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Australian Criminal Justice System: As Fair as Can easonably be Expected?
The current Australian criminal justice system is a legacy of the Anglo-American common law that, with minor exceptions, has been interpreted and administered in a similar fashion in all administrative divisions. This legacy has caused some observers to maintain that, "When all is said and done, the current Australian criminal justice system is about as fair and effective as we can reasonably expect." eactions to this statement, though, will likely vary depending on what types of experiences, if any, Australians have had with the system itself. To gain additional insights in this area, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to determine the accuracy of this statement, including a discussion of the respective strengths and/or weaknesses of the Australia legal system. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion
eview and Discussion…
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Eades, D. (1999). Language in court: The acceptance of linguistic evidence about Indigenous
Australians in the criminal justice system. Australian Aboriginal Studies, 15(1), 15-17.
Mcallister, I., Dowrick, I. & Hassan, R. (2003). The Cambridge handbook of the social sciences in Australia. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Australian Sport Industry
What is sport? eview relevant definitions of sport and build a definition that you can justify and apply to the evolution of the sporting industry and the evolution of the management of it.
In my understanding, sport usually includes all types of physical activities that are competitive which aim (through-organized participation or casual) to improve, maintain, and use physical ability and provide recreation for participants. There is a wide variety of sports ranging from those that require two participants to those that include hundreds of participants competing individually or in teams (Loy, 2007). Evidently, sporting activities are found in the physical dexterity or physical athletic. Other organizations like the Council of Australia use dimensions of preventing activities that do not have physical element categorized as sports. Nevertheless, some competitive activities, which are not physical must be recognized in a category of mind sports. Through AISF, the international…
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2001). Volunteer Work, Australia. Retrieved From
Beisser, A. (2007). The Madness In Sports. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts
Bernie, E. (2008). Games People Play. New York: Grove Press
Australian indigenous group or populations are the initial inhabitants of the continent of Australia and the neighboring islands. This population migrated from India through the Southern route approximately 50,000 years ago and arrived in the Australian continent about 45,000 years ago. Notably, the Australian indigenous population has a significant and huge diversity since there are different indigenous communities and societies in the country. Each of these communities and societies has its own distinct mixture of customs, cultures, and languages. The difference of the Australian indigenous people is also evident in the fact that they are currently divided into local communities. Most of this population or group lives in the South-east and are mainly based along the Murray iver.
Current State of Australian Indigenous People:
Many of the existing Australian indigenous people have maintained a strong link with language, culture, and their traditional lands. Actually, 70% of these people recognize their…
"Aboriginal People and the Criminal Justice System." (n.d.). Aboriginal Customary Laws
Discussion Paper. Retrieved from Law Reform Commission of Western Australia website: http://www.lrc.justice.wa.gov.au/2publications/reports/ACL/DP/Part_05C.pdf
"About Indigenous Australia." (2007, July 28). Reconciliation Action Network. Retrieved September 25, 2012, from http://reconciliaction.org.au/nsw/education-kit/about/
Andrews, P. & Eames, G. (1994). Aboriginal People and the Law. Retrieved September 25,
Australian taxation system involves the payment of taxes in various forms since individuals and businesses in the country may be required to pay these charges to all governmental level sie. local, state, and federal governments. The main reason for collection of taxes in the Australian taxation system is that the collected taxes are used to cater for public services and facilitate redistribution of financial wealth. The most significant form of taxation is this system is income taxes that are collected by the country's federal government through the Australian Taxation Office. While the system acts as an important facet of the country's economy, it has attracted divergent views from various sectors in the society. On one hand, the system has attracted strong views with which it's considered as one of the best across the globe and is used to generate finances for public goods. On the other hand, the system has…
Australia Trade Commission. "Taxation in Australia." Australian Government, April 21, 2013,
Australian Government Treasury. "Australia's Future Tax System Consultation Paper,"
Commonwealth of Australia, last modified December 2008, http://taxreview.treasury.gov.au/content/downloads/consultation_paper/consultation_paper.pdf
A suburb is a residential place existing as either part of the city outside the central business district or a residential community within a distance from the city. Suburbs in Australia have a degree of autonomy in administration. In Australia, suburbs are geographical divisions of a city and become bases for providing postal services. In the rural areas of the country, they are localities. The term inner suburb defines a high-density suburb in near a city while the term outer suburb represents a suburb with a lower density in the outskirts of an urban area. Low-density suburbs examples are Melbourne, Ultimo, Te Aro and Wellington while Sydney represents high-density suburbs. Sydney city is having high density of housing apartments integrated in commercial areas (Bunker, Holloway & andolph, 2005). There have been negative statements about Suburbia in Australia as being wasteful. Negative aspects of the suburbs have been told…
Grose, M.J. (2009). Changing relationships in public open space and private open space in suburbs in south-western Australia. Landscape and urban planning, 92(1), 53-63.
Amanda, W. (2010). Sensuous multiculturalism: emotional landscapes of inter-ethnic living in Australian suburbia. Journal of ethnic and migration studies, 36(6), 917-937.
Dittmar, H., & Ohland, G. (Eds.). (2003). The new transit town: best practices in transit-oriented development. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Bartholomaeus, C.J. (2010). Wetland connectivity in the urban environment: The role of the residential garden (Doctoral dissertation, Murdoch University).
It is thus essential for the simple people to understand that they have to collaborate with the police so as to make the world a better place. By reaching a common ground regarding the power of the police and the interests of the masses individuals are more likely to experience positive results in the future.
One of the most intriguing aspects about the relationship between the police and individuals within Australian borders is the fact that the authorities especially find it difficult to cooperate with indigenous people. This is principally believed to be a result of the fact that natives have a tendency to express distrust in police officers because of their history of destroying indigenous cultural values through implementing laws that are in disagreement with them. Another reason why Indigenous Australians are reluctant to cooperate with the police is because the latter have apparently discriminated against natives across history…
Medibank was a fund through which, the patients could get 85% of their medical bills back. This service was made optional but then the labors government converted it into Medicare, which is still an important component of the Australian healthcare system. (Healy & Sharman et al., 2006)
In addition, the demographic factors also affect the design of the system. As the healthcare system covers all the citizens, the demographic factors have a significant influence on the system. The population of Australia is increasing significantly with the estimates of population increasing each year. Therefore, the system has to introduce extensive services and subsidies. In order to cope up with the increasing population, the healthcare system faces a need to expand itself. (Commonwealth of Australia-Department of Ageing, 2009)
Moreover, there would be a need for more hospitals, doctors and medical institutions. The system incorporates all these bodies and therefore it may have…
Bennett, C. (2009). A healthier future for all Australians - Final Report. [report] Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia, pp. 145-146.
Commonwealth of Australia-Department of Ageing. (2009). Primary Health Care Reform in Australia. [report] Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia-Department of Ageing, pp. 9-13.
Eagar, K., Garrett, P. & Lin, V. (2001). Health planning. Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin.
Healy, J., Sharman, E. & Lokuge, B. (2006). Health Systems in Transition. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe on Behalf of the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies.
Australian Corporate Analysis
The issue is whether Anna and Susanna have the authority to enter into the contract as agents of Leaping Lizard Coffee Emporium.
A company's constitution overrides any and all specific policy in governing the company; however, where the constitution directly clashes with the laws, the laws supersede the company's constitution. According to section 5F of the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth), "Corporations legislation does not apply to matters declared by State or Territory law to be an excluded matter." In other words, when a policy of the company is hindering the application of the law then the resulting company's policy is overridden. Additionally, under Australian law, "A company's power to make, vary, ratify or discharge a contract may be exercised by an individual acting with the company's express or implied authority and on behalf of the company. The power may be exercised without using a common seal."
Allen v. Gold Reefs of West Africa  1Ch 656
Clark and Cripps JJA, 11 ACKC 952 (1993)
Corporations Act 2001 (Cth)
Haris, Hargovan, Adam. Australian Corporate Law. Lexis Law (2012).
.." therefore the ADF "will work from a 'whole of government' approach and often in collation with other countries and militaries to provide the outcomes that are needed to meet modern security challenges." (Cosgrove, 2005; p. 3) Cosgrove relates that there are many other agencies "intimately involved in preserving our security, be they law enforcement, border protection, intelligence or other civil authorities and a comprehensive, that is, an enduring solution to global terrorism requires using all aspects of national power, including legal, economic, diplomatic intelligence and military capability." (2005) ecause of the differing roles and the new pressures brought to the environment in the process of the integration of traditional defense functions with law enforcement and civil authorities it is necessary to understand that there are different requirements needed by various entities such as for example: "...military forces need good intelligence but law enforcement agencies need information that meets an…
Cosgrove, Peter (2004) a Military Perspective on Civil-Military Cooperation in the War against Terror. Address to the Fulbright Symposium. 5 July 2004. Online available at http://www.defence.gov.au/cdf/speeches/past/speech20040705.pdf
Countering the Terrorist Threat (2004) Transnational Terrorism: The Threat to Australia - Chapter 7. Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Online available at http://www.dfat.gov.au/publications/terrorism/chapter7.html
Whole-of -Government Approach to Present, Resolve and Transform Conflict (2006) U.S. Department of State, Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization. 23 Aug 2006. Online available at http://www.state.gov/s/crs/rls/71036.htm
John M. Collins, Grand Strategy: Principles and Practices (Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1973), 14. 20. In Swinsburg, Philip R. (2001) the Strategic Planning Process and the Need for Grand Strategy - School for Advanced Military Studies. Second Term AY 00-01. Online available at http://cgsc.cdmhost.com/cgi-bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/p4013coll3&CISOPTR=407&filename=408.pdf
Another contributing factor is the industry's high fixed costs. These costs increase the exit costs, which is another factor that increases the intensity of rivalry. The third major factor is the degree of consolidation within the industry. Aside from the minor carriers, there are essentially only three major discount airlines operating in the Australian market. Prior to the entrance of Tiger, the two players operated as a duopoly. Tiger increased the level of competition in the market, such that the industry is now characterized by vicious price wars. Corporate stakes can also increase the intensity of rivalry. Qantas owns Jetstar, and as the national carrier must be a major competitive force. Virgin has staked a substantial portion of its business on Virgin Blue. These two companies are highly entrenched in the market with high corporate stakes. The intensity of rivalry in the industry, therefore, is very high.
Wastnage, J. (2008) Lion in Wait. Travel Weekly, 25 January, p 6
Hadley, M (2007) Rumble in the Jungle. Travel Weekly, 23 March, pp 4-5
Tiger Airways website. (2009). various pages. Retrieved August 20, 2009 from http://www.tigerairways.com/au/en/about_us.php
Delfmann, Werner. (2005). Strategic Management in the Airline Industry. Surrey, UK: Ashgate Publishing.
Notes On Public Sector Reform and Performance Managementa Australia 1997. Sector Management Act Review Report, viewed 2 October 2005. http://www.dpc.wa.gov.au/psmd/pubs/exec/machgovt/kelly/summary.pdf]
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 2001, Publlic sector leadership for the 21st Century, OECD, Paris.
Pollitt, C 2003, he essential public manager, Open University Press, Maidenhead.
Shergold, Peter 2004, Australian Public Sector Governance: Speech at CCH Manual Launch. Viewed 2 October 2005. http://www.pmc.gov.au/speeches/shergold/public_sector_governance_2004-08-05.cfm
Sethi, D 1999, 'leading from the middle', Human Resource Planning, vol. 22, no.3, p.9.
Smith, RFI 2004, 'Focusing on public value: something new or something old?', Australian Journal of Public Administration, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 68-97.
Stewart, RS 1963, he Reality of Management, Pan Books, London.
Press Release: hree decades of change: the Australian public sector
During the 1970s, Australia's declining public wealth began to necessitate a number of reforms. his began by focusing on the financial aspect of the public sector, and there…
The public sector can therefore no longer afford to focus only on one aspect of service delivery. Indeed, an integrated system is in development, which focuses on central values such as accountability, responsibility and transparency, as well as on skill sets aimed at political management, managing relationships and delivering results.
The Public Service Act of 1999 is a culmination of three decades of continual change. Public servants are all made aware of the central values according to which they are to operate. The public is involved in decision making and managing out practices. Financial and human resources are integrated and utilized to optimize the value of public service delivery.
The future for the public sector in Australia looks rosy if the last three decades are anything to go by. The focus of the sector on modern values that are important to its customers shows that it takes to heart any changes that the business world deems important. This was as true in the 1970s as it is today, and does not seem likely to change in the future. If more businesses followed the strategic reform practices of the Australian public sector, maybe fewer managers would have to give up their ventures.
So the main three players on the Australian mortgage market struggle to obtain larger market shares in the context of increasing the demand for loans. They make use of important loan discounts (which refer to decreasing the commissions/fees / and the interest rate for the mortgages), offer grace periods, and in some cases reduce the level of the documentation that has to be provided for the loan granting procedure. This competition has led to a descending trend for the interest rates (around 7-7.5% in 2003), which mean for the financial institutions additional costs. esides the usual expenditures with implementing an electronic customer-financial institution interface, as to keep-up with the market tendencies, a financial institution must face the issue of decreasing interest rates and offering more benefits to the customer, in order to attract and retain profitable customers (with a certain level of income, performing repeated loan acquisitions during a certain…
1) Delloite Report on the Australian mortgage market, in 2005 'Australian morgtage market at a crossroad' http://www.deloitte.com/dtt/cda/doc/content/Australian%20Mortgage%20Industry%20Report.pdf
Delloite Report on the Australian mortgage market, in 2005 'Australian morgtage market at a crossroad' http://www.deloitte.com/dtt/cda/doc/content/Australian%20Mortgage%20Industry%20Report.pdf
Public sector agencies are also now interested in creating social coalitions that include families, communities, businesses, government and non-government organizations in order to "help build and support strong, resilient families" (Patterson, 2005: 1). The hope is that government agencies will help build a stronger economy by creating social policies that support families and communities to enable better methods for dealing with difficulties and problems that arise on a daily basis.
ecent public surpluses within the government have caused contemporary PS agencies to focus on giving back to the community and to citizens to focus on better education, healthcare and assistance among other important functions (Paterson, 2005). The government is also now focusing on developing policies that encourage work life balance and responding to community breakdowns; their focus includes providing programs that integrate citizen support in areas including health, early education and creating communities that are child and family oriented, capable…
Agyeman, M.C. (2004 - Dec). "Human Resource Management and Public Sector
Reforms." 31, October 2005: http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/features/artikel.php?ID=72332
Bois, C.A., Preston, N. & Sampford, C. (1998). Public Sector Ethics: Finding and Implementing Values. London: Routledge.
Bradley, L. & Parker, R. (2001). "Public Sector Change in Australia: Are Managers'
It is well-known that men and women typically experience migration differently, and the challenges of balancing work and care in a new setting often leads to the feminization of women's roles. This is because they find themselves taking up more traditional gender roles as wives and mothers. In Australia, migrant women often experience downward occupational mobility and a re-orientation away from paid work and towards the domestic sphere (Ho, 2006).
Globally, the key factors that prevent women from rising to the top of their professions are usually very similar. There are four common barriers that usually come into play. These include workplaces that are male dominated, childcare issues, administering family commitments, and a lack of suitable development opportunities (Shi, 2009). The amount of women in leadership positions is going up and yet more are still needed to sufficiently reflect and represent their exclusive needs and views in government and the…
"Aust legal system may face challenges over migrant attitudes to women."2010, Viewed 26 May
Inglis, C 2003, "Mothers, Wives, and Workers: Australia's Migrant Women." Viewed 26 May 2010,
Alcorso, Caroline "Migrant women, marginality and public policy" Infocus (Ethnic
Communities' Council of NSW) 18(4) 1995, pp 22-23.
The Spirit-Child birth and connection to Dream shows the Aboriginal belief that they are tied to all things magical. According to research, "Aboriginal man was linked to the Dreaming, to the creative era, and contained within himself part of the essence of the mythic beings," (Berndt 8). The culture strongly emphasized the existence of spiritual beings living alongside the Aboriginals themselves. Aboriginals "saw themselves as living representations of such beings," (Berndt 8). This provides them a greater sense of meaning and connection to the world around them. The child is not of this world, it is not tainted by the physical act of sec. ather, "he enters that world possessing already an innate sacredness," (Berndt 8). This makes each child a spiritual and magical being, transcending the position as a product of a physical union. It also allows for stronger ties to individual tribe locations -- for the children come…
Berndt, Ronald Murray. Australian Aboriginal Religion. Brill Archive.
Merlan, Francesca. "Australian Conception Beliefs Revisited." Man. Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 21(3):474-493. Retrieved using JSTOR 15 Feb 2010 from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2803097.
Moyle, Alice M. "The Australian Didjeridu: A Late Musical Intrusion." World Archeology. 12(3):321-331. Retrieved using JSTOR 15 Feb 2010 from http://www.jstor.org/stable/124244
Lewellen, Ted C. Political Anthropology: An Introduction. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey. 1992.
Australian Graduate School of Management (AGSM) has a graduate MBA program that has been ranked number 1 of its kind in the country consecutively every year since 2007. In order to remain competitive in an increasingly challenging environment, it is necessary to also take into account the microenvironment at the school. This information will then reveal how the internal structure at the school correlates with the challenges in terms of its position in the market and the internal factors that contribute to this position.
In addition to fees paid by students and other service users at the campus, the school is also supported by funding opportunities in which students, alumni, and supporters may participate. There are, for example, opportunities to donate funding to efforts such as scholarships, research efforts, and staff recruitment. Donors and supporters are presented in three capacities: Individual, community donors, and corporate supporters.…
Australian Education Network (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.australianuniversities.com.au/info/111/agsm
Australian School of Business. (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.asb.unsw.edu.au/about/asbstaff/Pages/default.aspx
Business Education. (2012). AGSM. Retrieved from: http://rankings.ft.com/businessschoolrankings/australian-graduate-school-of-management
UNSW. (2012). Australian Graduate School of Management. Retrieved from: http://www.asb.unsw.edu.au/agsm/Pages/default.aspx
Australian Corporations Act
The Corporations Act 2011 (Cth) was enacted by the Commonwealth of Australia to regulate transactions at the federal and interstate level of companies in Australia. egulation of partnerships and managed investment schemes are also covered by the law. The "Corps' Law" may be the largest statute governing business entities in the world. eforms were instituted in to simplify statute through passage of the Corporate Law Economic eform Program (Audit eform & Corporate Disclosure) Act 2004 (CLEP 9). This article provides a brief discussion of several components of the corporate insolvency legislations: Uncommercial transactions, voidable transactions, and unfair preference.
Under Section 588FB (1) of the Corporations Act 2001, an uncommercial transaction is said to have occurred if "…it may be expected that a reasonable person in the company's circumstances would not have entered into the transaction…" (Warde, 2009). A Court may determine a transaction that confers…
Insolvency Law: A Comparative Analysis of the Preference Tests in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) and Australia. (2007). [Working Paper No. 9, Monash University.] Received http://www.buseco.monash.edu.au/blt/wclrg/working-paper-9.pdf
Uncommercial transactions. (2007) Addison Focus Papers. Retrieved http://www.addisonslawyers.com.au/documents/doc-28-uncommercial-transactions.pdf
Unfair preference. Commonwealth Consolidated Acts. CORPORATIONS ACT 2001 - §588FA Retrieved http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/
Under the law, this is where the individual is officially receiving the funds (even though they have not physically taken possession of the money). (Taxation Determination 2010) (ANZ Banking Group v FC of T. 94, 2011)
Evidence of this can be seen with the court saying, "The Full Federal Court considered that the Accident Compensation Act 1985 (Vic) creates a presently existing liability to make payments in the future from the moment an employee suffers an injury at work. Such a liability, though perhaps ultimately defeasible, is still a liability 'incurred' within the meaning of section 8-1 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997 ('ITAA 1997') (formerly section 51(1) of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1936 ('the ITAA'). Accordingly, the Court held that a deduction is allowable in the year in which the liability arises notwithstanding that the actual payments are not made until a later year. The Court also…
ANZ Banking Group v FC of T. 94, 2011, Austlii. Available from: [30 Sept. 2012].
Common Wealth Consolidated Acts, 2012, Austlii. Available from: [30 Sept. 2012].
Taxation Determination, 2010, ATO. Available from: [30 Sept. 2012].
Harvard Format. http://lgdata.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com/docs/380/49275/Harvard_LibGuide_-_All_Examples_PDF.pdf
The in-store staff makes up the bulk of the service, but they are also actively engaged in the sales function. The telephone service staff at VHA has been largely relocated to India and Tasmania in the wake of the merger (Zappone, 2009). Consumer complaints in the industry have seen a dramatic rise of late (Cellular News, 2009).
The maintenance function requires a degree of technical skill. The main focus of this task both in the industry and at VHA is to build out the 3G coverage network. For VHA, the 3G coverage at the time of the merger was 63% of the population, and the company is making investments to bring this to 95%, which equals its coverage area. ith the market trending towards 3G, it is critical for players in the industry to be able to provide access to this technology to all their customers.
The environment in which…
Morgan, K. (2007). Ideology and competition in the telecommunications industry. Dissent, Spring 2007.
Bingemann, M. (2009 a). VHA spends $80m on retail buyback. The Australian. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/vha-spends-80m-on-retail-buyback/story-0-1225737747265
Beer, S. (2005). Australia's mobile phone users to exceed 100% by 2008. IT Wire. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from http://www.itwire.com/content/view/1441/2/
Associated Press. (2008). Australia has more cell phones than people. USA Today. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from http://www.usatoday.com/money/industries/telecom/2008-04-28-australia-cell-people_N.htm
When a classroom is mainstreamed the Iraqi students may need special assistance in the areas of communication such as reading, writing, listening, and speaking (Hurley, 2003). A mainstreamed classroom that incorporates multiple languages can overcome communication barriers. One way is to use peer-to-peer learning, in this case a strong English speaking learner paired with an Iraqi student (Sears, 1998).
Section 2: Critical views on Mainstream Teaching Practice in the Australian Secondary Classroom
The literature review has also gleaned that a mainstreamed teaching practice would encourage multiple lingual educators in a single classroom to create a beneficial experience for the 2nd language learners. If two educators work together successfully it may become a beneficial experience for the 2nd language learners. The 2nd language learners may feel more comfort and security by having an educator or educators that can communicate with them in his or her primary language (Hurley, 2003). In a…
Edwards, G. (2007). Disciplining the practice of creative inquiry: The suppression of difference in teacher education, International Journal of Research and Method in Education,
Hurley, J. (2003). Meeting the need of 2nd language learners. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Miller, J. (2009). Teaching refugee learners with interrupted education in science:
The most common of these were: help with care during school holidays; respite care so that the carer could do things that they enjoyed. Grater levels of unmet needs were reported by parents whose house was considered unsuitable, whose child was reported to show more severe emotional distress and showed greater delays in the areas of language development and socialization." (romley, et al., 2002) romley et al. states that the findings of the study "have clear implications for the ways in which health, education and social services....should be providing support to children...and their families." (2002) Stated is that: "On a more practical level, these findings indicate a range of service activities that may be particularly helpful for children and their families which include: (1) Increasing access to and uptake of a range of options for respite care; (2) Increasing the availability of practical support during school holidays; (3) Providing educational…
Bidenko, Janne & James, Trish (1999) The Too-Hard Basket: Education for People who are Deafblind" Paper presented at the Human Rights, Disability and Education Conference - 17 September 1999. Online available at http://internex.net.au?~eba/education.htm.
McGrath, P. (2001) Trained volunteers for Families Coping with a Child with a Life-Limiting Condition. Child & Family Social Work - Vol. 6, p. 23 February 2001. Online available at http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1046/j.1365-2206.2001.00177.x .
Bromley, Jo et al. (2002) The Health and Social Care Needs of Families and/or Carers Supporting a Child with Autistic Spectrum Disorders" Health Research Journal, January 2002. Online available at http://www.lancs.ac.uk/fass/ihr/publications/manchester_child.pdf#search=%22Australian%20Social%20Workers%3A%20provision%20of%20services%20to%20intellectually%20disabled%20children%20under%20six%20years%20old%22 .
Wray, John; Silove, Natalie; and Knott, Helen (2005) Language Disorders and Autism - MJA Practice Essentials - Pediatrics. Online available at http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/182_07_040405/wra10330_fm.html .
Australian Securities Exchange and Interest Rates
The Australian Stock Exchange (ASX) and the Australian Stock Exchange Index (ASX 200) comprise a heavily traded securities, debentures, derivatives, and FOREX market that has grown precipitously over the past decade. Additionally, the monetary policy of the Australian Federal Reserve has facilitated economic policy in favor of growing its companies represented within the ASX 200 index.
The truth is that all central planners adjust rates for their most elite global and domestic businesses due to the sensitivity these businesses have to the cost of borrowing and servicing debt. Additionally, interest rates spur inflationary concerns, which cause the price of raw materials and natural resources to rise. The demand for interest rate sensitive securities, derivatives, and natural resources also increases, which may further cause the increase of interest rates.
The research into the correlation between interest rates, the stock price of SUN, and the stock…
Australian Indigenous Identity
End in the beginning: re (de)finding Aboriginality
History of nations is written by its people over time. Those that vanish with time are often not completely forgotten. Aboriginals, the actual and original inhabitants of Australia were dominated by the colonizers and today there are only a few groups of Aboriginals left as the faded memory of past. The article "The end in the beginning: re (de)finding Aboriginality" by Dodson narrates the facts as he sees them and opens a window to the history of Aboriginals.
The article says that the Aboriginals, the original inhabitants of Australia were not considered a civilized nation by the out siders. They were specie with characteristics of "noble savage and prehistoric beasts" (Dodson, 2003, p. 25). The Author of the article, Dodson, does not hurry to come to conclusion rather first he offers what other writers and the law makers originally had…
Davis, R., (2004), "Woven Histories, Dancing Lives," Aboriginal Studies Press
Dodson, M. (2003), "The end in the beginning: re (de)finding Aboriginality." In M. Grossman
(Ed.), Blacklines (pp. 25-42). Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.
Edward, E., (1977) "Orientalism." London: Penguin
Australian Tax on Wine
usiness Submission - Australian Tax on Wine
With the Australian government seeking to impose additional taxation upon the use and sale of wine, there have been many outcries of indignation arguing how this would affect the Australian wine industry, and eventually the Australian economy. However, what needs to be considered are the consequences and the public cost of continuing with the discounted taxation to which wine makers in Australia are currently subjected to. The effect on the Australian GDP needs to be taken in to account with the harms that alcoholism in the increasingly youth population is set to unleash, if made available readily and at subsidized prices.
The risks and problems that have arose from the increased alcohol consumption by the Australian public in recent years, especially the young generation, point towards a possible increase in the health deterioration of most Australians while also impacting…
Australian Carbon Tax
The introduction of a carbon tax in Australia would have clear implications for economic and environmental sustainability. While in the long-term, the aim of such a tax seeks to promote environmental sustainability for Australia as a whole, in looking at the short-term, there appear clear implications for economic sustainability for a wide variety of businesses and households. One such area of business that seeks to be affected in both the short-term and the long-term in terms of the introduction of a carbon tax is the tourism and hospitality sector of the Australian economic market, which will likely take a major hit in terms of profitability and finance with the passing of the tax at hand.
Australian Carbon Tax
Australia's proposed carbon tax seeks to have many distinct implications for the long-term economic and environmental sustainability of the country as a whole. However, in looking at many…
The Economist (2007 June 14). Tradable emissions permits are popular, but inferior, way to tackle global warming. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.economist.com/node/9337630 , on 19 September 2011.
Farr, M. (2011 July 10). Julia Gillard unveils her plans for carbon tax. Money Matters.
Web. Retrieved from: http://www.news.com.au/money/money-matters/julia-gillard-unveils-her-plans-for-carbon-tax/story-e6frfmd9-1226091665916 , on 19 September 2011.
Gupta, M. (2011 July 12). Carbon tax to further strain Australian tourism. Travel News.
Australian Consumer Law (ACL) is a broad-based law the impacts both businesses and consumers. The ACL represents a unified codification of a variety of prior product liability laws. In fact, one of its main benefits is that the law is applicable throughout Australia. Another major component of the law is that it imposes a strict liability standard on manufacturers and suppliers of goods, which was not a uniform standard prior to the introduction of this law. This is a relatively new law; the need for it was identified in 2009 after a Productivity Commission reviewed existing consumer protection laws and found glaring inconsistencies, which made it difficult, if not impossible, to enforce those laws that did exist.
Perhaps the greatest change to the law is that the ACL is now a strict liability law. Strict liability "means that a breach may be committed without negligence" (The FindLaw Team, 2012). In…
Australian Competition & Consumer Commission. (2012). Overview of the Trade Practices
Act: Consumer protection provisions. Retrieved April 13, 2012 from Commonwealth of Australia website: http://www.accc.gov.au/content/index.phtml/itemId/788555
Australian Consumer Law: Memorandum of Understanding. (2010). Retrieved April 13, 2012
from Australian Consumer Law website: http://www.consumerlaw.gov.au/content/the_acl/downloads/acl_mou.pdf
Australian Federal Politics
One of the most disillusioning things that can happen to a citizen of a democracy is to discover that one's own government - the legal and political extension of oneself - has lied to one. This is far more damaging both to an individual's belief in his or her government and in the end to that government itself than is a citizen's disagreement with that government. This does not, of course, only happen in Australia. Many Americans (to look across the Pacific) believed that their government should not go to war with Iraq, but even as they disagreed with their government's actions approval for American President Bush remained high. However, after it was discovered that the Bush administration lied to the American people about its claims for the necessity of going to war and going to war quickly, more and more Americans have begun to have an…
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/1659410.stm http://us.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/asiapcf/auspac/08/28/asylum.facts / http://web.amnesty.org/library/index/engASA120102001?Open&of=eng-aus http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/2002/overboard/cable1.htm
Stern Hu himself cannot actually exert much control from the Chinese prison where he is being held on charges of espionage. The Australian firm he worked for however, Rio Tinto, has been very vocal -- especially through Hu's former boss John Dougall -- in its attempts to get the federal government and Prime Minister Rudd in particular to act quickly to free Hu. This would require heavy Australian pressure on the Chinese government, adding tension to one of Australia's biggest trading relationships (a relationship which, ironically, Hu helped to create and solidify).
The Mass media in both countries has not been helpful here but instead has exacerbated the issue, making it largely one of nationality. Especially in China, where the government and culture is still largely under the control of the Communist Party, this creates a great deal additional emotion surrounding the issue, requiring foreign policy ministers on both sides…
Australian Corporate Directors
The four step process of understanding business law is very helpful in arriving at some important conclusions about the case of Coco Ltd. And its recent accident. The four step process suggests provides a manner in which this problem can be properly understood and the correct actions may be implemented to prevent further problems. This part of the essay will advise the directors of Coco Ltd. Of their current problems.
Identify the Legal Issue
Before delving into the legal issues of this case it is important to understand the behaviour of Mr. Hugo, a director here at Coco Ltd.. Hugo, in a recent purchase from his in laws' Brett and Sandra cocoa plantation a disastrous terrorist event took place. During the transportation of nearly boat load of cocoa, the ship was attacked and sunk by terrorist pirates disguised as American Navy Forces. The ship was sunk with…
Australian Securities and Investment Commission (2008). Information Sheet 42, Insolvency: a guide for directors. Australian Securities and Investment Commission December 2008. Retrieved from http://www.asic.gov.au/asic/pdflib.nsf/LookupByFileName/Insolvency_guide_for_direct ors.pdf/$file/Insolvency_guide_for_directors.pdf
The Commonwealth of Australia. Corporations Act 2001. Retrieved from http://www.comlaw.gov.au/Series/C2004A00818
The Council on Australian Governments (2012). Personal Liability for Corporate Fault: Guidelines for applying COAG principles. CAG 23 July 2012. Retrieved from http://www.coag.gov.au/node/434
Lucy, J. (2006). Directors' Responsibilities: The reality vs. The myths. American Institute of Company Directors, 17 Aug 2006. Retrieved from http://www.asic.gov.au/asic/pdflib.nsf/LookupByFileName/Directors_responsibilities_A ugust2006.pdf/$file/Directors_responsibilities_August2006.pdf
Australian Laws for Alcohol Use
Australian Laws related to Alcohol Use
Underage drinking is a huge problem in Australia and more and more minors are having access to alcohol. This is having a big impact on their mental, emotional and physical growth as well as on the society at large. The existing laws do not provide stringent punishment to the offenders, especially those who are making it easy for underage drinkers to have access to alcohol and it is time the Government increases the punishment to make it more difficult for them to have access to it. The Government should also pass laws that will fill the existing loopholes and also provide a support system for young kids to turn to when they have emotional problems. A combination of these measures can go a long way in curbing underage drinking in Australia.
Underage drinking is a common problem in many…
No Author. 2010. Timely Rethink of Liquor Laws. The Advertiser (Adelaide). 21 July. p20-20.
Milne, Glenn. 2008. Alcopops Tax Warning- Young drinkers will switch to stronger wine products. The Sunday Mail (Brisbane). 18 May. P 4-4
Port, Jeni. 2008. "Is it On the Level?" The Age (Melbourne). 25 March. p1-1
Tideman, Deborah. 2006. Drinking Ban: plan to restrict teen alcohol use at home. The Advertiser (Adelaide). 20 June. p5-5
There were some interesting results in the answers obtained. First, all six participants were between the ages of 15 and 18 and 100% of them had started studying the English language in grade 5 at home in Iraq. Another observation is that 80% of the Iraqi students reported that they were a full grade level below in Australia; the remaining 20% were two grade levels behind his or her current educational pace in Iraq. This interesting fact demonstrates that the Iraqi school system is behind the Australian school system and the Iraqi learners will need further 2nd language training.
The fourth question delves into the educational background of the Iraqi students parents. A Muslim belief dictates many of the findings because Iraqi females often are not schooled and in some cases are illiterate. Sixty percent of the males have college level education, 40% of the males have a military or…
Australian Criminal Justice System
Formal mechanisms are required to make certain there is no bias or discrimination against the people. With informal mechanisms there was unfair treatment of the accused even to the point of receiving unjust sentencing. Those who had the power within the informal mechanisms often received the property or other goods once held by the accused, withhold evidence for personal benefit, or acted as vigilantes exacting their own justice (Lincoln and obinson, 2010).
Social control is best managed by those that have been elected to oversee the management of the changing formats of punishment for criminal behavior. The formal mechanisms work best when connected with matters of state within society (oach Anleu, 1998). One theory that demonstrates the interconnected relations is the Behaviorists Concept. This theory asserts that social control lies within governmental administration of what is considered a normal lifestyle through
Legislation, legal action and negotiation…
Australian Government Department of Foreign Investment and Trade (2011). Legal System. Retrieved December 15, 2011 from http://www.dfat.gov.au/facts/legal_system.html
Indehmar, D and Roberts, L. (2009). Confidence in the criminal justice system. Retrieved December 15, 2011 from http://www.aic.gov.au/documents/D/6/8/%7BD68CD7EA-536A-4025-A8C0-A5BADF59A6AC%7Dtandi387.pdf
Lincoln, R. And Robinson, S. (2010). Crime over Time. Cambridge Scholars Publishing: Newcastle Tyne.
Roach Anleu, S.L. (1998). The role of civil sanctions of in social control: a social legal examination December 15, 2011 from http://www.popcenter.org/library/crimeprevention/volume_09/Role_ofCivilSanctions.pdf
This provision is based on the rationale that general damages do not represent financial loss to the injured person. A number of changes have also been made to the law in respect to assessment of damages for past and future economic loss.
4. The maximum amount of damages for economic loss due to loss of earnings or the deprivation or impairment of earning capacity is fixed at a rate of three times the average weekly earnings in New South Wales for the most recent quarter occurring before the date of the award.
5. Future economic loss predictions, for the purpose of making an award, must be based on assumptions that accord with the claimant's most likely future circumstances but for the injury. If the court makes an award for future economic loss, it must adjust the amount determined by reference to the percentage possibility that, but for the injury, certain…
Amponsah, P.N. 2004. Libel Law, Political Criticism, and Defamation of Public Figures: The
United States, Europe, and Australia. New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing.
Bailey, R.J. 1976. "Trespass negligence and Venning v Chin." The Adelaide Law Review, vol. 5,
no. 4, pp. 402-427.
This part of the assignment is worth a total of 12 marks (details are provided below). It requires you to provide a written response to the questions listed below.
hen answering the provided questions you must ensure that your answers address the questions, that your answers have an accounting/financial reporting focus, that your answers are internally consistent and that the individual components of your answers provide a well-rounded argument that is easy to follow.
The Chief Financial Officer (CFO) of Large Mart has been unable to find answers for two accounting problems. He has asked you to investigate the following questions and to write a report (including relevant references to source materials and accounting standards) that will provide him with answers to these questions and help him to understand how you have developed your answers.
(5 marks) Large Mart has recently purchased and installed a filter…
Accounting Standards Board. (N.d.). Tangilble Fixed Assets. Retrieved from ASB: https://www.frc.org.uk/Our-Work/Publications/ASB/FRS-15-Tangible-Fixed-Assets/FRS-15-Tangible-Fixed-Assets.aspx
Australian Tax Office. (n.d.). Deductions for business. Retrieved from Australian Government: http://www.ato.gov.au/Business/Deductions-for-business/What-you-can-claim-and-when/
Australian Taxation Office. (N.d.). Income and Deductions. Retrieved from Vehicle and travel expenses: http://www.ato.gov.au/Individuals/Income-and-deductions/Deductions-you-can-claim/Vehicle-and-travel-expenses/
McGregor, W. (2013, October). This Occassional Paper. Retrieved from Liabilities - the neglected element: http://www.aasb.gov.au/admin/file/content102/c3/AASB_OP-1_10-13.pdf
Although there has been some movement away from the legalistic mode of child protection favored in the 1980s and 1990s, there is still a focus on forensic investigation of child abuse, which does not allow for sufficient between high risk families and low risk families, decreasing the chances that truly at risk children will receive protection, as well as increasing the risk of intervention in functioning families. Currently, Australia is taking a public health approach to child protective services. "In most states child protection services are part of a broader department of human services" (Lamont & Bromfield, 2010).
The dramatic increase in services to children in danger has come with a very high price tag. "Nationally, approximately $2.8 billion was spent on child protection and out-of-home care services in 2010-11, which was an increase of $137.7 million from 2009-10. Of this expenditure, out-of-home care services accounted for the majority (64.9%…
Bromfield, L. & Holzer, P. (2008). A national approach for child protection: Project report.
Retrieved March 26, 2013 from New South Wales Government website: http://www.community.nsw.gov.au/docswr/_assets/main/documents/childprotection_report.pdf
Bromfield, L., Holzer, P., Lamont, A., Kovaks, K., Richardson, N., & Scott, D. (2013). How
much does Australia spend on child protection? Retrieved March 27, 2013 from Australian Institute of Family Studies website: http://www.aifs.gov.au/cfca/pubs/factsheets/a142118/index.html
Australian Company Outsourcing
Outsourcing of Australian Business
Supply chain complexity and risk have both increased to unprecedented levels in the past few decades. According to Murray, et al. (2011), "Market evolutions and increasing worldwide demand for products and services mean that supply routes will remain complex and ever-changing" (2011:2). As trade has become more global, the scope and reach of partnerships in many industries has expanded. Value chain complexity has increased bringing about a greater need for deeper understanding of the contexts in which these entities carry out their work Firms have become more specialized and -- de facto -- more interconnected. In the course of its quotidian work, a multinational firm may find that it has also swept a wide variety of working conditions, infrastructures, and philosophies into the value chain formula. A new term for this sort of loosely coupled and self-organizing network of independent firms is extended…
100 Great Supply Chain Partners Issue. (2009, July 24) SupplyChainBrain Magazine, Keller Publishing. Available at: http://www.supplychainbrain.com/content/general-scm/quality-metrics/single-article-page/article/100-great-supply-chain-partners-issue/
Bolton, JM, Tse, M, Russell, JS, Tang, M, Dawar, S, and Inagaki, M. (2006).
Farrell, JP (2008, April 9) What is the Extended Enterprise? Available at: http://jpfarrell.blogspot.com/2008/04/extended-enterprise.html
Gattorna, J (2006) Living Supply Chains, John FT New York, NY: Prentice Hall. Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management
Through the Aborigines' ritual, "bora," Wright attempts to describe in detail this tradition in the poem through imagery, while, at the same time, citing its death through the use of symbolism. Subsisting to the main theme of 'cultural death,' "Bora ring" uses implied meaning in each line of them. Examples of these are the use of "the dance is secret" and "the tribal story lost in an alien tale," lines in the poem that signify cultural death, the dissolution of the ritual in the midst of new influences from foreign settlers and/or modernization. Stanza three is illustrated as the most effective stanza in the poem: Wright's description of the Aborigines' loss from foreign influence is powerfully expressed as follows: "[t]he hunter is gone: the spear is splintered underground..." Cultural death is not the only tragedy that happens among the Aborigines, but also physical death (this may be construed as genocide),…
28). The directions that this new "great and powerful" friend takes in the next 20 years will have a pronounced effects on what type of foreign policy is needed to maintain the middle road aspired to by Australian foreign policymakers. In the Australia's Defence Department's White Paper, "Defending Australia in the Asia Pacific century: Force 2030," published in 2009, a number of eventualities are examined in terms of the appropriateness of an independent, dependent, interdependent or coindependent foreign policy in the future, depending on how the world changes. In the chapter, "Australia's Defence Policy," the White Paper makes the following points:
1. A nation's 'strategic posture' is the expression of how it seeks to secure its strategic interests, including by reducing the risk of conflict in the first place, and how it would potentially use force in relation to its strategic interests. In terms of strategic posture, an Australian government…
Berger, M.T. & Borer, D.A. (1999). The rise of East Asia: Critical visions of the Pacific century. London: Routledge.
Copper, D.A. (2002). Competing Western strategies against the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction: Comparing the United States to a close ally. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Defending Australia in the Asia Pacific century: Force 2030. (2009). Australian Government:
Department of Defence -- Australian Policy Online. Retrieved from http://www.apo.org .
The idea of poverty and hunger in Australia is quite a contentious issue. There is no doubt that there is hunger -- most in Aboriginal communities. However, Australian politicians argue that relative measures of wealth and poverty are meaningless and hide the abject conditions of many Australians. Statistics also show that 13% of Australians live in poverty, 3% of Australia's children. It is not so much that the poor as a class is growing, but rather than becoming poorer in absolute terms and really becoming more numerous (Cenus of Population and Housing Characteristics, 2002). In fact, the 2007 UNICEFF report on child poverty found that Australia had the 14th highest rate of child poverty and hunger (An Overview of Child Well-Being in ich Countries, 2007).
ecommendations -- Clearly, the situation in Australia, much like Europe and the United States, is not one of availability of food, but of distribution and…
An Overview of Child Well-Being in Rich Countries. (2007, January). Retrieved August 2010, from Unicef-irc.org: www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/rc7_eng.pdf
Australia's Public Health Infrastructure. (2010, January). Retrieved August 2010, from Vic.Gov.au: http://www.dhs.vic.gov.au/nphp/publications/broch/sectn003.htm
Campbell, C. (2007). Children At Risk. Childhood Education, 83(3), 189+.
Census of Population and Housing Characteristics. (2002, June 17). Retrieved August 2010, from Australian Bureau of Statistics:
The author of this report has been charged with assessing the good and bad things as it pertains to the Australian Curriculum. This would include its efficacy and legitimacy as a national document and part of the law. Of course, education is one of the most important and controversial things when it comes to government and its efficacy. Factors that are considered and debated about including what should be taught, when it should be taught age-wise, how much should be spent on the teaching and so forth. This report shall be a literature review of both the good and bad things that have emerged when it comes to the Australian Curriculum and an overall verdict shall be offered at the end of this report. While there are certain flaws when it comes to any government bureaucracy or system, the Australian Curriculum has mostly been a success by any reasonable standard.…
Australian Cladding Company Details task: Please read case ? additional materials) answer questions end. Presentation requirements: Essay format (refer additional materials)
The Australian Cladding Company Analysis
The increased competition in most business fields has determined companies to develop innovative strategies that can help them create competitive advantage. In order to reach this objective, there are certain aspects that these companies must focus on when establishing their strategy. The most important issues that require their attention and efforts are represented by human resources management, costs, and resources.
The costs that are associated with their production process require increased efforts that certain companies cannot afford in this business environment. Therefore, they are interested in reducing production costs. There are several strategies that can be addressed in such situation. In order to reduce their costs, most companies prefer to outsource some of their activities and processes to cheaper destinations like China and India.…
1. Porter's Five Forces (2010). QuickMBA. Retrieved October 16, 2011 from http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/porter.shtml .
2. Armstrong, M. (2006). A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. Kogan Page, Ltd. Retrieved October 16, 2011 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=D78K7QIdR3UC&printsec=frontcover&dq=human+resources+management&hl=ro#v=onepage&q=human%20resources%20management&f=false .
3. Sims, R. (2007). Human Resource Management: Contemporary Issues, Challenges, and Opportunities. Retrieved October 16, 2011 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=2pNfy7sKrRIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=human+resources+management&hl=ro#v=onepage&q=human%20resources%20management&f=false .
4. Beardwell, J. & Claydon, T. (2007). Human Resource Management: A Contemporary Approach. Pearson Education, Ltd. Retrieved October 16, 2011 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=3W5fEzRWGM4C&printsec=frontcover&dq=human+resources+management&hl=ro#v=onepage&q=human%20resources%20management&f=false .
Australian Defense and Strategic policy. Specifically it will discuss the rise of China as a significant regional power, its relationship to Australia, and re-evaluating the United States alliance with Australia and the ANZUS treaty alliance. ANZUS has been the foundation of the Australian defense and strategic policy for at least 50 years -- it began as a result of World War II and American dominance on the world scene.
Since World War II, Australia and the United States have enjoyed a strong defense relationship. A noted Australian historian notes that Australia declared itself a close ally in 1941. The prime minister stated, "Without any inhibitions of any kind, I make it quite clear that Australia looks to America, free of any pangs as to our traditional links or kinship with the United Kingdom…. We are, therefore, determined that Australia shall not go, and we shall exert all our energies towards…
Ayson, Robert. 2006, Chapter 16: Australasian Security, in Strategy and Security in the Asia Pacific. Ayson, Robert and Desmond Ball, eds. Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin.
Bandow, Doug. 2009, Following the New Australian Defense Model, Cato Institute, viewed 21 August 2009,
Clarke, Frank G. 2002. The History of Australia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Australian Literature: An Anthology of Writing From the Land Down Under," by Phyllis Edelson. Specifically, it will contain a brief analysis of British-Australian relations since the 1800s, along with the 19th and 20th century Australian views of Britain.
BITAIN AND AUSTALIA THEN AND NOW British and Australian relations have always been strained, to say the least. The first European settlement on Australia was a British penal colony in 1788. In other words, Australia was good enough for the dregs of Britain, and that was about all. The first settlement was located at what is now Sydney. Eleven ships brought 1,530 passengers with 700 convicts and the rest soldiers sent to guard the convicts and make sure they did a full day's work.
For the first thirty years of the 19th century, Australia was little more than a large holding cell for British prisoners, and Britain seemed to have little other…
Edelson, Phyllis Fahrie. Australian Literature: An Anthology of Writing From the Land Down Under. New York: Ballentine Books, 1993.
Australian and International Websites
Comparing Australian and International E-Commerce Websites
The catalyst of all successful e-commerce strategies is the orchestration of supply chain management, logistics, fulfillment and the intuitively-designed user experience of the website itself. The unique value proposition of e-commerce strategies are predicated on how well they orchestrate these many systems, processes and platforms together to create a unified, highly efficient selling and delivery system. Successful e-commerce sites are able to unify these diverse business model elements and consistently deliver an exceptional customer experience on the websites they use to sell online with as well. The most successful e-commerce websites are able to pull together these many diverse value chain elements and deliver consistent performance that builds trust and loyalty with customers over time (eatty, Reay, Dick, Miller, 2011). The intent of this analysis is to evaluate an Australian and international website to see how each varies in their…
Beatty, P., Reay, I., Dick, S., & Miller, J. (2011). Consumer trust in e-commerce web sites: A meta-study. ACM Computing Surveys, 43(3), 3.
Filson, D. (2004). The impact of E-commerce strategies on firm value: Lessons from Amazon.com and its early competitors*. The Journal of Business, 77(2), S135-S154.
Wang, J. (2010). E-commerce communities as knowledge bases for firms. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 9(4), 335-345.
Industries that face stiff competition may favor and encourage an aggressive approach from employees that produces rapid results, rather than thoughtful, strategic action. When the gains cannot be realized in the desired time frame, there is a temptation to implement short cuts; resulting in fraud." (Price; Norris, 2009) That however is not a justification, although it prompts some regulations on the way industries operate.
The Law Catches Up
Today the criminal justice system responds to corporate crime much better than before. This is because earlier the scams were an unknown commodity in Australia and it was a U.S. phenomenon. Globalization changed that and now, according to the National Crime Prevention office in Australia the fraudster type of activities in firms were classified as fake billing and invoicing, investments and money chain scams, advance fee frauds, borrowing from the public as in ponzi type scams, the pyramid and money chain, insolvency…
Braithwaite, John. (1992) "Penalties for White-Collar Crime"
Retrieved 28 July, 2012 from http://www.anu.edu.au/fellows/jbraithwaite/_documents/Articles/Penalties_White_1992.pdf
Braithwaite, John. (1985) "White Collar Crime" Annual Review of Sociology vol. 11, no. 1, pp: 1-25.
"Definition of white collar crime" (from the scanned reference mailed by client -- book title not clear) Please insert book title here
The UAE economy
Macroeconomic analysis of the Economies
Household final consumption expenditure
General Government final consumption expenditure
CPI & Inflation
Government Spending & Taxes
United Arab Emirates
Household final consumption expenditure
General Government final consumption expenditure
CPI (Consumer Price Index)
Government Spending & Taxes
In this paper, we describe as well as compare the economies of two countries (United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Australia).We do this by effectively researching the economic characteristics of two national economies, and then selecting a limited number of critical variables which can best be used in describing their similarities and differences. We also research the critical background on the two national economies so as to explain their current economic situation while also suggesting their likely future economic states. The paper begins by presenting a general…
Central Intelligence Agency (2012).GDP (official exchange rate).Available online at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2195.html
Laurie, Kirsty and McDonald, Jason. (2008)A Perspective on Trends in Australian Government Spending [online]. Economic Round-up, Summer 2008: 27-50. Availability: ISSN: 1031-8968. [cited 17 Dec 12].
Tim Colebatch, T (2012). "Economic Irrationalism." http://www.smh.com.au/opinion/politics/our-economic-irrationalism-20120312-1uwde.html
OECD (2009). National Accounts at a Glance 2009.Available online at http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/sites/9789264067981-en/03/01/index.html?contentType=&itemId=/content/chapter/9789264075108-12-en&containerItemId=/content/serial/22200444&accessItemIds=/content/book/9789264067981-en&mimeType=text/html
The economy of Australia has been experiencing a positive growth. In particular, the economy of the nation has indicated extraordinary and remarkable progress devoid of going through a single recession for over two decades. This is a record that is unmatched by any other nation across the globe. The Australian economy has seen incessant growth and this has encompassed low unemployment rates, inflation that has been kept in check, considerably low public debt, and a financial system that is comprehensively strong and stable. For more than two decades, the economy of the nation has experience an average GDP growth rate of 3.5% every year. This growth rate has largely surpassed all other economies of major developed nations. For instance, the United States has an average growth rate of 2.6%, Canada having 2.5% and the United Kingdom having 2.2% (Tang, 2016). This can be illustrated in the diagram below.
Therefore, the company needs to aggressively pursue legal action against companies to ensure that the integrity of its brand is maintained.
A high profile event like the orld Cup can provide a platform for an athletic wear company, so that company must move aggressively to ensure that no other company steals the spotlight for which it has rightfully paid. This approach is necessary as well because of the lack of protection for intellectual property in some countries.
This article also illustrates the concept of expansion by acquisition. In order to bolster its presence in North America, the largest market for athletic apparel, Adidas purchased Reebok. The company can retain the brand it has purchased, or utilize the acquisition's distribution channels and market share for its own advantage. The strength of the acquired brand will in part dictate this decision. It should be remembered in such situations that the specific products…
Marinovich, S. (2006). Adidas puts boot in to protect hard-earned stripes. Australian Financial Review. 2-5-06, p.61
Critical Thinking and Analysis
Developing critical thinking skills and using those skills to analyze the nursing practices, guidelines and standards provides the individual with the ability and capabilities to advance in a nursing career, helps the individual to assist others in achieving their goals and objectives, and assists the individual in the quest to become a more effective and efficient nurses. One recent study determined that nurses can also benefit from enhanced critical thinking skills "by describing the mental processes, or vigilance, nurses use to differentiate the significant from the non-significant observations made with regard to patients" (Robert, Petersen, 2013, p. 86). If that is true then critical thinking skills can be quite important to the nurse who is seeking to develop a relationship with his or her patients that provides for the optimum recovery through comprehensive observation.
A nurse who understands that thinking through what he or she is…
Bozorgmehr, K.; Bruchhausen, W.; Hein, W.; Knipper, M.; Korte, R.; Razum, O.; Tinnemann, P.; (2014) The global health concept of the German government: strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities, Global Health Action, Vol. 7, pp. 1-4
Christou, A. & Thompson, S.C.; (2013) Missed opportunities in educating Aboriginal Australians about bowel cancer screening: Whose job is it anyway? Contemporary Nurse: A Journal for the Australian Nursing Profession, Vol. 46, Issue 1, pp. 59-69
Garrity, M.K.; (2013) Developing nursing leadership skills through reflective journaling: a nursing professor's personal reflection, Reflective Practice, Vol. 14, Issue 1, pp. 118-130
German, M.; (2013) Developing our cultural strengths: Using the 'Tree of Life' strength-based narrative therapy intervention in schools, to enhance self-esteem, cultural understanding and to challenge racism, Educational & Child Psychology, Vol. 30, Issue 4, pp. 75-99
Criminal Justice System
Australian Criminal Justice System
"When all is said and done, the current criminal justice system is about as fair and effective as we can reasonably expect"
Overview of the Criminal Justice System: Fair and Effective - Penal Populism
The Democracy at Work thesis proposes that politicians have been properly responsive to public concern about crime by putting into place the more robust responses to offending which people want. An alternative perspective is that politicians have been populist in advocating these tougher policies. "Penal populism"; a term equivalent to Bottoms's (1995) "populist punitiveness"; is defined here as a punishment policy developed primarily for its anticipated popularity. Penal policy is particularly susceptible to populism, because there is a great deal of public concern about crime, and low levels of public knowledge about sentencing practice, sentencing effectiveness, and sentencing equity. This combination of concern and lack of knowledge can present…
Bottoms, A.E. (1995). The philosophy and politics of punishment and sentencing. In C. Clarkson and R. Morgan, eds., The politics of sentencing reform. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Hogg, R., and D. Brown (1998). Rethinking law and order. Sydney: Pluto Press.
Toby, J. (1957). Social disorganization and stake in conformity: Complementary factors in the predatory behavior of hoodlums. Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science 48: 12 -- 17.
Sallmann, P., and J. Willis (2003). Criminal justice in Australia. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
In November of 2012, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) announced that the Australian and Canadian dollars would be added to its list of reserve currencies. This status is the highest for any currency, and implies that the currency is a very reliable store of value. A reserve currency is backed by a nation's assets, like any fiat currency, but with reserve currencies there are also the conditions of good governance, economic diversification, free float and other such attributes that define the world's strongest and most widely-traded currencies. These are also currencies that are traded widely in their regions -- the Australian dollar is a reference currency in the South Pacific -- and they are held by foreign central banks as part of those banks' currency portfolios. The relative strength of the AUD and CAD has been cited as the reason for those currencies' popularity with central bankers, and…
CIA World Factbook (2015). Australia. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved November 29, 2015 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html
Inman, P. (2015). Slowing growth in China raises red flag for global economy. The Guardian. Retrieved November 29, 2015 from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/oct/19/slowing-growth-china-commodities-global-economy
Investopedia (2015) Fiat money. Investopedia. Retrieved November 29, 2015 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/f/fiatmoney.asp
Marsh, D. (2012). Aussie, Canada dollars termed reserve currencies. MarketWatch. Retrieved November 29, 2015 from http://www.marketwatch.com/story/aussie-canada-dollars-termed-reserve-currencies-2012-11-19
Curriculum Early Childhood Education
Literacy is considered to be a fundamental human right and is considered to be "essential to social and human development," used for exchanging knowledge and ideas" (UNESCO, 2015).
The development of literacy is critical to learning, in particular the development of communication skills, critical thinking and fostering the ability to analyse and comprehend material (Australian Curriculum, n.d.). While basic reading and writing skills are the foundation of literacy, the concept of multiliteracies reflects that there are many different purposes for which students must become literate. Literacy is not simply about learning the mechanics of a language, but about being able to function in a society. Multiliteracies recognizes this, in particular that language is used for business, for social purposes, and for the performance of everyday tasks. The concept has emerged in light of the realization that simply being able to read and write is insufficient for…
Australian Curriculum and Assessment Reporting Authority [ACARA]. (n.d.). English: Rationale. Retrieved from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/English/Rationale
Australian Institute or Teaching and School Leadership [AITSL]. (2012). Multiple literacy outcomes [video file]. Retrieved from http://www.aitsl.edu.au/australian-professional-standards-for-teachers/illustrations-of-practice/detail?id=IOP00179
Meiers, M. & Department of Education and Training, Victoria. (2006). A Chronological Review of Literacy Policies and Programs of the Western Australia Department of Education & Training, Victoria, 1980-2005. Retrieved from https://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/publ/research/publ/Literacy_Chronology_Paper_9-rpt-v1.01-20060830.pdf
Connor, J. (2011). Foundation for Learning: Relationships between early years learning framework and the Australian curriculum [An ECA-Australian Curriculum and Assessment Reporting Authority paper]. Early Childhood Australia: Canberra.
Against Odds: Australian Women's Experiences ecovery Breast Cancer
Elmir, , Jackson, D, Beale, B., & Schmied, V 2009. Against all odds: Australian women's experiences of recovery from breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19, pp.2531-2538.
Elmir, Jackson, Beale & Schmied (2009, p.2531) investigates the younger female's experiences following breast cancer-linked breast surgery. The purpose of the study was to create an understanding of the experiences of women who under-go breast cancer surgeries. Elmir et al. (2009, p.2533) study aimed at contributing to the base of knowledge for clinicians practicing in the field of breast cancer. The underlying principle behind the study carried out by Elmir and associates is the prevalence of breast cancer among younger women and inadequate studies concerning recuperating from breast cancer-linked surgery.
McMurray & Clendon (2010, p. 241) assert that breast cancer is affecting younger women between 20 and 40 years given the better surveillance and earlier…
Willig, C 2013. Introducing qualitative research in psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill International.
Pequegnat, W., & Stover, E 2010. How to write a successful research grant application: A guide for social and behavioral scientists. New York: Springer.
McMurray, A., & Clendon 2010. Community health and wellness: Primary health care in practice. Australia: Elsevier Australia.
Mott, D 2008. Emergency room use: A phenomenological study of community-based healthcare. Texas: ProQuest.
IS A PARTICULAR TYPE OF KNOLEDGE PRIVILEGED IN AUSTRALIAN SOCIETY?
The Australian society is very complex and it is important for a person to look at it from a series of perspective in order to gain a better understanding of why it promotes particular attitudes. Many Australians are likely to put across feelings related to relaxation, even in the face of danger, and this is why the community has experienced success throughout history. In spite of this relaxation, Australia promotes values related to hard-working and determination, as it is generally focused on encouraging forward-moving attitudes, regardless of the situation. hile it would seem that such thinking is unlikely to cause any damage, the truth is that it tends to bring on ignorance at times as society only focuses on assisting particular groups. Australia's cultural diversity plays an important role in generating information concerning knowledge-related matters.
Knowledge as seen from an…
Armitage, Andrew, "Comparing the Policy of Aboriginal Assimilation: Australia, Canada, and New Zealand," (UBC Press, 01.01.2011)
Garas, Dimitri, and Godinho, Sally, "Configuring of Masculinity in an Ethnocentric Community School," Retrieved February 19, 2013, from the Australia ECU University Website: http://ro.ecu.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1417&context=ajte
Harrington, Marilyn, "Australian Government funding for schools explained," Retrieved February 19, 2013, from the Parliament of Australia Website: http://aphnew.aph.gov.au/binaries/library/pubs/bn/sp/schoolsfunding.pdf
Reld, Ian, "WHAT IS NEEDED TO MAKE AUSTRALIA A KNOWLEDGE-DRIVEN AND LEARNING-DRIVEN SOCIETY?," Retrieved February 22, 2013, from the Business/Higher Education Round Table Website: http://www.bhert.com/publications/position-papers/B-HERTPositionPaper05.pdf
For this purpose it has set-up National Anti-acism Partnership and Strategy (Stone, 2008). This strategy will be making alliance with various departments like Department of Immigration and Citizenship, the Australian human rights commission and the ace Discrimination Commissioner, Australian multicultural advisory council etc.
Multicultural Arts and Festivals Grants: In response to multicultural Australian society, Australian government to take care of all its citizens have decided to execute Diversity and social Cohesion Programs from multicultural arts and festivals small grants. This provides a platform for all Australians to learn about each other's cultures and traditions.
Multicultural Youth Sports Partnership Program: For the purpose of creating network and connection between the youth from diverse cultural backgrounds, Australian government has taken a step in establishing Multicultural Youth Sports Partnership Programs. Australian Sports Commission (ASC) will be managing this program (Howard, 2005).
Australia with its cultural mix has adopted Multicultural Policy with the…
Howard, Cosmo (2005). The Policy Cycle: a Model of Post-Machiavellian Policy Making? the
Australian Journal of Public Administration.
Kellow, Aynsley (Summer 1988). Promoting Elegance in Policy Theory: Simplifying Lowi's
Arenas of Power. Policy Studies Journal 16: 713 -- 724. doi:10.1111/j.1541-0072.1988.tb00680.x.
Health of Indigenous Australian Using Ecological and Holistic Health Paradigm
Patterns of health and illness
Impact of Broader Environments
Health is a basic component of human life that comprises of multiple facets. The description of health has witnessed dramatic change during past few years, as it has become a holistic phenomenon. Previously, it was considered that a healthy person is the one who does not suffer from any ailment or illness. However in recent times, the physical, psychological and communal aspects of human life have been amalgamated to give a broader perspective to human health which is identical to the concept of indigenous communities (Hjelm, 2010).
Numerous organizations are working extensively for providing adequate health care to the world population since many decades. However, it is appalling to notice that discrimination on social, economic and…
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2012, Australia's health 2012, AIHW, Australia.
Biddle, N & Yap, M 2010, Demographic and Socioeconomic Outcomes Across the Indigenous Australian Lifecourse: Evidence from the 2006 Census, ANU E. Press, Australia.
Caltabiano, ML & Ricciardelli, L 2012, Applied Topics in Health Psychology, John Wiley & Sons, Great Britain.
Carson, B, Dunbar, T & Chenhall, RD 2007, Social Determinants of Indigenous Health, Allen & Unwin, Singapore.
Indigenous Australians and Diabetes
In Adelaide the first case of diabetes in Indigenous people was noted in 1923. The records clearly show that Indigenous people didn't diagnose diabetes at the time as they were fit, lean and in good shape. Apart from that, they didn't have any metabolic ailment at the time. Till the 1960's, the estimates of diabetes in Indigenous people weren't taken and no investigation done until then. Then a connection was found between indigenous population and westernized living in the population as type-2 diabetes was slowly starting to materialize. Since then, type 2 diabetes has been deemed as the most worrying health problems in Australia as the probability of it being in the population is four times (Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet, 2007a).
Diabetes and the afflicted person
Diabetes can affect a person in many ways as shown below:
Physically (Shaw, 2012)
Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2006) The health and welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples 2006. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and the Australian Bureau of Statistics.
Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet (2007a) Review of diabetes among Indigenous peoples. Retrieved June 7, 2014 from http://www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/chronic-conditions/diabetes/reviews/our-review
Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet (2007b) Background information on Diabetes. Retrieved June 7, 2014 from http://www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/chronic-conditions/diabetes/reviews/background-information
Bhattacharyya et al. (2002). Inpatient management of diabetes mellitus and patient satisfaction. Diabetic medicine: A journal of the British Diabetic Association, 19 (5), 412-416.
348). Pursuant to the Court's holding in Grand Central Car Park Pty Ltd. v Tivoli Freeholders  V 62 per McInerney J (public nuisance), in order for fault to rise to the level needed for liability for nuisance, the defendant's fault must include the following components:
1. The defendant knew or ought to have known of the nuisance;
2. The interference or damage to the neighbour's property from the nuisance was reasonably foreseeable; and,
3. The defendant did not take reasonable action or steps to end the nuisance (at 72).
Such fault, though, must also rise to an actionable level and cannot typically involve minor, isolated infringements of property rights that are part and parcel of the human condition such as a dog barking once in awhile or a baseball that is accidentally tossed through a window by neighborhood youths. Congruent with the legal definition of private nuisance provided by…
Black's Law Dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Hyams, R. (2005). 'School Supervision of Children outside School Hours in Australia: Who's
Responsible?' Journal of Law and Education, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 347-349.
Kozlowski, J.C. (1999, July). 'No Ifs, Ands or Butts about it...' Parks & Recreation, vol. 34, no.
In the period between 2002 and 2012, Australia experienced a mining boom; a period in which the level of exports increased more than threefold and also the investment made in mining as a percentage of the nation’s GDP increasing from 2 percent to 8 percent. Imperatively, during the mining boom period, there was a significant increase in demand for minerals. This is because of the demand for minerals not only locally but also internationally. Therefore, this caused a rightward shift in the demand curve. This leads to the positioning of a new equilibrium price. The comparative theory best explains the exportation of minerals by Australia and the importation of other commodities from other nations. In this regard, Australia is considered to have a comparative advantage in the production of minerals because it can produce minerals at a relatively lower opportunity cost compared to China. Another aspect that was influenced…
At the time, the question-and-response format seemed an ideal way of instructing converts and children 'correctly.' The text originally began as a preacher's reference, rather than was intended as a pedagogical instrument (25). As pointed out by Herbert Lombaerts, the catechism arose as a reaction to the Protestant eformation -- as a way of purifying the new Catholic faith, and distilling its very essence from the trappings of the cult of the saints and papal authority. The catechism itself, however, became a kind of holy relic, and the words and structure of the text took on symbolic value, beyond their actual meaning (Lombaerts 1986: 5).
Studying a mid-1970s classroom text for use in Australian Catholic entitled Here and now reflects a far different concept of the student than the rote repeater of dogma of the pre-Vatican II era. In the textbook, the student is asked to make a list of…
Lombaerts, Herbert. (1986). Religious education today and the catechism. Word in Life.
Marthaler, Bernard. (1978). The modern cachetical movement in Roman Catholicism: Issues and personalities. Religious Education: S77-S90.