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properties of a Carbon atom that make it ideally suited to produce varied carbon skeletons?
Besides water, carbon molecules are the most significant contributors to life. The structural and functional diversity of organic molecules emerges from the ability of carbon to form large, complex and diverse molecules by bonding to itself and to other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur. Carbon atoms are the most versatile building blocks of molecules. Each one has an atomic number of 6; therefore, it has 4 valence electrons. This means that these electron completes its outer energy shell by sharing valence electrons in four covalent bonds and are not likely to form ionic bonds. Covalent bonds link carbon atoms together in long chains that form the skeletal framework for organic molecules.
Discuss what would happen if no water was present during degradation of a bio-molecule.
Since bio-molecules are complex they are made…
Chemical reactions occur when atoms, molecules, and ions interact with one other to form new substances. Chemical bonds are broken and new bonds are formed. Chemical bonds between atoms follow rules based on patterns of electron distribution within the involved atoms. When reactions take place, energy exchange occurs. When chemical bonds are broken, energy is released. When new bonds are formed, energy is stored.
There are many types of chemical reactions. They can be loosely classified by the type of chemical change taking place. Several basic reaction types are encountered in cellular processes. Hydrolytic reactions use the addition of water molecules to break apart large molecules. Hydrolysis is used during digestion to break large molecules down into their smaller components. In a hydrolytic reaction, the hydroxyl group from the water molecule is added to one part of the larger molecule and the hydrogen atom is added to the other side…
Strategic Management Case Study of Atom Films
Summarize AtomFilms business model using the Who, What, How framework. Assess whether and why the elements of the business model are mutually consistent and reinforcing.
Examining the AtomFilms business model in accordance with the Who, What, How framework would necessarily begin by reviewing the qualifications and credentials of Mika Salami, the company's founder. Salami possesses both a formal business education (MBA from INSEAD in France) and the specialized expert knowledge on short films that drives AtomFilms creative vision. In addition to Salami, AtomFilms is operated under the supervision of Jannat Gargi, who heads the content acquisition department, and Brian Burke, head of content distribution. Although these areas are identified as critical by the case study, the only subsequent information provided about either individual is that "Jannat Gargi's approach to acquiring content was by building awareness at major film festivals by using a grassroots…
Dalton's research was based on the works of several other scientists and chemists, such as Antoine Lavoisier's 1789 law of conservation of mass or law of definite proportions first proven by Joseph Louis Proust in 1799 (Atomic Theory).
However, Dalton's theory of atoms was not complete or entirely correct and his work was further improved by the works of Amadeo Avogadro and others. In 1897, J.J. Thompson revealed that the atom was not the smallest particle as he discovered the electron, proving that there are other particles called elementary particles. Thomposon was also the first to discover the existence of isotopes.
Atomic theory was further improved by the works of Ernest Rutherford, who "discovered that most of the mass and positive charge of an atom is concentrated in a very small fraction of its volume, which he assumed to be at the very center" (Atomic Theory), the center being called…
Ancient Atomism, first published Tue Aug 23, 2005; substantive revision Tue Oct 18, 2005, available at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/atomism-ancient/#5 ;
Atomic Theory, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_theory ;
Carpi, Anthony, Atomic Theory I, the Early Days, available at http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module_viewer.php?mid=50 ;
History of atomic theory, available at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761567432_9/Atom.html.
The transformation of atoms in a matter results in emission of radiations giving rise to release of energy that are of categorized under three heads. There are several uses of such radiations. The significance of this paper lies in the necessity of being aware of different types of the radiations as the very universe that we live on has been radioactive since its origin.
The matter is formed out of the atoms which are considered normally to be stable. However, some of them are automatically altered to form emission of radiation that release energy. Such an activity is known as radioactivity. The natural radioactivity was first discovered by A.H. Becquerel in 1896 with making the salts of uranium to approach the vicinity of an unexposed photographic plate meticulously safeguarded from light. The radiation out of the uranium salts also results in a charged electroscope to discharge. (adioactivity: The Columbia…
Radioactive decay. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radioactivity Accessed on 17 February, 2005
Radioactivity in nature. Idaho State University. Retrieved from http://www.physics.isu.edu/radinf/natural.htm
Accessed on 17 February, 2005
Radioactivity. The Columbia Encyclopedia. 2001. Retrieved from http://www.bartleby.com/65/ra/radioact.html Accessed on 17 February, 2005
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NM) spectroscopy is one of the most powerful and versatile techniques available to determine the arrangement of atoms in the structure of a molecule. Organic molecules composed principally of hydrogen and carbon atoms can be analyzed using techniques of proton (1H) and carbon-13 (13C) NM spectroscopy. The basic interpretation of the NM spectra for a molecule observes several properties including the strength and intensity of the magnetic field used to produce a peak, the interaction of the atom with atoms around it and the effects of neighboring atoms on spectra themselves. Analysis of the relative location of a peak in an NM spectrum (called the chemical shift) and the splitting of that peak can provide significant information about the structure of a molecule. More detailed information about molecular structure can be determined through 2-dimensional techniques where the NM pulses producing a magnetic field are combined…
Carey, F.A., & Giuliano, R.M. (2008). Organic Chemistry. New York: McGraw Hill.
Pauli, W. (1940) . The connection between spin and statistics. Physical Review B. 15, 716-730.
Roberts, R.M.; Glibert, J.C.; Rodewald, L.B.; Wingrove, A.S.(1982) Modern Experimental Organic Chemistry (pp. 239). New York, NY: CBS College Publishing.
Silverstein, R.M.; Bassler, G.C.; Morrill, T.C. (1974) Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds, 3rd Ed. (p. 24). New York, NY: Wiley.
Quantum mechanics is a theory that has emerged in the study of both chemistry and physics and has been received with a lot of enthusiasm. Nobel laureate physicist Philip Anderson goes as far as naming quantum mechanics the greatest invention of the last 2000 years, describing its impact saying,
The quantum theory forces a revision of our mode of thinking, which is far more profound than Newtonian mechanics or the Copernican revolution or relativity... It tells us that we really completely know the rules of the game which all these particles and quanta are playing, so that if we are clever enough we can understand everything about ourselves and our world. In other words, there is no "why" question about our everyday world that the quantum theory can't answer for is - Why is the sky blue? Why is glass transparent? What holds DNA together? Why does the sun shine?…
Anderson, P. "Quantum Theory." In The Greatest Inventions of the Past 2000 Years. Ed. John Brockman. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000.
Boslough, J. Masters of Time. London: Orion Books, 1992.
Brown, T.L., LeMay, H.E., & Bursten, B.E. Chemistry: The Central Science. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1994.
Daintith, J. A Concise Dictionary of Chemistry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
Bias of Authors Regarding America Dropping the Atom Bomb on Japan
This paper examines what has been written about the dropping of the atom bomb on Japan, following the attack on Pearl Harbor. The writer details several articles and explores where the writer is coming from and what may have led to a particular slant on a story regarding the bomb. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
THE BIAS OF AUTHORS REGARDING THE ATOM BOMB AND JAPAN
The atom bomb was dropped on Japan to make a statement to the world. It was not just that the U.S. wanted Japan to understand attacking Pearl Harbor was wrong, but Japan was the example the United States made for the world. The message was loud and clear that if the U.S. is attacked the enemy will be hit back ten fold and then some. In addition to it being…
Davis, Raymond. Clear Conscience: The Atom Bomb Vs. The Super Holocaust by Raymond Davis, Dan Winn (Preface)
Roleff, Tamara. The Atom Bomb (Turning Points in World History (Greenhaven Press).)
CREAN Mike, No hate after Hiroshima., The Press (Canterbury, New Zealand), 02-19-2002, pp 4.
Allan H. 'Bud' Selig, U.S. owes world apology for dropping atomic bombs., USA Today, 08-05-1994, pp 12.
Assignment 2-1 -- a- Radiation may be considered information from space; different types of information from different sources. These are: 1) Light as a wave and particle, 2) Electromagnetism, 3) Cosmic Rays and 4) Ultraviolet radiation.
Part 2-1-B- Light may be measured by telescopes; other space radiation by radio waves; x-ray machines may absorb cosmic and x-ray energy.
Part 2-1-C- Stars and Planets emit electromagnetic; Sun emits UV, Electromagnetic and light; light intensity, etc. Measuring radiation from objects tells us numerous things; age of object, comparative data between object, distance, intensity, level of danger, potential changes within object over time.
Part 2-1-D- Spectrographs, radio frequency detectors, x-ray machines.
Part 2-2-a -- an atom is the smallest unit of matter; ions are types of atoms in which the protons and electrons (parts of the atomic structure) are not equal. Ions can exist independently in solution, while atoms may or…
The Golgi receives new proteins and lipids from the ER, finishes them up, addresses them and sends them to their final destination. In this way, the Golgi could be the postal service of the city. Lysosomes get rid of unusable waste within the cell and recycles those materials that can be reused, making it the recycling and garbage center of the city. Mitochondria are where ATP, the main energy molecule, is made. It could be considered the city's power plant. Then we have the cell's cytoskeleton, which gives the cell its shape, strength and its ability to move. It can be looked at as the roadways and bridges of the city. ("Chemical Composition of the Body," 2005)
Cells do not act alone and have help from things like enzymes to complete their job. Enzymes are proteins make chemical reactions within cells occur faster ("Chemical Composition of the Body," 2005). ithout…
Biology-Online. (2005, May 15) "Chemical composition of the body." Retrieved December 2, 2011 from www.biology-online.org/9/1_chemical_composition.htm.
Farabee, M.J. (2010a, May 18) Online Biology Book. "Introduction: The nature of science and biology." Retrieved December 1, 2011 from www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookintro.html .
(2010b, May 18) Online Biology Book. "Chemistry II: Water and organic materials." Retrieved December 2, 2011 from www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookchem2.html .
Whitmarsh, John and Govindjee. (1995) "Photosynthesis." Encyclopedia of Applied Physics.(Vol. 13): 513-532. VCH Publishers, Inc.
What are the steps of scientific method? What good is it? Does it prove anything? What's a variable? What a control vs. An experimental factor? What makes a good experiment?
Steps of scientific method:
Ask a question
Do background research
Construct a hypothesis
Test your hypothesis
Analyze your data
f. Communicate your results
The scientific method is good because it allows other scientists to repeat your experiment and all researchers to use the same method of investigation.
A variable is the thing in an experiment which varies from subject to subject.
A control in an experiment is the thing that remains the same. Experimental factors are the factors that are being tested and are changing.
e. Good data and accurate experimentation make a good experiment.
How does evolution explain the diversity of life we see today? What is natural selection and how does it work? What do we mean…
This means that all of the stars in the universe must be moving away from Earth. If all of the stars are moving away, the Universe itself must be expanding. It was this discovery of the Doppler Effect in star light that led to the Big Bang Theory. (Science Clarified)
The Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapsed on November 7, 1940. Incredibly, the whole collapse was caught on tape. atching the tape, it is clear that the bridge collapsed from instability caused by enormous waves moving with periodic motion through the structure of the bridge. It is not clear, however, what caused this wave motion in the first place, or what caused it to get progressively worse until it destroyed the bridge. The cause of the collapse of the bridge continues to be a subject of debate among engineers.
The Tacoma Narrows Bridge was one of the earliest and longest suspension bridges.…
"Atom Model History." Center for Teaching and Learning in the West. Colorado State University. Web. 15 May 2010.
"Doppler Effect." Science Clarified. Web. 15 May 2010.
"Ernest Rutherford." SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Virtual Visitor's Center. Stanford University. Web. 15 May 2010.
Irvine, Tom. The Tacoma Narrows Bridge Failure. Vibrationdata. Web. 15 May 2010.
His most well-known contribution to the field of chemistry was the statement titled; the Avogadro constant or Avogadro number. Avogadro stated that "a mole equals 6.022 x 1023." (American) It also states that equal volumes of gases, at the same temperature and pressure have the same amount of molecules.
Avogadro's number really means the number of molecules in a mole. His number is essential in chemistry because it calculates the amount of pure substances in stoichiometric relationships. It also determines how much heavier a simple molecule of one gas is than that of another. This number is also very large 6.0221367x10^23. However, Avogadro only hypothesized this and he was not responsible for calculating it, Loschmidt was. (Furtsch)
Even though, Avogadro was not fully responsible for the discovery of the mole, he did solve many controversies and gathered enough research for other scientists, like Loschmidt, to calculate. His curiosity…
Determination of the Avogadro Constant. 1974. American Physical Society, Washington D.C. 17 June 1974
Furtsch, T.A. "Some Notes on Avogadro's Number" Online posting. Tennessee Technological University. 12 January 2007. http://gemini.tntech.edu/~tfurtsch/scihist/avogadro.htm
The Avogadro Number. 1996. University of West Indies, Mona Campus, Jamaica, 1 April 2002. http://wwwchem.uwimona.edu.jm:1104/courses/pH/avono.html
The temperatures on Saturn, which average in the range of -99 F. To -290 F, or -73 C. To -179 C, mean that ethynyl's highly reactive status is necessary to perform the chemical process that results in the creation of triacetylene and the polyynes that serve as ultraviolet radiation shields and appear as haze from a distance (About that, 2009, Scientific Blogging). Saturn is otherwise too cold to have the heat to propel chemical reactions, in the absence of reactive molecules like ethynyl.
The modeling techniques used by the scientists to reproduce this process involved crossed molecular beam machines to "collide supersonic gaseous beams of ethynyl and diacetylene molecules," and a mass spectrometer measurement of the reaction (About that, 2009, Scientific Blogging). Analysis confirmed that the results of the collision yielded triacetylene, plus a single hydrogen atom. Later computations also confirmed the spectrometer's analysis of the distribution of electrons in…
About that triacetylene in Titan's atmosphere. (2009, September 27). Scientific Blogging
Retrieved October 6, 2009
Chemistry of Titan's hazy atmosphere unraveled. (2009, October 4). Science Daily. Retrieved October 6, 2009
abundant elements that occur in living organisms are as follows: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorous. These and all elements are made up of atoms, which are the primary units of matter. Molecules are groups of atoms that are covalently bonded. Covalent bonds occur when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons. This is different from ionic bonds, which arise when an electrical attraction between two oppositely charged ions takes place. Elements are substances that cannot be chemically dissected into simpler kinds of matter. Compounds, however, are atoms of two or more elements that are united by chemical bonds.
The parts of an atom include protons, neutrons, and electrons. These are all called subatomic particles. Protons, which are part of the nucleus of an atom, have positive electrical charges. Neutrons, which are also part of the nucleus of an atom, and as the name indicates, are neutral…
Sidpers Program isk Management Plan
Project description and Objectives
Project Manager (PM)
The identified Sources of isk in the SIDPES Project
Summary isk eport
isk Breakdown Structure
Double P-I matrix
Hillson, D and Simon, P (2007).Practical Project isk Management: The Atom Methodology. Management Concepts.
This document contains details of the isk Management Plan for the SIDPES Project and defines the risk management process to be used in the risk management process that is to be used through the duration of this project. The Project Manager is to be the one who is responsible for the review as well as maintaining of this Management Plan throughout the project. This is to ensure that the risk process sis maintained at an appropriate level necessary for dealing with the level of risk that is faced by this specific project (Simon &…
GAO (1990)Standard Installation/Division Personnel System (SIDPERS) Battalion S1 Level Procedures: Department of the Army Pamphlet 600 -- 8 -- 1
Hillson, D and Simon, P (2007).Practical Project Risk Management: The Atom Methodology. Management Concepts.
Hillson, D (2002).Extending the risk process to manage opportunities. International Journal of Project Management Vol 20 (3) April 2002, P.235 -- 240
, 2006). he proponents of the theory utilizing this method argue that open-ended questions require children productive use of information they already know, unaided by an external representation of the earth (e.g. globe or any other 3-D model). Using this method, superficial (memorization-based) knowledge is eliminated. his enables the experimenters to find out whether children fully understand the information they know (Vosniadou, Skopeliti, & Ikospentaki, 2005).
Using the forced-question method, on the other hand, results in less ambiguous answers. When an external 3-D model of the earth accompanies this style, more scientifically correct responses are obtained because the model gives a cue (Panagiotaki, et al., 2006). However, most of the forced questions used by the proponents of the second theory are biased towards a spherical model of the earth (Panagiotaki, et al., 2006). So in the end, the results may not be truly representative of what children do know if…
That being said, it may never be too early to expose children to situations where she might begin to explore the dual representation nature of the globe. Even if a child hasn't reached an age where she understands that the earth is in fact a sphere, parents and teachers can lay the groundwork by talking about it in class or going to science exhibits and museums. Callanan et al. (2002) reviewed some strategies for effective parent-child conversations about representational objects, but unfortunately, most are applicable to concrete, rather then abstract concepts. However, they brought into focus the importance of social interaction within which children experience representational objects.
By integrating the social context of the globe-earth link and the theories on children's earth concepts, a likely overall interpretation about children's understanding of the earth could be this: Children can be trained to learn scientifically correct understanding of the earth using the globe as an external model and by giving them fragments of information when opportunities arise, to help them develop their own coherent and non-literal interpretation.
Finally, the lessons learned from the earth-globe research findings can be applied to other abstract concepts in science like atoms, gravity, and evolution. With modern technology and advances in computer-aided design, it is possible to create interesting models of an atom or a visual representation of gravity and evolution in museum or exhibit settings. Children can explore these models while teachers or parents engage them by providing simple information that focus on a particular aspect that the child is interested in. At home, parents and children can look at science picture books or videos and label the objects they see represented on the pages or videotape. In other words, there are various opportunities and many accessible representational objects that can be used to lay the groundwork for children to build a coherent understanding of abstract principles.
believing that death means nothing to us, since every good and every evil lies in sensation; but death is the privation of sensation. Hence a correct comprehension of the fact that death means nothing to us makes the mortal aspect of life pleasurable, not be conferring on us a boundless period of time but by removing the yearning for deathlessness. There is nothing fearful in living for the person who has really laid hold of the fact that there is nothing fearful in not living. So it is silly for a person to say that he dreads death -- not because it will be painful when it arrives but because it pains him now as a future certainty; for that which makes no trouble for us when it arrives is a meaningless pain when we await it. This, the most horrifying of evils, means nothing to us, then, because so…
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…
1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
Song of Myself" response
I think your insight that Walt Whitman's "Song of Myself" is not about egotism is very apt. In fact, Whitman's poem is the very opposite of egotism. You write: "Song of Myself" seems "to focus specifically on himself, as Whitman begins by declaring, 'I celebrate myself, and sing myself' but America for Whitman is about more than simply the glorification of the individual. He also understands the significance of the nation's history as he explains, 'My tongue, every atom of my blood, formed from this soil, this air, Born here of parents born here from parents the same, and their parents the same.'" Whitman believes that America is a nation which frees individuals to express themselves, and celebrating himself is, by extension, celebrating America.
Whitman also seems to celebrate the universal 'Self' (with a large S), rather than the personalized, isolated self. The poem is not…
Masaru Emoto claims that positive changes to water crystals can be achieved through prayer, music, or by attaching written words to a container of water. In other words, he maintains that human consciousness affects the molecular structure of water.
Similar phenomena can be argued regarding "interviewer bias" where the race, gender, words, appearance, or other factors such as behavior of the interviewer may have an effect on the interviewee. Some wording effects may be understood in certain ways due to the experience or cultural background of the respondent, for instance, and he may misinterpret or misunderstand them. Wording effects can be reciprocal too with the interviewer misunderstanding words or tone of the respondent. All of these (and other factors) may serve to corrupt the study
4. For this film when you hear the word "atom or molecule" replace it with "person or individual" in your mind. Beyond the complexities of…
It is so much a copy that one could call it a clone of the original; in other words, it is a second original. If matter were to be thus transported, then we would have two of the original objects, should one be transported.
Alternative theories, based on the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, would be best followed up, if matter is the stuff which one wants to transport. The Heisenberg Principle states that it is impossible to know where any part of a physical object is at any point in time. Therefore, to know where every atom of our body is at any given time is impossible. If your blood is moving through your veins, then the atomic particles which make up your blood are moving rapidly from one part of your body to another and it is impossible to know at any particular moment where one of these atoms may…
About.com. Quantum teleportation. IBM Research, 1995. Website: http://inventors.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?zi=1/XJ&sdn=inventors&cdn=money&tm=40&gps=118_695_796_789&f=10&su=p554.2.150.ip_&tt=3&bt=0&bts=0&zu=http%3A//researchweb.watson.ibm.com/quantuminfo/teleportation/.
Bennett, Charles H.; Brassard, Giles; Crepeau, Claude; Jozsa, Richard; Peres, Asher and Wootters, William. Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and EPR channels. Phys. Rev. Lett. Vol. 70, pp 1895-1899. 1993.
Costello, Tom. 'Beam me up, General!' Could 'Star Trek' technology help transport troops? NBC News, Wednesday, Feb. 9, 2005.
O'Connor, Peter. Scientists report 'teleported' data. Associated Press. 17 Jun 2002. AO Australia and Antarctica. Found at: http://inventors.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?zi=1/XJ&sdn=inventors&cdn=money&tm=2098&gps=289_697_796_789&f=10&su=p554.2.150.ip_&tt=3&bt=0&bts=0&zu=http%3A//www.timeenoughforlove.org/saved/YahooNewsScientistsReportTeleportedData.htm.
This information is utilized to create new products and substances that are used on a regular basis. For example, chemists could use the COSY process to understand how to create a new kind of raincoat that will be even more water resistant. To determine this, the protons inside the molecules of the raincoat would have to be examined through the COSY process. This will identify the peaks inside the protons and what specific attributes are similar to other compounds. Once this happens, is when scientists can use this as a way to create specific attributes that they are looking for (i.e. A raincoat that is more waterproof). This is significant, because it is showing how the contribution of the COSY methodology allows chemists to create new compounds with specific attributes. ("Thomaston," 2006)
HETCO is useful in understanding the genetic composition of a substance and the compounds that are used to…
Introduction to NRM Spectroscopy. (2003). UWI. Retrieved from: http://wwwchem.uwimona.edu.jm/spectra/nmrintro.html
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. (2010). MSU. Retrieved from: http://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/VirtTxtJml/Spectrpy/nmr/nmr1.htm
Two Dimensional NMR. (2005). BBK. Retrieved from: http://www.cryst.bbk.ac.uk/PPS2/projects/schirra/html/2dnmr.htm
Bachovchin, W. (2001). Contributions of NRM Spectroscopy. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry, 39, (1), 199 -- 213.
Symmetry in Inorganic Chemistry
Molecules are often classified in terms of their symmetry. All molecules that have the same basic shape share a number of common properties. Classification of molecules by symmetry is based upon the presence of symmetry "elements," such as mirror planes and rotational axes, and corresponding symmetry "operations" such as reflection through such a plane and rotation about such an axis, shared by all molecules in a given "point" group. A symmetry operation is a real or imagined change that can be made to the molecule that leaves it in an indistinguishable position from the initial position. For example, if a benzene molecule were rotated by 60, 120, 180, 240 or 300 degrees about it's principle axis of rotation, the molecule will be left in an identical configuration with respect to the initial one. Any molecule said to have C2v symmetry (or to "belong" to the C2v…
Avetisov, V., and V. Goldanskii. "Mirror Symmetry Breaking at the Molecular Level." Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93.21 (1996): 11435-42.
Kitaev, Y.E., et al. "Why Biomolecules Prefer Only a Few Crystal Structures." Phys Rev E. Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys 67.1 Pt 1 (2003): 011907.
Mann, S. "The Chemistry of Form." Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 39.19 (2000): 3392-406.
Mixture a Compound
Mixture and a Compound
Three main terms are usually used in the field of chemistry. These are element, compound and a mixture. These three will be the element of key discussion in the paper.
There is a great difference between a mixture and a compound. A compound is formed from two elements that combine together chemically by sharing electrons. The physical and chemical properties of the constituent elements are different in the beginning in their individual states from the physical and chemical properties of the final compound. Thereby the final chemical as well as physical properties of the compound are determined by the elements. On the other hand, a mixture may have many constituent compounds, or elements that are mixed (Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell, and Farrell, 2008, p. 45). The constituent elements of the compound cannot be separated physically but in the case of mixture, the constituents can…
Bettelheim, A.F., Brown, H.W., Campbell, M.K., Farrell, O.S., and Torres, O. (2012). Introduction to Organic and Biochemistry. Edition 8. Cengage Learning.
Bettelheim, F.A., Brown, W.H., Campbell, K.M., and Farrell, O.S. (2008). Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry, Available Titles OWL Series. Edition 9. Cengage Learning.
Joesten, M.D., Hogg, J.L., and Castellion, M.E. (2006). The World of Chemistry: Essentials: Available Titles OWL Series. Edition 4. Cengage Learning.
Kotz, J.C., Treichel, P., and Townsend, J.R. (2009). Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity, Volume 2. Edition 7. Cengage Learning.
Eternal Circle of Time
Electrons circle the nucleus of an atom. Untold trillions of atoms collide together and explode. The universe expands. Electrons race down the copper wires of an electric cable. The sun shines. Leaves digest the sunlight, produce nutrients, live, grow, die, and fall to the ground. The wind bears aloft the leaves, scatters them over earth and sea. The tide moves them, pushes them up into rivers where at last they settle into the mud. Salmon swim upstream; lay their eggs on the muddy bottoms of lakes and rivers. A powerful grizzly bear nuzzles the icy water of a mountain brook. His great paw sweeps into the water and catches a darting salmon. Men come; establish a city on the banks of the stream. They drive the bear off. Their boats coast upon the surface of the sparkling water. Nets plumb the frigid depths, resurface filled with…
Bleier, Ronald, Ed. From Thomas Malthus, (1798) "Essay on the Principle of Population." The International Society of Thomas Malthus. http://www.igc.org/desip/malthus/
Pasachoff, Jay M. (2001) Astronomy: From the Earth to the Universe. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
Russell, Steven. (2001) "The Evolution of Gods." Your Own World USA. http://www.yowusa.com/index.html
Schaefer, Dr. Henry III. (Jan. 1994). "Stephen Hawking, The Big Bang, and God." The Real Issue. Leadership University. http://www.leaderu.com/real/ri9404/bigbang.html
The concepts of energy and matter are slightly more intuitively understood, but before reading the passage a class discussion that attempts to define tese terms would also be useful.
After reading the passage once, the question of what substances are elements could be put to the class. No doubt some substances such as water will be listed that are basic compounds, and not true elements. These answers can then be used to illustrate the interaction of atoms and elements to create other substances that are not pure elements. At the same time, this will help illustrate the way different elements can form different substances depending on atomic structure. This in turn leads into Fermi and the splitting of an atom.
When this portion is reached, students can be asked what the parts of an atom are. Students can also be asked to explain how magnets work; this discussion will take…
Management Strategy to Utilize Meta-Analysis Technique for Nuclear Energy and Waste Disposal and Create Social Sustainability
This research proposal explores the link between public perceptions of nuclear power, how those perceptions are formed, and what influence those opinions have on energy policy. These issues are important in light of two realities. First, nuclear energy is declining in its share of global energy. Second, nuclear energy offers what might well be the best solution to climate change. Given the threat posed by climate change, it makes sense that nuclear power would be increasing in share, not decreasing. This esearch proposal seeks to look at some of the issues facing nuclear power, and how it can overcome these issues to increase share going forward.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents v
List of Tables viii
List of Figures vii
Chapter One: Introduction 1
Topic Overview 7…
Abokeng, A.K. (2005). Understanding Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 90, 845-848.
Alic, J. (2012). Six things to do with nuclear waste: None of them ideal. Oil Price.com. Retrieved June 17, 2015 from http://oilprice.com/Alternative-Energy/Nuclear-Power/6-Things-to-do-with-Nuclear-Waste-None-of-them-Ideal.html
Alley, W. & Alley, R. (2013). Too hot to touch: The problem of high-level nuclear waste. Review by Konikow, L. (2013). Hydrogeology Journal.
Bangert-Drowns, Robert L. & Rudner, Lawrence M. (1991).Meta-analysis in educational research.Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 2(8). Retrieved September 4, 2008 from http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=2&n=8
Buckyballs can come in any sizes and other atoms can often get trapped inside them. Chemists at Yale University, in fact, managed to trap helium and neon inside buckyballs and it was the first time chemists ever observed helium and neon inside a compound of any kind (232). Buckyballs can be manufactured as well to fit a certain size requirement (232).
In Strong enough to stop a bullet, liquid crystals are the topic of discussion. They are in use everywhere in our daily life -- from color-changing pens, calculators, televisions, and bulletproof vests (238). Liquid crystals can make ultra strong synthetic fibers when the nematic molecules are lain parallel to one another. The best example of how this works is in the example Kevlar, a synthetic fiber used in the bulletproof vest (238). Kevlar is a synthetic polymer, like nylon or polyester and it gains strength by passing through a…
"Buckyballs" are the roundest and most symmetrical large molecule that is known. They are geodesic domes with the same essential symmetry -- C60 the third major form of pure carbon and graphite and diamond the other two. Buckyballs can come in any sizes and other atoms can often get trapped inside them. Chemists at Yale University, in fact, managed to trap helium and neon inside buckyballs and it was the first time chemists ever observed helium and neon inside a compound of any kind (232). Buckyballs can be manufactured as well to fit a certain size requirement (232).
In "Strong enough to stop a bullet," liquid crystals are the topic of discussion. They are in use everywhere in our daily life -- from color-changing pens, calculators, televisions, and bulletproof vests (238). Liquid crystals can make ultra strong synthetic fibers when the nematic molecules are lain parallel to one another. The best example of how this works is in the example Kevlar, a synthetic fiber used in the bulletproof vest (238). Kevlar is a synthetic polymer, like nylon or polyester and it gains strength by passing through a liquid crystal state when it is being manufactured (238).
In the "Chemistry in Action" about trans-forming fats, we learn that when oil is converted into a solid fat, some of the double bonds are converted to single bonds by adding hydrogen. This is the process known as hydrogenation and it is easier with cis double bonds and thus the remaining double bonds are chiefly in the trans configuration. Studies have shown that these trans fats because they are so unnatural can be very bad for our health and can lead to high cholesterol, heart disease, and diabetes (230). Because trans fats are now known to be detrimental to a person's health, manufacturers have been required since January 1, 2006 to label the trans fat content in food products (238).
The direct selling strategy will be a website that will include a product configuration application. A distribution partner portal will also be created which gives distributors and dealers the ability to customize the Liberta Ultralight in quantity for their customers as well. The use of channel strategies to actively promote the use of mass customization as a product differentiator will also be accomplished through intensive dealer and channel training (Swiercz, Lydon, 388). Finally the use of an integrated Partner Relationship Management (PRM) system that will give channel partners the flexibility to provide resellers with support on a 24/7 basis will also be created. The intent is to create enough support for channel strategies so they can produce up to 60 -- 70% of overall revenue for the product line.
There are many different aspects of promotion that need to be included in the launch of the Liberta Ultralight.…
Zuhair Al-Obaidi, and Mika Gabrielsson. "Sales Channel Strategies in Export Marketing of Small and Medium Sized High Tech Companies. " Journal of Euro - Marketing 12.2 (2002): 5.
Bernoff, J., and C. Li. "Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. " MIT Sloan Management Review 49.3 (2008): 36.
Doern, R.. "Investigating Barriers to SME Growth and Development in Transition Environments: A Critique and Suggestions for Developing the Methodology. " International Small Business Journal 27.3 (2009):
Cooke, M., and N. Buckley. "Web 2.0, social networks and the future of market research. " International Journal of Market Research 50.2 (2008): 267.
Mixture, Compounds, Covalent and Ionic Bonds
Describe difference a mixture a compound Suppose a pure substance. How a compound element? What difference ionic a covalent bond? Explain ionic compounds formed a metal left side periodic table reacts a nonmetal side.
Mixtures are composition of two or more substances which are not chemically combined and do not exist in fixed proportions to each other. For instance when you take two components, an iron and Sulphur powder, the two when mixed together can be separated by physical means since they are not chemically combined i.e. with the use, of a magnet. Mixtures have the following characteristics which differentiates it from compounds. They include; mixtures can be disintegrated by the use of a physical method, the substance which form the mixture normally retain their properties, mixtures do not have a sharp melting point, they also have no fixed composition, and lastly a mixture…
Myers, R.L. (2007). The 100 Most Important Chemical Compounds: A Reference Guide: Greenwood Press.
Pauling, L. (1988). General Chemistry: Dover Publications.
Zumdahl, S.S. (2007). Introductory Chemistry: Houghton Mifflin.
Zumdahl, S.S., & DeCoste, D.J. (2010). Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation: Brooks/Cole, CENGAGE Learning.
Radiation can be described as energy that is in the form of streams or waves of particles. Numerous types of radiation surround us. When most individuals hear the term radiation, the thing that comes to their mind is nuclear power, radioactivity, and atomic energy. Radiation, however, has several other forms. Visible light and sound are some familiar kinds of radiation. Other kinds of radiation include television and radio signals, infrared radiation (some type of heat energy), and ultraviolet radiation (responsible for suntans). The earth together with occupants are always subjected to radiation produced by the sun, stars as well as other galactic sources and from the radioactive substances found on the earth’s crust. Here on earth, being exposed to radiation is unavoidable as a result of the radioactive materials present in the air, water, and also within the body. Radiation cannot be seen, but it occurs in form if…
Beta particles are identical to electrons according to all measures that have been conducted in this regard, rendered distinct only by the fact that they are emitted from radioactive substances (Bodner, 2011). Other types of radiation also exist, but alpha and beta particles are the primary drivers of basic nuclear reactions (Bodner, 2011; Loveland et al., 2006). adioactive decay -- the result on the source substance of emitting of radioactive particles -- occurs at an exponentially decreasing rate over terms known as the "half life," which is the amount of time it takes for one-half of a quantity of a given radioactive element to transition to a lighter element through its loss of alpha particles (with incidental beta particle emission, as well, though this does not fundamentally change the element) (Carpi, 2003).
In a nuclear reaction such as the harnessed power of Uranium-235's radioactivity, neutrons are used to break apart…
Bodner. (2011). Nuclear chemistry. Accessed 16 December 2011. http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch23/history.php
Carpi, A. (2003). Nuclear Chemistry: An Introduction. In Visionlearning Vol. CHE-2 (3), Washington, DC: Dept. Of Education.
Duke. (2011). Nuclear chemistry. Accessed 16 December 2011. http://www.chem.duke.edu/~jds/cruise_chem/nuclear/nuclear.html#top
Loveland, W., Morrissey, D. Seaborg, G. (2006). Modern Nuclear Chemistry. New York: Wiley.
The above equation can also be utilized to calculate conduction loss from a human body to ambient air. For example, for a 1.5 tall man wearing dry, insulating clothing, the rate of conductive heat loss on a cold day (ambient temperature at 0oC, normal skin temperature at 37oC) can be calculated as 178W. For the same person wearing wet clothing, however, the equivalent rate is 2,565W. This significant difference in heat losses explains the onset of hypothermia when someone is exposed to ice-cold water or rain (Forinash, 2010). Conduction takes place on a microscopic level as particles of kinetic energy are transferred between two different systems (Abbott, et al., 2005). When atoms and/or molecules heat up, vibrate, or move rapidly, some of their energy gets transferred to other atoms and molecules that are in close proximity. In other words, heat is transferred to the surrounding particles and away from the…
Locke in his argument that God must be a thinking being starts off by outlining an idea that "all matter, every particle of matter, thinks" he explicitly puts it that "matter as matter is cognitive" Locke bases this argument in the assumption that not only does every particle thinks, but every particle is eternal and thinking in the manner that at least one of them has supposedly been proved to be" he adds ". . . then there would be as many eternal thinking beings as there are particles of matter, and so an in-nity of Gods." His writings point at the fact that every bit of matter is eternal and thinks. Moreover, the reasoning that there is a common source for all the thought in the universe is impossible since it has always been equally distributed all over the world. Locke contends that if this is the way…
Nuclear energy is an energy source that has zero emissions, propels our society into the future, and provides electricity around-the-clock. Nuclear energy comes from the splitting of atoms inside a reactor through a process known as fission to heat water into steam, turn a turbine, and generate electricity. Atoms are tiny particles that make up every object in the universe. These atoms have enormous energy in the bonds that hold them together. Nuclear fission will split the atoms into smaller atoms, in essence, releasing energy. Nuclear power plants make use of nuclear fission for the production of electricity. Nuclear energy is considered to be environmentally safe because it causes zero emissions and this is beneficial to the environment as it reduces the carbon footprint (Brook & Bradshaw, 2015). However, nuclear power plants do produce radioactive nuclear waste that must be stored safely to ensure there is no…
o Describe difference a mixture a compound o Suppose a pure substance. How a compound element? o What difference ionic a covalent bond? o Explain ionic compounds formed a metal left side periodic table reacts a nonmetal side.
An overview of mixtures, compounds, and the processes of identifying them
Describe the difference between a mixture and a compound
The standard definition of a mixture is a substance in which two or more separate components are mixed together, but no chemical reaction occurs. Also, there is no fixed ratio of substances necessary for the mixture to take place. In the case of a compound, the atoms of the different, separate component substances are bonded together, thus creating an entirely new substance. A fixed ratio is usually required for the chemical transformation to take place and the compound to result. A mixture can be easily separated into two component parts, a compound…
Activity of metals. (2011). Purdue University.
Retrieved February 3, 2011 at http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch9/activity.php
The covalent bond (2011). Purdue University.
Retrieved February 3, 2011 at http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch8/index.php
Stars are one of the important heavenly objects of our universe. The sun is our closest star and is responsible for the sustenance of all life on earth. Understanding the intricate chemical reactions that are happening in the star and identifying the composition of the stars has always been a fascinating study for astronomer's worldover. The sun our closest star has been the most studied object in the universe. Spectroscopy was one of the earliest available methods of studying heavenly bodies and has contributed immensely in the study and understanding of the composition of stars. Let us briefly analyze spectroscopy and touch upon the elemental analysis and chemical composition of stars.
Spectroscopy and Study of Stars
Every element in the universe emits its own light, which is characteristic of its chemical structure. Spectroscopy refers to the study of the spectral lines of the different atomic constituents. Spectrometer is an instrument,…
MARK S. GORDON, MICHAEL W. SCHMIDT, "RECENT ADVANCES IN QM AND QM/MM METHODS," Accessed on December 19th, 2003, http://www.msg.ameslab.gov/Advances/gamess_paper.march16.html
C.R Kitchin, "Optical Astronomical Spectroscopy," IOP publishing Ltd., 1995
I.S Glass, "Handbook of Infrared Astronomy," Cambridge University Press, 1999
or, to put it another way, "chemistry carried out with the primary object of investigating the workings of nature is what we now call physical chemistry" (Laidler, 5). This has made the distinction between physics and chemistry at this frontier very difficult to define. This fuzzy distinction is also one of the things that makes the discipline of physical chemistry so interesting -- it cannot deny the complete interweaving of scientific disciplines.
Physics and chemistry lay out the foundation and explain the mechanisms of all other sciences, and the field of physical chemistry is the closest unification of these two sciences. All biological and astronomical processes only occur because of reactions and interactions at the molecular and atomic level, and physical chemistry attempts to explain these underlying principles (Laidler, 9). Though the nature of energy and matter is still not fully understood, physical chemistry is approaching better and better explanations…
Laidler, Keith James. The World of Physical Chemistry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
MolData. "Physical Chemistry." Pomona University Official Website. Accessed 9 March 2009. http://pages.pomona.edu/~wes04747/PChem.htm
Science Daily. "Nanotube Structures Could Improve Electric Motors." March 10, 2009. Accessed 9 March 2009. http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2009/03/090310124855.htm
These cells have an enzyme on their surface that attracts fat. The number and distribution of adipose cells has a genetic component, and is usually determined in early childhood.
Describe the major metabolic diseases associated with lipid metabolism, transport and storage for humans?
Diseases associated with lipid metabolism, transport and storage included: high cholesterol, combined hyperlipidemia, familial hypercholesterolemia, high density lipoprotein, and hypertriglyceridemia,
How do unsaturated and saturated fatty acids differ from each other?
Saturated fats contain carbon atoms with a single bond between them and as many hydrogen atoms as possible bonded to the carbon atoms. Saturated fats contain carbon atoms with a double bond, and can therefore absorb more hydrogen atoms. Healthy diets are low in saturated fats, since they raise blood cholesterol levels.
What are the roles of Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) in humans?
There are two essential fatty acids: the omega-3 fatty acids and the moega-6…
No Author Given (2007). Intestinal Uptake of Lipids, retrieved 6/20/2007 at http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/lipoproteins.html.
No Author Give (2007) Enzymes and Digestion of Lipids, retrieved 6/20/2007 at http://www.afs.ttu.edu/home/swkim/ANSC3301/001/11%20Lipid-Dig-001.pdf
No Author Given (2007). Lipids - 1, retrieved 6/20/2007 at http://scidiv.bcc.ctc.edu/rkr/Biology130/lectures/pdfs/lipids130.pdf
Scientific Models and eligious Myths
Differences between scientific models and religious myths
There are several approaches toward s the creation issue, some of them are scientific and others are religious. All the approaches are postulates towards the search for the cradle of man. They may therefore be divided into scientific models and religious myths. Although people view these theories and models from different perspectives, they too have their similarities. Therefore this paper will contain an in depth study of the two different ideologies that is from the religious view on creation and the scientific view of creation. The types of theories that will be discussed here will be the big bang theory which will be a scientific view and the creation theory which is based from the religious point-of-view. An in depth look into the evolution theory will be looked at.
The scientific theory is based on scientific modeling of…
Alister, E. McGrath. (2010). "Science & Religion" 2nd Edition
Charles Darwin, (1859). On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life,," p. 162.
Eliade, Mircea, (1960), Myth and reality. New York: Harper & Row
Futuyma, Douglas J. (2005). Evolution,. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc.
Chemical Formula: C12H18Br6
Molecular eight: 641.70
3D Rendering using Chemitorium:
Functional Groups: bromo, cyclo
Shape and Geometric Features: The atom is always a 12-sided figure with six Br vertices. It takes the shape of an octagon that is connected to a hexagon on one side. In a three-dimensional rendering, the molecule takes on a more oval shape rather than the stricter appearance of the two-dimensional rendering.
Chiral Properties and Isomers:
Isomers are the addition or subtraction of electrons in the molecule. The below are the most common isomers of Hexabromocyclododecane. These are coded as alphahexabromocyclododecane, betabromocyclododecane, and gammabromocyclododecane. These indicate which portion of the Bromine in the molecule has been affected by the electron changes.
Chiral Diastereomers: -, ?-, and ?- HBCD
Chirality, by definition is a type of molecule that lacks an internal plane of symmetry. The chirality of Hexabromocyclododecane yields many pollutants which have an adverse…
Arnot, John. "An Evaluation of Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) for Persistent Organic
Pollutant (POP) Properties and the Potential for Adverse Effects in the Environment." European Brominated Flame Retardant Industry Panel (EBFRIP). 2009. Print.
"Chemical Book: Hexabromocyclododecane." Web. Apr. 30, 2011.
formed to what their value is as well as the characteristics of diamonds.
Diamonds are forever! They are the most beautiful, extraordinarily brilliant, hardest, and highly desired out of all the gems. The word "diamond" holds many different meanings for many different people. The meaning of the gem depends on the occasion or interest one holds in the gem. On wedding and engagement ceremonies, diamonds are given to the couple because for one's fiancee or wife, a diamond is symbolizes purity and commitment to never-ending love. We often hear the brand mantra of De Beers "A Diamond is Forever." For the Sports Fan, a diamond is the focus of American baseball; to the gambler or bridge addict, it signifies a suit of playing cards; to the rich and famous, the commodity represents wealth and status; to the monarchist, its beauty, rarity and durability symbolize royalty. However, the question we…
Anderson, B.W., Gem Testing. Heywood & co. Ltd., London
Kraus, E.H., Hunt, W.F., Ramsdell, L.S., Mineralogy - An Introduction to the Study of Minerals and Crystals, McGraw-Hill, New York - London
McCarthy, J. R, Fire in the Earth - The Story of the Diamond. Robert Hale Ltd., London.
Schumann, Walter, Gemstones of the World, Sterling Inc. N.Y
Linear sp Carbon Allotropes in Question
While modern day discoveries and characterizations of allotropes are reported, the definition of allotropy remains ambiguous as the question of what constitutes an allotrope is under debate. Lagow et al. reported the synthesis of a terminally capped linear acetylenic carbon with alternating single and triple binds, claiming it to be a stable sp carbon allotrope (1994), a subject of debate as the classification of acetylenic carbon as an allotrope continues to be determined, and the stability of such a compound is in question. The proposed structure and stability of a linear sp carbon of such a proposed length and with alternating single and triple bonds is disputed by Hirsch et al. Thus, the stability of long-chain carbon allotropes and the characterization of the linear sp carbon synthesized by Lagow et al., given its terminal end design, remains in question as to the…
Demishev, SV, Pronin, AA, Sluchanko, NE, Samarin, NA, Glushkov, VV, Lyapin, AG, Kondrin,
MV, Brazhkin, VV, Varfolomeeva, TD, Popova, SV, & H. Ohta. (2002). "New nanocluster carbyne-based material synthesized under high pressure." General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences. Russia: Moscow. Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 585-588. [Online]. Available at http://www.ioffe.rssi.ru/journals/ftt/2002/04/p585-588.pdf
Lagow, RJ, Kampa, JJ, Wei, HC, Battle, SL, Genge, JW, Laude, DA, Harper, CJ, Bau, R,
Stevens, RC, Haw, JF, & E. Munson. (20 Jan. 1995) "Synthesis of Linear Acetylenic Carbon: The 'sp' Carbon Allotrope." Science, New Series. Vol. 267, No. 5196, pp. 362-367.
Magnetic esonance Imaging
History of MI
The Magnetic esonance Imaging (MI) was first tested in Budapest Hungry in 1882. Later in 1937, Professor Isidor abi of Columbia University assembled a Nuclear Magnetic esonance. This tool was effective because it could absorb and emit radio waves after exposure to a strong magnetic field. Professor Carr Herman produced one-dimensional MI imaging processor in 1952. The nuclear powered NM was instrumental in experiments developed to detect the presence of tumors in normal cells. However, the technology was fully adopted in 1973 when Lauterbur Paul successfully produced the first NM image (Lauterbur, 1973). Previously, Damadian created the NM imaging machine in 1972, but not until 1973 did Lauterbur apply it for imaging. Following the success, Peter Mansfield developed an arithmetical methodology that was vital in integrating the concept to real-time problems.
Before the emergence of this concept, magnetic scans took hours to process. However,…
Cambridge University Press. (2007). RI from Picture to Proton. Cambridge: Cambridge
Joyce, A.K. (2008). Magnetic Appeal: MRI and the Myth of Transparency. New York: Cornell
Lauterbur, P. (1973). "Image Formation by Induced Local Interactions: Examples of Employing
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance." Retrieved February 19th, 2014 from http://dx.doi.org/10.1038%2F242190a0
tfinal - tinitial = 32.4oC - 25.5oC = 6.9oC
q = mc-t
= 100 grams X 4.184 JX 6.9oC
The enthalpy in the vessel that has not expanded is higher.
As such, the vessel that has not expanded has a higher temperature.
951.9= kJ/mole Chapter 4
=1039.9 kJ/mole Chapter 4
The potential energy for both Chapter 3 and H. is actually higher than Chapter 4 because of the fact that atoms in a chemical bond are more stable than individually separated atoms. The fact that there is a need to use energy to separate the two atoms in the bond adds to the potential energy of the second choice, the Chapter 3 molecule and a H. atom formed. If that bond would be converted, that energy needed to break the bond could actually then be used to do work.
The one with more kinetic energy is the…
The Greeks believe that the soul is an essential part of the body since it gives it life. The soul thinks, feels, and chooses[footnoteRef:1]. The interaction between the body and soul influences one another giving rise to the concept of dualism. They also view the soul as a simple form without any parts. Plato postulated that the soul is separated from the body and while the body degenerates, the soul leaves to form another life at death[footnoteRef:2]. Contrastingly, Aristotle considered the soul as a ‘form’ that cannot exist without the body. The following study explicates Aquinas’s views of the soul whilst appreciating the contribution given by Plato and Aristotle on the topic. [1: Terrance, W. Klein, The Nature of the Soul: The Soul as Narrative, Routledge, 2016: 4.] [2: Lean, Spruit, \"The Controversy over the Immortality of the Soul,\" Routledge Companion to Sixteenth Century Philosophy (2017): 225.]
Christian theology subscribes to the concept…
The energy it stores (?180 Wh kg?1) at an average voltage of 3.8 V is only a factor of 5 higher than that stored by the much older lead -- acid batteries. This may seem poor in the light of Moore's law in electronics (according to which memory capacity doubles every 18 months), but it still took a revolution in materials science to achieve it. Billions of lithium-ion cells are produced for portable electronics, but this is not sustainable as cobalt must be obtained from natural resources (it makes up 20 parts per million of Earth's crust). (Armand & Tarascon, 2008, p. 653).
Fu investigated the lithium-ion conductivities of glasses and glass-ceramics in the LI2O-AlO3-TiO2P2O5 system. Fu's samples revealed high conductivity, albeit when Abrahams and Hadzifejzovic similarly investigated the LI2O-AlO3-TiO2P2O5 glass and glass-ceramic systems, their findings revealed "a maximum room temperature conductivity of 3.98 x 10-6 S/cm in their crystallized…
Armand, M & Tarascon, J.M. (2008). Building better batteries. Nature. Volume 451. Retrieved
April 17, 2010 from http://www.uio.no/studier/emner/matnat/kjemi/MENA5020/h08/undervisningsmaterial
Battery power. (2010). Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC). Retrieved April 17. 2010 from http://www.rsc.org/Education/EiC/issues/2008Mar/BatteryPower.asp
Another lesson learned by the fusion research has been its impact on the development of future nuclear weapons vs. existing test ban treaties. It would be possible with successful nuclear fusion results to test weapons without an actual above or below ground explosion due to the nature of the science. The question is raised whether that would be a violation of the nuclear test ban treaties. Also, the potential power of these weapons is mind-boggling -- perhaps 100x existing nuclear weapons. They make the atomic and hydrogen bombs look like firecrackers in comparison.
The mere thought of pure fusion weapons has given pause for thought, and the development of even minor successes in this field cause lessons to be learned about the future control and management of fusion devices.
Most importantly, the fifty years of research into nuclear fusion have brought the world to the point of learning…
Brooks, M. (2009). 13 things that don't make sense: The most baffling scientific mysteries of our time. New York: Random House.
Buhl, G. (2005, November 8). Nuclear fusion. Retrieved November 12, 2009, from georgebuhl.com: http://www.georgebuhl.com/Assets/PDFs/Fusion.pdf
Doyle, J. (2009, April 1). Scientists take another stab at nuclear fusion. Retrieved November 11, 2009, from San Francisco Chronicle: http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2009/03/31/MN7M16QB7I.DTL
Kahney, L. (1999, December 12). A century of spectacular failure. Retrieved November 12, 2009, from wired.com: http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/1999/12/32916
Again, this is where a multi-national organization, like the UN, can help eliminate this bias to really determine if the practice is a human rights violation.
Human rights has been a concern for societies since ancient times. Today, although many strides have been made, there are still concerns about human rights violations. Thanks to advancements in communication technologies, now the plight of those suffering on the other side of the globe can be acknowledged by others, who in the past would not have known about it. Also, multi-national organizations, such as the UN, have made human rights a priority. Yet, this does not simply give a singular nation carte blanche to intervene when they believe a violation of human rights is occurring. This is due to both State sovereignty and cultural practices. A singular nation cannot make an unbiased decision on whether or not a practice is truly a…
Alley, L., Fairley, T., Cardinez, C., & Pordell, P. (2007) "Key cancer and public health concepts and definitions." In Global health care: Issues and policies. ed. Carol Herz. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Eliminating female genital mutilation. (2008). Retrieved November 3, 2009, from http://www.uneca.org/daweca/Documents/fgm_statement_2008.pdf .
Herz, J. "Rise and Demise of the Territorial State." World Politics 9.4. (Jul 1957): 473-493.
Human rights timeline: From antiquity to the Magna Carta. (No date). Retrieved November 3, 2009, from http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/humanrights/timeline/timeline1.cfm .
" At almost 4 minutes, the temperature has fallen to the point where sub-atomic particles become naturally attracted to each other and form certain kinds of isotopes. At almost an hour after the Big Bang, all nuclear material has bonded, yet the temperatures is "still too high for protons and electrons to bind together" to form atoms. From this point on to about 700,000 years later, the temperature has dropped sufficiently and allows electrons and protons to bind together to create atoms of hydrogen. Therefore, as free electrons "are bound up in atoms, the primary cross-section leading to the scattering of photons is removed" which allows the universe to alter from being opaque to transparent, thus allowing photons of light to travel freely in this newly-created universe ("The Hot Big Bang" 2007, Internet). At some unknown point in spatial time, the universe begins to cool even further, allowing gases like…
La Rocco, Chris and Blair Rothstein. 2007, "The Big Bang," Internet. Retrieved at http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/bigbang.htm .
Sullivan, William S. The Big Bang and Cosmology. New York: Scribner's, 2004.
The Hot Big Bang." 2007. Internet. Retrieved at http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr162 / lect/cosmology/hotbb.html.
Each cell inside a battery consists of a liquid, paste or solid "electrolyte," a "positive electrode," and a "negative electrode." The electrolyte is an ionic conductor; one of the electrodes reacts, producing electrons, while the other accepts electrons. When the electrodes are connected to a device to be powered (called a load) an electrical current flows. ("Battery," 2007)
As an example, in one cell of a lead-acid battery used in automobiles, the process producing the current takes place as follows:
One plate inside the cell is made of lead; the other plate is made of lead dioxide, and it contains a strong sulfuric acid electrolyte in which both plates are immersed.
Lead combines with SO4 to create lead sulfate (PbSO4) plus one electron.
Lead dioxide, hydrogen ions and SO4 ions, plus electrons from the lead plate, create PbSO4 and water on the lead dioxide plate.
As the battery discharges, both…
Battery." (2007). Article in Encyclopedia Encarta Online. Retrieved on April 3, 2007 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761577714/Battery.html
Brain, M. (2007). "How Batteries Work." How Stuff Works. Retrieved on April 3, 2007 at http://www.howstuffworks.com/battery.htm
How Do Batteries Work?" (n.d.) BBC Rough Science Library. Retrieved on April 3, 2007 at http://www.open2.net/science/roughscience/library/batteries.htm
Epicurus' philosophy is a profound testimony of how science and rational observation can provide a moral guide for humanity. For example, the fact that everything is made up of the same basic matter acts as a reminder that it is necessary to treat the environment with respect, as both human beings and the world are made up of the same basic atomic essence, and their material essence obeys the same properties. People might object that it is easy to use Epicurean philosophy to justify living for pleasure. But Epicurus actually obeyed a moderate diet and lifestyle. Yes, technically one is morally free under Epicurean philosophy to seek pleasure by sitting in bed all day, drinking beer and eating doughnuts. But really, Epicurus would note, that goes completely against his philosophy of true happiness as tranquility and simplicity. hat will make you truly happy? Going to class, learning about the world,…
Epicurus. "Principle Doctrines." [11 Feb 2007]. http://www.epicurus.net/en/principal.html
The Life of Epicurus." Epicurean History. [11 Feb 2007]. http://www.epicurus.net/en/history.html#a
O'Keefe, Tim. "Epicurus." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2006. [11 Feb
In 1896, French physicist, Henry Becquerel discovered the natural radioactive decay of uranium, opening new vistas in science (Time pp). Roughly a decade later, in 1905, British physicist Lord Rutherford, "after defining the structure of the atom," first suggested the use of radioactivity as a tool for measuring geologic time (Time pp). Then, in 1907, radiochemist B.B. Boltwood, a professor at Yale University, published a list of geologic ages based on radioactivity, and although his "ages" have since been revised, they do show correctly that the duration of geologic time "would be measured in terms of hundreds-to-thousands of millions of years" (Time pp). The next forty years saw a great deal of research concerning the nature and behavior of atoms, thus, leading to the development of nuclear fission and fusion as energy sources, however, a byproduct of this research has been the development and the on-going refinement of…
Radiometric Time Scale
Symbols, the Mind, and the Animal State
In Chapter 7 of Maps of Time, David Christian (2011) discusses how human language is built not only of "icons" and "indices," which are types of recognition, correlation, and communication that many organisms from bacteria to dogs can use, but primarily of symbols -- a more complex and higher-order level of communication (p. 172). This is only part of a larger discussion on the development of human history, however it is worthy of consideration simply as its own advancement and unique feature. An understanding of how language is a definitive feature of humanity, and of the implications of a division between man and nature, creates valuable insights for understanding human development.
As explained by Christian (2011), certain associations can be made by many organisms between similar or concurrent experiences in a way that might appear to be symbolic learning or communication,…
Christian, D. (2011). Maps of Time. Berkley: University of California Press.
Emmerich, R. (2004). The Day After Tomorrow. Twentieth Century Fox Films.
Levi, P. (1975). Carbon. Accessed 4 March 2012. www.pems.adfa.edu.au/~s9471553/level1/Teaching/Health02/CarbonStory.pdf
Fuel Cells in Green Engineering
The energy tomorrow is beginning to be available today. Fuel cells, which just a very few years ago were a pipe dream, are becoming g a reality, and they are used in areas ranging from space exploration to toy motivation (Joy). The promise of the fuel cell can be seen in the fact that they use the most abundant source of energy on the planet, Hydrogen atoms (Birch). They are also being seen as the energy savior because they emit a common, non-toxic waste which can also be utilized as a saving grace around the globe, water (Joy; Patturaja). A fuel that uses the most abundant element on the planet and emits clean, pure water does seem like science fiction, but there are already being used with it as a motive force.
The space shuttle has always been powered by hydrogen fuel cells (Joy). Although…
Birch, Amanda Sue. "Microbial Fuel Cells: Converting Waste to Water and Watts." Engineering and Technology for a Sustainable World. (2010). Print.
Fields, Scott. "Making the Best of Biomass: Hydrogen for Fuel Cells." Environmental Health Perspectives. (2003). Print.
Joy, Linda E. "A Basic Overview of Fuel Cell Technology." Automotive Community. (2007). Web.
Khan, Abdul Majeed. "Electricity Generation by Microbial Fuel Cells." Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences. (2009). Web.
What if Ice did not Float?
This is an interesting question that confounded people for many years. In letters between correspondents in different regions of Arabia, the question was bandied, and answered. The thought was that when water froze in a container that it did contract. Thus the void where the water had been formed a vacuum and the heavier air in the outside of the flask caused the water container to implode because of the vacuum that was formed. However, one of the correspondents, the one writing the original query to a more learned colleague, found that the flasks broke out, not in as was indicated in the original explanation. The more experienced of the two did have an explanation of this,
But it is more metaphysical than scientific. He said frozen water creates a space between itself and the container, and that this space desires to be…
Lansing State Journal. (1998). Why does ice float? Retrieved November 13, 2010 from http://www.pa.msu.edu/sciencet/ask_st/040898.html
Muzaffar, I. (2009). Why does ice float on the surface of water? Islam & Science, 19(1).
University of Ohio. (2008). Why does ice float? Retrieved November 13, 2010 from http://www.units.muohio.edu/dragonfly/snow/icefloat.shtml
Robotics: How Close Are e to Creating a Bionic Man?
hile the creation of a 'bionic man' similar to the Six Million Dollar Man of the 70s television series or the gun-slinging robot of estworld may still be the realm of popular sci-fi, technology has developed to a stage where we are closer to such a possibility than ever before. Some of these technologies include robotics, the development of organic polymers that could be used as artificial muscles, nano-technology, and artificial intelligence (AI). In this paper we will review the latest developments in the relevant technologies to find how close we are to developing a 'bionic man.'
Apart from the availability of the required technology, one of the factors that would eventually determine if (or how soon) we are able to develop a bionic man is -- the urgency or need for such a development. This is because technology does…
Barnes, Peter. "Bionic Limbs for Amputees." September 23, 2002. Tech TV Website. October 1, 2002. http://www.techtv.com/news/scitech/story/0,24195,3400267,00.html
Battles without Troops." Article in Newsweek International: Special Issue. December 2001-February 2002. pp. 38-40
Bekey, George A. "Robot." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2002.
McCarthy, John. "What Is Artificial Intelligence?" Stanford University: Computer Science Department Website. July 20, 2002. October 1, 2002. http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/whatisai/whatisai.html
built between the U.S.S.. And China following World War Two. The writer focuses on the issue of Nuclear technology and the tensions between the two because of it. Stalin, Mao and broken promises are examined and put together in a story of history. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.
Currently the world is focused on disarming itself from a nuclear standpoint. America has invaded Iraq on the pretext of forcing the nation to stop nuclear technological advancement and while this is going on North Korea is gearing up its formerly defunct nuclear program. It seems that the world is working to reverse a technology that for many years was the race of success. Two of the largest areas in the world spent years competing with each other for power, and they believed that power was going to be found in nuclear technology. China and the former USS…
Mao Zedong. The Writings of Mao Zedong, 1949-1976. Sharpe, 1986-. Multivolume work.
Stefoff, Rebecca. Mao Zedong. Millbrook, 1996.
Author not available, ASIA/PACIFIC: The atom bomb, Mao Zedong once said, is a "paper tiger": though., Time International, 08-26-1991, pp 26.
Bates Gill and James Mulvenon - The Chinese Strategic Rocket Forces: Transition to Credible Deterrence
Polymer Analysis (Kevlar)
Brief History of Kevlar Development
In response to innovations in military armaments, the search for improved body armor for military and law enforcement personnel has been the focus of intense research for several decades. One of the resulting products of this research, Kevlar, is the closest humans have come to matching the tensile strength of spider silk is five times stronger per weight than steel and is best known for its use in bulletproof vests (Ehrenfeld, 2000). Kevlar shares something in common with matches, COBOL, antifungal antibiotics, pulsars, vitamin A, Cepheid variable stars, radium, and mobile genes, in that all of these were discovered or invented by women (Brownlow, Jacobi & ogers, 2000). Kevlar was developed at DuPont by a team comprised of Stephanie Kwolek, Herbert Blades, and Paul W. Morgan. In 1978, Kwolek also produced from aramids the first polymeric liquid crystals (Stevens & Kauffman, 2004).…
Aftalion, F. (1991). A history of the international chemical industry. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Brandenburg, D.L., Merlo, J.L., Wickens, C.D. & Yeh, M. (2003). Head up vs. head down: The costs of imprecision, unreliability, and visual clutter on cue effectiveness for display signaling. Human Factors, 45(3), 390.
Brownlow, S., Jacobi, T. & Rogers, M. (2000). Science anxiety as a function of gender and experience. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 119.
Challenges and Emerging Issues. (2001, October). Occupational Hazards, 63(10), 27.