that will be given to the gament, how can it be assued that the athlete will be safe in pefoming on he spoting event?
Lastly, female athletes who have lage body size will not be motivated to join any spoting activities anymoe because of the fea fo negative judgments fom the cowd and the media. The spots aena is becoming moe of an aea fo the body image…
references of college women basketball players. Master's Thesis
Ford, S., & Feather, B. (May, 1993). Women's basketball uniform analysis. Final report presented to Russell Athletic Corporation.
Gitlin Cara. (November 2000). "Male gawkers have all the fun." The John Hopkins News Letter.
Girls Skip Meals to be like Skinny Models." news.bbc.co.uk. 04 Feb. 2003. BBC Newsround. 8 Aug. 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/uk/newsid_2726000/2726279.stm
Hellmich, Nanci..usatoday.com. "Do thin models warp girls' body image?" 26 September 2006. USA Today. 30 Nov. 2006. http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2006-09-25-thin-models_x.htm
Supplements for Athletes
ipped Fuel © is a weight loss supplement used widely by individuals who are trying to improve their physical and athletic performance (Brown). These capsules are utilized as a method of rapidly burning fat, while quickly gaining muscle; they are popular among athletes because of this. The supplements work in a way that allows the burning of fat -- which is the most difficult part of body shaping -- to occur in a rapid fashion. Desired results are achieved in a limited amount of time, therefore adding to the appeal of this supplement to young athletes who are just beginning their journey through sports and are essentially attempting to make themselves stand out from the hundreds of other athletes. However, the components of these supplements have been of great concern due to their potential undesired effects (Brown). Despite the glorious results that the particular coach at hand…
Brown, E. (2011). What do ripped fuel capsules do? LIVESTRONG. Retrieved 22 April 2013 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/401862-what-do-r ipped-fuel-capsules-do/
OneResult. (2012). NCAA Legal and Illegal Supplements. ONERESULT: Look Like an Athlete. Retrieved 22 April 2013 from http://www.oneresult.com/articles/supplements/ncaa -legal-and-illegal-supplements
Figure 2: Comedy and Tragedy (iStock photo)
orks Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108245926
Beal, Becky, and Charlene ilson. "2 'Chicks Dig Scars'." Understanding Lifestyle Sport: Consumption, Identity, and Difference. London: Routledge, 2004. 31-54.
Drehs, ayne. (2007, Nov. 30).The Professional Athlete as Target: 'Am I Next?' abc NES. 4 Dec 2007 http://abcnews.go.com/Sports/story?id=3940887&page=1
Getting it rite; Athletes Maintain Personal Blogs to Break News, Express Opinions Connect with Their Loyal Fan Bases." The ashington Times 12 May 2007: C01.
A iStockphoto. (2007). 4 Dec 2007
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108245926
Beal, Becky, and Charlene Wilson. "2 'Chicks Dig Scars'." Understanding Lifestyle Sport: Consumption, Identity, and Difference. London: Routledge, 2004. 31-54.
Drehs, Wayne. (2007, Nov. 30).The Professional Athlete as Target: 'Am I Next?' abc NEWS. 4 Dec 2007 http://abcnews.go.com/Sports/story?id=3940887&page=1
Getting it Write; Athletes Maintain Personal Blogs to Break News, Express Opinions Connect with Their Loyal Fan Bases." The Washington Times 12 May 2007: C01.
A iStockphoto. (2007). 4 Dec 2007
Goals Athletes Set in Training and Competition
Perhaps the biggest mistake a researcher can make it to assume that if research has been done, that means the research is good research. In actuality, there is a significant amount of bad research available and those who rely upon it can easily draw bad conclusions. While there are an infinite number of ways that research can be bad, probably the most significant risk in bad research is research that detects a relationship (correlation) between two or more different variables and, from that relationship, seeks to suggest that there is causation between two or more of those variables. This can be due to an improper conclusion, but it can also be due to faulty research design that has failed to account for all of the other variables that could impact the results.
Defining Good esearch
It can be difficult to define good research…
Denscombe, M. (2007). The good research guide for small-scale social research projects, 3rd
Ed. Poland: Open University Press.
Munroe-Chandler, K., Hall, C., Weinberg, R.S. (2004). A qualitative analysis of the types of goals athletes set in training and competition. Journal of Sport Behavior, 27(1), 58-74.
Shuttleworth, M. (2008). Validity and reliability. Retrieved March 9, 2012 from Experiment
Student athletes do not even necessarily 'give back' to the university with four years of attendance. Basketball players flee the ranks to 'go pro' and even those who do not go to the NBA may struggle and not emerge with a degree. hat students are likely to show greater financial long-term loyalty to their university -- a student who excels academically and remembers college as the best years of his or her life? Or a student who does not graduate and sees college a stepping-stone to a professional sports career or simply as a place that discarded him or her because a sports career did not materialize as promised?
Coaches and athletic programs also receive huge salaries, because of the attention that is diverted to sports, funds that could be better spent in other areas. Lately, many prominent coaches have been drawing negative publicity for their actions, which only serves…
"Northeastern men's basketball program is penalized." (2009, April 25). Associated Press.
Retrieved April 25, 2009 at http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5gH3G3UvplzEvznYa46AVkBUEWuAwD97PA4580
About two thirds of major chest trauma cases are associated with motor vehicle accidents. About 25% of injuries from motor vehicle accident related to chest trauma. The outcome out of the study made by the North American Major Trauma Outcome Study indicated that about 70% of trauma cases are blunt in nature. About 50% of chest trauma injuries are associated with chest wall. The initial recovery from chest trauma concentrates on the ABCs-airway, breathing, and circulation- subject to all major trauma resuscitation instances. After completion of initial resuscitation and stabilization a concurrent evaluation of a patient is done with suspected chest trauma. Normally chest injuries are diagnosed by chest radiograph alone. The recognition of treatment of chest trauma mostly relies upon a high index of suspicion mixed with the appropriate diagnostic tests. (Lesson 18: Blunt Chest Trauma)
The rate of recovery varies from person to person at various rates. The…
Athletic & Sports Injury Treatment" Retrieved at http://www.scotiachiropractic.co.uk/treatment/sporting-injury.html . Accessed 26 October, 2005
Rib injuries" Retrieved at http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Rib_injuries-open . Accessed 26 October, 2005
Rib Injury" Retrieved from http://www.fairview.org/healthlibrary/content/sma_ribinjur_sma.htm . Accessed 26 October, 2005
Sako, Edward Y. "Lesson 18: Blunt Chest Trauma" PCCU Update. Vol: 15.
The research suggests that sport psychology is useful to athletes because it provides them with the tools needed to fully exploit their physical talents by controlling their mental processes. The research found that here are several techniques associated with sports psychology. These techniques include MPSE, thought stopping, mental rehearsal (imagery) self-talk, visuo-motor behavior rehearsal (VMBR) and establishing goals. All of these techniques can be used to assist the athlete in focusing on the goal that they are attempting to accomplish.
Arvinen-Barrow M., Penny G.,Hemmings B., Corr S. (2010) UK chartered physiotherapists' personal experiences in using psychological interventions with injured athletes: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 11 (2010) 58 -- 66
"Careers in Sports Psychology." Retrieved February 16, 2010 from: http://www.wcupa.edu/_Academics/sch_cas.psy/Career_Paths/Sports/Career07.htm
De Petrillo, L.A., Kaufman, K.A. Glass, C.R. And Arnkoff D.B. (2009) Mindfulness for Long-Distance Runners: An Open Trial Using Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE).…
Arvinen-Barrow M., Penny G.,Hemmings B., Corr S. (2010) UK chartered physiotherapists' personal experiences in using psychological interventions with injured athletes: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 11 (2010) 58 -- 66
"Careers in Sports Psychology." Retrieved February 16, 2010 from: http://www.wcupa.edu/_Academics/sch_cas.psy/Career_Paths/Sports/Career07.htm
De Petrillo, L.A., Kaufman, K.A. Glass, C.R. And Arnkoff D.B. (2009) Mindfulness for Long-Distance Runners: An Open Trial Using Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE). Journal of Clinical Sports Psychology, 2009, 4, 357-376
Dreyer, D. (2004). ChiRunning: A revolutionary approach to effortless, injury-free running. Retrieved February 16, 2009 from: http://www.chirunning.com .
Secondly, the student must meet the requirements for a home education program, which include the same curriculum as listed in Florida Statutes, 232.246(1) (Florida Statute 232.0201, 1993). During the time of participation, the student must show evidence of academic progress, as determined by an evaluation which may include a review of the student's work by a certified instructor, grades obtained through correspondence courses or community colleges, or standardized test scores (Florida Statute 232.0201, 1993). The student must register with the school at the beginning of the term in which they wish to participate (Florida Statute 232.425, 2003).
These requirements are difficult enough to enforce, but as noted, with proper testing and evaluation by qualified instructors, the curriculum and grading of home educated students appears to be very manageable. In the State of Florida, then, the academic requirements for sport participation are equal for both public and home educated students. Although…
Colb, S. (2005). Should home-schooled have access to public school programs? Retrieved from FindLaw database through CNN.com. Web site: http://www.cnn.com/2005/LAW/06/30/colb.home.school/ .
Craig Dickson Act, Florida State Statute, 2003, 232.425.
Exceptional Student Support Services (ESSS). (2002). Home School Brochure. Sanford, FL: Exceptional Student Support Services.
Florida State Statute, 1993, 232.0201.
Whole Plant-Based Protein: Whole Greens Hemp from http://ergogenicsnutrition.com/products/WholeGreensHemp/
his product does work: it is a protein formula containing protein-rich plant-based ingredients, relying upon hemp for a protein basis that is comparable to that found in the human body. he product essentially meets the needs of the human body by providing a natural supplement. his is an excellent way to give the body what it needs. Not only does hemp have proteins akin to those found in people, it also contains essential omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Plus, hemp has a wealth of fiber, minerals and vitamins. he formula contains "all 20 amino acids used in the human body," a recipe that includes the 10 essential acids.
scoop, or 30g, equals one serving size. One serving size gives the user 120 calories, 15 grams of protein, 3 grams of fats (or 5% of the recommended daily value). here is zero…
The beneficial aspects of this product can be found in the way it helps the user to produce energy and rapidly support muscle growth and stabilization. As the body goes through exercises, muscle tissue is destroyed and regenerated so this product helps to support that process by giving the body an extra boost of proteins needed for such regeneration.
Dietary Supplement for Athletes or Bodybuilding
Creatine is a dietary supplement that has been popular for more than thirty years amongst athletes and bodybuilders (Feldman 1999: 45). Its alleged benefits include enhancing muscle-building and recovery. The use of dietary supplements, particularly amongst adolescents and young adult athletes has increased in popularity and may even be endorsed by coaches and parents. Creatine is not recommended for young athletes because of questions about the long-term safety of its use, but pressures to 'be the best' have increased as the margin between first-class and second-class athletes grows ever more razor-thin (Dunn et al. 2001).One study found that "62% of adolescent athletes believed supplements improve performance, with 50% consuming dietary supplements" (Dunn et al. 2001). In another study of attitudes of young athletes Dunn (et al. 2001) found widespread acceptance of the use of creatine and belief in its benefits, even amongst athletes who…
Beck TW, Housh TJ, Johnson GO, Coburn DW, Malek MH, Cramer JT. (2007). Effects of a drink containing creatine, amino acids, and protein, combined with ten weeks of resistance training on body composition, strength, and anaerobic performance.
J Strength Cond Res, 21:100-104.
Buford, Thomas W. (et al. 2007). International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand:
creatine supplementation and exercise. Retrieved:
INVERTED U. HYPOTHESIS
It has been established that competitive state-anxiety normally follows a certain pattern of one-sided feelings of anxiety as well as inadequacy that combines with increased arousal of automatic nervous system (Fazey, 2008). Accordingly, the theory of Inverted U. hypothesis was formulated to explain this aspect, and it is widely applied in sports psychology. Inverted U. hypothesis a theory that suggest that there is a relative amount of anxiety and arousal that triggers one to perform higher- extremely little arousal or anxiety and too much arousal or anxiety will lead to poorer performance. This present paper briefly discusses the Inverted U. hypothesis in sports psychology.
Until presently, the traditional Inverted theory had been the key model employed by sports psychologists to explain the arousal-performance relationship. Nevertheless, various sport psychology researchers have criticized this relationship, and the modern trend is a change towards a higher multidimensional perspective of…
Fazey, J. (2008). The inverted-U hypothesis: a catastrophe for sport psychology? Leeds, British Association of Sports Sciences.
Pascuzzi, D.L. (2005). The effects of anxiety on gross motor performance a test of the inverted-U hypothesis. Thesis (M.S.) -- Western Illinois University, 1975.
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Schnabel, C., & Wagner, J. (2008). Union membership and age: the inverted u-shape hypothesis under test. Luneburg, Univ., Inst. fur Volkswirtschaftslehre.
Therefore, it is very crucial for all the nurses examining the athletes to carefully differentiate the murmurs of the behaviors of athletes and recommend if it is safe for them to continue sports behaviour.
Discussion 2: Anaphylactic Shock
Anaphylaxis shock is a very dangerous and life threatening allergy reaction that needs right, quick and aggressive treatment on time. Due to lack of recognition, the exact evidence of this condition is difficult to know. There are also no laboratory markers or any particular tests that can be used in the emergency to diagnose this situation.
According to the Canadian Pediatric Surveillance Program it is "a severe allergic reaction to any stimulus, having sudden onset and generally lasting less than 24 hours, involving one or more body systems and producing one or more symptoms such as hives, flushing, itching, angioedema, stridor, wheezing, shortness of breath, vomiting, diarrhea or shock" (Simons, Chad and…
Bille, K., Figueiras, D., Schamasch, P., Kappenberger, L., Brenner, J., Meijboom, J and Meijboom J. (2006). 'Sudden cardiac death in athletes: the Lausanne Recommendations'.
Eur Journal Cardiovascular Rehabilitation. 2006 Dec; 13(6):859-75.
Maron, B.(2003). Sudden death in young athletes. N Engl J. Med. 2003;349: 1064 -- 75
Simons FER, Chad, ZH and Gold M. (2002). Real-time reporting of anaphylaxis in infants,
Washing and Use of Testosterone:
The Action of Hand Soap Bacteria:
Hand washing is an important practice for body hygiene because of its seeming effectiveness in preventing the transmission of bacteria. Actually, it is believed that hand washing helps to lessen the risk of bacterial infection through removing and destroying bacterial cells. Generally, the use of hand soap while complying with the good washing practices help an individual to destroy bacteria in the hands, which in turn decreases the spread of diseases or illnesses. The need to wash hands using hand soap is attributed to the accumulation of bacteria on the surface of a person's hands because of numerous opportunities brought by day-to-day activities. For instance, a person encounters bacteria every time he/she touches another individual, touches raw meat, and handles money. The bacteria can get into the individual's hands and under his/her fingernails and spread if he/she touches any…
Angkadjaja, S. (2012). What Makes Antibacterial Soap Antibacterial? Retrieved from Illumin
University of Southern California website: http://illumin.usc.edu/printer/68/what-makes-antibacterial-soap-antibacterial/
Singer, N. (2006, August 10). Does Testosterone Build A Better Athlete? The New York Times.
Retrieved December 4, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/10/fashion/10Fitness.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
However, these studies did not separate the effects of ephedrine from that of caffeine and so more intense research is awaited in this direction. [Robert a] it is to be noted that caffeine and ephedrine work synergistically which could be dangerous in patients with pre-existing cardiac or blood pressure abnormalities. Caffeine affects the adenosine-mediated dilation of blood vessels by antagonizing its receptors. The resulting increased availability of free adenosine monophosphate furthers the activity of ephedrine and catecholamine stimulation resulting in reduced cardiac refractory periods and increased cardiac output and consequently elevated blood pressure. [Charles N. Krome]
It is necessary to look into the inherent risks associated with the use of ephedrine. Ephedrine has a very high percentage of adverse reactions compared to all other herbal supplements. As reported by ent et al. (2003), ephedrine alone accounts for around 64% of all adverse medical reactions due to herbal products. This in…
Daniel Ari Kapner, 'Infofacts Resources: Ephedra and Energy Drinks on College Campuses," Accessed 26th April 2008, Available at, http://www.higheredcenter.org/pubs/factsheets/energy-drinks.html
Michael P. Schaefer, Jay Smith, Diane L. Dahm and Matthew C. Sorenson, 'Ephedra Use in a Select group of Adolescent Athletes'. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2006) 5, 407-414, available at http://www.jssm.org/vol5/n3/6/v5n3-6pdf.pdf
3) Robert a. Robergs1, Tommy Boone2, Donna Lockner3, "Exercise Physiologists Should not Recommend the Use of Ephedrine and Related Compounds as Ergogenic Aids or Stimulants for Increased Weight Loss," Journal of Exercise Physiology Online, Volume 6 Number 4 November 2003, available at http://faculty.css.edu/tboone2/asep/RobergsV2.doc
4) Charles N. Krome, 'Cardiac Arrhythmia in a Professional Football Player. Was Ephedrine to Blame?' The physician and Sportsmedicine Vol31, No 12, Dec 2003.
easons for MLB Players
Furthermore, MLB owners have enjoyed high double-digit return-on-investment for many years. By showing teenagers that steroids are not the cool nor healthy way to become more physical fit, they finally have the opportunity to show the world that they are not all Montgomery Burns (Saving the Puerto ican League).
If most people believe that the way to get ahead is to work hard, then most people will work hard, and more wealth will be created. On the other hand, if people believe that wealthy people should not have to work, then people will attempt to gain wealth without working, leading to a zero-sum economy. If most people expect public officials to be honest, then dishonest officials will be identified and punished" (eforming Our Beliefs Concerning Health Care).
From there, MLB baseball players participate to prevent teenage athletes' steroid use because they want to present a…
Steroid Use in Teen Athletes. http://www.***.ca/lib/essay/69_4.html
Saving the Puerto Rican League. http://sportslaw.blogspot.com/2007_08_01_archive.html
Reforming Our Beliefs Concerning Health Care. http://www.tcsdaily.com/article.aspx?id=062107A
english topic Steroid. I specific details topic Steroid Use Sports. steroid ? famous types steroid sport function type. good bad effective steroid athletes steroid ? steroid affect short-term long-term.
Steroids: are they a necessary evil?
Society traditionally encouraged people to experience progress in any field that they possibly could and this made it difficult for some to keep up with the fact that the world was constantly changing. In their struggle to keep up and even to be recognized for their contributions, some individuals have turned to using controversial methods. Athletes are provided with difficult choices as they feel the need to satisfy the needs of their fans. Society is indirectly responsible for the fact that some athletes use steroids because of the pressure that it puts on their shoulders. Many athletes today use steroids at the expense of their own health because they know that this is one of…
Dilingham, Michael, "Steroids, Sports and the Ethics of Winning," Retrieved December 4, 2011, from the Santa Clara University Website: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/ethicalperspectives/steriods-ethics.html
Dodgshon, Robert, The Age of the Clans: The Highlands from Somerled to the Clearances (Edinburgh: Birlinn, 2002)
Hecht, Annabel, "Anabolic Steroids: Pumping Trouble," FDA Consumer Sept. 1984
Sender Aaron J. "Anabolic Steroids for non-therapeutic use," Retrieved December 4, 2011, from the New York University Website: http://www.nyu.edu/classes/jaeger/anabolic_steroids.htm
Proteins are often called the building blocks of life. In fact, the very word "protein" implies their importance in the body: it is a Greek word meaning "first place." Approximately fifty percent of the dry weight in animal cells is comprised of protein (Campbell 71). They play a roll in almost everything the body does and "are used for support, storage, transport of other substances, signaling from one part of the organism to another, movement, and defense against foreign substances." (Campbell 71). Proteins are essential to the proper functioning of every organism known to man.
The human genetic code holds the instructions for the making of over ten thousand different types of proteins; all with specific purposes. Additionally, "Proteins are the most structurally sophisticated molecules known." (Campbell 71). In comparison to other molecules, proteins are enormous and come in nearly every shape imaginable. However, despite their variety and size, proteins…
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2. Campbell, Neil A. And Jane B. Reece. Biology: Sixth Edition. New York: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, 2002.
3. Ronzio, Robert, PHD. The Encyclopedia of Nutrition and Good Health: Second Edition. New York: Facts On File Inc., 2003.
4. Ryan, Monique. Complete Guide to Sports Nutrition. Boulder: VELO Press, 1999.
The Critique: Begin with a Brief Summary
In this article, Burkett (2010) tries to identify the role that technology can help Paralympic athletes to compete in different sporting activities. The study focuses more on how technology can be made relevant to individual needs of Paralympic athletes. Moreover, it highlights the weaknesses and strengths in technologies used in the summer Paralympic games held in Athens and Beijing. The objective of the study was to ensure that relevant technology could be provided the 2012 London Games. The study is important and necessary because different technologies have been used before to help Paralympic athletes compete in different games, but some of them have failed the athletes. Moreover, Burkett (2010) seeks to provide solutions to an existing problem and make Paralympic athletes able to compete well during the Paralympic games. The researcher does an in-depth analysis of the peer-reviewed literature on technologies available for…
The Sports Imagery Questionnaire provides feedback to the researcher, coach, parents and players on how the player views what he or she is learning and the perceived purpose and benefits of imagery training. The findings from one recent study showed that "Elite and intermediate athletes used imagery more frequently and deliberately and perceived imagery to be more relevant and requiring more concentration than recreational athletes" (Nordin, Cumming, Vincent, McGrory, 2005, p. 346). If these findings are correct, and there is no reason to doubt that they are not, then the way to enhance top level performance in sporting activities is to have the players practice the art of imagery.
It is not surprising that athletes are now incorporating imagery into their training regimes. Advertisers have known for some time the effectiveness of imagery on consumer's spending habits. Many radio advertisements are created with the thought that the consumer must 'see'…
Bolls, P.D.; Muehling, D.D.; (2007) the effects of dual-task processing on consumer's responses to high and low-imagery radio advertisements, Journal of Advertising, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 35-47
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Nordin, S.M.; Cumming, J.; Vincent, J.; McGrory, S.; (2005) Mental practice or spontaneous play? Examining which types of imagery constitutes deliberate practice in sport, Journal of Applied Sports Psychology, Vol. 18, Issue 4, pp. 345-362