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Authoitaianism has been a histoically poduced phenomenon in eaction to state cises of political ode. Its pimay featue has actually been elitist dictatoship, with the peiodic cult of chaacte. It is a feedback to democatic failue, social polaization, financial stagnation, and woldwide weakness, which typically becomes the eason fo its stamina. An additional eason fo its stamina is that it nomally woks out soveeign powe with single-paty guideline, and could hinge on militay foces to keep ode. In its sevee contol ove society, it might become a totalitaian monopoly. Authoitaian egimes typically povide tade-offs in between financial advancement and political democacy, and have actually been the histoic entance to democatic systems when political ode is eputable, and long-lasting financial development is pepaed fo.
Authoitaianism is a concept and a system of govenment usually elated to dictatoship, in contast to democacy. While numeous kinds of dictatoship exist, it…
references. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101: 521 -- 540.
Schwartz, SH. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In Advances in experimental social psychology, Edited by: Zanna, M.P. Vol. 25, 1 -- 65 . San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Shaffer, B and Duckitt, J. (2013). The dimensional structure of people's fears, threats, and concerns and their relationship with right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation. International Journal of Psychology, 48.
Sibley, CG, Wilson, MS and Duckitt, J. (2007). Effects of dangerous and competitive worldviews on right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation over a five-month period. Political Psychology, 28: 357 -- 371.
Stellmacher, J and Petzel, T. (2005). Authoritarianism as a group phenomenon. Political Psychology, 26: 245 -- 274.
Krastev (2011) is perplexed by the stability and longevity of authoritarian regimes in the “age of democratication,” (p. 7).
The “new authoritarianism,” or the “user-friendly” version of authoritarianism is compelling and attractive (Krastev, 2011, p. 7). Russia is actually a good springboard for discussing the new authoritarianism because it represents some of its key features, within a historically relevant framework. Russia’s authoritarian regime is also paradoxical in that it has appropriated some of the most salient democratic institutions.
Theories & Concepts
Krastev (2011) relies heavily on Seymour Martin Lipset’s theories of democracy, political culture, and economic development.
The author provides evidence from other political theorists including Jason Brownlee, Steven Levitsky, and Lucan Way (p. 11), and also cites Jeane Kirkpatrick’s 1979 classic “Dictatorships and Double Standards,” (p. 12).
Ideology, or a relative lack thereof, is one of the features of the new authoritarianism. Also,…
Thomas Hobbes and John Locke: Perspectives on Governance and Power
Though John Locke's theory of natural law and natural rights at first glance seem to oppose the conservative authoritarianism of Thomas Hobbes', both men set out to establish a framework for governance that would protect the rights of individuals. John Locke takes the approach that a democratic nation with a system of checks and balances was an essential ingredient to protecting man's natural rights. Hobbes was also interested in protecting the interests of individuals, but having grown up during tumultuous times, believed that a strong hand was necessary within a governing body to prevent man from destroying himself. Each of these idealisms is important influences to the Constitution of the United States, setting up a framework for a governing authority that protects the rights of people while maintaining a state of peace and order. These ideas are explored in greater…
Arneil, Barbara. "John Locke and America: The Defense of English Colonialism." Clarendon Press, 1996
Green, M.S. "The Paradox of Auxiliary Rights: The Privilege against Self-Incrimination and the Right to Keep and Bear Arms." Duke Law Journal, Vol. 52: 2002
Henry, John F. "John Locke, Property Rights and Economic Theory." Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 33: 1999
Latin America's problems owe a great deal to a tradition of caudillism, personal politics and authoritarianism." It will also give definitions for eight terms associated with Latin American studies: caudillism, liberalism, The Export oom, Neocolonialism, Import Subsidizing Industrialization, ureaucratic Authoritarianism and Privatization.
Latin America currently faces many problems, with diverse causes and manifestations, for example, huge external debts, lack of development in infrastructure, low levels of education for children, and low levels of health care for the population (with concurrent high infant mortality rates and low age expectancies). Many authors (such as Juan Manuel de Rosas, author of Argentine Caudillo, John Reed, author of Insurgent Mexico, and Jacobo Timerman, author of Prisoner Without a Name, Cell Without a Number) have argued that Latin America's current problems stem from a period of history (the National period), following independence, during which caudillismo was popular, and personalistic politics and authoritarianism were the rule.…
Encyclopedia Britannica. 2002 DVD-edition for Macintosh.
Williamson, E. (1992). The Penguin History of Latin America.
In the same manner, the importance of apology is similarly tied to humility and the capacity of humbling yourself. This is also one of the reasons an apology generally comes together with a deep bow in which the person recognizes his or her mistake.
On the other hand, Japanese obsession for quality definitely has its roots in the Japanese obsession for perfection. Ever since its creation by gods, Japan was seen by its inhabitants as being a privileged, perfect nation. Such a nation could only produce, in its turn, perfect products. In modern times, this tendency to continuously strive for perfection was translated into the need for constantly high quality on all production.
Additionally, this is also tied to the sense of duty that goes back to the samurai and warrior tradition. As such, while working for your company, you can only give it your very best and the sentiment…
1. Sugimoto, Yoshio. An Introduction to Japanese Society, Cambridge University Press. 2002
2. De Mente, Boye Lafayette. Japan's Secret Weapon: The Kata Factor The Cultural Programming That Made the Japanese a Superior People. Phoenix Books, 1990.
3. Henshall, Kenneth G. A History of Japan: From Stone Age to Superpower, Second Edition. Palgrave Macmillan; 2nd edition. 2004.
He considers how fast adaptation to a flattening world can bring economic success and prosperity to the nations, businesses, and individuals capable of that adaptation. Friedman's thesis never was to argue that authoritarianism is better than democracies, but instead to explain some of the factors that make for successful adaptation. The fact that Mexico's democratic process has prevented it from taking advantage of the opportunities of a flattened world is simply a reality; there does not have to be an associated value judgment. In fact, Friedman quickly points out -- for those critics who bothered to keep reading -- that it is premature to conclude that democracy is a hindrance to economic reform. He believes, whether rightly or not, that the more important issue is leadership and cites examples of democracies that have failed to adapt (Germany) and some that have (the UK), as well as authoritarian governments that have…
Friedman, Thomas L. The World Is Flat. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005.
Thomas, L. Friedman, The World Is Flat (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005), 332.
Concerning civil rights and liberties, the U.S. can consider itself to be a free country indeed. According to a Freedom Hose eport which took into consideration the evolution of the countries of the world since 2001, the United States is considered to be a free country, with the ranking of one, as the highest in this report (Freedom House, 2006). However, an important element in this sense is the fact that throughout the period under analysis, the ranking remains the same, an element which suggests the fact that its positive evolution was constant.
Overall, it is important to say that the U.S. is one of the most democratic countries in the world, from a scale of one to ten; ten being the undemocratic limit, the U.S. is ranked one. It is not only the conclusion drawn from this basic analysis but rather a general belief on the situation in the…
Freedom House. Report. 2006. 6 February 2008. http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=15
Presidential Pre-nomination campaign receipts through August 31. 2004. N. d.
Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election of November 2, 2004. 2005. 6 February 2008. http://clerk.house.gov/member_info/electionInfo/2004election.pdf
U.S. Census Bureau. Current Population Survey. November 2004.
The Turkic tribes transformed themselves from a disparate, fragmented state into a hegemonic and organized empire. Lasting for centuries and making a profound impact on global politics, the Ottoman Empire built its status and power on bureaucratic authoritarianism, and also on fusing the power of religion and politics. The bastion of Sunni Islam, the Ottoman Empire colonized regions far beyond what are now the borders of the modern nation-state of Turkey. Moreover, the Ottoman Empire encompassed a wide range of linguistically and ethnically diverse people, capitalizing on access to global trade routes to bolster power and influence in and beyond Eurasia. The use of military might, of economic influence, and also of religious and cultural tools for social control and hegemony all characterized the Ottoman Empire in its heyday.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, shifting balances of power, modernization, and the dismantling of authoritarian regimes trended worldwide and…
The second part of this book introduces the more central aspect of his argument's epistemological motive, with the prescription for proper leadership extending from a view that is ethically, intellectually and socially instructed. e can easily detect here the strands of ideology which would be invested into Hobbes view many centuries hence. This is to say that at the crux of his argument, Plato writes that "until philosophers are kings, or the kings and princes of this world have the spirit and power of philosophy, and political greatness and wisdom meet in one, and those commoner natures who pursue either to the exclusion of the other are compelled to stand aside, cities will never have rest from their evils." (Plato, Book V) in subsequent explanation, he determines that a virtuous ruler will ultimately find the right to rule his people as a consequence of his worthiness to lead the greater…
Hobbes, Thomas. (1651). Leviathan. Project Gutenberg. Online at http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext02/lvthn10.txt
Plato. (360 B.C.E.) the Republic. The Internet Classics Archive. Online at http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/republic.html .
Countries in ASEAN have virtually started to justify human rights violations through claiming that they support Asian values by doing so.
People in ASEAN feel that they will risk breaking off economic growth if they reform their systems in accordance with human rights. ASEAN leaders are unwilling to recognize human rights as being universal, considering that human rights as devised by estern countries are different from what ASEAN understands through human rights.
Apparently, ASEAN believes that "the economic, social, and political rights in the region are improving, while in Europe and North America, their democratic systems are rendered ineffective due to an overemphasis on individual rights" (Manan). Numerous people in ASEAN consider that the est's attempt to have them accept human rights convention is an example of its reluctance to recognize East Asia as a world centre.
In their struggle to refrain from having to have anything to do with…
1. Manan, Wan A. "A Nation in Distress: Human Rights, Authoritarianism, and Asian Values in Malaysia," SOJOURN: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia 14, no. 2 (1999): 359.
2. Mohamad, Maznah "Towards a Human Rights Regime in Southeast Asia: Charting the Course of State Commitment," Contemporary Southeast Asia 24, no. 2 (2002)
3. Sheng, Lijun "China-ASEAN Free Trade Area: Origins, Developments and Strategic Motivations," Retrieved August 21, 2010, from the Institute of South East Asian Studies, Singapore Website: http://www.iseas.edu.sg/ipsi12003.pdf
Maznah Mohamad, "Towards a Human Rights Regime in Southeast Asia: Charting the Course of State Commitment," Contemporary Southeast Asia 24, no. 2 (2002)
In the older forms, people could live and work in relative independence if they disengaged from politics. Under a modern totalitarian government, people are completely and utterly dependent on, and submissive to, the rule and whims of a political party and its leaders. Older forms of such a government ruled by divine right, while the modern totalitarian state is ruled and run by a dictator who controls a political party. Examples of totalitarian governments are Germany under Adolph Hitler, the U.S.S.R. particularly under Joseph Stalin, the People's Republic of China under Mao Tse Tung, Italy under enito Mussolini and Iraq under Saddan Hussein. The ruling party is the elite and the whole society is subjugated to a hierarchical order wherein an individual becomes responsible to another of a higher position of authority. All social groupings are either destroyed or subjected to the purposes of the ruling party and the state.…
1. Labor Law Talk. Parliamentary System. Labor Law Talk Forum: Jelsoft Enterprises, Ltd., 2006
2. Lee, Dwight R. Liberty and Individual Responsibility. The Freeman: Foundation for Economic Educatin, 2005. http://www.fee.org/publications/the-freeman/articles.asp?aid=2124&print_view=true
3. MNS Encarta. Totalitarianism. Microsoft Corporation, 2006. http://encarta.msn.com/text_761574819_0/Totalitianism_html
4. Mikuriya H.N. Authoritarianism: a Social Disease. SOHOComp, 2006. http://www.mikuriya.com/sp_authority.html
Students Will Select a Construct of Interest
My construct of interest is whether there are any prejudice tests that can accurately measure prejudice to races other than Blacks.
Do the currently available standardized tests on prejudice measure prejudice to individuals other than Black people?
Conduct research on other assessments used to measure the same or similar construct,
The Modern acism Scale
According to the SAGE Handbook of prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination (Dovidio, 2010), the scale of modern racism is popular because of high construct validity and predicting relevant criteria, states critics Sniderman & Tetlock, (1986). Prejudice and politics cause individuals who are not prejudice to appear so since their views are conservative (Sniderman & Tetlock, 1986). One might argue that the MS is outdated (e.g. Kunda, 1999) as well as that it deals exclusively with a specific population (i.e. Black), however this test has been used in recent studies and…
Dovidio, J.F. (2010). Handbook of prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination. SAGE: NY.
Dunton, B.C., & Fazio, R.H. (1997). An Individual Difference Measure of Motivation to Control Prejudiced Reactions. Personal Social Psychology Bull, 23(3), 316-326.
Gordijn, E.H.,Koomen, W., & Stapel, D.A. (2000) Level of Prejudice in Relation to Knowledge of Cultural Stereotypes, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 37, 150 -- 157.
Kline, P (1999). Handbook of Psychological Testing Psychology Press
Police eform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil
A majority of new democracies entail an unbelievable illogicality of an immensely feeble citizenship coalesced with a stern description of the constitutional guarantees. In order to explicate this disparity it would be prudent to contemplate the significance of political institutions regarding representation of citizen, which were prevalent subsequent to the military establishments attributed as troublesome and a majority of the new restrictions. A few defined in the autocratic establishment, were implemented by quite a few new establishments prominently by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 (Pinheiro, 1996).
The prominence out of such institutions of Brazil were the excessive illustration of lesser populated regions on the contrary to the regions with greater population: Sao Paulo in recent times incorporates 60 Congressmen (which is analogous to 11.9% of the entire constituents of a Congress) depicting a voting strength of 20,774,991. This strength makes up 21.9% of the entire…
Amnesty International (2002). 'Subhuman': Torture, overcrowding and brutalization in Minas Gerais police stations. London, Amnesty International.
Bailey, Willian C. 1984. "Poverty, Inequality and City Homicides Rates." Criminology. Vol. 22. no0 4. November.
Beato F., C.C. Accion y Estrategia de las Organizaciones Policiales In: Policia, Sociedad y Estado: Modernizacion y Reforma Policial en America del Sul.1 ed.Santiago: Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, 2001a, p. 39-56.
Beato F., Claudio Chaves, Renato Martins Assuncao, Braulio Figueiredo Alves da Silva, Frederico Couto Marinho, Ilka Afonso Reis, Maria Cristina de Mattos Almeida. 2001. "Conglomerados de homicidios e o trafico de drogas em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, de 1995 a 1999." Cadernos de Saude Publica. Rio de Janeiro: v.17, n.5, p.1163-1171, 2001b.
Authoritarianism vs. Democratic Leadership: Why People Choose
Because politics is a social expression, it is natural for philosophers and political scientists to examine the sociology of a group of people regarding their choices of leaders whom they choose to support. In terms of choosing to support a democratic or non-democratic leader, the Frankfurt School of philosophers (Arendt, Adorno, Fromm, Nevitt et al.) show that society can be manipulated into choosing as the powerful elite, who control the media and the manner in which the public masses think, prefer them to choose. In other words, there is an art of deception and manipulation exercised by the purveyors of mass media. On the other hand, there is also a willingness on the part of the public to ascribe to the views of a demagogue, who projects himself vividly, with force, conviction and articulation. Such a leader can attract masses to supporting a…
The new France would, in the Proudhonist version of anarchism, be a collective of collectives, a society without any formal organization, in which individual identity groups made their own rules and moved toward individual, local goals they deemed appropriate:
The Commune was against centralization; its aim was a federation of communes. The Commune was for a people's government in which distinctions between governors and governed would be erased: representatives would receive wages of average workers, be popularly elected, and be subject to immediate recall. The Commune was militantly antireligious: the aim was to free humanity from clerical machination and superstition. And finally, the Commune was for destruction of bourgeois property: cooperative ownership and self-management of production were envisaged.
In stark contrast to the authoritarianism of the Marxian socialists, the anarchists believed firmly in the capacity of the "right" people to spontaneously organize themselves and re-organize society. While sharing many of…
Fantasia, Rich. "From Class Consciousness to Culture, Action and Social Organization." Annual Review of Sociology 21 (1995): 269+.
Levy, Carl. "Anarchism, Internationalism and Nationalism in Europe 1860-1939." The Australian Journal of Politics and History 50, no. 3 (2004): 330+.
Marx, Karl, and V.I. Lenin. The Civil War in France: The Paris Commune. 2nd ed. New York: International Publishers, 1993.
McMillan, James F. France and Women, 1789-1914: Gender, Society and Politics. London: Routledge, 2000.
Thus, these authors warn that the abuse of authority must be consistently checked and fought in order to keep it from expanding. This is currently being evidenced in our society. The Bush administration has repeated thwarted the power of Congress and the Supreme Court by attempting to pass laws that directly by-pass the national legislature and promoting a system that takes away presidential checks. The Bush administration repeated refuses to provide subpoenaed documents and to allow information access and disclosure. It is evident from their behavior that without such accurate disclosure the government is drifting closer and closer to the realities discussed within this book.
In the final analysis, Blair's new book is a haunting reminder of the world of 1984, and the contemporary establishment of his book, featuring a four-term Bush administration only highlights the urgency of the issues and themes he discusses within his book. The fact is…
Dawn Blair, America 2014 - an Orwellian Tale, Counsel Oaks Books, 2004
Orwell, George. 1984. New York: Signet, 1992. In addition, Fromm's Afterword was indispensable to this study.
Baruch, Elaine Hoffman. "The Golden Country: Sex and Love in 1984," in 1984 Revisited: Totalitarianism in Our Century. Harper & Row, 1983, pp. 47-56.
assumes the notion that it would be best to have "a system of economic
enterprises collectively owned and democratically governed by all the
people who work in them," meaning that he differs from the notions of Okun
and the Friedman's by proposing something radically different to promote
the ultimate goal of democracy (Dahl 92). Neither equality nor freedom is
necessary to fix the relationship between the economy and democracy, but
rather a completely different and even radical outlook on the relationship
between the economy and government can solve the dilemma. Furthermore Dahl
argues to how it is possible to retain the democratic principle within
firms, and prevent problems such as oligarchy. These notions in which the
economy becomes compatible with the political notions are completely
different than the Friedman's and Okun's notion that there lies a problem
with democracy. Dahl is even casting serious doubt on Tocqueville's long…
Bonfire of the Vanities -- Psychological Critique
"On all Street he and a few others -- how many? -- three hundred, four hundred, five hundred? -- had become precisely that… Masters of the Universe. There was… no limit whatsoever! Naturally he had never so much as whispered this phrase to a living soul. He was no fool.
Yet he couldn't get it out of his head…" (olfe, 2008, p. 11).
The crude behaviors and drunken scenes -- and the arrogant, racist, power-mad characters -- in "The Bonfire of the Vanities" could be regarded as simply settings and players in yet another entertaining movie with a provocative plot that didn't follow the celebrated novel from which it sprang. In this case a Tom olfe novel has been perverted to some serious degree. And yet the film stands on its own two feet notwithstanding it's failure to capture the passion and drama…
Fletcher, Don. (1993). The Bonfire of the Vanities: A Critical Reading. Social Alternatives,
Sibley, Chris G., Robertson, Andrew, and Wilson, Marc S. (2006). Social Dominance
Orientation and Right-Wing Authoritarianism: Addictive and Interactive Effects. Political Psychology, 27(5), 755-768.
In the instance of America's shameful racial history, the self-interest of southern whites combined with the violent coercion of black slavery would produce a highly objectionable variance on the 'social contract.' It is therefore a decidedly important reality that certain individuals refused this contract, One is especially inclined in such instances to recognize the importance of non-conformity in helping to drive improvements in human rights, equality and other dimensions of positive civil order. For instance, we consider luminaries such as Martin Luther King, Jr. Or the earliest participants in the American feminist movement, whose willful decision to resist the forces of authoritarianism as self-defined individuals would be essential to moving our society in a more progressive direction. In the case of Martin Luther King in particular, we recognize the considerable risk to his own person that the Civil Rights leaders undertook in spite of the prevailing cultural mores of…
Ahmad, M.T. (2010). Individual vs. Society. Al Islam.
Etzioni, a. (1997). Balancing Individual Rights and the Common Good. Tikkun, 12(1) p. 66-67.
Knight, K. (2009). Individualism. The New Advent.
Paul, T. (2009). The Individual vs. Society. The Freedom Thinker.
In Psychology, paranoia is defined as 'a mental illness in which somebody wrongly believes that they are hated or badly treated by others'. In this context, Adolph Hitler and Osama bin Laden do not have commonality of thought. Although leaders of their respective groups or nations, both the men, were poles apart. Adolph Hitler and Osama bin Laden belonged to two stark opposite backgrounds, performed differently, were brought up in absolutely opposite environments and functioned in this transitory world thereby spending their lives with a cause. However, the motives behind their actions were as different in the two cases as their actions were. In short, Hitler and Osama bin Laden have little comparison; our thesis statement that will be backed with sufficient evidence in the following passages of our research paper.
Adolf Hitler was the head of the state and he brought much anguish as well as created extreme…
The psychology and development of Adolf Hitler. Retrieved September 22, 2003 at http://www.abelard.org/hitler/hitler.html
Bernhardt (2001). Osama Bin Ladin, Anthrax and the Psychology of Terrorism.
Lauryssens S (1999). The Man Who Invented the Third Reich.
Speech at Kulmbach on 5 February 1928, quoted in Hitler, A Study in Tyranny
Ngo Dinh Diem
orn in the year 1901 to an aristocratic family, Ngo Dinh Diem rose to become the Prime Minister of South Vietnam in the year 1954. This paper looks in detail at the events during the life of Ngo Dinh Diem, his era of governance and the events that took place in the aftermath of his assassination. Catholic missionaries converted his predecessors into Christianity several years back in the 17th century. Much like his pervious family generations, he too was educated in French Catholic schools. Following his successful graduation he was trained as an administrator who worked in conjunction with the French authorities based in Vietnam. At a very young age of twenty-five, he became a provincial governor. This was his foray into a long political career, which marked dramatic incidents both in his personal life and the history of Vietnam.
At a time when communism was rising…
Diem, Ngo Diem' Retrieved at http://us.history.wisc.edu/hist102/bios/29.html Accessed on April 5, 2004
Ngo Dinh Diem - Encarta: An Encyclopedia Article' Retrieved at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761576219/Ngo_Dinh_Diem.html Accessed on April 5, 2004
Colby's Vietnam: History Misrepresented' Retrieved at http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/54/099.html Accessed on April 5, 2004
Letter to John F. Kennedy' Retrieved at http://pages.xtn.net/~wingman/docs/lettdiem.htm Accessed on April 5, 2004
The concept of patient autonomy, as opposed to medial paternity, is one that has gained much ground in recent years; "... about 30 years ago, issues began to appear that were difficult to solve using traditional ethics. New medical and reproductive technologies, research controversies, and a societal ethos that questioned all authority posed difficult questions." (Czaplyski, Larry, 2002)
At issue in this paper is the meaning and significance of patient autonomy and the way in which is relates to medical paternity. As the discussion will outline, the case for patient autonomy is not only ethically valid but also essential for the moral and practical balance in the medical profession. Underlying this view is the fact that the issue of patient autonomy does not exist in isolation or in the medical field alone - but relates to other issues and ethical problems in the society at large. These larger…
Bernstein Maurice, (2004) Social/Political Paternalism vs. Patient Autonomy.
Retrieved October 4, 2004 from Bioethics Discussion Blog: Web site: http://bioethicsdiscussion.blogspot.com/2004/07/socialpolitical-paternalism-vs.-patient.html
Bradley, Gerard V. (1989). "Does autonomy require informed and specific
Refusal of life-sustaining medical treatment." Issues in Law & Medicine, December 22, 1989. Czaplyski, Larry. (2002)
Within the correctional system there are three different organization models which apply and are used in administrative and management purposes. These models include the authoritarian model, bureaucratic model and participative model. The paper will give a description of each of these three models as they apply to the correctional environments. It will also discuss the intended goals of the correctional administrations that utilize these models and the specific time period the models were developed as well as finding out if these models were effective during the period which they were developed. The information the paper will give the foundation of the correctional systems as well as the models that are found within in and if these models are still in effect now. The operations of a correctional facility are under these models in order to provide the in mates with a particular type of security and care. With…
Baunach, PJ.(1981). Participatory Management - Restructuring the Prison Environment. Retrieved February 18, 2014 from https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=76572
Lancefield, K, Lennings, C, J. & Thomson, D. (1997).Management style and its effect on prison officers' stress. Retrieved February 18,2014 from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02765325
Carlson P.M,, Garret S, J. & Christopher.(2010). Prison and Jail Administration: Practice and Theory.pg 272.Retrieved February 18,2014 from http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=hW0rAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA272&lpg=PA272&dq=Participative+model+in+correctional+environments&source=bl&ots=BhslBxRktE&sig=-B5MbbBXyE1YRWJnSYf3T2IPuPk&hl=en&sa=X&ei=fkwDU_zuKc-p0AWd64GADw&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Participative%20model%20in%20correctional%20environments&f=false
The sanctuary model.(2010).Authoritarianism. Retrieved February 18,2014 from http://www.sanctuaryweb.com/authoritarianism.php
Book Chapter: A Theology of Communion for the Contemporary Catholic Parish
The study of ecclesiology is the study of how the Christian church, the ever-expanding body of believers, has evolved over time to respond to new political and social realities. Ecclesiology also takes into account the way organizational structures, hierarchies, and roles within the church have changed and reflect the nuances of a cultural milieu or historical epoch. In addition to all that, the study of ecclesiology also comprises the church’s relationship with surrounding community organizations. How the church forms strategic alliances with secular political, social, and economic institutions is also part of the complex array of issues that impact ecclesiology. Although some aspects of the church must remain stable over time to reflect scripture, church polity and organization remains one of the most dynamic aspects of Christianity and the role it plays in the world.
As MacDougall (2015)…
1. Why is the state considered a central institution in comparative politics? What does state power look like, and where does it come from? Towards what ends do states use their power? Give detailed examples from three country-cases.
The state is the central institution in comparative politics because it represents the group of institutions and agencies that exercise authority over the people subordinate to it. The state mediates disputes and serves to unite the individual will and the collective will under one umbrella. The state is recognized as the legitimate authority by the people and thus they comply with the state’s rules without needing to be coerced. To understand comparative politics, one has to understand the central role of the state.
State power can take numerous forms. In America it takes the forms of the courts, the Congress, and the police—for starters. The government has three branches of government—the executive,…
The seeking of salvation is an admission of ignorance while authority-based communication is an assertion of knowledge. The two are incompatible.
Instead, communication has to be understanding-based. All communication should recognize the suffering of the human beings and have the aim of discovering the nature of that suffering, to understand that suffering. Christians have heard it in the Prayer of Saint Francis, which reads: "..grant that I may not so much seek to be consoled as to console; to be understood, as to understand..."
Even secular thinkers understand this concept, as demonstrated by popular Personal Development guru Stephen Covey's principle of "Seek First to Understand, Then Be Understood."
In understanding-based communication, disagreements would no longer express judgment and authority, but trust and compassion. Trust that the other person has your best interests at heart and compassion for the other person who shares your suffering. Although doctrine and theology will inevitably…
Majesty and Meekness: A Comparative Study of Contrast and Harmony in the Concept of God, Craman.
Understanding Buddhism, Jacobson.
Buddhism and the Contemorary World, Jacobson
Beyond Ideology: Religion and the Future of Western Civilization, Smart
In some regards, the idea of 'culture' is highly mutable and subject to widespread variations in characterization. Quite in fact, the concept of culture is highly implicated in the weaponzation of words that may be used by one nation to subjugate another. Ideas about how cultures interact, about which cultures are superior and indeed about whether or not the practices of some peoples should even be called 'cultures' have been subjected to rationalization as colonialist nations have subjugated various parts of the developing sphere. It is this understanding that inclines Said's (2002) perspective in "The Clash of Definitions."
Here, Said opposes the idea that there are distinct incompatibilities which persist between civilizations. Instead, he argues that this is the impression which has been foisted upon us by the shifting notions of what is meant by culture, particularly as this depends upon the perspective of hegemonic ethnic groups. This…
Bederman, G. (1995). Manliness & Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880-1917. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Bender, T. (2006). A Nation among Nations: America's Place in World History. New York: Hill & Wang:
Cabral, A. (1973). National Liberation and Culture. In Return to the Source: Selected Speeches of Amilcar Cabral. New York: Monthly Review Press: 39-56.
McClintock, A. (1995). Imperial Leather: Race, Gender and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest. London: Routledge.
One Flew Over the Cucoo's Nest. (1990). etrieved October 2010, from Internet Movie Database: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0073486/
One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. (2010, January). etrieved October 2010, from AMC Greatest Films Filmsite: http://www.filmsite.org/onef.html
Cooper, C. (2001, April). Modern Literature's Depiction of Nervous Ailments. etrieved October 2010, from Literature Study Online: http://www.literature-study-online.com/essays/bellow_kesey.html
Kubler-oss, E. (2005). On Grief and Grieving: Finding the meaning of Grief Through the Five Stages of Loss. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Madden, F. (1986). Sanity and esponsibility: Big Chief as narrator and Executioner. Modern Fiction Studies, 32(2), 203-17.
Perring, C. (2003, March). eview - One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. etrieved October 2010, from Metapsychology: http://metapsychology.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=book&id=1849
One Flew Over the Cucoo's Nest. (1990). Retrieved October 2010, from Internet Movie Database: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0073486/
One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. (2010, January). Retrieved October 2010, from AMC Greatest Films Filmsite: http://www.filmsite.org/onef.html
Cooper, C. (2001, April). Modern Literature's Depiction of Nervous Ailments. Retrieved October 2010, from Literature Study Online: http://www.literature-study-online.com/essays/bellow_kesey.html
Kubler-Ross, E. (2005). On Grief and Grieving: Finding the meaning of Grief Through the Five Stages of Loss. New York: Simon and Schuster.
He recommends that the teacher should not just stuff a student's memory, but pique the student's curiosity about the subject through dialogue and having the students organize their thoughts through exercises and exams.
Values in the Curriculum
Dewey sought to develop self-aware, conscientious citizens by focusing on individual development in the curriculum. Dewey recommended that teachers organize subject matter and activities that builds on the student's prior knowledge and experiences, which would make the task more meaningful and enriching to the student.
Hirsch's seeks to create a common pool of shared knowledge by installing a curriculum which consists of a systematic checklist of important concepts, people, and events in our cultural heritage. For a student to be "culturally literate," students would be expected to know certain the items on this checklist at certain stages of development.
Adler's curriculum consisted of the "three columns": the acquisition of organized knowledge through lectures…
(Sources: Hayes-Bautista, 1988; Perez y Gonzalez, 2000).
Conclusions - General characteristics of immigrant families - Most Latino immigrants fall into two solid groups when coming to America -- rural and seasonal farm workers; many following the crops from Texas through California and back, and many into the cities where better paying, and more stable, jobs are available. Luis and Maria moved to a larger city because they were told that it would be "easier on them." Cities exist for many reasons and the diversity of urban form and function can be traced to the complex roles that cities perform. Cities serve as centers of storage, commerce, and industry. The agricultural surplus from the surrounding country hinterland is processed and distributed within the city. Urban areas have also developed around marketplaces, where imported goods from distant places could be exchanged for the local products. Throughout history, cities have been founded at…
Aquirre-Molina, M., et.al. (2001). Health Issues in the Latino Community.
Begolla, L.G. (2009). Introduction to Latino Politics in the U.S. Polity Press.
Brandel, J.R., ed. (2010). Theory and Practice in Clinical Social Work. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
" (Ahmad, 2000, p. 1).
With the main advantage of being democracy's "place of birth," the Western position is extremely firm. John L. Esposito, John O. Voll (1996) state that: "In the current global context, most who advocate democratization still do not recognize it […]as a result, they view people with different interpretations of democracy as "perverse and lunatic," and thus are open to the perils of underestimating the strength of the alternatives. This is especially true of advocates of the styles of democracy found in Western Europe and the United States, who believe themselves to be the true heirs to the only legitimate democratic tradition and thus view any other efforts to create democracies as false and undemocratic." (p. 14)
The answer to the question "Is Islam incompatible with democracy?" is hard to find. The personal opinion is that the major criteria by which one defines his/her position is…
1. Ahmad, Khurshid (2002). Islam and Democracy: Some Conceptual and Contemporary Dimensions. The Muslim World. Vol. 90.
2. Esposito, John L.; Voll, John, O. (1996). Islam and Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press.
3. Shadid, Anthony (2001). Legacy of the Prophet: Despots, Democrats, and the New Politics of Islam. Boulder: Westview Press.
Stenhouse demonstrates remarkable insight into the gender roles and norms that plural marriage entails. The marriage is qualitatively different than a monogamous one. As Stenhouse notes, the husband "aims to be looked upon more as a ruler than as the head of a family," (149). Flowers confirms Stenhouse's observations, "the practice of polygamy tended to instill in people the attitude of despotism or authoritarianism" (22). Polygamy also reveals a deep contradiction in Mormon philosophy. "The irony is that a gospel of universal brotherhood…is so marked on every hand by borders, boundaries, and radical difference" (Givens 295).
Polygamy in America has almost become synonymous with Mormonism. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has been at the center of a national debate that spanned the issues of religious freedom, federalism, and feminism. Plural marriage mirrored an unequal social structure that pervaded Mormon culture and indeed much of the culture of…
Flowers, Ronald Bruce. That Godless Court? Supreme Court Decisions on Church-State Relationships. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1989.
Givens, Terry L. People of Paradox: A History of Mormon Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Gordon, Sarah Barringer. The Mormon Question: Polygamy and Constitutional Conflict in Nineteenth Century America. North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press.
Krakauer, Jon. Under the Banner of Heaven: A Story of Violent Faith. Doubleday, 2003.
Coaching management styles work best for Generation Xers, complete with prompt feedback and rewards for results (Eisner, 2005). They use a team of people to support their own personal individual efforts and bring a talent for problem-solving to the workplace (Smola & Sutton, 2002).
Generation Y looks for management that will further their professional development. This young generation performs best when working for and with those who hold the same values. As they often were involved in decisions in the home, from an early age, they often expect to have decision making capabilities in their professional lives as well. For this reason, an inclusive management style works best for this generation, with feedback on their performance. When treated professionally and given challenging work that fits their skills, Generation Y performs best (Eisner, 2005). Armour (2007) notes that like Generation X, Generation Y have high expectations of their employer and their…
Adams, S. Jan 2000, "Generation X: How understanding this population leads to better safety programs," Professional Safety vol. 45, no. 1, p. 26.
Armour, S. 7 June 2007, "Generation Y: They've arrived at work with a new attitude," USA Today, [Online], Available:http://usatoday.printthis.clickability.com/pt/cpt?action=cpt&title=USATODAY.com+-+Gen... [27/10/09].
Chen, P. & Choi, Y. 2008, "Geneartional differences in work values: A study of hospitality management," International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 595-615.
Eisner, S. Autumn 2005, "Managing Generation Y," S.A.M. Advanced Management Journal vol. 70, no. 4, p. 4.
Republicans recently overtook Democrats in fundraising, for instance, yet they will continue to play the underdog on most issues because the "good" qualities of security and being disadvantaged (which is generally viewed favorably in the country) are mutually exclusive, and because the appearance of being the underdog helps their cause regardless of its truth.
This also reflects a singularity of purpose and a determination that one's own conclusions, and not those derived from the advice of others, should be the guiding principles of leadership.
Political parties and leaders still tend to use this singularity while attempting to appear as populist leaders; the former allows for strength and true achievement, while the latter allows for the support of the people. Both are necessary, but they cannot be held at the same time. Machiavelli understood this, but this doesn't make him evil.
The Prince cannot be good or bad on its…
His entire regimes was marked by a dislike from many on both the right and the left sides of his politics, form writers to doctors and especially the military (Brennan; Romero). Much of the peasant, labor, and servant class, however, especially those Argentineans who were still most closely identified with the indigenous groups of people in the country, strongly supported Juan Peron and his wife Eva. Her death, in fact, seemed to signal the beginning of the end of Peron as his popular support began to wane significantly and his own behavior, both politically and privately, grew increasingly erratic (Romero). As this base began to erode out from underneath him, the oppositional social forces gained in strength, culminating in Peron's eventual overthrow.
Peron's political practices, while more concretely observable than his ideology or his social base, in many instances, are in some ways more difficult to codify. His nationalization of…
Brennan, James. Peronism in Argentina. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1998.
Romero, Luis Alberto. A History of Argentina in the Twentieth Century. New York: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2002
I not only am aware of these conditions, but look forward to an enterprise to which I am able to devote myself wholeheartedly.
I will definitely make decisions that more consciously reflect the concrete aspects of excellence I have identified in this paper. I have never been willing to let substandard work stand; I am aware of how the quality of my products reflects on my qualities as a person, and I hold both myself and my work to the highest standards. The sense of camaraderie has been somewhat lacking in my personal drive for excellence, and I will definitely be keeping this necessity in mind as I make my way through the ranks to become an executive chef. The balance necessary in a team is something I have always been consciously aware of, but I have not always been successful in achieving this environment in my work.
CIA. (2009). The Culinary Institute of America. Accessed 8 October 2009. http://www.ciachef.edu/
ECO. (2009). "Culinary Arts." Education Center Online. Accessed 8 October 2009. http://www.educationcenteronline.org/Culinary-Arts/index.html
Le Cordon Bleu. (2009). "Culinary arts Program." Accessed 8 October 2009. http://www.chefs.edu/programs/le-cordon-bleu-culinary-arts-program.asp
OED. (1996). "Excellence." Oxford English Dictionary. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kennedy spoke for most Irish-Americans when he said:
believe in an America where the separation of Church and State is absolute -- where no Catholic prelate would tell the President (should he be a Catholic) how to act.... If my church attempted to influence me in a way which was improper or which affected adversely my responsibilities as a public servant, sworn to uphold the Constitution, then I would reply to them that this was an improper action on their part, that it was one to which I could not subscribe, that I was opposed to it, and that it would be an unfortunate breach -- an interference with the American political system. I am confident there would be no such interference (Howard, Doyle, et al., 84).'"
The recent election of Barack H. Obama as the first black president of the United States, has enfranchised the population of black Americans…
Howard, Con, David Noel Doyle, and Owen Dudley Edwards, eds. America and Ireland, 1776-1976: The American Identity and the Irish Connection: the Proceedings of the United States Bicentennial Conference of Cumann Merriman, Ennis, August 1976. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1980. Questia. 20 Feb. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9623779 .
Neuhaus, Richard John. "Contract and Covenant: In Search of American Identity." National Review 30 Apr. 2007: 39. Questia. 20 Feb. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5021374584 .
Brien, Conor Cruise. "Edmund Burke and the American Revolution." America and Ireland, 1776-1976: The American Identity and the Irish Connection: the Proceedings of the United States Bicentennial Conference of Cumann Merriman, Ennis, August 1976. Ed. Con Howard, David Noel Doyle, and Owen Dudley Edwards. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1980. 3-13. Questia. 20 Feb. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9623797 .
In this encouragement, American would help to touch off something
perhaps all the more miraculous given the proximity to its oppression to
the European peasantry at large. First in the doctrines which would be
formulated in the wake of French independence and secondly in the way that
Napoleon Bonaparte would begin the spread of such doctrines to a continent
driven by inequality, America's revolution could be said to have been the
opening round in the deconstruction of colonialism and feudalism throughout
Europe and thus, the world.
Drafted in the image of the American Declaration of Independence,
though perhaps more ambitious and sweeping even in its trajectories, the
Declaration of the Rights of Men would dictate a universal principle
arguing that all men are born equal and that any distinctions made between
men according to the social conditions must be terms agreed upon by all
parties. The constitutional document underscoring the…
Center for History and New Media (CHNM). (2005). Monarchy Embattled.
George Mason University. Online at
Chew, Robin. (2004). Napoleon I: Emperor of the French. Lucid Caf?.
Online at http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/95aug/napoleon.html.
Locke, John. (2003). Two Treatise of Government, 14th. ed. Cambridge
60.2% of white inmates were executed that had initially been removed from being under a sentence of death versus 38.9% of blacks that met these criteria as part of the sample. While this cross-tabulation shows there is not a statistically significant relationship between blacks vs. whites having their sentences commuted, Hispanic Origin will prove to have statistical significance when bivariate correlation analysis is used to analyze the data. Additional research into the strength of relationships between those receiving commuted sentences and race need to be completed however, before a statistically significant conclusion can be reached across all ethnic groups in the sample. More in-depth analysis techniques including factor analysis to either accept or refute these findings as they pertain to this data set.
The third analysis is based on bivariate correlation matrices using both Pearson's correlation coefficient for parametrically-based analysis and Kendall's Tau_b and Spearman's ho for non-parametrically based analysis.…
Mark Douglas Cunningham, Jon R. Sorensen. (2007). Capital Offenders in Texas Prisons: Rates, Correlates, and an Actuarial Analysis of Violent Misconduct. Law and Human Behavior, 31(6), 553-71. Retrieved December 18, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1385818841).
Stewart JH McCann (2008). Societal Threat, Authoritarianism, Conservatism, and U.S. State Death Penalty Sentencing (1977-2004). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(5), 913. Retrieved December 19, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1481555391).
Mark Peffley, Jon Hurwitz. (2007). Persuasion and Resistance: Race and the Death Penalty in America. American Journal of Political Science, 51(4), 996-1002. Retrieved December 15, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1353540041). (U.S. Department of Justice, 2008)
United States Department of Justice. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Capital Punishment in the United States, 1973-1993 [Computer file]. ICPSR06512-v2. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2008-11-12. doi:10.3886/ICPSR06512. Retrieved December 18, 2008, at http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/cocoon/NACJD/STUDY/06512.xml
Most of the Jews who had settled in the Austro-Hungarian Empire were in the hinterlands, and were as poor as their neighbours. In those provinces where Jews could own land, there was a requirement that the Jews live on and work their land -- in order to prevent land speculation. As a result, many Jews in Niederoestereich and around Linz, where von Schnerer and his family resided, were themselves farmers. Natural increases and immigration resulted in large Jewish populations in the Austrian Empire; it has been estimated that over 70% of all the Jews in the world lived in these areas in the late 19th century (Engleman, 1933) One can imagine that the entry of Jewish farmers created tension within the communities of rural Austria, as they competed in the marketplace for customers, and demonstrated their abilities to succeed through education and hard work. This contrasted with the Austrian "auern,"…
Engleman, U. (1933). The Decline of Jewish Population Density in Europe. Social Forces, 244-247.
Hitler, a. (1931). Mein Kampf. Berlin: List.
Hofer, H. a. (1997). Regional per capita income convergence in Austria. Regional Studies, 31 (1), 1-12.
House, P.A. (1884). Austrian House of Representatives. Vienna: Austrian Parliament.
Internal and external customers are both considered important and their needs must be anticipated and satisfied in the most suitable manner. The decisions that the executive leader makes must be based on solid information. He must be aware of the consequences of his decisions. At the same time, he must have a long-term perspective and make the best choice even if at the beginning its consequences might seem negative.
A further competency that must be taken into consideration refers to the ability to efficaciously manage strategic resources including the human ones, the financial ones and the information ones. From this point-of-view, one needs to be updated with the technological development which are relevant for his work area. In addition, he must make sure that everything from the recruitment process to the selection and rewarding of the staff members is done in the manner which best serves the organization.
Executive Competencies, Retrieved November 26, 2007 from web site: https://www.opm.gov/ses/ecq.asp
Executive management, Retrieved November 26, 2007 from web site: http://www.govexec.com/features/0404-15/0404-15view.htm
Krishnan, R. (2002). Impact of gender on influence, power and authoritarianism, Women in management review, vol.17, 197-206
Leadership, Retrieved November 26, 2007 from web site: http://www.leadershiplouisville.org/programs/network
Group activities play an important role in the classroom. However, learning in the e-classroom typically takes place on an individual level, with students in different buildings and settings. With some effort, these elements can still be, and must be, a part of the student's classroom experience. The teacher can facilitate this type of interaction with some planning and ingenuity.
Online debates can take place in chat rooms or through video-conferencing software such as elluminateLive!, a web conferencing tool specifically designed for the e-learning environment. The teacher can simulate the one-on-one interaction that is present in the brick and mortar classroom. There are many elements that are similar to holding classroom debates and activities that are similar to the brick and mortar classroom. It is important to establish the ground rules of the discussion and make certain that students are polite to one another. The teacher must act as moderator and…
Both large states with a great population, they did not want to lose influence or power to a federal government. In particular, there was great debate in New York as existing political leaders feared a lose of power. The Federalists were those who supported the Constitution and include James Madison and Alexander Hamilton. They were the Federalist Papers that were published in New York and not only helped the Constitution to be ratified, but guided the direction of the new American nation. Those who opposed a strong government were the anti-federalists and they feared America would turn into a corrupt nation like Great Britain.
George Washington, who would be the first President, was a federalist and had great influence and therefore helped the country to go in that direction. A Bill of Rights quelled further fears about the oppression of the federal government. In 1788 the Constitution went into effect.…
" The problem seen with such systems is that they are characterized by competitive elections that install governments dedicated to maintaining political stability and labor discipline but not to expanding democratic freedoms or instituting needed changes. The Mexican state shows clearly the way the prevailing political culture can shape and give direction to political institutions. The political institutions of Mexico are similar to those of the United States, but as Cornelius and Craig note, what seems the same on paper is not the same in operation because the prevailing political culture is one-party rule at all levels: "Until recently, selection as the candidate of the official party has been tantamount to election, except in some municipalities and a handful of congressional districts where opposition parties are so strong that they cannot be ignored" (Cornelius and Craig 25).
The prevailing features of the system are found in the following elements common…
Burnaby, Barbara and Thomas Ricento. Language and Politics in the United States and Canada: Myths and Realities. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998.
Camp, Roderic Ai. Politics in Mexico: The Decline of Authoritarianism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Carroll, Michael P. "Who Owns Democracy? Explaining the Long-Running Debate over Canadian/American Value Differences."
The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, Volume 42, Issue 3 (2005). March 26, 2007. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5012185252 .
This alliance brought an end to the illusion that the war in the Gulf was for humanitarian purposes and the restoration of democracy, since Assad, who killed 20,000 of his own citizens to quell an uprising in Hama, Syria, was comparatively more dictatorial than Saddam himself."(Fingrut, 1993)
In close connection with the geopolitical positioning of the kingdom of Kuwait and the regional alliances lay Western interests for oil. Head and Tilford noted in this sense that "the United States also feared a reduction in the flow of oil from Kuwait, especially for its Allies in Europe." (Head and Tilford 17) Indeed, it had become common knowledge that the Iraqi leadership had established the new foreign policy guidelines in terms of acquiring and controlling Kuwait's oil reserves. This attitude was determined by the acute economic crisis Saddam had led his country into, after the eight-year war with Iran. Therefore, his extensive…
Calvocoressi, Peter. World politics since 1945. (Budapest: Open Society Institute, 1996)
Fingrut, David. Operation Desert Storm. Out right disinformation scheme. SEED Alternative School. Toronto, 1993. 23 March 2007. http://www.chss.montclair.edu/english/furr/Vietnam/gulf-war-fingrut.html#Bush
Head, William, and Earl H. Tilford, eds. The Eagle in the Desert Looking Back on U.S. Involvement in the Persian Gulf War. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996.
IR Theory in Practice Case Study: The Gulf War, 1990-1991. (n.d) 23 March 2007. http://www.gulfweb.org/
Patriarchal domination really coincides with domestic violence. This is usually widely seen in Asian countries where poverty is widespread.
Disturbing and alarming, it cannot be denied that men and women (children and adults) are witnessing an act that is very unfair. People should respond to this problem not only relying to the leaders but also to one's own effort to eliminate the problem. It will be of great bliss if there are lots of people who are helping the victims to express their long-endured pain. This problem deserves public attention and resources because it can kill everyone and systematically be a cycle to every generation. National and local governments should put an attention to this by forming a special task force. Task force shall constitute a wide array of persons who themselves experienced such agonies and torture. This also includes psychiatrist and psychologist to help the mentally incapacitated.
C.J Newton. "Domestic Violence: An Overview." Find Counseling Network Feb. 2001. http://www.findcounseling.com/journal/domestic-violence/ .
Strauss, Murray A, Gelles, Richard J., and Smith, Christine. 1990. Physical Violence in American Families; Risk Factors and Adaptations to Violence in 8,145 Families. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
The Commonwealth Fund, Health Concerns Across a Woman's Lifespan: 1998 Survey of Women's Health, May 1999.
In this regard, artee (2000) points out that the Leipzig protest of January 15, 1989, was a good example of how social protest in the East was becoming more sophisticated and organized, with thousands of activists distributing leaflets calling for attendance at the rally all over Leipzig around midnight of January 11-12, 1989: "The leaflets boldly called for an open demonstration the next Sunday afternoon in front of Leipzig's old Rathaus (City Hall). The occasion, the 70th anniversary of the murders of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, offered the opportunity to publicize Luxemburg's famous statement that 'freedom means always freedom for those who think differently'" (artee 2000, 121). This author adds that the efforts by the activists during January 1988 to join the official parade with banners of their own clearly inspired the Leipzig protestors: "The Leipzig event would be different, however; it would be independent of any official ceremonies.…
Bartee, Wayne C. 2000. A time to speak out: The Leipzig citizen protests and the fall of East Germany. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Berger, T. 2001. German unification and the Union of Europe. German Politics and Society 19(1):80.
Conradt, D.P. 2002. Political culture in unified Germany: The first ten years. German Politics and Society 20(2):43.
Edwards, Vincent, Gennadij Polonsky, Danijel Pucko, Malcolm Warner and Ying Zhu. 2004. Management in transitional economies: From the Berlin Wall to the Great Wall of China. New York: Routledge.
omen and Commodities
In both Jonathan Swift's "The Lady's Dressing Room" and Christina Rossetti's "Goblin Market," women are presented both in a world of commerce and as commodities themselves, but only Rossetti's text is critical of this formulation. In both poems, the value of a woman is dictated by her physical appearance, but whereas Swift seems to be arguing that the value produced by a beautiful woman outweighs any of the undesirable or otherwise unattractive elements which go into maintaining that beauty, Rossetti suggests that the woman who allows herself to be tricked into believing that a woman's value comes from her physical appearance will ultimately be doomed to waste away and die. By examining the conclusion of Swift's poem in conjunction with certain relevant scenes from "Goblin Market," one may see how the former serves to reinforce the notion that women are essentially semi-autonomous commodities, existing solely for visual…
Rosetti, Christina. "Goblin Market." Loudlit. Loudlit.org, n.d. Web. 24 Oct 2011.
Swift, Jonathan. "The Lad'ys Dressing Room." Rutgers University. Rutgers, n.d. Web. 24 Oct
Family and Authority in Saudi Arabia: A Prototypical Example of the GCC Countries
Understanding the attitudes towards authority and the importance of familial responsibilities in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) is essential to developing a comprehensive and effective understanding of how individuals and businesses in the companies do business. There are certain signs that these attitudes and responsibilities might be shifting, however, which complicates the study of such issues. A brief examination of Saudi Arabia, which can be seen as a typical example of GCC countries and cultures, will demonstrate the current cultural understandings and the complex changes that may be occurring.
Attitudes towards authority in Saudi Arabia have been largely proscribed by religion -- specifically, by the interpretation of Islamic religious law by the Saudi Arabian royalty and government (Moaddel & Karabenik 2008). There are signs that many youths are beginning to turn away…
Al-Ahmadi, H. (2011). Challenges facing women leaders in Saudi Arabia Human Resource Development International. Human Resource Development International 14(2): 149-66.
Ali, A. (1993). Decision-Making Style, Individualism, and Attitudes toward Risk of Arab Executives. International Studies of Management & Organization 23(3): 53-73.
CIA. (2011). Saudi Arabia. Accessed 13 May 2011. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sa.html
Cole, D. (2011). Saudi Arabia. Accessed 13 May 2011. http://www.everyculture.com/Sa-Th/Saudi-Arabia.html
omen and Gender Studies
Of all the technologies and cultural phenomena human beings have created, language, and particularly writing, is arguably the most powerful, because it is the means by which all human experience is expressed and ordered. As such, controlling who is allowed to write, and in a modern context, be published, is one of the most effective means of controlling society. This fact was painfully clear to women writers throughout history because women were frequently prohibited from receiving the same education as men, and as the struggle for gender equality began to read a critical mass near the end of the nineteenth century, control over women's access to education and writing became a central theme in a number of authors' works, whether they considered themselves feminists or not. In particular, Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 1892 story The Yellow allpaper features this theme prominently, and Virginia oolf's extended essay A…
Bak, John S. "Escaping the Jaundiced Eye: Foucauldian Panopticism in Charlotte Perkins
Gilmans "the Yellow Wallpaper." Studies in Short Fiction 31.1 (1994): 39-.
Carstens, Lisa. "Unbecoming Women: Sex Reversal in the Scientific Discourse on Female
Deviance in Britain, 1880-1920." Journal of the History of Sexuality 20.1 (2011):
The experience with Turkey shows the fact that several Muslims, regardless of their habitation in officially secular or officially Islamic countries, witness democracy as their foremost expectation and means of efficient political involvement. Expanding on current research, this doctoral study seeks to examine the whether democracy is compatible in the Islamic world.
Methodology constitutes an important aspect of any study. Several scholars have followed many techniques of method to collect data, analyze it and come to its conclusions. In the present study which is supposed to be completed within a short span of time will concentrate on primary and secondary sources which are relevant to the study. The correlation between Islam and democracy proposing their incompatibility is made aware through several literatures on the subject. Nevertheless, the bulk of writings on this topic are not persuasive as the authors fall short of giving a theoretical cause for the…
Christopher G. Kukla, Monshipouri, Mahmood. (1994) "Islam, Democracy and Human Rights: the Continuing Debate in the West" Middle East Policy. Vol. 3; No: 1; pp: 62-71
Diamond, Larry; Plattner, Marc F; Brumberg, Daniel. "Islam and Democracy in the Middle East" A Journal of Democracy Book. Retrieved from http://www.press.jhu.edu/books/title_pages/1819.html
Esposito, John L; Voll, John O. (November/December 2001) "Islam and Democracy" Humanities. Vol: 22; No: 6; pp: 43-47
Filali-Ansary, Abdou. (1996) "Islam and Liberal Democracy: The Challenge of Secularization" Journal of Democracy. Vol. 7; No: 2, pp. 76-80
ush justified to invade Iraq
Incontrovertibly, one can assert that Iraq had not been invaded for social or political reforms by the ush and lair Administration. Their objective had not been to liberate or free Iraq, but instead to occupy it and abuse the massive quantities of oil it holds. If truth be told, the aspiration to conquer Iraq and have power over the oil fields has not been a latest development.
Historic tendencies have revealed that all colonial states and super powers, for example America, ritain, Russia, France etc., have worked as a team and sometimes challenged each other depending on the state-of-affairs to achieve control over the oil wealth within Iraq. Abbas Alnasrawi (2001) writes, "It is a historical fact that the home governments of multinational oil corporations (U.S., UK, France) have all played significant roles in enabling their companies to acquire oil concessions, to penetrate markets and…
Abbas Alnasrawi. Oil, Sanctions Debt and the Future. Arab Studies Quarterly, Vol. 23, 2001
Barry Schweid. Powell: Iraq Evidence May Have Been Wrong. Associated Press
April 4, 2004.
Dr. Ferruh Demirmen. Oil in Iraq: The Byzantine Beginnings. Global Policy Forum. April 25, 2003
With this example, it is not surprising that John Locke is considered an instrument for the right political cause. Aside from the essays that he had written, Locke also has philosophies in the different subjects of life. This includes the role of families in the liberal society, theories on properties and money, ethics and beliefs, and many others.
Locke's contribution to his generation and the modern society focused on the role of the government and the people to each other. Despite of the changing course of politics in the seventeenth century, Locke was able to also shift his intellect effectively. The various political situations that happened in his time had been useful to the future generation because from his works, the contemporary times has gained basis and reference for the ideologies they fight for which are related to Locke's philosophies and writings. As Tim Harris indicated, in his article John…
Goldie, M. 2004. John Locke Icon of Liberty.
History Today, vol 54 issue 10, pp 31-36.
Jhunjhunwala, B. 2004. Role of Intellectuals in Governance.
Adams Business Media, Vol 36 Issue 6-7, pp 787-795.
Plotinus on Good and Evil
The act of defining what shall be considered Good or Evil is a central part of many philosophies and religions. The subject is often approached with very little rationality and a great deal of rabid sentiment and heavy-handed authoritarianism, as sharp lines between Good and Evil are drawn in the metaphoric sand. It is no coincidence that in the East Good and Evil are shown divided sharply into the two sides of the ying-yang symbol, or that in the West these two have often been imagined as the manifestation of competing spiritual forces (of God and the Devil). Amidst all of this, Plotinus is a refreshing voice precisely because he does not attempt to delineate sharply between the Good and the ill, but rather takes a broad view of the inter-relationship of all things with the divine. To summarize quite brutally: Plotinus believes that…
Questions On World Regional Geography
Generally speaking, African colonies during the colonial period were seen as expensive liabilities by the great European powers, especially in relation to trading concessions. Toward the end of the 19th century, the attitudes of these powers altered as rival industrial nations like Great Britain, Germany, France and Belgium, attempted to locate and develop overseas markets for their goods. In 1885, the Berlin Conference was convened to resolve conflicts of interest in Africa by allotting areas of exploitation to these colonial powers. As a result, the so-called "scramble for Africa" began in which these powers sought to establish their "rightful" claims to vast expanses of land.
When this conference was convened, most of Africa was under colonial control and was subsequently broken up into numerous states, made up of some fifty separate countries with very irregular geographical boundaries. One major problem linked to this break-up…
" (Walsh, est, and Rai 133) Neither does the article pay sufficient attention to the motivational aspects that led Walensa to enter the Solidarity movement, and the reason for the rejection of communism.
For example, the important aspect that personally motivated Walensa was not so much any intellectual disagreement with communism - in fact he virtually ignored the student protests of 1968, which he felt was "... A problem for the intellectuals." (Walsh, est, and Rai 133) However this attitude was to change when"...on December 12, 1970, the Communist regime decreed steep increases in the prices of basic foodstuffs. The suddenness of this action in the immediate pre-Christmas season shocked Polish workers, and many went into the streets in spontaneous protest. "(Walsh, est, and Rai 133)
Not enough attention is given to the reasons that lay beneath the Soviet reaction to Walensa. This refers to the"... change in Soviet leadership…
sa November 2, 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walensa
Casmir, Fred L., ed. Communication in Eastern Europe: The Role of History, Culture, and Media in Contemporary Conflicts. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1995.
Gardner, Hall. Surviving the Millennium: American Global Strategy, the Collapse of the Soviet Empire, and the Question of Peace. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1994.
In his study of the camp doctors, he noted,
The willingness to blame Jews for Germany's troubles, making them "arch enemies of Germany." The nation was itself reduced to an abstract essence, threatened by its enemies and in need of sacred renewal and purification, through blood sacrifice if necessary. One's identity as a German, as the Nazis defined it, crowded out other possible roles. As the embodiment of this "holy, divine Reich," the Fuhrer, and not the doctors, was responsible for all that happened in the camps. Yet "even the Fuhrer could be painted as 'helpless': because the Jew's evil forced the Fuhrer to act or make war on him."
So nefarious was this hidden enemy - the Jew - that he or she was quickly seen to be responsible for every conceivable social ill, real or imagined. "Jews -- or the concept of 'the Jew' -- were equated with…
Bailer-galanda, Brigitte. "8." In Antisemitism and Xenophobia in Germany after Unification, edited by Kurthen, Hermann, Werner Bergmann, and Rainer Erb, 174-188. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103409458
Bosworth, R.J.B. Explaining Auschwitz and Hiroshima: History Writing and the Second World War 1945-1990. New York: Routledge, 1994. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103664388
Crew, David F. Nazism and German Society, 1933-1945. London: Routledge, 1994. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=33602574
Conservatives and socialists splitted society and failed to create a functioning coalition. After years of authoritarian monarchic control, proportional system of election led society to political chaos, as nearly 20 parties with different political programs from communist to right radicals were represented in eichstag. None of country's politicians was successful either in diplomacy or in the art of achieving compromise. The experience of political pluralism led to political and economical disorientation in society, as in a period of 1919-1933 Germany witnessed several temporary coalitions in parliament and twelve governments, which were unable to stabilize country's economy.
Haffner describes that political crisis was a common attribute of Weimar republic's pluralism: "From 1914 to 1923 all governments had been weak" German parliamentarians of Weimar republic faced a common problem of all young political parties. Being one of the most popular parties in the country with wide support in society and even being…
Gay, Peter Weimar Culture: The Outsider as Insider W.W. Norton & Company 2001
Haffner, Sebastian Defying Hitler: A Memoir Picador 2003
Eyck, Erich History of the Weimar Republic Macmillan Pub Co 1970
" (S. M. Lele, Sustainable Development" A Critical Review, p. 611)
The main objectives of the sustainable development are to: revive growth, change the quality of growth, satisfy the basic needs for jobs and subsidiary services, ensure a sustainable level of population, preserve the resources, reorient technology and control risk, consider both economy and environment in the decision making process, and reorient international economic relationships. (S. M. Lele, Sustainable Development" A Critical Review, p. 611)
Connections between the two
Harriss promotes the idea of disciplined economics and governance based on rules. Lele promotes the sustainable development, again a form of governance based on a strict set of rules. The idea at the basis of these two theories is practically the same: governance, economy and the entire human behavior should be based on a set of rules previously elaborated to protect the interests of the participants as well as the environment's.…
Jamie Joseph, Development in Practice, Volume 11, Numbers 2 & 3, May 2001; Sustainable Development and Democracy in the Megacities
Joseph T. Siegle, Michael M. Weinstein, and Morton H. Halperin, Why Democracies Excel, Foreign Affairs September/October 2004
Mick Moore, Political Underdevelopment, What causes 'bad governance', Volume 3, Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2001
Lionel Cliff and Robin Luckham, Complex political emergencies and the state: failure and the fate of the state, Third World Quarterly, Vol 20, No 1, pp 27A± 50, 1999
In so giving each grants the same rights to others over himself that he is in turn granted by them over them. Each member gains the equivalent of everything he loses, and a greater amount of force to protect what he has. Given these conditions, Rousseau is ready to make his argument:
If therefore one eliminates from the social compact whatever is not essential to it, one will find that it is reducible to the following terms. Each of use places his person and all his power in common under the supreme direction of the general will, and as one we receive each member as an indivisible part of the whole."
By locating the binding force of the state in this concept of a general will, Rousseau thinks he has formulated a source for legitimate power. Of course, how he constructs the state comes to be crucial. The devil, as…
Locke, John. Second Treatise of Government. C.B. Macpherson, Ed. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1980.
Read, Herbert. The Paradox of Anarchism. 1941. Retrieved from http://www.panarchy.org/read/anarchism.html .
Rousseau, Jean-Jacque. On the Social Contract. Donald Cress, Trans., Indianapolis: Hackett, 1983.