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Through the Aborigines' ritual, "bora," Wright attempts to describe in detail this tradition in the poem through imagery, while, at the same time, citing its death through the use of symbolism. Subsisting to the main theme of 'cultural death,' "Bora ring" uses implied meaning in each line of them. Examples of these are the use of "the dance is secret" and "the tribal story lost in an alien tale," lines in the poem that signify cultural death, the dissolution of the ritual in the midst of new influences from foreign settlers and/or modernization. Stanza three is illustrated as the most effective stanza in the poem: Wright's description of the Aborigines' loss from foreign influence is powerfully expressed as follows: "[t]he hunter is gone: the spear is splintered underground..." Cultural death is not the only tragedy that happens among the Aborigines, but also physical death (this may be construed as genocide),…
The two part series The Secret River, is based on Kate Grenvilles book of the same name. The series is about the colonisation of Australia through the story of Will and Sal Thornhill, who 'takes up land' on the Hawkesbury River. Will is a convict, his character may be seen as akin to many poor Dickensian characters. Once freed in Australia he has an opportunity to start a new life, which he wants to do on a point of land along the Hawksbury River. It is here the main issue of the book manifests; the cultural differences between the white settlers and the Aboriginal people, who have very different perspectives on the issue of land ownership. The story is of the bloody and brutal settlement of the area, with characters such as Smasher Sullivan, Saggity Birtles, and Ned's perceiving the Aboriginal people as nothing but uncivilised savages, who…
Aboriginals and Social Work
This course provided a very broad perspective of the impact Western and European cultures have an aboriginal culture. It showed how devastating these influences have been to native aboriginal cultures, generally serving to suppress them and change the shape of aboriginal culture, in some cases smothering aboriginal cultures completely. The overall impact this course had on me was allowing me to comprehend this impact on aboriginal societies and see that the Western or European way is not always the best way. This course helped provide a general framework for understanding the difficulties and challenges faced by aboriginal youths and adults. It also showed that social work must be adapted significantly to take into consideration one's cultural background because this can dramatically shape the framework of social work. If one uses a Western or European model on aboriginals, they may find themselves misaligning the model for support…
Absolon, K. (2011). Kaandossiwin: How we come to know. Fernwood Publishing.
Chisholm, R. (1985), 'Destined children: Aboriginal child welfare in Australia: directions of change in law and policy', Aboriginal Law Bulletin, Vol.14
Ross, MG. (1986). Australian Aboriginal oral traditions. Oral Tradition, 1(2): 231-71.
Sinclair, R. (2007). Identity lost and found: Lessons from the sixties scoop. First Peoples Child & Family Review, 3(1): pp.65-82.
Although there has been some movement away from the legalistic mode of child protection favored in the 1980s and 1990s, there is still a focus on forensic investigation of child abuse, which does not allow for sufficient between high risk families and low risk families, decreasing the chances that truly at risk children will receive protection, as well as increasing the risk of intervention in functioning families. Currently, Australia is taking a public health approach to child protective services. "In most states child protection services are part of a broader department of human services" (Lamont & Bromfield, 2010).
The dramatic increase in services to children in danger has come with a very high price tag. "Nationally, approximately $2.8 billion was spent on child protection and out-of-home care services in 2010-11, which was an increase of $137.7 million from 2009-10. Of this expenditure, out-of-home care services accounted for the majority (64.9%…
Bromfield, L. & Holzer, P. (2008). A national approach for child protection: Project report.
Retrieved March 26, 2013 from New South Wales Government website: http://www.community.nsw.gov.au/docswr/_assets/main/documents/childprotection_report.pdf
Bromfield, L., Holzer, P., Lamont, A., Kovaks, K., Richardson, N., & Scott, D. (2013). How
much does Australia spend on child protection? Retrieved March 27, 2013 from Australian Institute of Family Studies website: http://www.aifs.gov.au/cfca/pubs/factsheets/a142118/index.html
The idea of poverty and hunger in Australia is quite a contentious issue. There is no doubt that there is hunger -- most in Aboriginal communities. However, Australian politicians argue that relative measures of wealth and poverty are meaningless and hide the abject conditions of many Australians. Statistics also show that 13% of Australians live in poverty, 3% of Australia's children. It is not so much that the poor as a class is growing, but rather than becoming poorer in absolute terms and really becoming more numerous (Cenus of Population and Housing Characteristics, 2002). In fact, the 2007 UNICEFF report on child poverty found that Australia had the 14th highest rate of child poverty and hunger (An Overview of Child Well-Being in ich Countries, 2007).
ecommendations -- Clearly, the situation in Australia, much like Europe and the United States, is not one of availability of food, but of distribution and…
An Overview of Child Well-Being in Rich Countries. (2007, January). Retrieved August 2010, from Unicef-irc.org: www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/rc7_eng.pdf
Australia's Public Health Infrastructure. (2010, January). Retrieved August 2010, from Vic.Gov.au: http://www.dhs.vic.gov.au/nphp/publications/broch/sectn003.htm
Campbell, C. (2007). Children At Risk. Childhood Education, 83(3), 189+.
Census of Population and Housing Characteristics. (2002, June 17). Retrieved August 2010, from Australian Bureau of Statistics: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/[email protected]/ProductsbyTopic/1EA78AFE3DE2EDCACA256BDA0073EB53?OpenDocument
Health of Indigenous Australian Using Ecological and Holistic Health Paradigm
Patterns of health and illness
Impact of Broader Environments
Health is a basic component of human life that comprises of multiple facets. The description of health has witnessed dramatic change during past few years, as it has become a holistic phenomenon. Previously, it was considered that a healthy person is the one who does not suffer from any ailment or illness. However in recent times, the physical, psychological and communal aspects of human life have been amalgamated to give a broader perspective to human health which is identical to the concept of indigenous communities (Hjelm, 2010).
Numerous organizations are working extensively for providing adequate health care to the world population since many decades. However, it is appalling to notice that discrimination on social, economic and…
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2012, Australia's health 2012, AIHW, Australia.
Biddle, N & Yap, M 2010, Demographic and Socioeconomic Outcomes Across the Indigenous Australian Lifecourse: Evidence from the 2006 Census, ANU E. Press, Australia.
Caltabiano, ML & Ricciardelli, L 2012, Applied Topics in Health Psychology, John Wiley & Sons, Great Britain.
Carson, B, Dunbar, T & Chenhall, RD 2007, Social Determinants of Indigenous Health, Allen & Unwin, Singapore.
Art, ritual, and religion are inseparable in the aboriginal societies of Oceania. Aboriginal myths of creation and the Dreamtime are rendered in art and permeate the various types of art found throughout indigenous Australia from bark and rock paintings to the modern renditions on canvas. Similarly, the art of Pacific Islands before 1980 is inseparable from their cultural contexts. The concept of art is different in the Pacific Islands than it is for the Europeans who colonized the region. Therefore, it is important to understand both aboriginal and Pacific Island art within their own historical, cultural, and social worldview. Art was functional, symbolic, and sacred, and was tacitly decorative.
The aboriginal Australians have populated their lands for 50,000 years, and during that time developed highly sophisticated cosmologies comprising "what anthropologists say is the world's longest enduring religion," (Kiger, n.d.). Although there is a considerable amount of diversity in the exact…
Many claim Islam increases their sense of worth. Islam particularly appeals to disaffected young men. Solomon, 23-years-old, participated in a television interview. "It's not a part of our religion to stand there and get stepped on," Solomon said. "That's why Islam is so good for the Aboriginal people." (Australian Aborigines...)
Europeans prefer the name "Koori" for Aborigine, even though they named the native Australians "Aborigine." Aborigine, however, means "from the beginning." Aborigines "taught their children dances, songs, and stories for both sacred and non-sacred rituals that taught them traditions and history of the past, present and future." (Australian Aborigines...) Along with plants, animals, other natural objects, man categorized himself with his totem. Aborigines focused on and blamed the supernatural for every scenario. Some individuals believed a victim of a spell would usually sicken and die, because they believed it would happen. At one time in the Aborigines' religion, the "medicine…
AIPR Fact sheet: Psychic and Mystical Experiences of the Aborigines. (2002). 07 December 2006. http://www.aiprinc.org/aborig.asp.
Australian Aborigines Dreamers. (2002). 7 December 2006. http://www.religionportal.com/ReligionFinder/religions/australiaaborigines.htm.
Australian Aboriginal Religion." (2006). 7 December 2006. http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/westoc/abor.html.
OZ CITY AUSTRALIA - Australian Aborigines. (2001). 07 December 2006. http://ozcity.faithweb.com/aborigines.html .
Australia, indigenous people recognize themselves as belonging to Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander or by descent, and also identified as the same by the society. A resistance has been observed in them to access hospitals for healthcare. Therefore, healthcare professionals need to plan, implement and maintain appropriate policies for their treatment. Also, cross-cultural awareness training should be given to paediatric hospital staff. (Munns & Shields, 2013, p. 22)
How would you support ianna and her family in this situation?
The poor health status of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians is well documented, and has been the subject of official policy and program attention for many years. The mainstream health system has responded to increased funding and clear portfolio responsibility, with increasing attention to the burden of illness that Aboriginal people experience and the need for effective health care (Dwyer et al., 2014). I would thus make arrangement for proper…
Ansuya. (2012). Transcultural Nursing: Cultural Competence in Nurses. International Journal of Nursing Education, Volume 4(1), pp. 5-7.
Durey, A, Wynaden, D, Thompson, SC, Davidson, PM, Bessarab, D & Katzenellenbogen, JM. (2012). Owning Solutions: A Collaborative Model to Improve Quality in Hospital Care for Aboriginal Australians. Nursing Inquiry, Volume 19(2), pp. 144-152.
Dwyer, J, Willis, E & Kelly, J. (2014). Hospitals Caring for Rural Aboriginal Patients: Holding Response and Denial. Australian Health Review, Volume 38(5), pp. 546-551.
Kelly, J & Willis, E. (2014). Travelling to the City for Hospital Care: Access Factors in Country Aboriginal Patient Journeys. Australian Journal of Rural Health, Volume 22(3), pp. 109-113.
Critical Thinking and Analysis
Developing critical thinking skills and using those skills to analyze the nursing practices, guidelines and standards provides the individual with the ability and capabilities to advance in a nursing career, helps the individual to assist others in achieving their goals and objectives, and assists the individual in the quest to become a more effective and efficient nurses. One recent study determined that nurses can also benefit from enhanced critical thinking skills "by describing the mental processes, or vigilance, nurses use to differentiate the significant from the non-significant observations made with regard to patients" (Robert, Petersen, 2013, p. 86). If that is true then critical thinking skills can be quite important to the nurse who is seeking to develop a relationship with his or her patients that provides for the optimum recovery through comprehensive observation.
A nurse who understands that thinking through what he or she is…
Bozorgmehr, K.; Bruchhausen, W.; Hein, W.; Knipper, M.; Korte, R.; Razum, O.; Tinnemann, P.; (2014) The global health concept of the German government: strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities, Global Health Action, Vol. 7, pp. 1-4
Christou, A. & Thompson, S.C.; (2013) Missed opportunities in educating Aboriginal Australians about bowel cancer screening: Whose job is it anyway? Contemporary Nurse: A Journal for the Australian Nursing Profession, Vol. 46, Issue 1, pp. 59-69
Garrity, M.K.; (2013) Developing nursing leadership skills through reflective journaling: a nursing professor's personal reflection, Reflective Practice, Vol. 14, Issue 1, pp. 118-130
German, M.; (2013) Developing our cultural strengths: Using the 'Tree of Life' strength-based narrative therapy intervention in schools, to enhance self-esteem, cultural understanding and to challenge racism, Educational & Child Psychology, Vol. 30, Issue 4, pp. 75-99
IS A PARTICULAR TYPE OF KNOLEDGE PRIVILEGED IN AUSTRALIAN SOCIETY?
The Australian society is very complex and it is important for a person to look at it from a series of perspective in order to gain a better understanding of why it promotes particular attitudes. Many Australians are likely to put across feelings related to relaxation, even in the face of danger, and this is why the community has experienced success throughout history. In spite of this relaxation, Australia promotes values related to hard-working and determination, as it is generally focused on encouraging forward-moving attitudes, regardless of the situation. hile it would seem that such thinking is unlikely to cause any damage, the truth is that it tends to bring on ignorance at times as society only focuses on assisting particular groups. Australia's cultural diversity plays an important role in generating information concerning knowledge-related matters.
Knowledge as seen from an…
Armitage, Andrew, "Comparing the Policy of Aboriginal Assimilation: Australia, Canada, and New Zealand," (UBC Press, 01.01.2011)
Garas, Dimitri, and Godinho, Sally, "Configuring of Masculinity in an Ethnocentric Community School," Retrieved February 19, 2013, from the Australia ECU University Website: http://ro.ecu.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1417&context=ajte
Harrington, Marilyn, "Australian Government funding for schools explained," Retrieved February 19, 2013, from the Parliament of Australia Website: http://aphnew.aph.gov.au/binaries/library/pubs/bn/sp/schoolsfunding.pdf
Reld, Ian, "WHAT IS NEEDED TO MAKE AUSTRALIA A KNOWLEDGE-DRIVEN AND LEARNING-DRIVEN SOCIETY?," Retrieved February 22, 2013, from the Business/Higher Education Round Table Website: http://www.bhert.com/publications/position-papers/B-HERTPositionPaper05.pdf
Indigenous Australians and Diabetes
In Adelaide the first case of diabetes in Indigenous people was noted in 1923. The records clearly show that Indigenous people didn't diagnose diabetes at the time as they were fit, lean and in good shape. Apart from that, they didn't have any metabolic ailment at the time. Till the 1960's, the estimates of diabetes in Indigenous people weren't taken and no investigation done until then. Then a connection was found between indigenous population and westernized living in the population as type-2 diabetes was slowly starting to materialize. Since then, type 2 diabetes has been deemed as the most worrying health problems in Australia as the probability of it being in the population is four times (Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet, 2007a).
Diabetes and the afflicted person
Diabetes can affect a person in many ways as shown below:
Physically (Shaw, 2012)
Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2006) The health and welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples 2006. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and the Australian Bureau of Statistics.
Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet (2007a) Review of diabetes among Indigenous peoples. Retrieved June 7, 2014 from
For this purpose it has set-up National Anti-acism Partnership and Strategy (Stone, 2008). This strategy will be making alliance with various departments like Department of Immigration and Citizenship, the Australian human rights commission and the ace Discrimination Commissioner, Australian multicultural advisory council etc.
Multicultural Arts and Festivals Grants: In response to multicultural Australian society, Australian government to take care of all its citizens have decided to execute Diversity and social Cohesion Programs from multicultural arts and festivals small grants. This provides a platform for all Australians to learn about each other's cultures and traditions.
Multicultural Youth Sports Partnership Program: For the purpose of creating network and connection between the youth from diverse cultural backgrounds, Australian government has taken a step in establishing Multicultural Youth Sports Partnership Programs. Australian Sports Commission (ASC) will be managing this program (Howard, 2005).
Australia with its cultural mix has adopted Multicultural Policy with the…
Howard, Cosmo (2005). The Policy Cycle: a Model of Post-Machiavellian Policy Making? the
Australian Journal of Public Administration.
Kellow, Aynsley (Summer 1988). Promoting Elegance in Policy Theory: Simplifying Lowi's
Arenas of Power. Policy Studies Journal 16: 713 -- 724. doi:10.1111/j.1541-0072.1988.tb00680.x.
Diabetes in Australia
The Australian government and the relevant Health agencies have for many years strived to put the diabetes menace under close observation and management. There have been massive researches and huge sums directed towards good management and possible elimination of diabetes at the national levels. This commitment is exhibited by the specialized funds and efforts like the Juvenile Diabetes esearch Fund (JDF) that has been committed to striving to mitigate the effects of diabetes from the render age of the Australians.
Since diabetes is such a big challenge to Australia as a whole, diabetes mellitus was declared a National Health Priority Area in 1996 during the Australian Health Minister's Conference and this was as recognition to the high levels of diabetes prevalence within Australia, the mortality rates that were due to it, the impact it had on morbidity and the possibility of the health improvements that can be…
American Diabetes Association, (2013). Kidney Disease (Nephropathy). Retrieved May 13, 2013 from http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/complications/kidney-disease-nephropathy.html
Australian Government, Department of Health and Ageing, (2012). Diabetes. Retrieved May 13, 2013 from http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/pq-diabetes
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, (2011). Diabetes Prevalence in Australia Detailed estimates for 2007 -- 08. Retrieved May 13, 2013 from http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=10737419307
Baker IDI, Heart & Diabetes Institute (2013). Diabetes: The Silent Pandemic and its Impact on Australia. Retrieved May 13, 2013 from http://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/Documents/DA/What%27s%20New/12.03.14%20Diabetes%20management%20booklet%20FINAL.pdf
Aboriginal people are the Indians who live in Canada. Over the years, they have been characterized by poor living conditions, low social status, poverty, discrimination, and social injustices. Government organizations should be on the front ensuring proper treatment and social justice for the Aboriginal people. ed Cross is an example of non-profit organization, which seeks to improve the status of the Aboriginal people, regardless of their social status and with equal treatment to all, as discussed in the paper.
Non-profit organization aims at providing services to the public, while profit organizations aim at profit maximization. Public interest comes first, for the non-profit organization, rather than their interests. The ed Cross is recognized as the non-profit organization, and it is chartered by the U.S. congress. It provides services worldwide, and the general population during times of disaster and the workforce is predominantly volunteers.
ed Cross society
Nonprofit organizations have to be…
Journal of Education Controversy:. (1997). The Give Away Spirit.
Australia, N.L. (1992). Australian Public Affairs Information Service. Australia: National Library of Australia.
Ciconte, B.J. (2011). Fundraising Basics: A Complete Guide. Atlanta: Jonnes and Bartlett Learning.
Crooks, C.T. (2007). Engaging and Empowering Aboriginal Youth. Chicago: Trafford Publishing.
In order to assess Yvonne and her symptoms, the nurse practitioner must show patience and understanding. In the treatment of the symptoms, whether to relieve the fevers or perform scans and tests to find the source of the abdominal pain, the nurse practitioner must give Yvonne and her relatives significant input into the management of the illness. Optimal outcomes can be achieved by providing information to the patient that decreases fear, timely involvement of the doctor in the administration of pain medications and emotional support (McGrath, P. 2006).
eflective practices can have considerable effectiveness in the care of Yvonne. In a paper discussing the benefits of reflective care, Ben Hannigan (2001) argues that reliance on practical knowledge alone is insufficient to solving medical problems as they are rarely abstract in nature. eflection by the nurse practitioner embeds the medical problem into the social context and allows the practitioner to engage…
1. Mununggirritj, D. Yolngu Healer's Medicine: Plants used by the women healers of North-East Arnhem Land. [Online] Available at: http://www.atec.net.au/djapirri_muunggirritj_atec_h_w_presentation.pdf [Accessed 3 September 2011].
2. McGrath P., 2006. 'The biggest worry..': research findings on pain management for Aboriginal peoples in Northern Territory, Australia. Rural Remote Health 6(3), p.549
3. Aboriginal Resource and Development Services (ARDS) [Online] Available at: http://www.ards.com.au/default.html . [Accessed 3 September 2011].
4. Cass A, Lowell A, Christie M, Snelling PL, Flack M, Marmganyin B, Brown I., 2002. Sharing the true stories: improving communication between Aboriginal patients and healthcare workers. Mad J. Aust 176(10), pp.466-70
rights of Aborigines in Australia
The country I chose to deconstruct for this particular assignment is Australia. The two chief cultures that inhabit Australia are the Anglo-Led Westernized one, and that of the indigenous Aboriginal people who occupied the land before the former -- despite the fact that the former had no compunction about displacing the latter from it. In terms of human rights, such rights should ideally apply to each of these cultures equally. However, the cultural differences between these two groups have resulted in a situation in which the ethical norms and codes of conducts of the Westerners (Anglos) are much more aligned with the principles of the Universal code of Human rights. In fact, it was not until relatively recently (near the turn of the 20th century, if not after that) that Westerners formally acknowledged the Aboriginal natives in Australia as people. Thus, the human rights which…
Nickel, J. (2012). Human rights. In E.N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Summer 2013 ed.). Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2013/entries/rights-human/
United Nations. (n.d-b). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Retrieved November 19, 2013, from http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/
Furthermore, under most circumstances, these variations in Muslim belief do not have a negative impact on how Muslims interact; instead, they manage to live peacefully side-by-side in most settings. This may have to do with the idea that all Muslims believe that the Quran (Qur'an, Koran) is the holy text for Muslims. They believe that the Quran reflects the word of God. "For Muslims, the text of the Koran is entirely the work and word of God. It is possible for a Muslim to hold that the Koran uses symbolic language and is describing the essence of things, not their technical form, but it is difficult to hold that the Koran reflects the views of our more distant ancestors" (Sedgewick 2006, p. 40).
Mohammed plays a central role in Islam. He is the most important prophet and many facets of modern day Islam are based, not simply on the Quran,…
Hassan, R 2008, Exploring Islamic consciousness, Inside Muslim minds, Melbourne University
Press, Carlton, Vic, pp. 24-61.
Jupp, J 2009, Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islanders in the Encyclopedia of religion in Australia, Cambridge University Press, Port Melbourne, pp.69-118.
McBrien, R 1982, the nature and use of power in the church, Proceedings of the annual convention, 37, CTSA Editorial Offices, Yonkers, NY, pp.38-49.
Pearl Mary (Gambanyi) Gibbs (1901-1983) was one of the major political activists supporting Aboriginal rights in Australia from the 1920s all the way to the 1970s. The highlights of her work include organizing the key -- pickers strike in 1933, being involved in organizing the Day of Mourning in 1938, speaking for the Committee for Aboriginal Citizen ights, calling for Aboriginal representation on the New South Wales board, being the organizing secretary for the new Melbourne-based Council for Aboriginal ights, establishing the Australian Aboriginal Fellowship in 1956, being the first and only female member of the NSW Aboriginal Welfare Board in 1954, and establishing the Australian Aboriginal Fellowship in 1956 (Gilbert, 1983; Goodall, 1983; Goodall, 1988; Horner, 1983). This list of accomplishments is just a scratch on the surface of the life of this amazing political activist and leader. Her activism for the rights of Indigenous peoples was…
Attwood, B. (2003). Rights for Aborigines. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
Attwood, B. & Magowan, F. (2001).Telling stories: Indigenous history and memory in Australia and New Zealand. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
Celermajer, D. (April 22, 2005). The stolen generation: Aboriginal children In Australia human rights dialogue: "Cultural rights." In Carnegie Council for Ethics and International Affairs. Retrieved November 3, 2012, from http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/publications/archive/dialogue/2_12/section_1/514
Commonwealth of Australia (2012). Recognising Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Constitution: Report of the Expert Panel. Retrieved November 3, 2012 from http://www.youmeunity.org.au/uploads/assets/html-report/index.html.
However, it is not culturally sensitive and says nothing about the desire to work with in cultural norms and traditions.
This article does not attempt to portray the aboriginal people in any particular way. It attempts to remain neutral in its portrayal of the Torres Strait Islanders. This article recognizes that Islanders in rural areas have different needs than those living in urban areas. The government will provide funding for implementing this plan. It is an excellent plan, but could be made better by the inclusion of cultural sensitivity within the programs that it outlines. The plan promises to give aboriginals better access to public programs. This suggests that access is inadequate at the current time.
acisimnoway (2008). Australian Communities: Torres Strait Islander People. etrieved February 28, 2008 at http://www.racismnoway.com.au/classroom/factsheets/53.html.
This article explains the language and cultural traits of the Islander, both on and off the island. It…
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2006). The 2004-05 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (NATSIHS). Retrieved February 27, 2008 at http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS//PrimaryMainFeatures/4715.0?OpenDocument .
Ban, P., Mam, S., Elu, M., Trevallion, I. & Reid, a. (1993). Torres Strait Islander family life. Family Matters. No.35 August 1993, pp.16-21. Retrieved February 28, 2008 at http://www.aifs.gov.au/institute/pubs/fm1/fm35pb.html .
Batrouney, T. & Soriano, G. (2001). Parenting Torres. Family Matters. No. 21. Winter 2001.
Commonwealth of Australia (2007). National Strategic Framework for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health 2003-2013. Department of Health and Aging. Publication Number: P3-2106., Retrieved February 27, 2008 at http://www.health.gov.au/internet/wcms/publishing.nsf/Content/6CA5DC4BF04D8F6ACA25735300807403/$File/nsfatsihimp2.pdf .
In addition the Europeans that colonized Australia believed that their culture was superior and the aboriginal culture would somehow disappear in a short period of time. hen this did not occur drastic steps were taken to assimilate indigenous people. These steps included taking aboriginal children away from their families to be raised in white society.
Certainly this type of violent and reckless interaction led to great fear and panic because a way of life that had existed for thousands of years began to vanish. Such stressors were passed down from generation to generation. Stress is a dangerous emotion because it can cripple to immune system and also cause people not to have the will to properly take care of their health.
Government policy and exclusion
According to McCalman et al. (2005) the types of government policies adapted as a result o colonialism has also contributed to poor health amongst indigenous…
Aboriginal health issues. http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/aboriginal_health_issues-open
Anderson, I.,&Whyte, D. (2006). Australian Federalism and Aboriginal Health. Australian Aboriginal Studies, 2, 5-16.
McCalman, J., Morley, R., & Mishra, G. (2008). A health transition: Birth weights, households and survival in an Australian working class population sample born 1857 -- 1900. Social Science & Medicine, 66, 1070-1083.
McCalman J., Smith L., Anderson I., Morley R., Mishra G. (2009) Colonialism and the health transition: Aboriginal Australians and poor whites compared, Victoria, 1850 -- 1985. History of the Family 14-253 -- 265
Namely, Aboriginal populations have tended to be more likely to be experience over-crowding, squalor, high rates of infectiousness, poor nutrition and hygiene and faulty infrastructure. All of these increase vulnerability to disease, the spread of disease and the susceptibility to illness. In combination with a comparatively limited excess to healthcare professionals or healthcare facilities, this places Aboriginals at a considerably higher risk of illness and mortality.
Indeed, this vulnerability results in myriad medical conditions that prove to be ethnically affiliated. According to a study by Cook (2005), "It is well established that Aboriginal Australians suffer significantly more health and welfare problems than non-Indigenous Australians. This disproportionate suffering can be evidenced in the rising rates of end-stage renal disease." (Cook, 1) This is just one of a wide array of medical vulnerabilities that appear to be specific to the Aboriginal population and which can severely diminished mortality projections. This denotes a…
Cook, P.S. (2005). Medical Marginalization of Aboriginal Australians: Renal Translplantation and Xenotransplantation. TASA Conference.
Hayman, N.E.; White, N.E. & Spurling, G.K. (2009). Improving Indigenous patients' access to mainstream health services: the Inala experience. Medical Journal of Australia, 190, 10, 604-606.
Marmot, M. (2005). Social Determinants of Health Inequalities. Lancet, 365, 1099-1104..
McIntyre, P.B. & Menzies, R.I. (2005). Immunisation: Reducing Health Inequality for Indigenous Australians. Medical Journal of Australia, 182(5), 207-208.
He expeimentation with new techniques and the fact that she was unafaid to ty new things with he at helped he populaity immensely. Peston's elationships to famous atists and the pomotion of he wok in aea magazines wee also unique and offeed a lage vieweship audience.
Not eveyone enjoys looking at Peston's wok, but she had definitely held a stong pesence in Austalian society thoughout he lifetime, as well as since he death. Peston definitely new exactly what she wanted to do thoughout he life and wasn't afaid to implement unusual and new techniques into he wok. He studies of both Aboiginal at and Japanese at seems to have influenced much of the at she poduced.
He use of publicity sets Peston apat fom othe atists duing that time peiod. As a woman atist who was making he way independently finally, Peston appealed to women thoughout Austalia by poducing he…
references to Aboriginal art . Australia: Art Library.
McPhee, J.A. (1982). Australian decorative arts in the Australian National Gallery . Australia: Australian National Gallery.
Nice, R. The Australian scarf / Historic Houses Trust of New South Wales. New South Wales: Greenway Gallery.
Butel, E.R. (1986). Margaret Preston: the art of constant rearrangement . New South Wales: in association with the Art Gallery of New South Wales.
The art of Margaret Preston, Margaret, 1875-1963 . (1980). Adelaide: Art Gallery Board of South Australia.
sociology in indigenous populations. Specifically it will discuss what the terms ethnicity and racism mean, and critically examine how these terms apply to Indigenous Australians? Ethnicity and racism apply to Indigenous Australians (Aborigines) throughout their history, sad but true. Since the English first settled Australian in the 1700s, the Indigenous population has suffered greatly, and it is one of Australia's greatest shames that it went on so long.
The Indigenous people of Australia (Aborigines and Torres Straight Islanders) are one of the oldest cultures on Earth. Archaeologists believe their lineage goes back at least 50,000 years, and some believe it could go as far back as 65,000 years ago. They were the original occupants of Australia, and have a deep and abiding respect for the land and its many different environments. An Aboriginal Web site notes, "For Indigenous Australians, the land is the core of all spirituality and this relationship…
Adams, M. (2006). Raising the profile of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men's health: An Indigenous man's perspective. Australian Aboriginal Studies, 2006(2), 68+.
Author not Available. (2006). Indigenous Australians. [Online] Available at: http://www.aihw.gov.au/indigenous/index.cfm .
Clarke, F.G. (2002). The history of Australia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Editors. (2008). Australian Indigenous cultural heritage. [Online]. Available at: http://www.cultureandrecreation.gov.au/articles/indigenous / [Accessed 17 June 2009].
ites of Passages of puberty followed by Eskimo and Australian Aborigines.
The indigenous cultures of the past have always held a great regard for the traditional and superstitious. Elaborate rituals are associated with each aspect of life and the people celebrate these rituals as a community. The community being patriarchal in most circumstances the dominance of the male hierarchy is clearly seen and that the rituals are associated then with the male gender is no surprise. Yet, today, we are fascinated with what to the generations of the past was a common issue. esearchers have taken the time to separately understand the ceremonies associated with the cultures and none is as elaborate as the rites of passage as the adolescents-especially the male-enters adulthood. Around the world the transition is celebrated with fervor amongst the different cultures, and though today forgotten, its importance is still acknowledged amongst the remaining indigenous communities…
Australian Aboriginal Religion available at http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/westoc/abor.html
Charlesworth, M, Religion in Aboriginal Australia. (ed.). University of QLD Press. 1984. available at http://www.bmezine.com/news/ritcircs.html
Eliade, Mircea Rites and Symbols of Initiation, (page ix - x) taken from Rites of Passage Frank Herbert 2000 available at http://www.geocities.com/uulongviewtx/sermons/rites.html
Eskimo-Aleut Religion Available at http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/nam/inuit.html
Knowledge of avenues for community support as well as for physical aid such as shelter and food are vital to providing help, both immediate and long-term, to discriminated populations. I have confidence that between my studies and real-life experiences such as internships and work, that I can gain this knowledge and disperse it amongst clientele.
The fourth role a therapist ought to play is as a "consultant helping clients (and others in their life) find ways to work toward reducing discriminatory practices in the community" (Atkinson, et.al., 1993, pp. 264-270, cited in Cooper and Lesser, 2005, p. 67). This role dovetails with the second role above of being an advocate oneself.
If one is successfully filling the role of advocate, then sharing information on how to participate in the local community, to contact one's officials, and to agitate for change is not a large step. Teaching clients how to successfully…
Atkinson, D.R., Thompson, C.E. And Grant, S.K. 1993. "A three-dimensional model for counseling racial/ethnic minorities," in The Counseling Psychologist, 21(2), 257-277.
Babakan, H. And Gopalkrishan, N. "Posttraumatic experiences of refugee women," in Rabin, C. ed., Understanding Gender and Culture in the Helping Process. Sydney, Thomson Wadsworth.
Banks, J. 2004. "Approaches to Multicultural Curriculum Reform," in Banks,.J and Banks, C., eds. Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives. Massachusetts, Wiley.
Banks, J. 2004. "Multicultural Education: Characteristics and Goals," in Banks, J and Banks, C., eds. Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives. Massachusetts, Wiley.
Northern Territory (NT) Intervention
In this essay, the author will examine how the Australian Federal Government can pass legislation (as was done with the Northern Territory (NT) intervention) which is not subject to the operation of acial Discrimination Act (Clth) and, in turn, any State/Territories acial Discrimination Acts. The author will raise the question of whether or not the Federal Government has such power. If this is so, the author will then examine under what circumstances such power should be exercised. Further, in the essay the author will raise the question of whether the federal government exercised this power correctly with regards to the NT intervention. Finally, the essay will examine if the Federal Government should not have such power, then how human rights can be protected in Australia.
It is the author's opinion that the Australian government far overstepped its mandate. While technically legal, the intervention was only barely…
Ashby-Cliffe, J. (2008) 'Reaching the End,' Army (1202), 4.
ABC News. (2007). Pearson Fears for Indigenous Parents' Freedom. Available: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2007-06-22/pearson-fears-for-indigenous-parents-freedom/78106 . Last accessed 6 September 2011.
Australian Human Rights Commission. (2007). Submission of the Human Rights
and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC) to the Senate Legal and Constitutional Committee on the Northern Territory National Emergency
In 1992 there was a problem with the courts and the land disputes that were occurring between the two cultures.
In the case of Mabo and Others vs. The State of Queensland and the Commonwealth of Australia, decided in 1992, the Australian High Court ruled that the land tenure rights of the indigenous inhabitants of the Murray Islands in the Torres Strait did not extend seaward beyond the high water mark (Sharp, 1997). This decision reflected a Eurocentric bias and ignored the islanders' traditional claims to exclusive use of the reefs and seas surrounding their land territories (Sharp, 1997). Factfinders for the court applied the European conception of sea rights to the case, under which the seas and reefs were considered state property (Sharp, 1997)."
The result of this and other court mandates has been an attitude of Eurocentricism. This attitude has harmed the integration of the two cultures that…
Citizenship, history and indigenous status in Australia: back to the future, or toward treaty? Journal of Australian Studies; 1/1/2004; Bradfield, Stuart
Australia: The Complete Guide to Aboriginal Australia; To experience 'real life' down under, try exploring an Indigenous community. CHARLOTTE HINDLE looks at one of the most remarkable cultures in the world.(Features)
The Independent (London, England); 9/21/2002; Hindle, Charlotte
Finding common ground: Indigenous and Asian Diasporic cultural production in Australia. Hecate; 10/1/2001; Stephenson, Peta
Designing an Early Years Learning Framework for Kindergarten and Preprimary Pupils
The Australian Government's Department of Education, Employment and Workplace elations has launched an Early Years Learning Framework initiative that is designed to facilitate universal access to early childhood education resources. The initiative has been incorporated in the National Quality Standard in an effort to ensure consistent delivery of high quality educational services to young learners across the country. The Early Years Learning Framework initiative is also explicit in its guidelines concerning the need for respect of children from diverse and Indigenous backgrounds. This paper uses the Early Years Learning Framework to describe a literacy rich learning environment for kindergarten to preprimary year pupils that draws on Boori Monty Pryor and Jan Ormerod's children's book, Shake a Leg. A description of the learning environment is followed by a discussion concerning how the learning experience engages young learners to draw on…
Elliott, S. & Berlach, R.G. (2010, January-December). Conceptualizing planning in kindergarten
and preprimary settings: An exploratory study with preservice teachers. Curriculum and Teaching Dialogue, 12(1-2), 67-71.
Murray, J. & Bamblett, L. (2011, Spring). Shake a leg. Australian Aboriginal Studies, 1, 113-115.
Pryor, B.M. & Ormerod, J. (2010). Shake a leg. London: Allen & Unwin.
The Yanomami are an indigenous tribe also called Yanomamo, Yanomam, and Sanuma who live in the tropical rain forest of Southern Venezuela and Northern razil. The society is composed of four subdivisions of Indians. (Yanomami Indians) Each subdivision has its own language. "They include the Sanema which live in the Northern Sector, the Ninam which live in the southeastern sector, the Yanomam which live in the southeastern part and the Yanomamo which live in the southwestern part of Yanomami area."
The Yanomamo are one of the largest unacculturated aboriginal groups left in South America, with a total population of around 12,000. Their subsistence is based on hunting and slash-and-burn agriculture. The predominant crops are plantains and bananas. Their diet includes yams, sweet potatoes and the fruit of the peach palm. (eierle, J.M.)
The social construction of the culture is composed of small groups numbering approximately 75 people in…
Barnes, M.H. (2000). Stages of Thought: The Co-Evolution of Religious Thought and Science. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Beierle, J.M. Society-YANOAMA. Retrieved February 22, 2005 from CSAC's Ethnographics Gallery. Web site: http://lucy.ukc.ac.uk/EthnoAtlas/Hmar/Cult_dir/Culture.7884
Boehm, C. (1999). Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Buss, D.M. (1994). The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating. New York: Basic Books.
Hamilton Island produces a wide array of entertainment that comes in many shapes and forms. The latest addition to the activity list is a nine-pin bowling alley that aims to provide endless family fun. And to top it off, other attractions the island will boast this year will include the Australian Ballet and the Great Barrier Feast event. (2009, p. 37)
Moreover, beyond the innovative use of social media networks to promote their campaign, Tourism Queensland also ensured the international mainstream media would be included in their media mix. For instance, Nolan empirically reports that during his visit to the island preparatory to the announcement of the finalist, international interest in the competition was at a frenzied level: "When I left Hamilton Island the following afternoon, it already was gearing itself up for next Wednesday's announcement. U.S. TV crews, the Aussie networks, the BBC et al. are flying in to…
Grier, G. (2011) 'Hamilton Island Earns Top Award.' The Daily Mercury, p. 37.
'Hamilton Island Destination Information.' (2011) Qantas. [online] available: http://www.
King, B.E. (1997) Creating Island Resorts. London: Routledge.
His underlying interest was to understand the basic forms of religious life for all societies. In Elementary Forms, Durkheim argues that the totems the aborigines venerate are actually expressions of their own conceptions of society itself. This is true not only for the aborigines, he argues, but for all societies (ibid).
eligion, for Durkheim, is not "imaginary," although he does deprive it of what many believers find essential. eligion is very real; it is an expression of society itself, and indeed, there is no society that does not have religion. We perceive as individuals a force greater than ourselves, which is our social life, and give that perception a supernatural face. We then express ourselves religiously in groups, which for Durkheim makes the symbolic power greater. eligion is an expression of our collective consciousness, which is the fusion of all of our individual consciousnesses, which then creates a reality of…
Cotterrell, R. (1999). Emile Durkheim: Law in a Moral Domain. Sanford, CA: Stanford
Univ. Press. p243.
Emile, D. (1947). Extract from the Division of Labor. New York, NY: The Free Press.
Three examples come to mind: the aboriginal art of the indigenous peoples of Australia, the native art of Central and West Africa, and some of the cave paintings from Lascaux. Like Anderson, each produced colorful, realistic, yet unique depictions of nature and animals. Shown here from left to right are Australian Aboriginal Art, Folk Art from Tanzania, and a poster of one of the Cave Paintings from 10-15,000 BC in Lascaux, France. Note the similarity in texture and line to Anderson, the fact that the animals almost curve, and that we have an anatomical element within each of the three interpretations.
Anderson, however, is far more enveloping than many other primitivists. One can almost sense the hours he spent observing these creatures. And, the sense of movement that is communicated in the flatness by the oscillation of the circles from crab to crab, as if they were imitating sonar back…
The Life of Walter Inglis Anderson. (2009, April). Citied October 2010, from Walterandersonmuseum.org: http://www.walterandersonmuseum.org/frameset3.htm
Hansen, L. (September 28, 2003). "The Art of Walter Inglis Anderson." National
Public Radio. Cited October 2010, from:
At times, even though the research may be complicated by varying definitions of homelessness, researchers are establishing methods for estimating the size of the homeless population, which includes people who have nowhere to go; at risk of losing housing through eviction or institutional discharge (Drury, 2008).
Case Study Methodology
In the case study methodology, a form of qualitative descriptive research, according to M. Dereshiwsky (1999) in "Electronic Textbook - Let Us Count the Ways: Strategies for Doing Qualitative esearch," the researcher using the case study methodology does not focus on discovering a universal, generalizable truth, nor do the researcher generally search for cause-effect relationships. Instead, the researcher emphasizes the exploring and describing process. As the researcher examines one individual or small participant pool, he/she then draws conclusions only about that one particular participant or group; only in the designated, specific context Case Studies 2008).
In considering or defining the case…
Andrade, A.D. (2009). Interpretive research aiming at theory building: Adopting and adapting the case study design. The Qualitative Report. Nova Southeastern
Inc. Retrieved May 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Arellano, M.A. (2005). Translation and ethnography: The anthropological challenge of intercultural understanding. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 11(1), 165. Retrieved May 26, 2009, from Questia database:
Backpacking is often regarded as an activity, which is undertaken only by those people who have a deep love for the outdoors, adventure, or for roughing it out. However, while it is true that backpacking is not for the fainthearted, it is an activity that perhaps everyone should try at least once in his or her lifetime. For, backpacking can prove to be an enormously rewarding experience. It is the objective of this paper to describe the benefits of backpacking as well as explore some of its more practical aspects.
The term "backpacking" means literally that, as in "carrying something in a pack on the back." However, in point of fact, the word "backpacking" has grown to connote much more than the simple act of carrying a pack on the back. Indeed, today, backpacking virtually signifies a subculture in the world of travel and tourism: "Backpacking is traveling long distances…
Bonifeld, R.L., Gramann, J.H., & Kim, Yong-Geun. "Effect of Personality and Situational Factors on Intentions to Obey Rules in Outdoor Recreation Areas." Journal of Leisure Research. 1995. Vol. 27: 4, p. 326+.
Coble, T.G., Erickson, B.B., & Selin, S.W. "Hiking Alone: Understanding Fear,
Negotiation Strategies and Leisure Experience." Journal of Leisure Research. 2003. Vol. 35:1, p. 1+.
Deegan, P. "Carry on Traveling." Geographical. April 2000. Vol. 72: 4, p. 70.
Tiwi of Northern Australia
A classic in its field, Hart and Pilling's book The Tiwi of North Australia offers objective, anthropological insight into this indigenous culture. The authors' objectives are twofold, as stated in the Introduction: to provide an account of how the Tiwi functioned before colonization and to describe how the Tiwi changed after contact with Europeans and the subsequent modernization of Australian culture. The Tiwi posed problems for Christian European settlers for a number of reasons, namely their social structures and religious beliefs. The Tiwi are a close-knit polygamous society that exhibits sophisticated social stratification. The Tiwi differ from the native peoples of mainland Australia, as the authors are quick to point out. This is due to their unique geographical position on a set of islands north of Australia. Their physical isolation created an ideal state for the Tiwi to develop singular tribal characteristics and culture. Their weapons,…
Review of Related Literature
This chapter provides a review of the literature concerning hypnosis, Eastern Meditation, Chi Kung, and Nei Kung and how these methods are used to treat various ailments and improve physical and mental functioning. A summary of the review concludes the chapter.
In his study, "Cognitive Hypnotherapy in the Management of Pain," Dowd (2001) reports that, "Several theories have een proposed to account for the effect of hypnosis. State theories assume that the hypnotic trance is qualitatively different from all other human experiences. From this perspective, trance capacity is supposedly a fairly stale trait that exhiits sustantial individual differences. Nonstate theories, often referred to as social learning, social psychological or cognitive-ehavioral theories of hypnosis propose that hypnotic phenomena are related to social and psychological characteristics such as hope, motivation, expectancy, elief in the therapist, desire to please the therapist, a positive initial…
bibliography. (2010). http://science.jrank.org / pages/7857/Meditation-Eastern.html.
Many religious traditions have practices that could possibly be labeled meditation. In Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, these practices are usually associated with prayer, contemplation, or recitation of sacred texts. In the religious traditions of the Native Americans, Australian aboriginals, Siberian peoples, and many others, what could be identified as meditation techniques are incorporated within the larger rubric of shamanism. It is, however, in the religions of Asia that meditation has been most developed as a religious method.
Meditation has played an important role in the ancient yogic traditions of Hinduism and also in more recent Hindu-based new religious movements such as Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's Transcendental Meditation program. But it is most especially in the monastic or "elite" forms of the various traditions of Buddhism (Theravada, Tibetan/Vajrayana, and Ch'an/Zen) that meditation techniques have taken center stage and have been developed to the highest degree of sophistication and complexity.
Short-Term Effects of Meditation vs. Relaxation on Cognitive Functioning. Contributors: Gillian King - author, Jeffrey Coney - author. Journal Title: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. Volume: 38. Issue: 2. Publication Year: 2006. Page Number: 200+.
Authors cite the lack of relevant studies concerning the effect, if any, of meditation on short-term improvements in cognitive performance. The results of this study clearly showed that meditation, per se, does not produce a short-term improvement in cognitive performance compared to other relaxation techniques.
ethnological investigation and analysis, is centered on cultural and religious activity in a contemporary community situation. Essentially, the aim of this research was to observe various cultural and social behavior patterns as they pertain to religion and spirituality in society. Two faiths were observed over a period of time. A Western religious faith such as Catholicism was compared to an Eastern faith such as Buddhism.
This topic was chosen for a number of reasons. In the first instance religion is a central facet of all cultures and societies. The search for a larger and more existential meaning to life is a cultural trait that can be observed in every culture throughout human history. It is therefore a subject that is central to cultural life and which has enormous ramifications in terms of its influence on other dimensions of cultural activity.
However, religion per se is a very broad and somewhat…
EMIC AND ETIC PERSPECTIVES. Retrieved from http://www.uwec.edu/minkushk/anth%20161emic.htm
Ethnographic fieldwork. Retrieved from http://manual.recoup.educ.cam.ac.uk/wiki/index.php/Ethnographic_fieldwork
Hoey B. What is Ethnography? Retrieved from http://www.brianhoey.com/General%20Site/general_defn-ethnography.htm
Humanist profile: John Dewey (1859-1952) (2009) The Humanist, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-207350169.html
The Structure of the British Army Compared to a Civilian Business Organization
Military life, especially during combat situations, is difficult for the individual who has always been a civilian to imagine. The structure of the organization is rigid, strict control is maintained of all personnel, the management style is historically largely authoritarian, and conditions can be harsh. However, there are always people who volunteer for this service for many reasons. The individual lacks responsibility and wishes to gain it, there is a scarcity of sustainable employment, the promise of adventure awaits the soldier. Other reasons exist, every soldier or sailor has one, but whatever the reason when a person joins the military they soon understand the organization. There is no mystery regarding large goals or minor objectives. The British Army has a unique history and purpose that can be useful to companies that want to survive and remain successful…
Andrzejewski, S., 1954. Military organization and society. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
British Army., 2010. British army: An introduction. Retrieved December 15, 2010 from http://www.army.mod.uk/documents/general/2010_ARMY_Brochure_9.0_ (2).pdf
Caniglia, R.R., 2001. Leadership: U.S. And British approaches to force protection. Military Review, 81(4), pp. 72-81
Cassidy, R.M., 2005. The British army and counterinsurgency: The salience of military culture. Military Review, 85(3), pp. 53-64.
roots of Wiccan music, the instruments used and how the music moves participants into meditative states.
Use at least five books and articles as references and no Internet sites.
Wiccan music comes in many forms and uses a variety of traditional instruments and incantations to create themes and messages.
s a brief introduction, it is important to the subject matter of this paper to understand what Wicca is. Wicca is a neo-pagan religion, a religion of personal experience with several deities, both male and female, of equal powers. Worshippers in this religion are encouraged, taught and expected to develop an ongoing and positive direct relationship with the Gods and Goddesses. It is a very western religion in cultural flavor and very different from eastern religions.
Wicca is full of beliefs and traditions, many of which center around the use of music. Since Wicca has many holidays, festivals…
Adler, Margaret. Drawing Down the Moon. Arkana Books, 1996
Farrar, Janet & Stewart. The Witch's Bible. Phoenix Publishing, 1996.
Pundcake. Wicca. Teen Magazine for Music, December 1999.
Learning Objectives for Adult Education
Managing and Exploiting the Impact of Classroom Diversity in Adult Arts Education
As the American population becomes increasingly diverse, so goes classroom diversity (Cooper, 2012). By the end of the current decade, a White majority will no longer exist among the 18 and under age group. This rapid progression towards a plurality has already impacted primary schools, but the trend toward increasing diversity is beginning to affect adult education classrooms as well. If educators simply ignore this trend, not only will the academic success of students be harmed, but also the professional skills of educators. The solution, according to Brookfield (1995), is not the adoption of an innocent or naive attitude towards the diverse needs and abilities of racially and ethnically diverse students, but to engage in a process of critical self-reflection. Such a process would help educators uncover their own hidden motives and intentions,…
Berry, J.W. (1971). Ecological and cultural factors in spatial perceptual development. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 3(4), 324-36.
Brookfield, S.D. (1995). Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Brookfield, S.D. (2012). Teaching for critical thinking: Tools and techniques for helping students question their assumptions (1st ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Brookfield, S.D. (2013). Powerful techniques for teaching adults. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishing.
Australian Literature: An Anthology of Writing From the Land Down Under, by Phyllis Edelson. Specifically, it will contain an analysis of "The Convict" section, and describe the reality of convict life in Australia two centuries ago.
If the Aboriginal experience in Australia was terrible, then the convict experience in Australia was pure Hell. Some of them were not guilty of any crime, they were just sent to a prison colony because they were in the way of something, like a romance. The early convicts lived little better than animals. "I have taken grass and pounded it, and made soup from a native dog. Any man would have committed murder for a week's provisions" (Edelson 109). Once a convict, a man was no longer a man, he was simply a number. "A Thing - a Chattel - a Number - anything, rather than a man" (Edelson 116). This certainly…
Edelson, Phyllis Fahrie. Australian Literature: An Anthology of Writing From the Land Down Under. New York: Ballentine Books, 1993.
Inclusive workplace level 3 means inclusion of disadvantaged groups via national/state collaborations and refers to values that progress organizational policies concerning disadvantage populations like youth in distress, welfare recipients, and domestic violence victims. The inclusive workplace at this level perceives such populations as a potentially upwardly mobile and stable workforce. Thus, policy strategies will be to invest in evening educational classes, on-the-job training, and so forth. An exclusionary organization would readily dispose of such workers or even not hire them altogether.
The focus in workplace inclusion level 3 is social class and issues of race and gender due to women of color being disproportionally represented in the working class. A good example of an inclusive policy is NYC's Welfare-to-Work Program that gives training and job opportunities to New Yorkers with low-income. Here they help them transition to working by setting up the skills they need to achieve their goals all…
Any substance or behavior that is not done in some sort of balance or harmonic alliance with nature is sure to cause problems within any group or groups of people. The introduction of alcohol into the Australian indigenous populations has caused many health problems and issues that warrant further discussion. The purpose of this essay is to discuss alcoholism as it relates to the aboriginal people of Australia. This essay will examine the disease process and its symptoms and outcomes. The essay will then look at how the contributing factors of this disease are affecting this group of people. The essay will conclude with ideas on the implications of alcoholism on that community and the healthcare providers that work with this group.
Alcohol is a staple in the culture and social practices of many humans around the world. The inebriation rituals that were prominent during the…
Australian Government National Health and Medical Research Council (nd). Alcohol and health in Australis. Viewed 10 Oct 2014. Retrieved from https://www.nhmrc.gov.au/your-health/alcohol-guidelines/alcohol-and-health-australia
Australian Indigenous Alcohol and Other Drugs Knowledge Centre (2014). Review of the harmful use of alcohol amongst Indigenous Australians. Retrieved from http://www.aodknowledgecentre.net.au/aodkc/alcohol/plain-language/alcohol-plain-language-review
Brady M (1986) A social analysis of drinking and its aftermath in a remote Aboriginal community. In: Bush RA, ed. Exploring the Alcohol and Drug Crime link: society's response. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology:
Woods, I. (2011). Battle To Curb Aborigines' Drink Problem. Sky News 19 June 2011. Retrieved from http://news.sky.com/story/862854/battle-to-curb-aborigines-drink-problem
A Lesson in History:
The Mabo Case and Its Legacy
The Mabo Case, or Mabo v. Queensland, as the case is formally known, refers to a judgment given by the High Court on June 3, 1992. This judgment ruled that the land title of Indigenous Peoples (i.e. The Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders) would be recognized as common law by Australia. This meant that the doctrine of terra nullis, or land belonging to nobody, was annulled and the indigenous people in question could possess and occupy the land as they wished, and according to their own customs.
Despite this favorable and internationally applauded outcome, however, the reality has not been as uncomplicated. The fact of the matter is that though the Mabo case was a revolution in Australian law and brought the country in line with other remaining common law countries, such as he United States, Canada and…
1. Amankwah, H.A. (1994). Mabo and international law. Race and Class (35:57). Retrieved Janaury 12, 2012.
2. Howitt, R. (2006). Scales of Coexistence: Tackling the Tension between the Legal and Cultural Landscapes in Post-Mabo Australia. Macquarie Law Journal (6). Retrieved January 12, 2012.
3. No Author. (2012). Mabo v. Queensland. Convict Creations. Retrieved January 12, from .
4. Pelczynski, S. (2012). The High Court Recognition of Native Title - The Mabo Judgment and Its Implications. Action for Aboriginal Rights. Retrieved January 12, from .
Following are Hofstede's four categories and what they measure:
Power Distance (PD) is the "extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally" (Hofstede 1998) with a small PD meaning more equality in the society, and a large PD meaning less.
Individualism (ID) defines whether the society expects people to look after themselves or not. Its opposite is Collectivism, which Hofstede (1998) defines as "the extent to which people in a society from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout people's lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty."
Masculinity (MA) defines the degree of distinction of gender roles. High MA means men are supposed to be "assertive, tough, and focused on material success; women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life" (Hofstede 1998). Its…
Al-Mekhalfi, A.G. (2001). Instructional media for teachers' preparation. International Journal of Instructional Media, 28(2), 191. Retrieved January 31, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Arab World (2005). Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved January 29, 2005 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_arab_world.shtml
Australia. (2005) Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved January 29, 2005 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_australia.shtml
Bilimoria, P. (1995). Introduction to the Special Issue: Comparative and Asian philosophy in Australia and New Zealand. Philosophy East & West, 45(3), 151-169.
For some, the discussion of multiculturalism is a theoretical one, with little practical application to their day-to-day behavior. Even when people encounter others from different cultures, ethnocentric ideals may prevent them from really understanding how cultural backgrounds impact their interactions. For classroom teachers, however, multiculturalism is much more than a theoretical concept; it is the framework that helps establish how a teacher can create a classroom environment that is beneficial for all of the students in the classroom. However, establishing a multicultural classroom is not a simplistic process. In order to do so, an educator must consider many factors that relate to development in children. Educators must also think about the different family backgrounds of the students. Finally, teachers have to keep in mind that they may direct their classrooms, but they do not completely control them; the teacher has to play an active role in facilitating the…
Australia Government Department of Immigration and Citizenship. (2011). The People of Australia: Australia's Multicultural policy. Retrieved September 11, 2013 from Australian Government website: http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/multicultural/pdf_doc/people-of-australia-multicultural-policy-booklet.pdf
Lo Bianco, J. (2010). Multicultural education in Australia: Evolution, compromise, and contest.
Retrieved September 11, 2013 from International Alliance of Leading Educational Institutes website: http://www.intlalliance.org/fileadmin/user_upload/documents/Conference_2010/NP-AU.pdf
Swetnam, L. (2003). Lessons on multicultural education from Australia and the United States,
17. Johann calls you and says that Billy smells and he needs a shower. If you don't move Billy to another ward, Johann will sign himself out. Explain in details what you would do to resolve this cross cultural situation.
I would tell Johann that we are doing all we can to ensure Billy's hygiene and that if his body odor continued to bother Johann that we can move him to another room or ward in the hospital.
18. There seems to be a language and cultural barrier that's blocking effective communication occurring between these two gentlemen. Considering they are both your clients, what strategies would you put in place to improve this situation?
The best way to remedy the situation would be to introduce the two patients to each other. A handshake, some eye contact, and small personal interactions can go a long way toward eliminating prejudices and stereotypes…
Australian Indigenous HealthInfo.net (2008). Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/
Department of Education and Training (2005). "Racism No Way." Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.racismnoway.com.au/library/cultural/
Indigenous Peoples of Australia: Health." Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.ldb.org/oz_h.htm
In some countries, bed numbers began to drop before the introduction of the drugs. In others, bed numbers actually increased despite this introduction. The drugs also have been used on a variety of populations that were not deemed to be mentally ill (such as people with learning difficulties and older people). The drugs were only relevant in giving psychiatric staff more confidence in dealing with community-based patients; they do not explain the policy of deinstitutionalization. At the end of the twentieth century deinstitutionalization has become a dominant mental health policy goal in most Western democracies (Sax, 1984).
However, this formal goal has become clouded by evidence that the gradual reduction of large institutions has been replaced by a scattering of smaller ones 'in the community' (Roe, 1976). Also, most countries still have legal statutes to coercively remove madness from community set- tings. The extent of this continued coercive control…
Gale, F. 2007 A changing Aboriginal population. In F. Gale and G. Lawton (eds), Settlement and Encounter: Geographical studies presented to Sir Grenfell Price, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 65-88.
Smith, L. 2006 The Aboriginal Population, The Australian National University Press, Canberra.
CDHHS 2004, The National Aboriginal Health Strategy: an evaluation, Commonwealth Department of Health and Human Services, Canberra.
Roe, M 1976, 'The establishment of the Australian Department of Health: its background and significance', Australian Historical Studies 17(67):176-92.
controversial than a person could ever imagine. Historical interpretations must be questioned so that faulty historical thinking can be identified. One of the most complicated aspects in historical interpretations is that they are precisely that -- interpretations. This means that people cannot help but look back at history through the lens of today's history; this affects interpretation and today's interpretation will be different than yesterday or tomorrow's interpretation because it will be a completely different time. Historians have a very difficult job because they must be able to take in information and interpret it in responsible ways. Historians need the humility to listen and trust others and the courage to interpret (Cathcart 1995, p. 16)
In studying the past, historians use primary and secondary sources as well as oral history. A primary source is considered to be something that is created by a person who witnessed an event. Examples of…
Attwood, B. 1996. 'Teaching Historiography.' Australian Historical Association Bulletin, No.
82, pp. 43-46.
Cathcart, M. 1985. 'Symposium: Why History?' Australian Book Review, pp. 16-18.
Reynolds, H. 1984. 'The Breaking of the Great Australian Silence: Aborigines in Australian
Paul Keating's edfern Speech
Paul Keating's speech at edfern Park provides examples of rhetoric that are discussed below. The speech uses of and the three modes of persuasion: pathos, ethos, and logos. The use of epiphora, particularly in tricolon format, lends both cadence and emphasis. The word imagine is used in this manner and in epiphora convention, as the word is repeated in successive clauses. The connotation of the word confident is made more powerful by its proximity to the word imagine. Further, antithesis is threaded throughout by deliberate distinctions between non-Aboriginal and indigenous Australians, and presumably to use the favored terms of reference for every member of the audience -- as it is a political speech. There is a great divide between the experiences and treatment of the privileged primarily white non-indigenous citizens of Australia and the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island people. Keating does not shy away from…
Cockcroft, R. And Cockcroft S.M. (2005). Persuading people: an introduction to rhetoric. (2nd ed.). Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave MacMillan.
Keating, P. Australian Launch of the International Year for the World's Indigenous People. Redfern Park, Sydney, Australia. December 10, 1992
____. (2011). Communication: rhetoric and reasoning. [Course readings]. Magill, SA: School of Communication, International Studies and Languages, University of South Australia.
Preconceptions about race prevented the white Australians from accurately assessing the needs, motivations and behaviors of Aboriginals by giving the white Australians a bias in their own minds that served as an agonist towards the race that was different from their own. In many ways it was no different in America, where the White Anglo Saxon Protestants (WASPs) viewed the blacks and the Mexicans and the Catholics as subhuman or of a lower class or caste which should not be allowed to populate or hold political power. In the end, it is all about control, and the people who put up the fences and who try to keep the Aboriginals out are the ones who are acting subhuman.
The white Australians are represented by Mr. Devil who really is called that by the Aboriginals because he possesses no human goodness. Human goodness and charity sees beyond race and ethnicity and…
" (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that for more than thirty years children who were 'half-caste' "were forcibly removed from their families, often grabbed straight from their mother's arms, and transported directly to government and church missions." (Dafler, 2005) This process was termed to be one of assimilation' or 'absorption' towards the end of breeding out of Aboriginal blood in the population. At the time all of this was occurring Dafler relates that: "Many white Australians were convinced that any such hardship was better than the alternative of growing up as a member of an 'inferior' race and culture." (2005) it is plainly stated in a government document thus:
The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth, and [the commission] therefore recommends that all efforts be directed towards this end." (eresford and Omaji, Our…
Dafler, Jeffrey (2005) Social Darwinism and the Language of Racial Oppression: Australia's Stolen Generations ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 62, 2005.
Erich Fromm Foreword to a.S. Neill SummerHill (New York, 1960).
Hawkins, Social Darwinism; Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian M. Ethnic Stratification: A Comparative Approach. New York: The Macmillan Company (1965).
Jacques Ellul, the Technological Society (New York, 1967), 436.
A good example of some of the different texts that were utilized to insight anger and violence can be seen with one that was sent to number Anglo Saxons in the commonwealth. Where, it would encourage all youth in Western Australia to show up at Cronuella each, in an effort to protect the beach and women. This is significant, because it shows how the use of heated SMS messages could help to enrage both groups. As this form of written communication would increase the overall amounts of rage that the two side were feeling towards each other.
Visual languages were used to help increase the overall negative opinions that many Australians would feel towards the Arabs. Where, the women and men would dress differently in public (with many women covering themselves). This is problematic, because it would cause a number of groups in society to view Arabs as untrustworthy, based…
Racial Tensions at Cronuella Beach. Everything 2. 2005. Web. 29 Oct. 2010.
"Responsible Gambling and Reconcilation Australia Campaigns and Link to Celebrity Gambling Story." N.d.
Gouggin, Gerald. "SMS Riot." Journal of Media Culture. 2006. Web. 31 Oct. 2010
Perera, Suvendrini. "Aussie Luck."ACRAWSA 3.1 (2007). Print.
Target Group and their Local Government
To determine the actual effects of diabetes on the indigenous population, you must examine the areas where many of these individuals live. This will provide insights as to possible issues that could be contributing to the problem by: examining the policies of the local government, looking at relevant health statistics, determining fruit / vegetable consumption and looking at the different support services / infrastructure. These different elements are important, because they provide insights about how the local community could be contributing to the problem. If you can see how these factors are affecting a particular community, then the government can begin to design intervention strategies to reduce the overall effects. Once this takes place, is when you can see how this demographic of 25 to 64-year-olds can be effectively targeted for an intervention.
A description of the Local Government and relevant socio-demographic characteristics of…
Aborigonal Health, 2010, MMHR, viewed 16 August 2010
Age Structure, 2009, City of Onkaparinga, viewed 17 August 2010
Australia's Health, 2008, AIHW viewed 15 August 2010,
Chronic Conditions, 2009, City of Onkaparinga, viewed 17 August 2010
Some Chinese researchers assert that Chinese flutes may have evolved from of Indian provenance.
In fact, the kind of side-blon, or transverse, flutes musicians play in Southeast Asia have also been discovered in Africa, India, Saudi Arabia, and Central Asia, as ell as throughout the Europe of the Roman Empire. This suggests that rather than originating in China or even in India, the transverse flute might have been adopted through the trade route of the Silk Road to Asia. In addition to these transverse flutes, Southeast Asians possessed the kind of long vertical flutes; similar to those found in Central Asia and Middle East.
A considerable amount of similarities exist beteen the vertical flutes of Southeast Asia and flutes from Muslim countries. This type of flute possibly came from Persians during the ninth century; during the religious migration to SEA. Likeise, the nose-blon flute culture, common to a number of…
Purple highlight means reference from his thesis, chapters 1-5
Blue highlight means reference from his raw research that was sent (17 files)
Yellow highlight means that writer could not find reference; one of the 17 files received
Gray highlight means writer found this source
5. The United Nations International Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination is essential for the protection of human rights. However, despite the fact that Australia is considered to be one of the most democratic countries in the world, it fails to take full account of the need to offer maximum protection of human rights especially concerning the aboriginal population. This is why the UN has hard criticized the government for its actions.
Critics have been focused on the administrative aspects of the human rights protection system in Australia in particular on the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission which the Australian government has committed itself to reform (United Nations, 2006). Also, the United Nations raised questions concerning the possibility of the Aboriginal people to benefit from the power of representativeness. However, the government is determined to take these matters under consideration and reconsider the situation through the establishment of…
Forsythe, David. Human rights in international relations. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
Nye, Joseph. Understanding international conflicts: an introduction to theory and history. New York: Pearson, 2005.
United Nations. Comments by the Government of Australia on the Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. (reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 9 of the Convention. International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination). 2006.
Australia Have a Bill of ights?
Australia is the last remaining Common Law country without a Bill or ights or Human ights Bill. It is important to note that the Australian variant of liberalism differs from the Anglo-American model in two important ways. First, the establishment of Australia as a series of British colonies under authoritarian governors and the absence of any political revolution has meant a lesser stress on the idea of individual rights vs. The state. There has been no one in Australian history to shout 'Give me liberty or give me death', no real pressure to incorporate a Bill of ights into our Constitution (owse, 1978).
Second, these factors combined with the problems of economic development in Australia and the generally inhospitable nature of the land, a staple theme of Australian literature, has meant an absence of any real laissez-faire tradition. 'Socialism' may be abhorred in the…
Conway, Ronald (1978). Land of the Long Weekend, Melbourne, p. 55.
Conway, Ronald (1971). The Great Australian Stupor, Melbourne, Chapter 5.
Rowse, Tim (1978). Australian Liberalism and National Character, Melbourne, p. 239.
Patapan, Haig (1997). Competing Visions of Liberalism: Theoretical Underpinnings of the Bill of Rights Debate in Australia; 21 Melb U.L. Rev. 497.
starting the personal journal I found it hard, but after writing the journal entries for the past 8 weeks I have learned a lot, and I found myself to have a better understanding of the curriculum than I did before starting the unit. Before I began the unit I would have had trouble even saying or spelling curriculum properly, and it was not something I thought about very much. However, after doing more research on curriculum and also doing the weekly reading, as well as participating on online discussion with other students, I find that everything together has helped me a lot and given me a better understanding of curriculum. Because of that higher level of understanding I was able to complete the weekly questions and tasks. Now I find that I have to carefully consider my ideas on curriculum, where those ideas were a few short weeks ago, and…
Atweh, B., & Singh, P. (2011). The Australian curriculum: Continuing the national conversation. Australian Journal Of Education, 55(3), p. 189-196
Aubusson, P. (2011). An Australian science curriculum: Competition, advances and retreats. Australian Journal Of Education, 55(3), p. 229-244.
Brady, L. & Kennedy, K. (2010). Curriculum Construction (4th Edition). Frenchs Forest NSW: Pearson Australia.
Hincks, P. (2010). Australian Curriculum -- an update. Ethos, 18(2), p. 6-7
Review of Student PowerPoint
The paper evaluates a PowerPoint summarizing a workshop given at Murdoch University by Dave Palmer in 2009. The workshop addressed the community building movement, an initiative that has gained popularity in Australia.
Slide three stated introduces a group of four students, although while these are presumably the authors of the PowerPoint, this is never explicitly stated and should be explained clearer. Slide 5 ("Introduction by Dave), which discussed the impetus for Mr. Palmer's presentation (the Aboriginal emphasis on the land and the need to return to this state) also included a picture of the presenter, which usefully allows one to connect the information with the face of the person delivering the material. Still, there was an almost excessive amount of text in this slide, and it would have been helpful for it to have been condensed. This set the standard for a dynamic in which…
Adams, David, & Michael Hess. "Community in Public Policy: Fad or Foundation," Australian Journal of Public Administration, 60, No.2 (2001). 13-23.
Archer, David, & Wearing, Stephen. "Interpretation and marketing as management tools in national parks: Insights from Australia," Journal of Retail and Leisure Property, No.2 (2009). 29-39.
Birnbaum, David J., & Frey, Barbara A., "Learners' Perception on the Value of PowerPoint in Lectures," Publisher Unknown, (2002).
Craig, Russell J., & Amernic, Joel H. "PowerPoint Presentations and the Dynamics of Teaching," Innovative Higher Education, 31, No.3 (2006). 147-160.