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(SEAL, Sec 3(g))
The following section tells us when electronic authentication may be used:
a) ELECTONIC AUTHENTICATION OF DOCUMENTS, INFOMATION, AND IDENTITY-
(1) IN GENEAL- A financial institution may use electronic authentication in the conduct of its business if it has entered into an agreement regarding the use of electronic authentication with any counterparty, or if it has established a banking, financial, or transactional system using electronic authentication. (SEAL, Section 6f)
The Bill was invaluable since e-commerce was in its initial stages and progressing and with the banks ready and willing to use the internet for similar purposes, directives had to be put into place to not only protect consumers but to also ensure that here was a homogeneous system in place so that potential conflicts between the various banks that would imperil the banks and financial institutions as well as the security of the online banking system would be…… [Read More]
GFI Turn-Around IT Strategy
Turn-around Information Technology Strategy for Global Finance, Inc. (GFI)
GFI's Authentication Technology and Network Security Issues
GFI TUN-AOUND IT STATEGY
Global Finance Inc. offers services in the finance industry. This is a sensitive area of business that requires tight security policies and strategies to be implemented on the network of such an organization. GFI has, however, not given much attention to the IT department, especially, its security and thus the loopholes that exist and have been exploited by black-hat hackers. This is clear from the facts provided that the company's oracle database has been compromised in terms of availability, confidentiality and the integrity of the data stored. Organizations in the finance industry have the integrity, confidentiality and availability of their databases as one of their biggest assets. A simple mistake or gap on such an organization's technology policy and implementation may lead to huge losses that…… [Read More]
List and explain five (5) ways that show how authentication or identification of physical evidence can be accomplished (also called "laying the foundation").
Authentication of physical evidence can be accomplished by:
Testimony of a witness who has first-hand knowledge. This is enough for authentication if the person involved has personal diligence that a matter is what is claimed to be.
A non-expert person who must have been well-acquainted with the specimen and did not acquire the knowledge for the purpose of betrayal, such as a spouse or roommate.
Allowing the jury or an expert to put in comparison the evidence purported with the specimens which have been authenticated is enough for authentication.
Distinctive qualities and associated circumstances such as sending a bill to a particular address and getting payment from the bill or other appearance, contents, substance, as well as other internal design qualities when admitted together with…… [Read More]
Pesante (2008), there are three basic security threat parameters important to information on the Internet: "confidentiality," "integrity," and "availability." In addition, Pesante addresses three particular concepts that are related to the people to whom information is made available to who need this information for their work in the organization and can be trusted with it: "authentication," "authorization" and "non-repudiation." I think that it is very important to high or very high security requirements in all six areas. Companies should take advantage of all existing opportunities, both in the technical and the non-technical, social / personal area to ensure the highest possible level of information security within their organization. Whereas technical mechanisms are primarily needed to reduce risks resulting from an attack external to the organization, social and personal counter-measures need to be implemented, if the primary source of attack is expected to be internal (see Boran. 1999, p. 6).
Confidentiality:…… [Read More]
Physical Security Controls
To document the importance of physical security controls as it relates to the massive pervasiveness of online theft and cyber crime
Background information on the identification and authentication of people.
With the advent of the internet it is often very difficult to properly identify the individual in which business is conducted with. With the extreme ease of the internet comes the secrecy of potential criminal lurking through the shadows. Identification and authentication therefore have profound impacts on how to better protect assets from criminals.
The importance of information systems security and how it relates to globalization
Information systems, particularly those that store personal information, often are very senstivie to criminal activity. Therefore physical store techniques mandate that sensitivity information be locked away and under intense surveillance. Aspects such as disposable drives, printers and workstations should also be considered.
C. Brief overview of the paper.
i. The remainder…… [Read More]
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is defined by Techtarget (2010) as a common employed protocol used for the management of security of information being transmitted over the internet. SSL has been recently succeeded by the Transport Layer Security (TLS), a protocol that is based on SSL. SSL operates on the program layer that is located between the Transport Control Layer (TCP) and then Hypertext Transfer Protocol. PCI (2008) referred to SSL as the established industry standard that is used in the encryption of the channel between a given web browser and an appropriate web server in order to ensure that there is privacy and reliability in the information that is being transmitted over the given channel.
SSL is basically included as part of the web browsers as well as Web servers. Patel (2008,p.223) indicated that the SSL protocol was originally developed by Netscape in order to ensure that the security of…… [Read More]
Physical Security Controls
Using attached Annotated outline provide a 5-page paper Physical Security Controls. I attached Annotated Outline Physical Security Controls. You references I Annotated Outline.
The advancement in technology has given rise to numerous computer security threats. It has become quite difficult to identify people online because many people use the internet with fake identities. This has made it easy for people to conduct criminal activities online. Online security of computer systems should be combined with physical security to ensure that no unauthorized person gain access to the systems. A physical security control can be termed as any obstacle used to delay serious attackers, and frustrate trivial attackers. This way a company or organization can be assured of the security if its information and computer systems. Majority of organizations use computer systems to store sensitive company information and employee data. This data needs to be properly secured to ensure…… [Read More]
All network authorized personnel must be instructed to use "strong" passwords consisting of at least 8 characters; they must include at least one upper and one lower case letter, at least one Arabic number, and at least one "special character" in addition to avoiding any form or abbreviation of the user's first or last name (Boyce, 2002; Kizza, 2005).
Network administrators must also implement applications capable of ensuring compliance by automatically rejecting improper password choices. Additionally, administrators must require authorized users to change their passwords at specific intervals. Finally, office managers must monitor compliance with common-sense rules about behavioral aspects of password security, such as prohibiting divulging passwords to co-workers, requiring users to log off if they leave their terminals, and by providing training into recognizing attempted social engineering to obtain secure information through deception (Larson, 2007).
Likewise, authentication layers can also significantly enhance network security. In that regard, the…… [Read More]
These certificates are issued by the certification authorities (CAs) and they contain the name, expiration dates as well as serial numbers of the certificates.
Operating system hardening is the process of addressing the various security issues and vulnerabilities in a given operating system via the implementation of the latest Operating system patches, updates, hotfixes as well procedures and policies that are necessary for reducing the number of attacks as well as system downtime.
Application hardening is the process of addressing the various security issues and vulnerabilities in a given operating system via the implementation of the latest application patches, updates, hotfixes as well procedures and policies that are necessary for reducing the number of attacks as well as system downtime.
Transmission / emote access protection protocols
The transmission protocols that are necessary for the information assurance include the used of https as well as FTP. Https…… [Read More]
XML is used not only to represent the data but also as a messaging protocol called SOAP; and (6) Portal Integration is another popular integration methodology in use today. It doesn't involve expensive and time consuming technologies and processes that EAI and data warehousing require. Also, it is the most customer-facing of all the methods described in this section. This means that it can be highly personalized and customized to the customer's requirements. In future, portals will present their functionality as web services so that multiple portals from different vendors can be integrated.
Architecture of Portals
The portal, when speaking technically, is "a framework that enables developers to plug various software components called portlets, and then deliver the aggregated content to multi-devices." (Mohan, 2003) Integration may be accomplished through using HRML, JSP, Java eans, Java servlets, XSL that transforms XML through XSL transformation or even CGI. Sun Microsystems' Java Community…… [Read More]
"As a manager, how would you plan on securing organizational data? How does security effectiveness and relative cost figure into those plans?"
The more critical aspect of any enterprise-wide security management strategy is to align system resources to the strategic initiatives and goals of an organization. Increasingly this is being accomplished through the use of role-based access and authentication privileges and process workflows that audit and evaluate use of sensitive information (Shih, Wen, 2005). The role of enterprise security management drastically changes however when ubiquitous Web Services are used for capturing, aggregating, analyzing and effectively using confidential data to make financial decisions (Phifer, 2011). The intent of this analysis is to evaluate how intrusion and intrusion detection systems can be used in the 21st century, state-of-the-art IT systems that are to a large extent Cloud-based and often have remote access points that make them particularly vulnerable (Phifer, 2011).…… [Read More]
hashes can be attacked. In addition, describe some scenarios where a hash has been used as part of an authentication scheme, and the validity of a particular authentication using that scheme have been challenged.
Hashes are one type of a variety of cryptographic methods of providing a one-way encoding of information. A hash value can only be recreated using the exact same information again. "The cryptographic value of the hash lies in the fact it is impossible to retrieve the original information from the hash itself." (Miseldine, 2004)
One of the most common and familiar forms of hashes is a password. But although passwords may have significance to the user, viewed from a computer's point-of-view, a hash is merely an unordered collection of values, each of which is identified by a unique key or combination of letters, values, and other symbols. Replicating these keys can only retrieve the value of…… [Read More]
As each device in the family has 5GB and is about to run out, we upgraded each iCloud memory configuration at the store, although it is also possible to do this online as well.
e purchased a 100GB upgrade for the MacBook Air, and also added a 50GB upgrade for the iPad2. The ease of doing this was impressive and we were able to also get the iCloud options configured to be consistent across all devices. The options for what to store and how to archive it was impressive. Apple has made usability and streamline configuration of the iCloud a high priority and it shows.
The value of the Genius Bar was evident in how quickly the problem was solved. The expert also explained each of the new features of the iOS operating system and showed how the iCloud tabs in Safari were replicated in real-time to the…… [Read More]
In the event that Myra decides to expand her business, portability becomes more important. However in this situation portability is not as important due to the single location and the access to cloud technology.
There is not much security risk in this approach to the problem. Beautician scheduling is not regarded as a high risk activity.
Names and time are all that are really needed in this software. As long as that quality is fine, there are no problems with this area.
Once again the lack of a need for high security denotes the lack of importance of this area. Authentication is not that important since the scheduling software is more like a common good to be used by all.
Only basic encryption is needed in a software application such as this. There is no reasonable excuse for any…… [Read More]
The authors have expertise with Oracle databases and use examples from the enterprise products this software vendor provides to make their point regarding security of highly distributed networks. One of the more valuable aspects of this specific paper is the focus on how to create a multilevel secure environment in an enterprise. The authors have done enterprise-level database security work in their careers and this article and research communicate their expertise clearly.
In the article Data Security: A Security Implementation for elational Database Management Systems (Nilakanta, 1989) the author contends that information architectures must rely on a stable database management system (DBMS) to scale securely and reliably across an enterprise. The author provides insights into several different security procedures and approaches to defining a secured operating environment for enterprise-wide DBMS implementations and use. There are also guidelines for defining security clearances and recommendations on hwo best to use encryptions for…… [Read More]
intruder has gained access to a secure place despite the said place having in place several security precautions such as code entry and CCTV. It is important to note that an intruder who succeeds in gaining access to a secure place can do just about anything he or she wants, from alteration to information theft to destruction.
Analysis of the Situation
While some organizational security precautions like code entry may make it difficult for outsiders to gain access to secure areas and/or equipment, such security measures can in some circumstances be circumvented by unscrupulous insiders. In our case, a number of factors could have eased or facilitated the intruder's access to the secure place.
The security cameras could have been unplugged or compromised.
The intruder could have used stolen code access data to gain access.
From the above, it seems highly likely that the intruder could have colluded with insiders…… [Read More]
High Performance Computing (HPC) is a term that has emerged in today's world to replace the yesteryears' custom of supercomputer. In the previous years, supercomputer is a term that generated thoughts of extremely complicated machines that were solving problems that humans could not really understand. Since supercomputers permitted entry of at least seven figures, they were commonly used by engineers and scientists who needed to deal with such figures rapidly. However, this concept has paved way for the emergence of commodity-based supercomputing that is commonly known as High Performance Computing. The main focus of High Performance Computing (HPC) is the ability to process huge amounts of data in short periods of time. High Performance Computing (HPC) is associated with various technologies with varying software and hardware requirements for administrative and operational tasks needed to process data securely.
The Concept of High Performance Computing
Eadline (2009), states that high performance computing…… [Read More]
Jurisdiction issues may also affect the insurance and the coverage provided by the agency as insurance coverage is also restricted to certain regions and not outside those jurisdictions.
Identity Theft: Another issue or the problem is that of identity theft, which is considered to be the fastest growing crime in America as millions of victims have been reported over a period of last couple of years. Giving out information on website whether it is email or other security or personal details requires care & caution on part of both consumers as well as WebMD management.
Jargons: The information available for the consumers at times can be in a technical language. Jargons may create confusion among the consumers and may misguide them. Most information is available in easy to understand language but the provision of glossary of terms may help the consumers in understanding the true meaning of the content available…… [Read More]
FID Technology in the Military
adio frequency identification (FID)
adio frequency identification (FID) is a term used to refer to an electronic system that transmits in form of serial numbers that are distinct, the identity of a person or an object in a wireless manner with the aid of radio frequencies. The FID is categorized under the wider automatic identification technologies category (Association of Automatic Identification and Mobility, 2011). The FID are intelligent bar codes that are connected to a networked system and can communicate back and forth with it.
The FID is nowadays used all around us, from the supermarket items to the pet ID tags, toil booths, gas stations and several security items. Unlike the predecessor UPC bar-code, the FID does not require any contact or line of sight in order for communication to be enabled between the tagged item and the centre of the system. The data…… [Read More]
Applying atson's Nursing Theory to Assess Patient Perceptions of Being Cared for in a Multicultural Environment" describes the validness and authentication of the nursing theory of care by Jean atson. She was of the view that the best which a nurse can give to the patient is care as humans are naturally gifted with it and it is irrespective of ethnical, racial, cultural or social basis. The article describes the implications of this theory in such environment where the nurses and their patients have ethnical and cultural difference and they do not even understand each other's language. It is a case study designed to explore Saudi patient's perceptions of important caring behaviors by staff nurses. It was concluded by the data obtained that the patients rated overall caring behaviors as most important irrespective of their cultural differences with the caregiver. Hence atson's theory was proved in a multicultural environment, but…… [Read More]
Technical Security Recommendations for ABC Healthcare IT Infrastructures
ABC Healthcare has been facing a multitude of challenges ranging from the security of the IT infrastructures to the compliance of regulatory policies. In the United States, the lawmakers are increasing putting more restrictive in the regulatory environment because there have been more attacks in the healthcare environment, damaging the organizational information systems and using worms and virus to gain access to non-authorized sensitive data. The issues are making the stakeholders of ABC Healthcare demand for more flexible access to their information systems. Moreover, increasing regulatory pressures within the healthcare environment with regards to the management of the information systems has made ABC Healthcare to decide to implement more prudent information systems security. The goal of ABC Healthcare is to implement good information systems to abide by regulatory policies of HIPPA and SOX (Sarbanes-Oxley). Typically, both SOX and HIPAA mandate healthcare organizations…… [Read More]
Network Implementation for Davis Networks Inc.
In the proposal, effort is made to develop an affordable local LAN for Davis Networks Inc. The effort involves provision of wireless Internet connection to all individuals for their desktops and laptops from the current high speed connection they have at an affordable price (800 USD -- 1000 USD). Provision of the internet to the same location costs approximately 700 USD including all other expenses like doing the wiring etc. To implement the project, there are various obstacles that have to be considered like electric poles, trees and walls. The core location is the Computer Center building. It has the highest speeds of connection. From this building, there will be distribution to the surrounding buildings located between 500 and 1000 meter range. The establishment of the network needs 5 Wireless Access points (WAP) having Omni antennas (A, B, C, D, E) and two directional…… [Read More]
Auditing, Monitoring, Intrusion Prevention, Intrusion Detection, and Penetration Testing
"Unlike IP fragmentation (which can be done by intermediate devices), IP reassembly can be done only at the final destination. What problems do you see if IP reassembly is attempted in intermediate devices like routers?" [ ]
IP fragmentation is defined as the IP (Internet Protocol) that breaks datagrams into smaller fragment to assist packets passing through links and forming a smaller MTU (maximum transmission unit) than its original size. However, the fragments reassemble themselves when reaching the receiving hosts. After the receiving hosts have received the fragmented IP packet, they have to reassemble the datagram before passing it to the higher layer. In practices, the reassembly happens in the receiving hosts, however, a reassembly may be carried out by the intermediate router. For example, the NAT (network address translation) is designed to reassemble the fragments to the translate data streams.…… [Read More]
Vey High - IPSec woks at the potocol level, independent of applications, theefoe scalability is best-in-class
Compaing the technological and opeational benefits specifically in the aeas of client access options, access contol, client-side secuity, installation, and client configuation highlights just how diffeentiated the IPv4-based IPSec vs. IPv6 -based SSL potocols ae fom each othe. In analyzing these diffeences, Table 3: Compaing Technological and Opeational benefits of IPv6-based SSL and IPv4-based IPSec VPNS, was ceated. Stating fist with the client access options, IPv6-based SSL can suppot a clientless inteface though its bowse at longe addess lengths, suppot fo semi-clientless though Java and ActiveX clients developed in AJAX, and also in a full client configuation. This flexibility in use of the IPv6-based SSL potocol is leading to significantly highe levels of adoption oveall. IPv4-based IPSec has a single client access option that needs to be pe-installed on evey system. Requiing a full…… [Read More]
Design citeia exist at the levels of the technical, system integation aspects of the database to othe systems though XML. This integation is citically impotant to ensue that the applications ceated can be effectively used ove time and not have any scalability issues. Thee is also the need fo designing the databases at the pesentation laye to povide fo scalability and flexibility of being able to ceate applications elatively quickly at the potal level. This is especially impotant fom a Business Pocess Management (BPM) standpoint as databases must be able to suppot the vaious pocess wokflows as defined as pat of business pocess e-engineeing effots ove time. Thee is also the need fom a design standpoint to have a continued development initiative going to captue use needs ove time and include them into the next geneation of database updates. The use of councils to ceate update plans and define the…… [Read More]
emote access controls.
Network security management.
Compliance with the policies and procedures of the company is very vital to the organization, and the policies and procedures should be clearly communicated to the appropriate business teams.
Intruder: The suggested treatment for the attack by the external intruder such as hacker is to ensure that all communication within the organization is encrypted to deter the unauthorized access to the company data. Moreover, the organization should use antivirus to protect the company data from the attack such as Trojan horse, worm, virus etc. Compliance to policies and procedure is so vital to assure an organizational IT security.
Disgruntled Employee: Company needs to evaluate each personnel before being allowed to handle sensitive information. There is a need to conduct background check on each employee. The background check could verify potential employee criminal background, and social background. Employee should be asked to sign…… [Read More]
Summary of work completed
To help ensure that affected personnel had an opportunity to communicate their needs for the solution, a telephonic interview with a work coordinator at Ames Central Travel Office was conducted recently; in addition, this telephonic interview was followed by a personal visit to the Ames esearch Center in order gain a clearer understanding of the current workflow process. The end users of the solution provided very insightful suggestion as to what features they would like incorporated in the system. This meeting was highly productive and helped illuminate the numerous steps that were involved in travel request processing and administration that were unclear or unknown prior to the visit.
Because the software development team for this project is currently working on other initiatives, a meeting has been scheduled with them to discuss the scope and duration of the entire project. Preparatory to this meeting, hard copies of…… [Read More]
Health Care Situation: Medical Error Due to Doctors' Bad Handwriting
Identify a health care news situation that affects a health care organization such as a hospital, clinic or insurance company.
I have identified the following health care news situation as the topic of my paper: "Poor Handwriting of Doctors and its implied risks for the Patient, Hospital and Medical Malpractice Insurance." Poor handwriting of physicians resulting in poor legibility of entries into patients' medical records carries very dramatic risks for all above-mentioned interest bearers. It can result in severe health danger for the patient and - in extreme situations - even cause a patient's death. Doctors' bad penmanship has long been seen a problem within organized medicine and the patient safety movement. Three American Medical Association (AMA) policies dating back to 1992, urge doctors to "improve the legibility of handwritten orders for medications" and review all orders for accuracy and…… [Read More]
" (Tolone, Ahn, Pai, et al. 2005 P. 37).
Table 1 provides the summary of the evaluation of various criteria mentioned in the paper. The table uses comparative terminology such as High, Medium and Low and, descriptive terminology such as Active, Passive, and Simple, and the standard Yes (Y) and No (N). The research provides the solutions based in the problems identified with the access controls evaluated.
Table I: Evaluation of Access Control
Groups of users / Collaboration Support.
N…… [Read More]
They have a moral obligation to the South African people in this area for many reasons. First, they have an obligation to make certain that they can participate in the global economy to give their citizens the same chances for advancement as other nations. Secondly, they have a moral obligation to do everything possible to keep their citizens safe.
When one discusses the topic of security in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), much of the discussion focuses on the technology itself. Currently, the South African banking industry is attempting to establish standards that represent best practices in information security (Tshinu, Botha, and Herselman, 2008). These measures currently focus on the technological aspects of information security. However, the development of industry-wide best practices must take all sources of vulnerability into consideration, including the moral and ethical responsibility to keep information safe.
Therefore, the development of best practices cannot ignore the human…… [Read More]
BluetoothTM is a low cost, low power, short-range radio technology- originally perceived as cable replacement alternative for the cable / wire connected devices such as mobile phone hand, headsets, and portable computers. The BluetoothTM's goals expanded to include standardized wireless communications between any electrical devices and created a notion of Personal Area Network. The write-up traces history of BluetoothTM starting with its unusual name to formation of Special Interest Group, SIG's formation, its growth culminating into implementation of version 1.0b.
Version 1.0 of the Bluetooth came out in 1999-starting as early as 1994 by engineers from Ericsson. The specification is named after Harald Blatand- a tenth century Viking. Ericsson Corp. founded the Bluetooth SIG in February 1998, Intel Corp., IBM Corp., Toshiba Corp., and Nokia Mobile Phones. In December 1999, core promoters group enlarged to include four major players, namely, Micorsoft, Lucent, 3 Com and Motorola.
Then, the components of…… [Read More]
Health-Care Data at Euclid Hospital Security and Control: A White Paper
Protecting Health-Care Data
The efficiency of the modern healthcare system is increasingly becoming reliant on a computerized infrastructure. Open distributed information systems have been initiated to bring professionals together on a common platform throughout the world. It needs to be understood that easy and flexible methods of processing and communication of images; sound and texts will help in visualizing and thereby cure illnesses and diseases effectively. Another aspect is that the easy access and usage can risk patient privacy, accountability, and secrecy associated with the healthcare profession. Therefore, Information Technology -- IT must be able to focus mainly on improving the health of the patient and should not put the patient's health in danger. (IO Press)
This implies that right data has to be made available to the right person at the right time. IT strongly affects the confidentiality…… [Read More]
Protection of Digital Health Information
With increase health information technology store access patient information, likelihood security breaches risen. In fact, Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ): In United States, a whopping 97% increase number health records breached 2010-2011
Ensuring that patient information is protected at all times is vital for any health care institution. Patient information records contain sensitive information that can be used for malicious purposes like identity theft, credit card fraud, and leaking of information for malicious intent. The advancement and use of technology has made it easier for patient information to be accessed within the health care facility Shoniregun, Dube, & Mtenzi, 2010.
This increases the speed of service delivery to the patient and improves the care given to the patient. Technology has allowed for the use of portable electronic devices by the healthcare practitioners in entering and accessing patient records and information. Portable electronic devices are small…… [Read More]
ABC NETWOK DESIGN
A Comprehensive Proposal and Design for ABC Inc. Network equirements
Network Proposal Overview
Network Configuration Management Plan
In order to meet the needs of the customers, ABC Inc. must insure that productivity is not hindered by the growth of the company. The employees at ABC Inc. must have a robust network so that customer service is not jeopardized. The accounting firm has grown from five to fifty employees with the acquisition of a large account. Currently, each employee has their own standalone computer which contains Windows 7, Office 2010 and QuickBooks accounting software. The company does not have a network in place. Currently information is shared by copying data to a flash drive and each workstation has a stand-alone printer. The objective of this proposal is to provide a centralized solution for all of ABC's network needs.
Given the highly…… [Read More]
he growing sophistication of internet, along with advancing abilities of individuals to hack into electronic systems is creating a growing need for improved encryption technology. he internet is becoming a domain all to itself, with its own rules, and requirements. he internet is creating new opportunities for the business and communication industries. It is also creating new demands. he internet is now facing a period in its evolution similar to the period of our country's history of westward expansion, and settlement
Wild Wild West years of the internet have passed with the bursting of the ech bubble in the early 21st century. Now business is building entire enterprises on the net. As hundreds of thousands of dollars change hands based on digital bleeps, the needs for government, business, and individuals to protect their data is becoming of paramount importance. Who will be the exas Ranger's of the internet,…… [Read More]
networking and TCP/IP and internetworking. Also discussed are risk management, network threats, firewalls, and also more special purpose network devices. The paper will provide a better insight on the general aspects of security and also get a better understanding of how to be able to reduce and manage risk personally at the workplace and at home.
In today's world, the Computer has become a common feature in any organization anywhere in the world. This may be due to the fact that a computer can be accessed by anybody who knows how to handle it and also because it can store a lot of information both confidential and general. A computer is connected through a physical network that allows a person or many persons to share any information necessary. (Conceptual Overview of Network Security) Though network security in Information Technology is an issue that has been discussed endlessly, implementation has definitely…… [Read More]
Computer Security Systems
The report provides new security tools and techniques that computer and IT (Information Technology) professionals, network security specialists, individuals, corporate and public organizations can employ to enhance security of their computer and information systems. In the fast paced IT environment, new threats appear daily that make many organizations to lose data and information that worth billions of dollars. In essence, the computer and IT security professionals are required to develop new computer and IT security tools and techniques to protect their information resources.
The present age of universal computer connectivity has offered both opportunities and threats for corporate organizations Typically, since corporate and public organizations rely on computer and network systems to achieve their business objectives, they also face inherent risks which include electronic fraud, eavesdropping, virus attack and hacking. In essence, some hackers use malicious software with an intention to gain access to corporate computer systems…… [Read More]
This occurs when a server happens to receive more connection requests that are incomplete and that it cannot possibly handle. This kind of attack's source code were released in 2006 by 2600 and Phracks two well-known underground hacker magazines. The second threat is IP Spoofing which is an attack which involves the impersonation of a legitimate host user at the IP layer. The third one is sequence number attack. The third one is TCP session hijacking. The third threat is denial of service attacks Security strategies to address various threats that are addressed by IPSec that users who use unsecured TCP/IP face
In order to ensure that users of unsecured TCP/IP don't fall victims to the threats outlined above, the following strategies must be employed;
Countering SYN Flooding:
The ISPs that are responsible for the IP packets must block the non-internal addresses that are responsible for the flooding. The attacker…… [Read More]
This type of evidence includes perception and memory, is subjective, and can be inaccurate. Almost all evidence must be sponsored by a witness who has sworn or solemnly affirmed to tell the truth. All persons are presumed to be qualified to serve as witnesses in trials and other legal proceedings, and all persons are also presumed to have a legal obligation to serve as witnesses if their testimony is sought. Witnesses are generally required to give their testimony in the form of statements regarding what they saw, heard, felt, tasted, or smelled, and they are generally forbidden to express opinion or draw conclusions. A person who is not testifying as an expert will be allowed to present an opinion as testimony if his opinion is both rationally based on his perception and helpful to an understanding of his testimony. Opinions of a competent layperson are specifically permitted by rule, statute,…… [Read More]
In addition electronic purses can be reloaded using ATM machines or traditional tellers (if the card is connected to a banking account).
Additionally, electronic purses are usually based on smart card technology and necessitate a card reader to fulfill a transaction. Equipment including point of sale (POS) terminals, ATMs, and smart card kiosks can be outfitted with card readers (Misra et al., 2004). Every time the user utilizes the card reader to complete a transaction; the card reader will debit or credit the transaction value from or to the card.
The author further asserts that Smart cards can be utilized for various purposes.
In most cases they are used as stored value cards (Misra et al., 2004). Stored value cards can be utilized at the time of purchase and are preloaded with a certain amount of money. These cards can be discarded after they have been used; however, most stored…… [Read More]
Not all offense levels are entitled to a jury trial and each jurisdiction has its own standard in this regard. As a general rule, however, any offense involving the possibility of incarceration as a sanction is entitled to the benefit of a jury trial. This same standard is applicable, as well, to the right of every defendant to be represented by counsel. In all cases, regardless of the seriousness of the offense, the rules of criminal procedure grant the defendant the right to confront any and all witnesses involved in the formation of the charges against him. This right includes the right to cross-examine all such witnesses and to require their attendance at trial through the use of a subpoena.
The distinguishing factor that separates criminal trials from civil ones is the burden of proof. Criminal Procedure in all U.S. jurisdictions requires that guilt in the criminal court is based…… [Read More]
It also has only printable characters
The character is unsuitable since it contains more than 8 characters. It can be guessed by dictionary attack since it is a common name
The password is unsuitable since it has more than 8 characters. Can be guessed by a dictionary attack since it is a common name
The password is suitable since the character length does not exceed eight characters and it contains printable characters
The password is too obvious so it is unsuitable
The password is suitable since it does not contain more than 8 characters. It also contains printable characters.
95*95*95*95*95*95*95*95*95*95 + 6.4 million
DAC is used to define the basic access control policies to various objects. These are set according to the needs of the object owners. The MAC are access control policies that are system-controlled. The…… [Read More]
In this manner, it makes network management and filtering a lot easier. Even though SPF can protect the network infrastructure against certain attacks that are known to exploit the weaknesses that are inherent in the various network level protocols, it can never provide protection at application level. The application defense needs more awareness of the content of the payload.
Circuit Proxy Firewall (CPF)
This type of firewall operates by relying as an relaying agent that exists between the external and internal hosts (Stephen, 2004). The whole idea is to protect the network's internal hosts from direct exposure to the outside environments.
The CPF firewall operates by accepting various requests from the internal hosts for the sake of establishing the connection to the external world. It then destroys the device's initial IP address as well as the header of the network layer.
Disadvantages of CPF
The payload is then encapsulated in…… [Read More]
Despite its clear benefits and advantages in terms of ease of use and cost effectiveness, there are certain risks associated with wireless networking. These risks are discussed further below.
Review of the Literature.
Security Risks Associated with IEEE WLAN 802.11. The applications for wireless communication technology continue to develop and expand; today, at least, the 802.11b is the standard of choice for wireless router communication used with network installation (Gonazles & Higby 2003). "The integrity of the transmitted data is a valid 2.4 GHz. At this wavelength medium, the propagation of wavelength maintains strong connectivity" (Gonzales & Higby 2003, p. 30). The technology of WLANs actually dates back to the mid-1980s; during this period, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) freed up radio frequency (rf) to the industry. "Initially, this was viewed as a broadcast reception procedure and very little thought went to broadcast transmission" (Gonzales & Higby 2003, p. 30).…… [Read More]
Guided media includes Twisted Pair, Coaxial, and Fiber Optic. Unguided media includes terrestrial microwave, satellite microwave, radio and infrared technologies (Warner, 2008). The security strategies for each class of media must taken into account how each codes, decodes and manages the stream of data across these media types.
For guided media there are several levels of security including access, protocol stability and security, locking data elements and packets, and the use of Cyclic edundancy Checking (CC) for accuracy and authentication of specific access points,. These media also require the use of protocols that can be used for protecting down to the packet level data being transmitted. The reliance on advanced TCP/IP protocols and options is a case in point.
For unguided media the challenges are more significant as these are by nature broadcast technologies. The protocols that these networks transmit must be protected down to the packet and frame level,…… [Read More]
attended a lecture on wireless LAN security that outlined security threats and discussed measures a company needs to take to mitigate risks. The presentation focused on the IEEE 802.11b standard for port-based network access control that provides authenticated and somewhat encrypted network access to 802.11 wireless networks. The findings of the lecture indicated that this standard is still too immature to adequately secure wireless networks.
IEEE 802.11b deploys Wireless Equivalent Privacy for encrypting wireless traffic, which is basically insecure with its current implementation of static keys. A firmware upgrade known as Temporary Key Integrity Protocol has been introduced to offer better encryption by using fast-packet rekeying to change encryption keys frequently. However, security may still be compromised even though it may be harder to do so since there is less traffic with identical keys. The 802.11b standard requires the use of the Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service server for authentication…… [Read More]
wireless Web is truly' the next major wave of Internet computing
A its potential for bringing people together and expanding commerce is even greater than that of the wired Internet."
Edward Kozel, board member and former CTO of Cisco systems (AlterEgo, 2000, p. 12)
The integration of the Internet into our modern culture as a driving force behind business, convenience, services and merchandise acquisition has created a new set of desires for modern consumers. The trend started with the ease and availability of services and products being offer4ed through radio and television advertising, and then infomercials and shopping channels. The internet brought the availability to purchase products, goods, and information from our desks and kitchens. Now trough wireless hotspots and wireless devices, society is following their desires toward a marketing distribution channel which motivates them to pay for internet access, and mobile commerce (m-commerce) anytime, anywhere, and instantly. These sets…… [Read More]
The rates of reduction of these cases were noted to be about 20% per year as from 2004 when the standards were introduced (UK Payments Administration LTD 2009). The exact phenomenon observed is as indicated in Appendix A.
The mechanism involved in the protection of the card details by means of the EMV technology is discussed by various scholars and organizations. SPA (2010, 1) clearly explains that the need for authenticating data in the various EMV systems is to ensure that the cars being used is genuine. This is made possible via a system referred to as the Card Authentication Methods that is dependent on the capabilities of the chip itself.
How the EMV system protects payment cards
EMV Implementation Challenges
Extant literature has been dedicated towards the study of the various challenges that face the implementation of the EMV technology. Gareth Ellis Solution Consultants (2007,1) clearly point out…… [Read More]
Much work remains to enable a seamless
Integration, for example that can extend IP to support mobile network devices. (Chlamtac, Conti, and Liu, 2003)
4G is stated to begin with the assumption "that future networks will be entirely packet-switched, using protocols evolved from those in use in today's Internet." (Chlamtac, Conti, and Liu, 2003) It is reported that a 4G wireless network that is all IP-based "has intrinsic advantages over its predecessors." (Chlamtac, Conti, and Liu, 2003)
IP is stated to be both compatible with and independent of "the actual radio access technology" meaning that 'the core 4G network can be designed and evolves independently from access networks. Using IP-based core network also means the immediate tapping of the rich protocol suites and services already available, for example, voice and data convergence, can be supported by using readily available VoIP set of protocols such as MEGACOP, MGCP, SIP, H.323, SCTP.…… [Read More]
Within these findings are many insights and differences in opinion as to the benefits and caveats of XBL adoption. In the a case of HMC, privacy issues are a key factor in the reason for their partial adoption of XBL, rather than the full adoption undertaken by CH. The interviewees were from varied backgrounds and included three from HMC and four from CH. They included persons from many different facets of the project. They included interviews from accountancy, the Manager of Online Services, a Technical Architect, and a Process Advisor. These interviewees represent technical personnel who are directly involved in the project implementation. The list of interviewees also included senior management, including the Head of Development, Senior Project Manager, and Business Systems Analyst.
The interviewees represent diversity in opinions among those in various phases of the project. They represent numerous disciplines that are involved as well. Each professional was concerned…… [Read More]
Each onion router removes a layer of encryption to uncover routing instructions, and sends the message to the next router where this is repeated. This prevents these intermediary nodes from knowing the origin, destination, and contents of the message.
The predicted solution of the problems related to e-government administration depends on answering the following questions as brainstorming ideas to solve the problem and the features provided by the system or application.
1. An important step for processing of e-Government.
2. To ensure the confidentiality of information such as contracts for military weapons and other by Providing a high level of security as it is based on singing the data by combining multiple key values like user id, date stamp and transaction id which produce an encrypted key utilized and used only internally by the system for authentication and validation of user privileges. This procedure would make it…… [Read More]
Second, the specific connection points thoughout the netwok also need to be evaluated fo thei levels of existing secuity as well, with the WiFi netwok audited and tested (Loo, 2008). Thid, the Vitual Pivate Netwoks (VPNS) and the selection of secuity potocols needs to be audited (Westcott, 2007) to evaluate the pefomance of IPSec vs. SSL potocols on oveall netwok pefomance (Rowan, 2007). Many smalle copoations vacillate between IPSec and SSL as the copoate standad fo wieless connections, defining the advantages and disadvantages as the table below has captued.
Table 1: Technical Analysis of Diffeences between IPSec and SSL
Site-to-site VPN; mainly configued in a hub-and-spoke design
Authenticates though digital cetificate o peshaed key
Dops packets that do not confom to the secuity policy
Authenticate though the use of digital cetificates; dops packets if a fatal alet is eceived
Uses a…… [Read More]
Centralized telesaving control
Managing cost-effective use of dial links centrally may no longer be possible.
VPN tunnels impose overhead for dial-in users: encryption algorithms may impact the performance of the user's system, there will be an increased protocol header overhead, authentication latency will increase, PPP and IP compression will perform poorly (compared to a direct link), and modem compression won't work at all.
eplacing direct-dial links with VPN tunnels may produce some very painful faultfinding missions. Due to the complexity of VPN carrier networks, the opportunities for "hand-washing" are enormous.
Using tunneling may increase the reconnection time for dial users. With the VPN carrier L2TP model, the client has to go through two authentication phases: one on contacting the VPN carrier POP, and another on contact with the enterprise Security Gateway.
Applications such as video conferencing only work acceptably over low latency links that…… [Read More]
Information System holds in Accounting Industry's future?
Looking through the glass and estimating what the future holds for any individual or profession is always a difficult exercise as the trends in any business or profession may change and so the path of development. It is better to look at the experience of some companies whose systems have changed over the past few years and thus try to estimate what is likely to happen.
There are many changes that have come to the world through the development of Information Technology and Computers. All the changes have come over a relatively short period of twenty years, and in many cases both industry and concerned humans are yet to adjust to the changes. There are many changes which have come in the accounting industry also, and those changes give an idea of what is likely to happen in the future.
The organization where…… [Read More]
This balkanization is partially driven by the lack of integration between various segments of itself, and this is primarily a technological limitation. Yet the far broader and more difficult challenge in this regard is the segregating of knowledge not just for profit, but for lasting competitive advantage between nations. On the one hand there is the need for competitive differentiation in company's offerings, yet in others including the sharing of primary research in medicine and biomedical fields and stem cell research there is the ethical responsibility to share these insights gained to foster solutions to the world's most pressing medical problems. M. Van Alstyne and E. Brynjolfsson, researchers on the growth patterns and threat of Internet balkanization from MIT, remark in their conference paper from a 1996 conference that the balkanization of science is a significant threat. The two MIT researchers cite the studies they have completed showing how despite…… [Read More]
6: Existing Cable and Wireless Design
The company will establish wireless access using the LWAP (lightweight access point). The LWAP will be distributed to all the facilities through the WLS. Typically, WLS will be installed to assist in providing the traffic tunnel and failover authentication. To enhance the security of the WLAN, the company will install the encryption system at the wireless access point, the encryption protocols will contain WPA/WPA2, and there will be an AES encryption at all the wireless access point using the 802.1 X authentication.
The company will redesign the local backbone infrastructure in order to increase the network bandwidth. There would be 100 BASE-T4 cabling to the 7 Cisco 2613 routers. The cabling system will assist the company to achieve efficient network connectivity for future growth. The 100 BASE-FX (fiber) cabling will be attached to the Cisco 7507 routers, which will assist in achieving more expansion…… [Read More]
Mobile Device Security
Analysis of Routing Optimization Security for Mobile IPv6 Networks
Defining and Implementing Mobility Security Architectures
Approaches to defining, implementing and auditing security for mobility devices have become diverse in approach, spanning from protocol definition and development including IPv6 through the creation of secure mobile grid systems. The wide variation in approaches to defining security for mobility devices has also shown the critical need for algorithms and constraint-based technologies that can use constraint-based logic to isolate and thwart threats to the device and the network it is part of. The intent of this analysis is to evaluate the recent developments in constraint-based modeling and network logic as represented by mobile IPv6 protocols and the role trust management networks (Lin, Varadharajan, 2010). These networks are predicated on algorithms that are used authenticating the identity of specific account holders, in addition to defining a taxonomy of the factors that most…… [Read More]
MAJOR STRATEGIC ISSUES OF FACEBOOK
Identify the major strategic issues of Facebook
Facebook strategically aimed creating a platform for social interactivity in the internet. The team used the existing website technology to facilitate this interaction. In order to expand into new markets without losing what originally made it popular, Facebook must ensure that the new products are connected to its original idea in one way or the other. For instance, as an advertising tool, Facebook should make sure that corporate and businesspersons who need marketing own Facebook accounts where people connect with them.
Major Characteristics of Web 2.0
Allows web-based applications to be accessed from any place
Simple applications are used to solve specified problems
Its value is more anchored on the content rather than the software used to display the same content.
Sharing of data is straightforward.
Is uses a bottom-up distribution pattern rather than top-down.
User friendly…… [Read More]
E-commerce revolution has immensely affected all the industries, including the real estate industry. By using websites the real estate agents can transmit the information about the properties to a wide range of people. In addition to that, it can also enable the real estate agents to set up information communication channels directly between the real estate agencies, investors and developers. By mass media advertisements, the retailers can target a huge audience, including a number of potential buyers. In this technique the agencies usually use a simplex, one way communication channel, to communicate with the audience. A single advertisement is generated for the entire market, therefore, it is cost efficient. (Jianliang et al., 2013)
E-commerce enables the real estate agents to have personal contact with their clients. By having an interaction with the clients, the agents can better understand their requirements and can provide them…… [Read More]
EP and Information Security
Introduction to EP
Even though the plans of information security include the prevention of outsiders to gain access of internal network still the risk from the outsiders still exists. The outsiders can also represent themselves as authorized users in order to cause damage to the transactions of the business systems. Therefore, strict prevention measures should be taken to avoid such situations.
The threats of both the hackers have been increased with the software of the enterprise resource planning (EP) (Holsbeck and Johnson, 2004). By performing acts of deception, the system privileges are neglected by them and take old of the assets which are mainly the cash. Its continuous integration has not succeeded in eliminating the threat of hackers who are either the insiders or enter through the perimeter security.
Considering the financial losses caused from the system-based frauds, errors and abuse by business transactions, new ways…… [Read More]