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Aviation Safety PO involves applying critical thinking to particular topics of aviation safety and security which are used to support a project or comprehensive research question. Aviation safety includes the analysis and evaluation of any and all safety and security concepts, techniques, procedures including SMS, airfield and other aviation facility security, accident investigation, operational safety, Federal Air Marshall Program, terrorism prevention as they influence and relate to the project or comprehensive research question. This paper will look at basic concepts in aviation safety in regards to crew resource management as it pertains to the aviation/aerospace industry.
Crew resource management involves the application of human factors skills and knowledge when it comes to conducting flight operations with the goal of using the available resources efficiently; equipment, systems and humans in order to achieve safe flight operations. CM is a combination of both individual skills and human factors knowledge together with effective…
Federal aviation administration. (2008). Safety Management System Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved July 21, 2014 from http://www.faa.gov/about/initiatives/sms/faq/
Liu, A, Zizhang, M. (2012). Crew Resource Management. Retrieved July 23, 2014 from http://aviationknowledge.wikidot.com/aviation:crew-resource-management
Graeber, C. (2009). Human Factors. Retrieved July 23, 2014 from http://www.boeing.com/commercial/aeromagazine/aero_08/human_textonly.html
CIVIL VITION'S SRPS
Civil viation's SRPs
Civil viation's SRPs
The primary objective of aviation security relates to airport infrastructure protection. The agencies also insist on the need to control people's access within protected areas. This essay discusses the roles and contributions of International ir Transport ssociation as well as the International Federation of ir Line Pilots' ssociations to the aviation industry.
The world's airlines have a trade association called IT. The organization hosts primarily major carriers (240 airlines) and carries about 83% of air traffic's vailable Seat Kilometers. IT is supportive of airline activities through formulation of industry standards and policies. The organization has its headquarters in Montreal, Canada. The Executive branch offices are in Geneva, Switzerland. ll industry stakeholders and IT members agree to sequential environmental goals. The members seek to improve average fuel efficiency to 1.5% each year between 2009 and 2020 (Hendrik 2008). The agency seeks…
Alessandro Cento, 2008, The Airline Industry: Challenges in the 21st Century, Springer Science & Business Media.
Hendrik Vedder, 2008, Strategic Alliances in the Aviation Industry, GRIN Verlag.
Marc-Philippe Lumpe, 2012, Leadership and Organization in the Aviation Industry, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.,
Aviation and Security: Management Perspective
The globalization has made the world a smaller place with information transcending the hitherto boundaries that stopped free flow of information as well as increased travel across the world. The increased traveling due to availability of the means of travel heaped a lot of pressure on the aviation industry, especially the management to ensure that security is maintained and the commuting through the various airports and through the airspaces is seamless, safe and uninterrupted, providing convenience to passengers and goods alike. The management levels at the airports hence have a heavy task of ensuring the free flow of traffic and the following is an extrapolation of how the management can and have contributed to aviation security in general.
The management must describe and make the staff members understand the four pillars of safety within the aviation industry. Once the staff members understand these four pillars,…
ICAO, (2009). Safety management: Global Approach Unlocks Potential of SMS. http://www.icao.int/environmental-protection/Documents/Publications/6106_en.pdf
Human esource in Aviation Industry
Human resources are a set of individuals who make the workforce of an economy. Human capital is a term related to human resources, but to a narrow scope, the term relates to knowledge and skills of a worker. Human resource represents people, Labor, Manpower or talent. Companies view employees as assets, whose actions and skills add value to the organizations. Firms need to practice effective human resource planning processes. For easy management of human resources in an organization, consideration on the demographics of employees, availability of workers, levels of skills of employees and on availability of funds to compensate workers is critical for easy management (Harzing & Pinnington, 2010).
According to Harzing and Pinnington (2010), one major concern about human resource in an organization is for the fact that employees are at time abused and in some cases traded. elating employees to commodities of production…
Kanki, B.G., Helmreich, R.L., & Anca, J.M. (2010). Crew Resource Management.
Harzing, a.W., & Pinnington, a. (Eds.). (2010). International human resource management.
New York: Sage.
The combination of such broad language and the paucity of any significant enforcement tools meant that these initiatives were largely ineffective.
Not surprisingly, complaints from passengers increased by 200% within the year; furthermore, flight delays continued to increase 12% faster in the first five months of 2000 than in the same period in 1999. "Indeed, in the twelve months following the airlines' voluntary promises, flight delays cost business travelers 5 billion dollars and 1.5 million hours" (osenthal, 2002, p. 1859). The number of delays caused National Business Travel Association Executive Director Marianne McInerney to conclude that "[w]e are at a point where our nation's airline system is in need of triage" (osenthal, 2002, p. 1859). Some observers would suggest that radical surgery is required rather than triage, and these issues are discussed further below.
Security Issues and Passenger Satisfaction. When people travel on an airline, they have a legitimate right…
Asker, J.R. (1999, October 25). Why are passengers so angry at carriers? Aviation Week and Space Technology, 50.
Freidheim, C. (1998). The trillion-dollar enterprise: How the alliance revolution will transform global business. Reading, MA: Perseus Books.
Galpin, T.J. (1998). When leaders really walk the talk: Making strategy work through people. Human Resource Planning, 21(3), 38.
Gips, M.A. (2004, June). Passenger screening in no-fly zone? Government efforts to work the kinks out of the latest passenger screening proposal seem mired in the battle between privacy and security. Security Management, 48(6), 62.
In short then, the Pilot is everything the stewardess is not. He even supplies the sense of dash and adventure that the stewardess keeps "bottled up" within her button-down exterior. However, it is not just the pilot's overall demeanor - or persona - that is significant. We often have no direct contact with the pilot of our craft except via the airplane intercom. As this is our sole means of interface with this individual; this individual who is so essential to our own personal safety and survival, it is important that even on the intercom the pilot must sound like our preconceived image of him:
speaker's personality may be judged by listeners not only on the basis of the choices of behaviour he makes, but also possibly to some extent on physical features over which he has no possibility of volitional control at all. In our culture, a man…
Beaulieu, R.A. (1991). 10 the Pilot and the Thinking Machine. In Pilots, Personality, and Performance: Human Behavior and Stress in the Skies, Deitz, S.R. & Thoms, W.E. (Eds.) (pp. 145-164). New York: Quorum Books.
(1991). The Gift of Speech: Papers in the Analysis of Speech and Voice. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=35389004
Grant, C.A. (Ed.). (1999). Proceedings of the National Association for Multicultural Education: Seventh Annual Name Conference, October 29-November 2, 1997, Albuquerque, Nm. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=96547023
U.S. statistics indicate that 80% of aviation accidents are due to human errors with 50% due to maintenance human factor problems. Current human factor management programs have not succeeded to the degree desired. Many industries today use performance excellence frameworks such as the Baldrige National Quality Award framework to improve over-all organizational effectiveness, organizational culture and personal learning and growth. A survey administered to a sample population of senior aviation maintainers in 18 countries revealed a consistent problem with aviation human factors and the need for a more integrated framework to manage human factor problems in aviation maintenance.
Human Factors History
Current Human Factor programs in Aircraft Maintenance
Performance Excellence Framework
esearcher's Work Setting and ole
Statement of the Problem
EVIEW OF ELEVANT LITEATUE AND ESEACH
Human Factor Errors in Aircraft Maintenance Statistics
Current Human Factor Programs in Aircraft Maintenance 13
Aviation Performance Excellence Framework 12
Statement of esearch Question…
Boeing. (1993). Accident Prevention Strategies. Commercial Jet Aircraft Accidents
World Wide Operations 1982-1991. Retrieved 11 Nov, 2004 from http://www.hf.faa.gov / Portal/HFTimeline.aspx
Boeing. (1994). Field test of the MEDA process. Retrieved 17 Dec, 2004 from William L.
Fatigue has been recognized as a causal factor in accidents, injuries and death in a vast range of situations, which indicate that tired people have a lessened likelihood and probability to give sound performance of a safe action. The situational areas can include industries like transport such as road, air, rail and oceanic as well as occupational areas such as; hospitals, emergency operations, law enforcement etc. And the problem is more particular in the working hours that are irregular. Almost everyone is caught complaining of fatigue at some point of time, either on work or leisure time, and that ultimately causes accidents and injuries. Fatigue causes slow responses and failure to pay attention or inappropriate action which can be the primary causes leading to most of the accidents (Mitler et al., 1988).
In most of the countries, fatigue is understood to be the most prominent accident factor in the…
4. Define the design structure: The subjects will be given a pre-test, which will inform the researcher about their decision making habits. Thereafter, the subjects will be assigned in 2 groups based on their decision making habits. Thereafter they will be asked to fill out a survey, which will indicate their level of stress.
5. Data analysis: Data will be analyzed using a Chi square test.
We see that the great job demands and higher decision latitude in aviation all help in maintaining a superior mental health capacity and can be ascertained by the ability of the employee to adapt to his environment. It also said by Xie (1996) that prominent job demands and superior decision latitude contribute to better mental health and are interlinked with positive outcomes. Not to be forgotten, the above sentence also refers to the job framework and criteria. Along with the level of control and management the employee has over the requirement of work associated to fixed shifts, rotating shifts may hinder the employee's control. Providing a greater sense of control and grasping of the context on a consistent basis could possibly permit for the decision latitude to be put to enhanced use. Because of the unpredictable nature of the job framework in aviation, it is anticipated that employees who operate
(2) Analyzing all accident data without regard to the type of airframe provides for an easy sampling and less potential bias toward fixed wing vs. rotary wing aircraft.
(3) Not including ground accidents into the research will allow the research to focus only on aviation accidents.
(4) Limiting the research to a four-year period; 2003 to 2006 will provide an adequate sampling of the data and not constrain the research results.
The first assumption is that accident data to be used will be an adequate sample of class a through class C accidents within the USAREUR area of operations.
The second assumption is that ARMS inspection dates derived from official USAREUR Publications and historical data files will reflect actual dates of ARMS inspections.
The third assumption is that current ARMS inspections continue to incorporate comprehensive checklist used to evaluate resource management and assist…
Sigma has often become the associated trademark for all processes involving a managerial approach towards increasing the efficiency of an organization. More and more, Six Sigma has become a tool that management can use in the aviation industry for the same purpose of streamlining operations and activity in order to drive a reduction in costs and an increased efficiency, with the final objective of maximizing profits. At the same time, Six Sigma proposes the increase in quality of the products delivered to the final consumer.
There are several distinct areas of the aviation industry that the Six Sigma methodology can target. On one hand, there is the turnaround time that airplanes spend in repair. There are two costs that such an activity incurs. The first is the cost of the actual repair. It is obvious that if the repair time is longer, then the costs are also increased due to…
1. Moorman, Robert. 2011. Overhaul and Maintenance. On the Internet at http://www.dugganinc.com/cms/index.php?aid=125-3. Last retrieved on August 8, 2011
2. De Feo, Joseph A.; Barnard, William (2005). JURAN Institute's Six Sigma Breakthrough and Beyond - Quality Performance Breakthrough Methods. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited
Moorman, Robert. 2011. Overhaul and Maintenance. On the Internet at http://www.dugganinc.com/cms/index.php?aid=125-3. Last retrieved on August 8, 2011
De Feo, Joseph A.; Barnard, William (2005). JURAN Institute's Six Sigma Breakthrough and Beyond - Quality Performance Breakthrough Methods. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited
What is the role of human factors in improving aviation safety?
Many personnel are involved in the operation and maintenance of airplanes. The aviation industry employs many people performing many different roles and tasks to keep aviation a safe mode of transportation for goods and services. Despite rules, procedures, and advanced technology to help keep passengers and crew safe, sometimes accidents still occur. It was found that more than 70% of commercial airplane accidents are caused by humans, rather than simply a failure of technology (Higgins & Higgins, 2008). This research supports the thesis that human factors are one of the most difficult, and the most important issues in aviation needed to increase aviation safety in the future.
Mechanical failure is cited as one of the more common reasons for aviation disasters (Higgins & Higgins, 2008). It is easy to shift the blame to a machine, rather than…
AAM-500. (2010). Human Factors Research Division (AAM-500) Simulation Facilities. Federal Aviation Administration. http://www.faa.gov/data_research/research/med_humanfacs/humanfactors/
Gallaway, G. (2011). A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Fatigue Risk Management in Aircraft
Maintenance -- Near-Term and NextGen Time Frame (Maintenance Fatigue; Avers).
AAM-500-b-F-004 Rev.2. Retrieved from
According to Pilarski (2007), "the financial situation of the airline industry, especially in the U.S.A., has been between disaster and catastrophe," (p. 3). Financial wizards like Warren Buffet have made "bombastic pronouncements" related to the economic illnesses of the airline industry (9). Dynamic entrepreneur ichard Branson, himself seduced by the desire to own an airline, has likewise stated, "How do you become a millionaire? Start as a billionaire, and then buy an airline," (cited in "In-Depth Drilldown Of The Airline Industry - Part 1, 2012). Airline companies operate with razor-thin profit margins, if any at all. Moreover, the situation was bad enough befofre but has grown worse since September 11. "Since 9/11, we've seen tremendous changes surrounding the airline industry: security, regulations, and operational costs. Overall, these variables have had tremendous, and far-bearing, negative impacts on the industry," ("In-Depth Drilldown Of The Airline Industry - Part 1," 2012).…
"Global airline industry profits to falter at $3bn in 2012," (2012). New Statesman. June 11, 2012 Retrieved online: http://www.newstatesman.com/business/transport/2012/06/global-airline-industry-profits-falter-3bn-2012
"In-Depth Drilldown Of The Airline Industry - Part 1," (2012). Retieved online: http://seekingalpha.com/article/644991-in-depth-drilldown-of-the-airline-industry-part-1http://seekingalpha.com/article/644991-in-depth-drilldown-of-the-airline-industry-part-1
Pilarski, A.M. (2007). Why Can't We Make Money in Aviation? Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
Pilarski, A.M. (2010). The fallacy of airline mergers: Two drunks holding unto each other will not walk straight. Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation. Retrieved online: http://www.avitas.com/publications/adampilarskiarticles/The%20Fallacy%20of%20Airline%20Mergers%20Two%20Drunks%20Holding%20Unto%20Each%20Other%20Will%20Not%20Walk%20Straight.pdf
There might be a tendency for social interactions to center around traveling between locations in a convoy, much like groups of motorcycle riders do today. Neighborhood airstrips might strengthen communities by giving many residents reason to come to a common area. There might also be a harmful effect due to people being less inclined to spend time in their own neighborhoods.
My personal life would not be greatly affected by the availability of a $50,000 aircraft. I do not have $50,000 to spend on a vehicle, nor do most people I know. The people I do know who could afford such an aircraft have little use for one, so I would probably have little more interaction with personal aircraft than I currently do with small planes. Assuming I did own a personal aircraft, it would make it practical for me to seek out business opportunities in towns that are currently…
Airscooter. "Airscooter II: Back to the Future of Rotor Craft Design" http://www.airscooter.com/pages/airscooter_main.htm
Boyle, Alan. "Seven flights of fancy that fizled." MSNBC, 17, Nov. 2003. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3475918/
Cessna 150-152 Club "Safety FAQ's. http://www.cessna150-152.com/faqs/safety.htm
Ericg. "Cessna 172." Wikipedia, 18, Apr 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cessna_172
Commercial aviation, therefore, warrants the highest attention to risk management, precisely by virtue of the obvious risks to life and limb first, and devastating financial consequences of materialized risks associated with commercial aviation operations.
Designing and implementing a comprehensive risk management program entails specific components to identify potential risks, evaluate their likelihood of occurrence, the magnitude of harm associated with them, and the interrelationship of their statistical likelihood and extent of potential harm they represent. Program implementation is, in many ways, merely the first step in a long-term comprehensive safety strategy for effective and economical risk mitigation, precisely because the complexities of risk management in commercial aviation.
Consequently, post-implementation procedural monitoring and regular follow-up are necessary to ensure proper redress of any operational oversights and inadequacies, especially those that come to light only retrospectively after initial program implementation. In this regard, statutory requirements are merely the first level of risk…
Accessed October 27, 2007, at http://www.faa.gov/library/manuals/aviation/risk_management/
U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (2005).
Aviation Safety Center. Risk Management; Accessed October 27, 2007, at: http://www.fs.fed.us/fire/av_safety/risk_mgt/index.html
With regards to improving the prospects for the Gray Eagle, the United States Army must apply the core principles of CM to its operations. This entails a strategic decision-making training session, an improved technology interface that will facilitate ground and flight operations, and a thorough training module related to leadership development and communications. When FAA regulations are also integrated with Army safety regulations, the result will be an improved and safer UAS system.
Beckhusen, . (2012). 'Gray Eagle' Drone Fails All the Time, but Army Still Wants More. Wired. June 15, 2012. etrieved online: http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/06/grey-eagle/
Dorr, L. & Duquette, a. (2013). Fact sheet -- Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Federal Aviation Administration. etrieved online: http://www.faa.gov/news/fact_sheets/news_story.cfm?newsId=14153
Helmreich, .L., Merritt, a.C., & Wilhelm, J.A. (1999). The evolution of crew resource management training in commercial aviation. etrieved online: http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/group/helmreichlab/publications/pubfiles/Pub235.pdf
Mulenberg, J. (n.d.). Crew resource management improves decision making. NASA. etrieved online: http://www.nasa.gov/offices/oce/appel/ask/issues/42/42i_crew_resource_management_prt.htm…
Beckhusen, R. (2012). 'Gray Eagle' Drone Fails All the Time, but Army Still Wants More. Wired. June 15, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/06/grey-eagle/
Dorr, L. & Duquette, a. (2013). Fact sheet -- Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved online: http://www.faa.gov/news/fact_sheets/news_story.cfm?newsId=14153
Helmreich, R.L., Merritt, a.C., & Wilhelm, J.A. (1999). The evolution of crew resource management training in commercial aviation. Retrieved online: http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/group/helmreichlab/publications/pubfiles/Pub235.pdf
Mulenberg, J. (n.d.). Crew resource management improves decision making. NASA. Retrieved online: http://www.nasa.gov/offices/oce/appel/ask/issues/42/42i_crew_resource_management_prt.htm
Human Factors in Aviation Safety
The human beings with their immense capabilities, imagination, creativity, and cleverness have transformed the world into an industrial world that is surrounded by numerous inventions, innovations, and advancements in various facets of life. Aviation industry is also one of the developments of the human beings, which was imagined as an attempt to emulate bird flight. Human beings were engaged in this phenomenon for centuries prior to the emergence of the first flight, which resulted in outstanding civil transport in the form of spaceflight (Campbell & Bagshaw, 2008). However, it is wise to note that the human life is one integral aspect that should not be ignored when any mode of transportation is concerned. To have a safe journey during flights it is demonstrated that aviation safety is essential. Aviation safety principally signifies that prevention techniques in the form of regulation, education, and training should be…
Abeyratne, R. (2012). Strategic Issues in Air Transport: Legal, Economic and Technical Aspects. USA: Springer.
Abu-Taieh, E.M.O., El-Sheikh, A.A. & Jafari, M. (2012). Technology Engineering and Management in Aviation: Advancements and Discoveries. Information Science Reference.
Ben-Daya, M. (2009). Handbook of Maintenance Management and Engineering. USA: Springer.
Campbell, R.D. & Bagshaw, M. (2008). Human Performance and Limitations in Aviation. 3rd Edition. USA: John Wiley & Sons.
They just assume that the autopilot will take care of flying the plane, and their skills get rusty with lack of use. Then, if something goes wrong with the autopilot system the pilot and his or her crew members may not know what to do and they may not react as quickly as they need to in order to protect the passengers and the rest of the crew members from serious harm (Human, 2009).
The majority of people need to sleep approximately eight hours each night. If they do not get that level of sleep, they can be overly tired and that can cause them to make more mistakes than they otherwise would (Human, 2009). However, someone who has gotten eight hours of sleep is not necessarily caught up on his or her sleep. The quality of sleep the person has gotten and how tired he or she was before…
Berliner, D. (1996). Aviation: Reaching for the sky. New York, NY: The Oliver Press, Inc.
Dirty dozen - errors - human factors. (2011). Aviation Glossary. Retrieved from http://aviationglossary.com/aviation-safety-terms/dirty-dozen-errors-human-factors/
Harris, D. & Muir, H.C. (2005). Contemporary issues in human factors and aviation safety. New York, NY: Ashgate.
Human factors in aviation maintenance. (2011). Southern California Safety Institute. Retrieved from http://www.scsi-inc.com/HFAM.php
The mechanic must have adequate knowledge, training, data for assigned task, tools and equipment, be mentally and physically prepared, take safety precautions, have adequate resources, and have researched FAR, Federal Aviation Regulations, to ensure compliance. The task must be performed with a committed attitude, in accordance with appropriate data and acceptable methods, techniques, and practices that are industry acceptable. The mechanic must perform without pressures, stresses, and distractions, re-inspect work, properly record work performed, and perform operational checks. The mechanic must also be willing to sign for work performed and be willing to fly in the aircraft upon approval for return to service.
In spite of having measures in place to mitigate human error in aviation, there is still a major amount of incidents that involve human error. A Quantas plane flew from Darwin to risbane with a rag over a power generator, left on the generator during a…
Administration, F.A. (2009). Aircraft Inspection and Repair: Acceptable Methods, Techniques, and Practices. New York, NY: Skyhorse Publishing, Inc.
Airline worker killed at N.C. airport. (Aug, 9, 2007). Aviation Human Factors Industry News, Vol III Issue 28, Retrieved from http://www.system-safety.com/...n%20HF%20News/AVIATION%20...
Aviation operators cut corners at espense of safety. (Oct. 9, 2007). Aviation Human Factors Industry News, Retrieved from http://www.system-safety.com/Aviation%20HF%20News%203707%20.pdf .
Higgins, C. & . (n.d.). Human factors in improving aviation safety. Retrieved from Boeing: http://www.boeing.com/commercial/aeromagazine/aero_08/human.pdf
As a result, in such conditions, the flight control systems commands the engines to increase thrust without pilot intervention and with an accuracy that no pilot could achieve.
Human Factors Considerations
The F/a-18D Hornet that slammed into a residential neighborhood in San Diego last December came from the first family of fighter jets with full fly-by-wire technology, where a flight control computer gathers data from on-board sensors to control flaps and other control surfaces that were mechanically driven on planes decades ago. ut for all their high-tech appeal, do fly-by-wire systems distance pilots from the feel and behavior of their airplanes to the point that crashes become more likely (Milstein)?
In aviation, human factors is dedicated to better understanding how humans can most safely and efficiently be integrated with the technology. That understanding is then translated into design, training, policies, or procedures to help humans perform better (Human Factors).…
Aircraft flight control systems." n.d. Absoluteastronomy. 03 March 2009 http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Aircraft_flight_control_systems .
Alford, L.D., Jr. "Fly-by-wire T & E. challenge [aircraft test pilot handling compensation]." Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, IEEE February 2004: 3-7, Volume 19, Issue 2.
Bannister, Jonathan, et al. "Fly-by-Wire Report." 04 October 2006. Adelaide University School of Mechanical Engineering. 05 March 2009 http://www.mecheng.adelaide.edu.au/~marjom01/Aeronautical%20Engineering%20Projects/2006/group8.pdf .
Corporate information/history: Fly-by-wire." n.d. Airbus. 04 March 2009 http://www.airbus.com/en/corporate/people/company_evolution/history/part_6.html .
The Air Navigation Bureau has the responsibility of creating and developing technical studies for the Air Navigation Commissions, and also for developing recommendations that are meant to be used by the air navigation board. These recommendations, grouped under the heading Standards and ecommended Practices or SAPs are related to the efficiency, safety and the regularity of the International Aviation Council. The Air Transport Bureau, on the other hand, is charged with, by the Air Transport, Unlawful Interference and Joint Support Committees, for providing expert assistance for the Assembly, Council, Air Transport Committee or the ATC, the Committee on Unlawful Interference or the UIC, the Committee on Joint Support of Air Navigation Services or the JSC, and the specialized conference, divisional, panel and working group meetings that may be convened in the air transport field. The Legal Bureau would provide legal assistance and aid to the Secretary General, and through him,…
Kapteyn, P.J. (1984) "International Organization and Integration, Functional Organization"
N.A. (2004, Feb) "International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO, History and present status"
Retrieved 4 December, 2007 at http://www.dfa.gov.za/foreign/Multilateral/inter/icoa.htm
Personal Critique and Lessons Learned from the Article:
The article was well-written with many studies to back up the findings of the usefulness of the error management system discussed. It was interesting to see so many parallels between two diverse fields of occupation.
The stress levels, risks to human life, and the importance of teamwork were highlighted examples of similarities. However, it was the differences that were the most intriguing.
Clearly aviation accidents are more highly publicized than the individual medical accidents that occur each year; yet, it was startling to learn that it is estimated that up to nearly 100,000 people die each year from medical accidents, far less than aviation accidents. Although not as highly publicized, litigation following medical accidents, in the form of malpractice suits, would lead one to believe that the medical profession would be motivated to institute the types of processes and protocols that the…
Helmreich, R. "On error management: Lessons from aviation." BMJ 320 (2000, Mar 18): pp. 781-785. September 26, 2006 http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/320/7237/781?ijkey=C.kPjYhV51IB .
U.S. Airline Industry
Structure of the Industry
Deregulation Act of 1978
US Airline Industry During the 1980s
US Airline Industry During the 1990s
The Next Decade for the U.S. Airline Industry
Issue of Fuel
Future for the Global Airline Industry
Airline Industry worldwide in general and United States in particular has played a central role in stirring the growth of the world economy. With USA appearing on the world map as one of the most developed nations in the world, it's Airline Industry and its growth and now its current travails provide us with interesting insights and a case study as to how an industry can grow tremendously supported by government actions as well as market forces and then major external factors mainly political and economic can affect the progress of overall industry.
The research is conducted mainly from the websites.
Hunter, M. (2004). Bumpy ride expected for airline industry in 2005. Retrieved on Sep 28, 20045 from:
Mecia, T. (2005) Inside the Issue: The Future of U.S. Airways. Retrieved on Sep 28, 2005 from:
Positives and Negatives from a Century of Aviation
Little did the Wright brothers know, on December 17, 1903, when they successfully tested their flying machine at Kitty Hawk, what an influential industry they were launching. They could not have known in their wildest dreams that ninety-nine years later, an airport called Chicago O'Hare would facilitate some 383,362 landing and takeoff cycles each year. Or that by 1967, sixty-four years later, aerospace would become America's leading industrial employer, with some 1,484,000 employees, and sales of $27 billion, according to author Donald Pattillo (Pushing the Envelope). Nor could the Wright brothers know that a man would fly to the moon, and walk on the moon, by 1969, just sixty-six years after that little plane at Kitty Hawk left solid ground for a few triumphant seconds.
ut though the Wright brothers' crude little aircraft got the aerospace industry off the ground to become…
Biddle, Wayne. Barons of the Sky: From Early Flight to Strategic Warfare. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991.
Bilstein, Roger E. Flight in America: From the Wrights to the Astronauts. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984.
Knott, Richard C. A Heritage of Wings: An Illustrated History of Navy Aviation. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1997.
Miller, Jerry. Nuclear Weapons and Aircraft Carriers: How the Bomb Saved Naval Aviation. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution, 2001.
Lider Aviation is a highly successful name in the aviation industry of Brazil. Within a short period of time this company has risen to great heights of success, as it started with only one aircraft and now has a fleet of over 8-0 aircrafts. Apart from that, the company is also engaged in other aviation related businesses including Helicopter Operations, Executive Chartering, Maintenance, Aircraft Sales and Ground Handling. Along with these five major business units, Lider is now also found engaged in insurance, flight simulation developing and pilot training fields.
The success of Lider Aviation is evident from the fact that it now operates from 20 airports in Brazil and has a strong and dedicated workforce of 1700 employees. The company considers itself a pioneer in the field of aircraft chartering and does so rightly because it indeed established the foundation for chartering in the country.
Information about Lider Aviacao is retrieved from its official website:
Finally, Pilarski reviews the explanations which blame airline underperformance on onerous government-imposed restrictions and obligations. Many observers, especially deregulation-fanatics, claim that airline companies are inhibited by excessive government regulation and public ownership of airlines. Pilarski rejects these explanations which attribute financial performance to government interference, stating that airline carriers outside of the U.S. subject to much more regulation have performed better than unregulated airlines.
Overall, Pilarski seems to agree that it is difficult to be profitable in aviation. What Pilarski is saying is that, for this very reason, only serious, competent players should enter the aviation business. The airline industry is a high-risk, high-overhead business, a point which appears to be ignored by the financiers, lawyers, and business consultants who help the foolhardy set up airline companies.
From a methodological perspective, Pilarski does a good job of refuting dubious claims through sound economic reasoning and historical evidence. For…
Pilarski, A. (2007) Why Can't We Make Money off of Aviation? Hampshire: Ashgate.
Moreover, the study compares the effect on human factors on different types of aircraft. The study also reveals the correlation between the anomalies and type of aircrafts.
Human factors cause of Aircraft Accidents
The results of the descriptive statistics reveal that situational awareness is the most contributing human factor to aircraft accidents with the Mean =112. Moreover, the Mean value of the communication breakdown is 80 which rank second as the human factors problem to aircraft incidents. Typically, communication breakdown occurs when the pilot or other aircraft crew is unable to communicate with terminals. Communication is very critical for effective operations of aircraft, a pilot will require to constantly making radio communication when on air to ensure the aircraft safety and the aircraft is on the right direction. Confusion as human factor ranks third with the Mean =70. The descriptive statistics table shows other important human factors that cause the…
Balk, A.D. & Bossenbroek, J.W. (2010). Aircraft Ground and Human Factors, A comparative study of the perceptions by ramp staff and management. NLR Air Transport Safety Institute.
Boeing (2013). Commercial Jet Statistical Summary of the Airplane Accidents Worldwide Operations 1959 -- 2012. Boeing 707.
Eldredge, D. Mangold, S.J. & Dodd, R.S. (1992). A Review and Discussion of Flight Management System Incidents Reported to the Aviation Safety Reporting System. U.S. Department of Special Programs & Transportation Research Administration
Deitz, S.R. & Thomas, W.E (1991). Pilots, Personality and Performance: Human Behavior & Stress in the Skies.
POST-9/11 Management OF U.S. AILINE INDUSTY
Strategic Management of the United States
Airline Industry after the 9/11/2001 Terrorist Attacks
Strategic Management of the United States
Airline Industry after the 9/11/2001 Terrorist Attacks
Airlines in the United States have a long, complicated history in terms of management strategy that includes alterations due to technological advances, bankruptcies, economic downturns, deregulation and even presidential intervention, but none of these forces had the power to both destroy and restructure the industry like the events of September 11, 2001.
The 9/11/01 attacks on the United States fundamentally altered the way the U.S. airline industry operated both publically and internally. One area that suffered significantly from these attacks, and brought about the need for major overhaul within the industry itself was strategic management strategies and practices within the airline industry in its entirety. The 9/11 attacks on America brought about the need for immediate change in…
Allvine, F., Dixit, A, Sheth, J., and Uslay. (2007). Deregulation and competition: lessons learned from the airline industry. Print. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Alvesson, S. And Karreman, D. (2009). Critical performativity: the unfinished business of critical management studies. Human Relations, 62.4. pp. 537-560. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Belobaba, P. (2002). The airline industry since 9/11: overview of recovery and challenges ahead. MIT Global Airline Industry Quarterly. March 2002:1. pp. 1-11. Web. Retrieved from: EBSCOhost Database.
Besant, C. (2002 September 1). Chaos followed 9/11 in the aviation industry. Turnaround Management Association Journal of Corporate Renewal, 12:1. pp. 1-3. Web. Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.
2. Approach Clearances
According to the article, "Back door IF: When stratus happens and you didn't file, you'll need to sweet talk your way into the system. Here are some practical tips to do that safely" (2006 obtaining an IF clearance, literally on the fly, does not constitute not a to be taken for granted privilege.
Approximately 15 years ago, U.S. pilots almost lost a significant portion of this flexibility, when the FAA's legal department proposed procedural changes in FAA Order 7110.65 Air Traffic Control, potentially requiring pilots to request such "pop-ups" to be permitted "to climb under VF to whatever minimum IF, vectoring or en route altitude applied to the area in question" (Back door IF... 2006, ¶ 30).
The proposal additionally extended to particular clearances being withheld; contending that controllers may be held responsible when pilots hit terrain or obstructions at a low altitude. Previously, a pilot was…
Teaching Philosophy in a College Aviation Department
The choice of one's profession may come about in various ways for different people. There are those who have dreamt of their professions since childhood and worked hard at achieving their dreams. Others though did not arrive at the decision until they reach college and practiced what they have studied for thereafter. Still there are those who never imagined being in a profession they are at but ended up doing so for one reason or another and excelled in the field. Then there are people who have the enviable position of being able to be who they want to be and at the same time have the chance of imparting the knowledge and wisdom they have with the profession they have been practicing. For my part, I can say that I fall in the category of being able to have the profession I…
g. Lufthansa); partners with Blackberry and Yahoo for in flight conveniences.
Early aggressive additions to fleet and service did, as analysts predicted, negatively impact the company.
Company will need to carefully evaluate routes, new service, new equipment, and new technology in order to maintain growth potential.
Fairly stable and industry respected; replaced CEO in May 2007.
Needed a new managerial focus after 2004.
Optimistic, keep tight rein on overly aggressive expansion.
Jet Blue University, compensates better than most airlines, rewards loyalty for service
Unsuccessful attempt at unionizing
Ensure mission is translated to consumers; empower local employees to make better decisions so clients are not left sitting on tarmac.
Huge and rapid growth spurt in early 21st century
Became a model for other carriers; major carriers copied model and took away share
Continued energy and fiscal focus on consumers and next generation of airline ideas.
Air Transportation Safety and System Stabilization Act, Public Law 107-42. (2001, September 22). Retrieved October 2010, from Office of Transportation - U.S. Government: http://ostpxweb.ost.dot.gov/aviation/Data/stabilizationact.pdf
Jet Blue Press Release - Names Dave Barger President and CEO. (2007, May 10). Retrieved October 2010, from JetBlue.com: http://investor.jetblue.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=131045&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=998672&highlight=))
Air Travel Report: Dip in Delays, Spike in Complaints. (2010, October 12). Retrieved October 2010, from CNN Travel: http://www.cnn.com /2010/TRAVEL/10/12/air.travel.consumer.report
Jet Blue Shareholder Information. (2010, October 12). Retrieved October 2010, from Jet Blue: http://investor.jetblue.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=131045&p=irol-irhome
By the turn of the century, though, these low-costs carriers had become profitable or at least had significantly reduced their losses due in large part to concomitant increases by major carriers that were increasing their prices in response to decreasing yields and higher energy prices (Doganis 2001).
By and large, passenger traffic across the board increased significantly prior to September 11, 2001 and all signs indicated it was continue to increase for the foreseeable future. For example, according to Janda, Flouris and Oum (2005), global air passenger traffic increased from 1.573 trillion revenue-passenger-kilometers (RPK) in 1985 to 3.394 trillion in 2000, representing a 116% increase during this decade-and-a-half period, or an average annual compounded growth of 5.26%. Furthermore, between 1985 and 2000, air freight traffic grew at even faster rate than passenger traffic (Janda et al. 2005). These authors also emphasize airlines are directly affected by the larger economy in…
Network." 2010, October 7 Canada NewsWire Group. [online]. available:
Logistics in Aviation
Aviation logistics: Competitive advantage and technological innovation
In the modern era, the worldwide logistics and supply chain is very cut throat and keeping an edge over others is important for all the firms in operation. Worldwide competition in aviation logistics business is cut throat with numerous firms. Firms in this business survive only when they maintain an edge over their rivals in the business in order to keep the clients in check. Most of the firms are very lenient to their clients as they listen to their client's needs and requirements, complaints along the way, implementing long-term marketing programs as well as short-term. Companies also make use of their resources in order to acquire competitive edge over their rivals in the marketplace which leads to satisfactory profits (Sakchutchawan, 2011). The resource advantage theory stipulates that having edge in resources paves way for competitive edge in the…
Abrahamsson, M., Aldin, N., & Stahre, F. (2003). Logistics platforms for improved strategic flexibility. International Journal of Logistics: Research & Applications, 6 (3), 85-106.
Bardi, E.J., Raghunathan, T.S., & Bagchi, P.K. (1994). Logistics information systems: The strategic role of top management. Journal of Business Logistics, 15(1), 71-85.
Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99-120.
Bowersox, D.J., and Daugherty, P.J. (1995). Logistics paradigms: the impact of information technology. Journal of Business Logistics, 16 (1), 65-80.
According to IATA, freight within Asia Pacific, between Asia Pacific and North America and between Asia Pacific and Europe will account for 57% of the 36 million tonnes of international air freight tonnes in 2011, up from 55% in 2006. The majority of this growth will be from the outbound leg from Asia Pacific ("2008 Annual Report - Air Freight: Carriers Alter Course")."
Overall the article characterizes airfreight as an aspect of the industry that will continue to grow in spite of the fuel cost and economic slow down that seems to have negatively impacted the airline industry. The growth of economies such as China and India seems to contribute to the increased profitability of the air freight segment of the industry. It seems that the growth in air freight will continue well into the future.
Week 7-Article Critique
Issues associated with traffic flow, have been at the forefront of…
Morrison Mary E. July 14, 2008. "Most airlines shun marketing as way to fly through storm" Retrieved July 24 at http://www.btobonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080714/FREE/950009745/1109/FREE
What is General Aviation. http://www.aopa.org/info/what_ga.pdf
Winston C. And Morrison S.A. (2008) "The State of Airline Competition and Prospective Mergers" Retrieved July 24 at http://www.brookings.edu/testimony/2008/0424_airlines_winston.aspx
ACARS stand for Aircraft Communication Addressing and Reporting System. This system allows aircrafts to communicate and report to the ground and vice-versa. It does so by transmitting data on VHF frequencies that can be received and decoded. It is a digital datasystem in VHF (Aviation). It makes it possible for aviation companies to "communicate" and track the planes of their fleet.
This system is being used by a lot of large aviation corporations and can be said to be the 'E-mail' for the planes. The plane's call sign is used as the address for the destination of the message. Before ACAR was developed, all the flight messages were voiced and that made things slow and painful. The development of ACAR by Aeronautical Radio Inc. made possible the routine-messages, about departure, arrival, cargo, fuel etc. To only take a short time to transmit.
The Aeronautical Radio, Inc. (ARINC) maintains a huge…
ACARS-Link, About ACARS http://www.grove.net/~acarslink/alabout.htm (Accessed May 30, 2002)
Flynn, Ed. Understanding ACARS. Copyright Fred Osterman and published by Universal radio Research, 6830 Americana Pkwy. Reynoldsburg, Ohio 43068, USA. ISBN 1-882123-36-0
Lord, R.J., W.P. Menzel, and L.E. Pecht, 1984: ACARS Wind Measurements: An Intercomparison with Radiosonde, Cloud Motion, and VAS Thermally-Derived Winds. J. Oceanic and Atmos. Tech., 1, 131-137.
Mamrosh, Richard D: http://acweb.fsl.noaa.gov/docs/mamrosh-ams-98 / (Accessed May 30, 2002)
Proposed Products and Services
Market Industry Position
ole of Information Systems
Information Systems Structure
Eagle Flight School and Shop will be a flight school for future pilots and a store where pilots and students can purchase everything from clothing (apparel) to flight bags to headsets. The Flight School will provide classes that will allow students to acquire a pilot's license in accordance with government rules associated with the minimum number of flight hours and the government approved curriculum. The mission of Eagle flight school is to provide pilots with the proper instruction as it pertains to all aspects of air travel and to provide both students and professionals with the equipment needed to carry out their duties as pilots. The flight school will provide a…
Balasubramanian, S., Konana P.and Menon N. M, (2003)"Customer Satisfaction in Virtual Environments: A Study of Online Investing," Management Science, 49, 7,, 871-889.
Bhatnagar R., A.K. Srivastava+,A. (2010) An Implementation Approach for Intrusion
Detection System in Wireless sensor Network. International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering, 2(7), 2453-2456
"Data Resources." Retrieved from http://www.learn.geekinterview.com/data-warehouse/data-management/what-is-data-resource.html
Aviation Project - SpaceX
The current aerospace technologies being built and flown by the private commercial company known as SpaceX (from California) have a remarkable record of success thus far. The "Dragon," which is the cargo capsule built by SpaceX, put into orbit by the Falcon 9 launch rocket, delivered its second load of supplies to the International Space Station (ISS) on Sunday, March 3 (Segal, 2013). The SpaceX contract with NASA is for a total of twelve cargo missions to the ISS over the coming years; the first Dragon cargo ship was launched and delivered supplies to the International Space Station in October, 2012. The un-manned Dragon is designed to carry supplies to and from the ISS, and it is the first privately built commercial spacecraft to handle those chores -- or conduct any space-related activities per se. NASA contracted with SpaceX in 2008 after NASA had retired its…
Black, Charles. (2013). SpaceX tests its vertical takeoff and vertical landing rocket. SEN.
Retrieved March 18, 2013, from http://www.sen.com .
Money, Stewart. (2012). Why SpaceX is setting the pace in the commercial space race. NBC
News. Retrieved March 18, 2013, from http://www.nbcnews.com .
GE Aviation Division, Aircraft Engines
This paper discusses General Electric Corporation (GE), specifically the arm which focuses on the production of aircraft engines. Until 2005, the GE Aviation division (GEA) operated under the designation of General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE). We will analyze GEA from a product standpoint, as well as from a business operations standpoint. We will firstly discuss the beginnings of GE as a maker of aircraft engines. We will discuss some of the products GEA has built which have resulted in its leadership position as one of the world's best makers of aircraft engines. The product related discussion will conclude with a look into what the future may hold related to engine technology and projects that GEA will focus upon. Secondly, we will examine GEA's unique business human resource management model. Specifically, we will examine GE's leadership education organization and its belief in the practice of rotating…
Aircraft Engines | Aircraft Systems | Aviation Services. (2011).GE Aviation. Retrieved December 25, 2011, from http://www.geaviation.com/
Deutsch, C.H. (2007, January 4). The GE way isn't for everyone. The New York Times. Retrieved December 24, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/04/business/worldbusiness/04iht-ge.4102488.html
Esler, D. (2009, February). Betting Big on Business Aviation. Aviation Week. Retrieved from
Money in Aviation: An Examination of Support
The history of American flight is generally one of pride and wonder. Historical figures associated with the first airplanes are generally revered by history books and society as a whole. These are figures like the Wright brothers, Amelia Earhart, Charles Lindbergh and others who most agree made a positive impact on human life and symbolize a leap of mankind towards advanced technology and increasing modern times. Modernity. Technology. These are all things that airplanes and flight represent to Americans and they're widely viewed as things which have improved life on this planet for the better. This begs the question as to why the airline industry still remains one of the most volatile, low (or no) profits business around. The book, Why We Can't Make Money in Aviation, by Adam M. Pilarski, seeks to both scrutinize and illuminate the general failure of the airline…
Bluejay, M. (n.d.). What's Wrong with Bicycle Helmets? Retrieved from Bicycle Safe: http://bicyclesafe.com/helmets.html
Bowser, B. (2003, April 2). On the Homefront: The Airline Industry. Retrieved from Pbs.org: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/transportation/jan-june03/airlines_04-02.html
News, A. (2003, April 4). SARS Spread Leads to Fear, Questions. Retrieved from ABC News: http://abcnews.go.com/Health/ColdandFluNews/story?id=116751&page=1#.UKa064dZWSo
Pilarski, A. (2007). Why Can't We Make Money in Aviation? Burlington: Ashgate.
ir Cargo, Inc. only flew cargo from December, 1941 (when Pearl Harbor was attacked) through November, 1944. t that time, Siddiqi explains that individual airline companies authored their own freight services, and on page 2 the author of this article notes that in time the major passenger airlines began offering freight forwarding service and that pretty well eliminated the need for a whole fleet of airline companies that just forwarded freight (Siddiqi). Only Flying Tiger stayed aloft as a strictly air freight company until the 1980s when Federal Express entered the picture. More on FedEx later in this paper.
The Literature -- the History of ir Freight Transportation -- Berlin ir Lift
When the long, bloody war was over it was time for the winning llies to divide up the territory that once was Nazi Germany, the negotiated, agreed-upon divisions gave the llies (U.S., Britain, and France) the Western…
April 20, 2012, from http://www.centennialofflight.gov.
Wilde, Robert. (2005). Berlin Blockade / Berlin Airlift. About.com. Retrieved April 20, 2012,
From http://europeanhistory.about.com .
Stimuli are the bases for cues, but a stimulus is not a cue by itself" (Weiner & Nagel, 1988, p. 239). Just as pilots need simulation devices to provide them with realistic cue which signal that they need to adjust the aircraft, the crew within the cabin of the commercial plane also need cues that they can respond to in training with actions that they are supposed to execute.
Cues need to be part of the crew member training programs. "Crewmember initial training must include instruction on general subjects as well as subjects pertaining to the airplane type to be operated. The subjects for whom crewmembers are to receive instruction must be applicable to their assigned duties. Initial training is based on equipment and crewmembers not qualified in an aircraft group should complete initial training on the aircraft in that group. Crewmember initial training programs should include drills and actual…
All of the transportation agencies were consolidated into one big agency -- the new Department of Transportation in 1966, establishing the National Transportation Safety Board as an agency that was independent inside of the department. This new board was also given the responsibility of determining the "probable cause" of: 1) highway accidents selected in cooperation with the states; 2) every passenger train accident, fatal railway accidents, and any railroad accident that caused significant damage; 3) big marine accidents, including any marine accident that involved a public vessel and a nonpublic vessel; 4) pipeline accidents involving a fatality or significant property damage; and lastly, 5) fatalities or major injuries that were caused by the release of hazardous materials (2004).
The creation of the NTSB showed that Congress was thinking that a single agency could come up with a higher level of safety than the individual model agencies that were all working…
Boeing. (2010). Making flying safer -- how Boeing helps to advance safety. Retrieved on September 19, 2010, from the Website:
Federal Aviation Administration. (2010). FAA regulations. Retrieved on September 18,
2010, from the Website, http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/faa_regulations/
Servant leadership is often based on Christian principles, although this is not required. It is a leadership concept that is designed to show that a leader can be a steward for the company, lead by example, help others, and not have to use any of the more 'heavy handed' leadership styles. While the servant leadership style is more often employed by women, men are becoming increasing more aware of (and more interested in) this particular style, because it seems to work well. The easiest way to show what servant leadership is would be to discuss the work of Stephen Covey, as he advocates this style in "The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People" and many other books.
Even though Stephen Covey is seen by many to be extremely important when it comes to management and effective individuals Covey himself appears to be somewhat scattered and disorganized. This is not actually…
Description of high/low marketing strategy
The marketing strategy of choice, however, is simply to accentuate low costs by cutting frills and eliminating hub-based systems in favor of short nonstop hops for even the largest national carriers. This is the model followed by such successful low-cost carriers as Jet lue and Southwest Airlines.
These airlines are able to go up against giants like United and American by slashing fares, marketing their no-frills image and flying short distances and choosing cheaper, slightly out of the way airports.
For instance, Jet lue flies not to Miami but to Ft. Lauderdale and even though Delta might fly to Miami, Jet lue will still get the fare because of its lower price and no-frills marketing strategy.
Airlines have to realize that this is a price-sensitive market and only spend marketing dollars on advertising low-cost fares and the fact that fliers are not being charged for…
Adams, Ed. (2005). "Low-cost carriers." www.navigant.com
Gooch, Daniel-Robert. (2005). "Air France suspending non-stop Vietnam flights." Commercial Aviation Today, Feb. 28, 2005.
Mercer Management Consulting. (2002). "Impact of low cost airlines." www.mercermc.com
Despite these constraints, it is reasonable to assume that anyone able to invest $100,000+ in a five-minute space flight will be able to afford the trip.
Given NASA's historic lack of enthusiasm for commercial space travel, it is reasonable to conclude that private initiatives such as SpaceShipOne are going to remain at the forefront of private space travel in the near future. In fact, NASA's Strategic Plan only contains a minor reference to the importance of the commercialization of space in the section entitled "Administrator's Strategic Outlook," wherein the NASA administrator references six areas of interest as NASA priorities with commercial space ventures being only briefly mentioned at the end of the last area of interest (Hudgins, 2002). According to this author, "Barriers to space enterprise result from the way these important space policies treat space commerce. One can readily conclude that commercializing space is not a high…
Similarly, this could influence the international airline community. Then, a stable economy is highly dependent upon a stable oil price, which once again is not the case. "The environment will continue to become more competitive as the LCC's continue to become more convenient. Business fares will continue to drop. Leisure fares won't raise much until capacity is generally in line with demand, which won't occur until much of the capacity overhand has been employed either by surviving legacy carriers or LCC."
To the customer, the continuing of this trend will generate no benefits. "In other words, we're stuck with the current system, because it isn't really in any airline's interest to try to change it. As long as no airline makes a dedicated effort to distinguish itself from the pack, all the airlines can stay lean, even at the expense of quality."
Surowiecki, J., the Unfriendly Skies, the New…
Surowiecki, J., the Unfriendly Skies, the New Yorker, 2007
Jankins, D., Overview of the Domestic Airline Industry, the George Washington University Aviation Institute, www.speea.org/news/files/layoffs/pcfinancials.pptRetrieved on February 13, 2008
Airlines face fiscal problems due to war, the Daily Michigan, September 1, 2003
Quick MBA, Porter's Five Forces - a Model for Industry Analysis, 1999-2007, http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/porter.shtml . Retrieved on February 13, 2008
According to the figures for 2000 and that is the latest that is available, their average earnings are $17,570 in a year. In this business the contracts are given to the one who quotes the least and this makes the security companies oppose any government rules which will increase their costs. The businesses which employ them also do not want increased charges. This has resulted in criminals becoming security guards, and even those that are checked, go through the checking of records in only one state. Stories keep coming about beating, raping and robbing the people they are expected to protect. Even according to New York Daily News, there have been employment of criminals for the protection of Statue of Liberty and some of the guards were even convicts. At the same time, the labor department expects that demand of security guards will grow up very fast till 2010, and…
Hall, Mimi. Private security guards are Homeland's weak link. USA Today. 23 January, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2003-01-22-security-cover_x.htm . Accessed on 15 June, 2005
Schneider, Greg. Looking Abroad for Answers on Airport Security; Attacks Add Urgency to Long U.S. Effort. The Washington Post. 09 October, 2001. Retrieved at http://www.house.gov/transportation/aviation/issues/washpost.html . Accessed on 15 June, 2005
Security Guards and Gaming Surveillance Officers. Retrieved at http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos159.htm . Accessed on 15 June, 2005
It is important that human resources within the airline devise strategies to minimize the possible negative effects that union relations may have on the workforce.
There are several issues that have impacted the airline industry as a whole, and present implications for the human resources challenges discussed thus far. The first of these issues is a drastically changing workforce demographic within the airline industry. In particular the workforce is aging. Establishments in the air transportation industry have a significantly higher proportion of employees in the 45 to 54 and 55 to 64-year-old age ranges than other industries (Wallace & Gonzalez, 2005). Specifically, employees in the 45 to 54-year-old age group comprise approximately 35% of the whole workforce (Wallace & Gonzalez, 2005). On the contrary, workers in the 14 to 24-year-old category comprise only 4% of the workforce (Wallace & Gonzalez, 2005).
This issue presents human resources challenges with regards to…
Appelbaum, S.H., Fewster, B.M. (2004). Human resource management strategy in the global airline industry -- a focus on organizational development. Business Briefing: Aviation Strategies, 70-5.
CNN (2004). Outsourcing has yet to really penetrate the travel industry. Local Needs and travel infrastructure tends to require local people on the ground. CNN.com Retrieved 6/13/07 from http://edition.cnn.com/2004/TRAVEL/12/23/bt.outsource.airlines/index.html .
Grassi, D.M. (2005). Outsourcing airline safety may prove costly. MichNews.com.
Pratt, M.K. (2002). Contingent employees raise host of benefit questions. Boston Business Journal. Retrieved 6/13/07 from http://boston.bizjournals.com/boston/stories/2002/04/08 .
A lower price enables an airline to remain well above the competition.
Economies of scale and scope are vital to the performance of an organization no matter the industry the organization is involved in. An organization can only remain competitive if driven to achieve economies of scale (Bronson & Morgan, 1998). Tactics an organization may adopt to achieve economies of scale and scope will include optimal market coverage, increasing sizes, superior "internal growth" and raised capital (Bronson & Morgan, 1998). Another important consideration for organizations include efficiency. One might define efficiency as "the ratio of inputs to outputs" (Bronson & Morgan, 1998).
Efficiency of an organization may be measured in various ways including by observation through accounting (Bronson & Morgan, 1998). An organization particularly a franchised business location will continually measure efficiency to ensure they are minimizing costs and saving time to help facilitate economies of scale and scope.
Acumen Professional Intelligence Ltd. (2005). "Business Environment - British Airways." Acumen Enterprise, 31, October 2005:
British Airways, (2005). "Global Warming and Aviation." 31, Oct 2005:
Tourism and Hospitality Industries
It is perhaps indicative of how interconnected the hospitality industry and the tourism industry are that they are often connected in literature as one broad industrial category, "the hospitality and tourist industry." Their aims and objectives certainly overlap, sharing a common goal of catering to the needs and desires of people who are traveling for one reason or another. It is a facile separation of the domains of each industry to suggest that hospitality pertains to where people stay and tourism pertains to what people do in the process of travel, particularly as the options become more elaborate and varied to reflect a simultaneous increase in technology and the sophistication of consumer demand. Instead of focusing upon debatable divisions between the functions of each industry, it is perhaps a better model to look at the ways in which they support each other's key services (Ottenbacher 2009).…
Brey, ET al. (2008). Standard Hospitality Elements at Resorts: An Empirical Assessment. Journal of Travel Research. 47: 2; 247-258.
Crouch, GI. (2011). Destination Competitiveness: An Analysis of Determinant Attributes. Journal of Travel Research. 50: 27-45
Denver ES et al. (2009). "A World Ranking of the Top 100 Hospitality and Tourism Programs" Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research. 33, 4: 451-470.
McCleary KW. (1993). Hotel Selection Factors as They Relate to Business Travel Situations. Journal of Travel Research. 32: 2; 42-48.
History of FedEx:
The attempts at using airplanes for commercial transportation of goods started when the air planes started flying. One of the first air freight carriages took place in 1910 when a department store sent a bolt of silk by air from Dayton to Columbus, Ohio. This transport was studied by the local newspapers and they said that it had beaten the railroad transport that was the normal mode of carriage between the two cities. The volume of goods sent by air continued increasing regularly and in 1927, the total volume lifted by air became a total of 45,900 pounds and this grew in 1929 to a total of 257,000 pounds. The quantity lifted by air became more than a million pounds in 1931 a year. (A History of Commercial Air Freight)
The possibilities of lifting goods by air had been noted, yet the possibilities of the…
"A History of Commercial Air Freight." Retrieved from http://www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Commercial_Aviation/AirFreight/Tran10.htm Accessed on 24 May, 2005
"Air Express & Parcel Shipments Case Study: How we reduced a Client's Express Shipment Costs." Retrieved from http://www.buslog.com/air-express-parcel-shipments/case-study1.html Accessed on 24 May, 2005
Egan, David. "Comparison Shopping for Shipping." Retrieved from http://www.craftsreport.com/june99/businessbasics.html Accessed on 24 May, 2005
"Federal Express." (3 December, 1999) Retrieved from http://parkercenter.johnson.cornell.edu/docs/other_research/1999_fall/fdx.pdf Accessed on 24 May, 2005
Military Aircraft and Their Effect on Commercial Aviation
Civil aviation deals with the organization and use of aircraft as a means of commercial transportation. The principal interest is the use of aircraft on scheduled and chartered flights to carry passengers and cargo, but the subject also covers the use of aircraft for pleasure, business, and medical services. ecause of the international character of civil aviation, governments play a major role in its conduct and regulation, through both national legislation and international agreements. This governmental influence was a major factor in commercial airline operation until the early 1980s, when the U.S. domestic market was deregulated. The result was a massive increase in competition, which led in turn to a reorganization of the airlines into larger groupings. It seems likely that this process will continue in the international market, which will lead to an increase in air travel, and increased pressure on…
(1963)Aeroflot, Flight International, Vol. 84, No. 2856, December 5,
Harrison (2000)Mastering the sky: a history of aviation from ancient times to the present.
Shulman, S (2003).Unlocking the Sky: Glenn Hammond Curtiss and the Race to Invent the Airplane
Taylor, J & Munson, K (1973)History of aviation
Pan Am Airline
Important Airline in Aviation History: Pan American Airlines
The United States is the nation commonly noted to be the place where powered aviation began. There were many attempts around the world to accomplish actual flight, but until Wilbur and Orville Wright flew their powered glider in 1903 at Kitty Hawk, NC, it had never been successfully done. As with many important accomplishments, it was not long until others had also flown successfully (many with the help of the Wright brothers), and the age of aviation began. The U.S. has been the ground for many of the firsts in aviation and the nation has also fostered some pioneering aviation companies whose fame encompassed the globe. It can probably be safely said that Pan American Airlines was the foremost of these, specifically early in the history of passenger and freight flight. This paper examines how Pan Am started, important…
Pan Am Historical Foundation. (2012). About the foundation. Retrieved from http://www.panam.org/pan-am-historical-foundation/foundation-history.html
Pan American Airlines. (2012). About us. Retrieved from http://www.panam.com/news
PBS. (2012). Chasing the sun: Pan Am. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/kcet/chasingthesun/companies/panam.html
In the realm of aviation safety, human factors in design relate primarily to purposeful redundancy in accordance with accurately anticipated component or system failures
Human Factors in Pilot Performance and Equipment Maintenance:
Two specific pilot performance issues developed as modern aviation technology increased aircraft performance and computers automated components of in-flight pilot responsibilities. Jet power quickly enabled military aircraft to exceed the natural human limits of g-force tolerance and computerization in civilian aviation presented potential pilot performance issues ranging from the need for problem solving through complex check lists to pilot complacency and inattention resulting from excessive reliance on instruments (APA, 2004). Military flight training addressed g-force tolerance, and as civilian flight operations became less physically strenuous and more automatic, much of human factor pilot training shifted from actual flight hour experience to emphasizing check list protocols, trouble shooting, crew communications and cooperation, and attentiveness skills practiced in simulators (Barron,…
Resources (GOFIR) Web site, at: http://www.gofir.com/general/crm/
Jackson, R. (2006) the Encyclopedia of Military Aircraft. Bath, U.K.: Paragon
A large body of literature has treated many different aspects of these influences on Asia, Europe and the United States (Busser & Sadoi, 2003). The importance of the study relates to the current trends taking place in Libya where aggressive steps have been taken in recent years to normalize relations with the international community. For example, Libya opened up its programs to develop weapons of mass destruction to international scrutiny and renounced terrorism as a political tool (Libya, 2010). Moreover, the country's political leadership has been equally forthcoming in its efforts to normalize their relations with Western nations since 2003 (Libya, 2010). More recently, Libya has been removed from the U.S. State Department's list of states that sponsor terrorism in 2006 and in 2008, Libya joined the United Nations as a nonpermanent member on the UN Security Council during the 2008-2009 term (Libya, 2010).
Other signs that clearly point to…
About us. (2010). Mobil. Retrieved from http://www.exxonmobil.com/Corporate/about.aspx .
Al-Waha Oil Company overview. (2010). Al-Waha Oil Company. Retrieved from http://www.
Announcement of oil discovery. (2010, July). National Oil Corporation. Retrieved from http://en.noclibya.com.ly/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1423& ;
Strategic and Ethical Management Tactics: Gulfstream Aviation
Gulfstream Aviation produces flagship products for private, corporate, government and military clientele locally and globally. The well-known company eagerly touts its rigorous products. Part of its impressive reputation reflects key management strategies, particularly with regard to strategic management and ethics in management. Transnational or global corporations face unique challenges with respect to ethics and strategy in management.
Organizations operating in several countries including Gulfstream Aviation must incorporate diversity in heterogeneity into the organization in a manner that supports alignment of organizational goals and objectives with those of employees. To retain competitive advantage in an increasingly competitive marketplace, Gulfstream successfully adopts various ethical and strategic management techniques that include supporting and hiring of a diverse workforce, creating work life balance, providing empowering opportunities and annual evaluations for employees and supporting global and local humanitarian and community efforts. These ideas are explored in greater detail…
"Gulstream Aviation." 21, Sept 2005:
Bonczek, S. & Menzel, D. (1994 -- March). "Achieving the ethical workplace." Public
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Brown, M.F. & Stillwell, J. (2005 -- Jun). "The ethical foundation of performance and management." Public Management, 87(5):22.
Aircraft Performance: Management Perspective
Improving the performance of aircraft operations is not simply a technical issue; it is also a management issue that requires insight into how to deploy the organization's human resources in an effective fashion. "Physically demanding tasks, variable weather phenomena, night shifts and poor lighting, time pressure, staff shortages, the unavailability of tooling and the interface with pieces of equipment that are increasingly technologically sophisticated are only some of the typical hassles that characterize the typical working environment" (Pierobon 2014). The FAA suggests that the process of Human Factors management (HF) is a valuable way to improve safety and reduce the risk of avoidable errors due to a lack of knowledge and fatigue. "Training can promote awareness and affect attitude thereby reducing costs associated to human performance issues" (Pierobon 2014). Just like equipment needs a periodic tune-up, so does the safety-related policies of workers and other components…
Johnson, K. (2005). Special operations from a safety perspective. ALEA. Retrieved from:
Perry, M.J. & Perez-Gonzalez, J.D. (2010). SHELL Model. Aviation Knowledge. Retrieved from: http://aviationknowledge.wikidot.com/aviation:shell-model
Pierobon, M. (2014). Aviation Pros. Retrieved from:
Chronic Fatigue in the Aviation Industry
Fatigue is the mental and/or physical state of being weak and tired. Mental and physical fatigue is different, but the two will often exist together. A person becomes mentally tired if they are physically exhausted for a long period. A person being unable to function physically at their normal levels manifests physical fatigue Jackson & Earl, 2006.
Mental fatigue will manifest itself by a sleepy feeling and inability to concentrate properly. In medical terminologies, fatigue is not a sign, but rather a symptom. This means that a person suffering from fatigue is able to feel and describe the condition. Experts have indicated that around 10% of people globally suffer from persistent tiredness at any one time. Females are more prone to persistent tiredness than males. It is not easy to define fatigue in humans because of its large variability of causes. The…
Avers, K., & Johnson, W.B. (2011). A review of Federal Aviation Administration fatigue research: Transitioning scientific results to the aviation industry. Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors, 1(2), 87.
Bennett, S.A. (2003). Flight crew stress and fatigue in low-cost commercial air operations -- an appraisal. International journal of risk assessment and management, 4(2), 207-231.
Caldwell, J.A. (2003). Fatigue in aviation: A guide to staying awake at the stick. 110 Cherry Street: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Caldwell, J.A. (2005). Fatigue in aviation. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 3(2), 85-96.
air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).
In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…
Airports Council International (2009) Airport preparedness guidelines for outbreaks of communicable disease. Available at: http://www.airports.org/aci/aci/file/ACI_Priorities/Health/Airport%20preparedness%20guidelines.pdf (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bouma, G.D. (2002) The research process. 4th edn. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Brigantic, R., Delp, W., Gadgil A., Kulesz, J., Lee, R., Malone, J.D. (2009) U.S. airport entry screening in response to pandemic influenza: Modeling and analysis. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7578-4W2M6SG1&_user=10843&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000000150&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10843&md5=44685b11dd53d74a8ef85a4f03e185f2 (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bush, George W. (2003a). Homeland security presidential directive -- 5: Management of domestic incidents. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030228-9.html (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
According to these airlines, the public can help by contacting their Congress people.
According to the airlines in question, there are in fact (or have been) regulations in place in order to discourage the phenomenon of uncontrolled speculation and manipulation in world markets. These have however been weakened or removed, resulting in the rapid rise of fuel prices today. The claim is in fact that rising demand and diminishing supply cannot account for the rise in oil prices that have been experienced over the last year.
Alexandra Marks (2008) also addresses the role of the Government in encouraging higher fuel prices. According to airline industry experts and analysts, Congress is not doing enough to curb speculation. If this is not done very soon, according to these experts, the aviation industry could face a collapse in the not very far future, that is in danger of crippling the economy of the…
AOPA ePublishing staff. AOPA working on future avgas. http://www.aopa.org/aircraft/articles/2008/080319avgas.html
Credeur, Mary Jane. (2008, July 9). Northwest Air to Cut 2,500 jobs to Blunt Fuel Costs. Bloomberg Press. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601103&sid=aQSwxib7vM3s&refer=us
Hegeman, Roxana. (2008, July 8). Soaring aviation fuel cots ground many pilots. Forbes.com. http://www.forbes.com/feeds/ap/2008/07/08/ap5194342.html
Lynch, Kerry. (2008, Mar. 24). AOPA, Greens Battle Over Lead in AvGas. Aviation Week. http://www.aviationweek.com/aw/generic/story_channel.jsp?channel=busav&id=news/LEAD03248.xml
43 in 2009. Yet current airframe and power plant mechanics are inclined to move to the computer and automotive sector for better work environment. Analysts advised the creation and use of informational recruiting tools to attract these potential workers. in-house training programs on long-term career growth and a sense of commitment to the company would be one form. Another could be employee-retention programs on leadership, technical, and management training courses. Other tools and strategies could be flexi-time, relocation benefits and an improved work environment. Recent mergers and consolidations within the industry are meant to retain employees and serve a wide range of customers. The technology-driven industry requires mechanics with the necessary technological competence in order to provide the wide range of services required by customers. A resourceful information management system could integrate e-business tools and advanced technology into standard business practices. This integration would bring about more efficient and cost-effective…
Airguide Online (2006). North America. Airline News: Pyramid Media Group, Inc.
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Air Safety Week (2008). Controllers declare "staffing emergency" in Atlanta,
Chicago, New York and Southern California. Access Intelligence, LLC: Gale, Cengage