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Nathaniel Bacon's document (see external link: "Proclamations of Nathaniel Bacon") as a primary source, what do you consider were the main complaints that Bacon presented against the government of Virginia?
Bacon's Rebellion occurred in the Virginia Colony in 1676. Arguably, Bacon was the precursor of racists and people such as the Ku Klux Khan who sought to annihilate all who were different than them. Socio-economic differences had always existed amongst people. Racist distinctions were now introduced, and Nethaniel Bacon, with his maraud against the Indians introduced racism into the country.
Bacon's main complaint was that the government of Virginie was allowing the Indians to take advantage of them and not doing anything about it. In this way, they were therefore, indirectly involved in rebellion against their country.
The Indians, he tells us, are not worthy of the protection that government ordinarily should give people, nor are they deserving of doing…
In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon led a revolt against the colonial government of Virginia because of ongoing hostilities with the local Native Americans (Frantz, 1969, p. v). The origins of the rebellion dated back some seven decades according to Michael Olberg (Wiseman, 2005, p. 1-10), with the establishment of Jamestown in 1607. During this period, the Virginia colony cycled through booms and busts economically, but inevitably at the expense of the local Native American tribes. The Natives would occasionally fight back by massacring hundreds of settlers, but by 1644 the English had subdued the local tribes.
The colony began to thrive and by 1660 the population had reached 25,000 (Wiseman, 2005, p. 5-10). The inevitable result was increased pressure on settlers to buy or steal land occupied by the local Natives. The Virginia assembly in 1662 sought to maintain peace by codifying an outright prohibition against this practice and…
Wiseman, Samuel. (2005). Samuel Wiseman's Book of Record: The Official Account of Bacon's Rebellion in Virginia M.L. Olberg (Ed.). New York, NY: Lexington Books.
Zinn, Howard. (1999). A People's History of the United States, 1492 -- Present. New York, NY: Harper Collins.
During the 18th century there was a fierce competition between the British and the French colonial empires which ultimately led to The Seven Years War. The final result of the conflict favored the English who, nonetheless, were forced to make appeal to the force of the American colonies in order to defeat the French. Following such an action, the opponents of the British rule over the American territories would later on recall and use in supporting the cause of independence the aid the Americans provided the British in tackling the French threat.
The British considered the Americans as being the closest political ally and colonial region. Moreover, the historical context determined such an approach. This special treatment protected the American colonies from any external and foreign threat; in return, the British sought to maintain a preferential trade connection with the American colonies who were, without a doubt, one of the…
Bacon County Hospital and Health System
In your opinion, how well developed are your organization's information security policies?
The organizations current information security policies are adequate. However, in order to remain effective, the organization must have a profound emphasis on innovation. Technology, particularly in regards to information security, is becoming more difficult to protect. Hackers and those with large capabilities are gaining more insights as to the methods to effectively target individual companies. In fact, many of America's large financial institutions fell victim to hacker attacks. These attacks, all coordinated in both time and geography, overloaded the institutions mainframes causing slower servicing time. Pundits were quick to indicate that the attacks were not at all sophisticated and only required a handful of individuals to conduct. However, the results interrupted the natural flow of business activity in some the world's largest and most protected financial institutions. Bacon County Hospital is no…
1) Dhillon, Gurpreet (2007). Principles of Information Systems Security: text and cases. NY: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-45056-6.
2) Layton, Timothy P. (2007). Information Security: Design, Implementation, Measurement, and Compliance. Boca Raton, FL: Auerbach publications. ISBN 978-0-8493-7087-8.
3) Peltier, Thomas R. (2001). Information Security Risk Analysis. Boca Raton, FL: Auerbach publications. ISBN 0-8493-0880-1.
Bacon's ebellion was immensely significant. This sedition was one of the first truly national events that took place during the Colonial Period that would prove to have a lasting effect on the fledgling country well into the middle of the 19th century, when the Civil War was fought. Essentially, Bacon's ebellion involved indigent farmer's from Virginia, who gathered together and actually rioted and burned a substantial portion of Jamestown -- the first American colony that actually lasted -- down to the ground.
The critical aspect about this particular rebellion is that it made a lot of large landowners in the southern areas of the country understand the inherent problem of utilizing Caucasians as sources of labor. It did not really matter whether those Caucasians were actually indentured servants or freedmen; they all believed that they had certain rights and privileges that, if they perceived them as being unmet, they would…
Billett, N. (2012). "Reasons for the British Navigation Acts of the 1650's and 1660's." www.bizcovering.com. Retrieved from http://bizcovering.com/international-business-and-trade/reasons-for-the-british-navigation-acts-of-the-1650s-and-1660s/
Cranny, M. (1998). Crossroads: A Meeting of Nations. Scarborough: Prentice Hall Ginn Canada.
Faragher, J., Buhle, M., Czitrom, D., & Armitage, S. (2009). Out of many: a history of the American people (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Pincus, S. (2012). "Rethinking mercantilism: political economy, the British empire, and the Atlantic world in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries." The William and Mary Quarterly. 69 (1): 3-34.
An Examination of a Primary ource
The beginnings of our great country were not without bloodshed or sacrifice. Many a great hero fought in the War for Independence, for instance, and this is known to all, but there were other people who fought much smaller social, political and economic battles who must also be remembered. Nathaniel Bacon was certainly one of these people, and this paper will spend time introducing the reader to Bacon and his beliefs, as well as examining his own writing, found in the "Proclamations of Nathaniel Bacon" pamphlet in order to see what the main complaints that Bacon presented against the government of Virginia were, as well as find to what end Bacon's rebellion helped change relationships between the rich and poor; Blacks, Native Americans, and Whites; and free and enslaved early Americans.
Who was Nathaniel Bacon?
Nathaniel Bacon was a wealthy,…
One brand of turkey bacon, Oscar Mayer's Louis Rich, was recently given a spot in the Taster's Choice Hall of fame. Such a spot is awarded only to products that are awarded a score of 80 or higher out of 100 in the Taster's Choice taste test (Gold). Despite the opinions of cookbook authors such as James Villas, turkey bacon is clearly a viable substitute for its pork-based counterpart.
Less popular but growing in viability is beef bacon. Bacon purists consider very idea of beef bacon to be ridiculous. Nevertheless, beef bacon is slowly but surely making its way into more and more grocery stores. It is a product that is still easier to find in a butcher shop than a grocery store, but that fact is in the process of changing. For non-pork eaters, beef bacon can be an alternative that is preferable to turkey bacon because it is…
Bacon Today. Bacontoday.com, 2010. Web. 30 May 2010.
"Bacon Makes it All Better." The Early Show. CBS. 4 Nov. 2006. Television.
Gold, Amanda. "One Turkey Bacon Stands Out in the Flock." SFGate.com. 22 Oct. 2008.
Web. 30 May 2010.
Essentially, the power was held by the individual, and the individual was lacking of all incentives to make his understanding more universal.
Bacon sees this as a major obstacle to widespread progress and sees development of easily understandable tables, graphs, and illustrations necessary to the proper sharing of scientific knowledge. He writes:
But natural and experimental history is so varied and diffuse, that it confounds and distracts the understanding unless it be fixed and exhibited in due order. e must, therefore, form tables and co-ordinations of instances, upon such a plan, an in such order, that the understanding may be enabled to act upon them." (Bacon 140).
Bacon is one of the first scientist/philosophers to suggest that those in possession of specialized knowledge must find a way to translate their discoveries to others in some understandable way. This notion is reflected in "The New Atlantis" by his specific mentioning of…
Bacon, Francis. Great Books of the Western World: Francis Bacon. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 1952.
Sargent, Rose-Mary. The Cambridge Companion to Bacon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
It is through the presentation of pain and suffering that the viewer is forced to identify with them.
Bacon is not just showing us violence so that we may associate it with the process of self-actualization, however. Amidst pain and suffering, Bacon's painting forces us to ask if there is anything that can transcend the violence and the suffering. There is a certain ethical dimension to violence and suffering that Bacon is showing and this is what is so offensive (Dyer 2003).
The mere play of opposing physical forces is not suffering, because for there to be suffering there must be something over and above physical interaction. The struggle presented in Bacon's images is not the physical attraction and repulsion of forces, but the opposition between the physical and that which opposes it: the non-physical, the dimension of freedom that transcends the physical. Violence and suffering in the proper meaning…
van Alphen, Ernst. (1993). Francis Bacon and the Loss of Self (Essays in Art and Culture).
Archimbaud, Michel. (1994). Francis Bacon: In Conversation with Michel Archimbaud.
Chipp, Herschel Browning. & Selz, Peter Howard. (1982). Theories of Modern Art: A Source
And as the instruments of the hand either give motion or guide it, so the instruments of the mind supply either suggestions for the understanding or cautions. (Bacon Novum Organum Book One; II)
Bacon attested that barriers to knowledge of the truth could not be overcome without the conscious removal (individual and societal) of preconceptions of understanding, and scientific inquiry and creation. One must be willing to set aside long held beliefs and reexamine the world in which one lives. At all turns, bacon believed there is an opportunity for greater partial understanding of Nature and her pull upon us if we set aside our sets of "one truths."
Men become attached to certain particular sciences and speculations, either because they fancy themselves the authors and inventors thereof, or because they have bestowed the greatest pains upon them and become most habituated to them. But men of this kind, if…
Abbott, Edwin a.D.D. Francis Bacon, an Account of His Life and Works. London: Macmillan & Co., 1885.
Bacon, Francis, Advancement of Learning, 1605 at http://www1.uni-bremen.de/~kr538/baconadv.html
Novum Organum, 1620, at http://www.constitution.org/bacon/nov_org.htm
The New Atlantis, 1626, at http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl302/texts/bacon/atlantis.html
Francis Bacon's Advancement Of Learning
An Analysis of Bacon's Rationale for riting the Advancement of Learning
hen one analyzes Francis Bacon's Advancement of Learning, he does so by first entering into an era that was primarily dedicated to overthrowing the Learning of the past -- that is to say, it was breaking with the old world and advancing the new. That old world was one of scholasticism, with men like Thomas Aquinas incorporating Aristotelian philosophy into the medieval world and using the pagan to prove the Christian. It was a world where religious truths were accepted on the authority of the Church, and a world where that authority was still in place and still in power. In the 14th century that authority would begin to corrupt (with the papacy's abduction and removal to Avignon) and the natural catastrophe that was the Black Plague. These events (though soon over) left their…
Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologica. Trans. Fathers of the English Dominican
Province. Thomas Aquinas. Christian Classics Ethereal Library,1998. Web. 22
Bacon, Francis. The Advancement of Learning. (Stephen Jay Gould, ed.). NY: Modern
" From few data it launches itself into the construction of general principles. The principles then being regarded as true, deductively valid explanations were constructed and then protected against recalcitrant data in an ad hoc way." (McGreak 174)
Bacon was of the opinion that such theories were far too limited and limiting as they"...apply to a narrow range of particulars and have no observational consequences outside their original preserve." (McGreak 175) in other words, the older scientific method prevented the scientist or naturalist from making new and surprising discoveries. This is an insight that was to have great significance for the development of modern scientific methodology. Bacon therefore sought to use a more inductive form of reasoning in science which would "...discover the causally and thus explanatory relevant properties of nature." (McGreak 175)
Another importance facet of his views of science and methodology is to be found in Novum Organum,…
Abbott, Edwin a.D.D. Francis Bacon: An Account of His Life and Works.
London: Macmillan, 1885.
"Bacon, Francis, English Philosopher and Statesman." The Columbia
Encyclopedia. 6th ed.
Thou shalt keep them, 0 Lod, thou shalt peseve them fom this geneation foeve."
Conceptually, the poem has fou sepaate stanzas, each with the hyme scheme of ababcdc. It is stuctued in the fom of the Shakespeaean o Elizabethan sonnet. Vebal intoductions (e.g. Help, left, standeth, seeks, etc.) seve to move the poem in a melodious way. In fact, eading this poem one is almost caught with it as a semon o oation. Many of the wods have a hashe, o staccato-like timbe, a shap contast to the love sonnets of the ea (bitte, wicked, piece, fea, etc.). This shapness, combined with the oatoical style seves Bacon's pupose of slightly aguing, slightly full of angst, and slightly aogant -- towads God. This, too, echoes much of the Biblical Job.
The poem does not ead as if it was contived, testament to Bacon's clea genius with language as well as his…
references, his loyalty to the Crown, and his nature and pinining for money and respect. This duality is certainly present in the poem, "Help Lord."
In the Elizabethan Era, European philosophers considered the world to be a macrocosm hosting millions of individual microcosms: people. The term microcosm signifies the creation of the human being as a complete world. In contrast, macrocosm refers to the idea of the whole universe outside humanity. This idea that an individual person is a world unto himself, yet still part of the chain of being, provided some interesting philosophical debate. Even within the body of humans the same patterns were seen. The head was the sun-king-lion-eagle-gold of the little world of the human, the godlike part which was the seat of reason. Thus, in the microcosm of the body was figured the macrocosm of the kingdom, and of the universe itself. The beehive, with its orderly division of roles and a single queen bee, was an ideal symbol as a microcosm of the ordered human state (Best).
For the Elizabethan's, the combination of the Great Chain of Being and Microcosm/Macrocosm organized and framed their own picture of humanity. Humans had a hierarchical organization; they knew what station they were born into, what field of endeavor and what they might expect out of life. Fate and Destiny were part of the puppet-master God who planned for a series of events to occur that would change a person's life -- all as it should be. Even if, as in many of the plays of Shakespeare, one small action could change the outcome of the entire story (e.g. The delivery of the note in Romeo and Juliet, a glance or bit of proof in Othello) the stars predict what it is that will happen. For Bacon, however, we can see his struggle with this duality in the way he phrases opposites: "fears… seeks to please; flatter… with a cloven heart" (Gaukroger, 101-2)
Similarly, the twin themes of micro and macro-cosmos were part and parcel of the literature, philosophy, and even political/economic views of the time. This view was, of course, left over from the Renaissance, and while many popular historians see the Elizabethan Era as a time of change and intellectual revolution, it was only a few forward thinkers that challenged the view of the dual nature
One of the reasons for the task force is to enhance the Marketing Department. The Marketing Managers have no say so in the changes that need to be made. It is a business; they are employees. There were about seven employees from different divisions of the company on the task force.
During the first meeting with the task force, Bacon allowed others to make decisions that he just went along with. Not everyone knew each other and felt uncomfortable. To have a more relaxed environment everyone should have introduced themselves and given some background in regards to their expertise. Bacon should have had some kind of outline as to what he wanted to achieve. Again he did not gain control.
He allowed the suggestion for the team to be broken up in groups, but everyone was to stay in contact with him and keep him up-to-date on how the projects…
power is depicted in William Shakespeare's "King Lear," Book I of John Milton's "Paradise Lost" and Francis Bacon's "Of Plantations" and "The Idols" from his "Novum Organum."
Shakespeare's depiction of power in King Lear shows how cunning, ruthless people come to gain political power at the expense of those that show qualities that one would desire in a leader: nobility, honesty and integrity. Shakespeare's key focus is the transition of power from one king or leader to his progeny. In King Lear, the title role decides to abdicate the throne and divide his kingdom equally between his three daughters: Goneril, Regan and Cordelia. Whereas the first two flatter him, Cordelia is honest and is ultimately punished for it: she loses her inheritance. In another part of the story, two brothers fight for control of a dukedom.
Here Shakespeare illustrates a contradiction between well-meaning, honest people and manipulative, power-hungry people. One…
However, one must consider the context of the petition. Given today's knowledge of Native American-colonial relations, I question whether or not the issues in the petition are hyperbolized. Were the colonists similarly torturing the Native Americans? Did they want to create a militia just to rid the area of people they saw as pests? or, were these people really harming and murdering the colonial population in this area?
Week 4: Nathaniel Bacon on Bacon's Rebellion
In today's culture, we often wonder how such blatant racism could have existed in history that Native Americans were removed and killed with such impunity during the revolutionary years. Bacon, on Bacon's Rebellion, does an excellent job of explaining how these attitudes could have existed. Bacon begins by tying his rebellion to God and what is just, although today we may call him the unjust. Toward the end of his essay, he argues that the…
Nathaniel Bacon, a wealthy planter staged an uprising, which eventually developed into a rebellion, against Sir William Berkeley's corrupt regime. His manifesto opens with how perverted the morality of the colony has become. Bacon enumerates corruption, where the quality of the lives of their colonizers have greatly improved but the welfare of the colony has stagnated and downgraded, the administration's protection of their" darling Indians," where the interest of the people have not been protected but these "darling Indians" have been, as crimes of the Berkeley's administration. In return, the manifesto suggests the need to expatriate all Indians as well as to extinguish all forms of commerce and trade with them. Even though the rebellion failed, it has had some positive effects: the reduction of taxes as well as the end of rule of the "grandees" (Virginia Magazine of History and Biography in oner, 2008).
In most societies where unjust…
Foner, E. (2008). ed. Voices of Freedom. A Documentary History. W.W. Norton & Company: New York.
Lepore, J. (2000). Encounters in the New World. A History in Documents. Oxford University Press: New York.
Rushforh, B. & Mapp, P.W.. (n.d.). Colonial North America and the Atlantic World. A History in Documents. Pearson Prentice Hall: New Jersey.
Bacon's work is less centered on the individual himself as the center of reality and of the mechanism of understanding reality. His rational explanation of the world focuses on nature. His preface of Novum Organum gives some interesting details about his perception of the Nature as the common denominator of understanding reality, the basic premise and concept of all subsequent understanding. Similar to the understanding of Nietzsche and Darwin related solely on the individual, Nature is also very difficult to pinpoint, shouldn't be dogmatized through its unpredictability and capacity to remain a differentiated entity.
Bacon proposes a method that includes "determining certain degrees of certainty" and, a definite element of rationality, using the mind as the main instrument of identifying and understanding the reality surrounding us, although the senses are also something that should be taken into consideration into the equation of understanding reality. Thus, through Nature, using his mind…
As we can see, the absence of a Supreme Being from the discussion around understanding the reality around us leads to the necessity of finding another point of reference. In some cases, this point of reference is the individual (Nietzsche, Darwin), in others, it is the existing society (Plato) or nature itself (Bacon). It is from different perspectives that all these writers and philosophers attempt to understand and describe the same surrounding realities. The differences most likely comes from the different instruments used.
Darwin, Charles. 1871. Descent of Man. On the Internet at http://www.infidels.org/library/historical/charles_darwin/descent_of_man/chapter_01.html.Last retrieved on September 17, 2008
Bacon, Francis. 1620. Novum Organum. On the Internet at http://history.hanover.edu/texts/Bacon/novorg.html.Last retrieved on September 17, 2008
The Lord will lead one to safety always. One can simply believe in something higher to get the meaning of this; it doesn't have to be Jesus. Psalm 127, contrarily is confusing because it states that unless the Lord builds the house, it is built in vain. This seems to be more literal, but I do get the idea. Unless the people building the house are doing it with the love of the Lord in their hearts, or building it for him, then what is the point?
Didactic poetry can be quite comforting as seen in Psalm 23 or it can be much too literal and seen as both confusing and condescending. Psalm 127 isn't very instructive spiritually speaking, unlike Psalm 23.
Updated Proverb: A broken toe can hurt, but a broken heart can kill.
Metaphors: Obscure or Illuminate? Didactic literature with its use of metaphors can sometimes obscure the…
" The differences in these two lines seem to be only a matter of syntax but in actuality, it also differs in the meaning. The King James Bible version makes it seem like the Lord is making the individual do something, as if by force or obligation, while the Puritan version states that the Lord causes the individual to do something, as if out of their own will. This alone relays the message that faith itself is driving the action, not a perceived obligation.
Another distinction between the two translations can be found with the lines "Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life: / and I will dwell in the house of the Lord forever" (King James Bible) and "Goodness and mercy surely shall / all my days follow me. / and in the Lord's house I shall / dwell so long as days…
and, through the scientific study of modern, cognitive science, the idea that 'I' am doing the thinking in a way that is separate from my body and that this can be rationally deducted, simply by thinking and without scientific experimentation would be confounded.
However, those using empiricism as their main philosophical view of the world have also been able to twist the empiricism to use science's supposed rationalism and objectivity to justify tyranny of 'the best,' as in the case of eugenics, and the notion of 'survival of the fittest,' which suggests that the 'best' (morally, racially, and ethically) thrive and should be allowed to triumph over the 'weak.' In reality, Darwin's actual theory merely supports the idea that those best suited to an environment survive, not that survivors are innately better or superior creatures (a mutated moth that can blend in with a coal-blackened environment is not 'better' than…
Body, Identity, Gender]
From birth, humans learn, act out and experience their gendered identities. The society's concepts of femininity and masculinity form a person's relationship to his/her body and the bodies of other individuals. The issue of gender is also an aspect of prevailing norms of inequality and oppression. Discrimination based on appearances continues to be a common occurrence.
For example, feminists and philosophers, such as Simone de Beauvoir in The Second Sex question, "what is a woman?" (in Ashton-Jones101). She dislikes the traditional explanation of "woman is a womb," but recognizes that throughout history woman has been defined as "the Other" of man: "Thus humanity is male and man defines woman not in herself but as relative to him." (in Ashton-Jones 102). In other words, man is the absolute being and woman takes on all of the negative bodily, mortal and irrational aspects that he prefers not to find…
de Beauvoir, Simone. "Femininity and Sisterhood." In Evelyn Ashton-Jones and Gary A. Olson (Eds.) The Gender Reader. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1991, pp. 34-350.
Bordon, Susan. "Material Girl." In Roger N. Lancaster and Micaela di Leonardo (Eds.) The Gender Sexuality Reader. New York: Routledge, pp. 335-358.
Butler, Judith. "Exerpt from 'Inroduction' to Bodies That Matter. In Roger N. Lancaster and Micaela di Leonardo (Eds.) The Gender Sexuality Reader. New York: Routledge, pp.531-542.
hooks, bell. Black Looks: Race and Representation. Boston: South End Press, 1992.
Bacon to develop a readiness for change in order to get the changes in place and to press for ongoing evaluation and for additional change as needed. He might have prepared his managers better for the fact that certain types of changes would be necessary, and now that they know what those changes are, he must keep the managers focused on the fact that change is needed because the system in place is not sufficient and has not provided the data needed. Given the nature of the resistance, he might make the need clear to his managers and solicit their recommendations, to be discussed and considered in the same type of forum as was sued for the reading of the first report. Had the managers been more directly involved from the first, they might have shown less resistance to the idea of change.
Indeed, that first meeting could have been…
Aston-Blair Inc. (1999). South-Western College Publishing. Provided.
Goodstein, L. & Butz, H.E. (1998, Summer). The linchpin of organizational change. Organizational Dynamics, 21-33.
Jansen, K.J. (2000). The emerging dynamics of change: Resistance, readiness, and momentum. Human Resource Planning, 23(2), 53.
Lei, D. Slocum, J.W., & Pitts, A.A. (1999, Winter). Designing organizations for competitive advantage: The power of unlearning and learning. Organizational Dynamics, 24-38.
Historians discuss major themes dealing vast variety materials events encounter studying history.Three themes
Colonial Life Factors
Race, class and gender were highly important factors during colonial life in the country that would become the United States of America. In many ways, the very founding of this country was all about these three separate themes that became increasingly difficult to distinguish from one another once colonial life truly began in earnest. For instance, one can sufficiently argue that class was one of the primary reasons that colonists first came to America -- for the purposes of religious freedom (since religion can be considered a type of class) as well as for economic prosperity. Many colonists initially came to the country as indentured servants who were looking to find a better monetary existence for themselves.
This principle can be demonstrated most effectively by examining literature from and pertaining to Bacon's Rebellion. Essentially,…
Global warming is, like bacon or bluebirds, not something one can believe in. Like bacon and bluebirds, global warming actually exists. It can't be sliced or tasted like bacon, and it's not going to sing like a bird, but global warming is measurable, tangible, and immediately apparent. There is a near-total (97%) consensus among scientists that climate changes are occurring (Meyer, 2012). Ambient and ocean temperatures have risen on aggregate over the past century, and most, if not all, of the climate changes can be attributed to human industry. Arguments "against" global warming come across like arguments "against" women joining the workforce, or "against" the fact that cigarettes cause cancer, or "against" the ill effects of fast food. The arguments against global warming are not coming from scientists -- people who are actually in the business of facts -- but from a litany of loudmouth opposes whose motives are no…
"The Global Warming Debate," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.aos.wisc.edu/~aalopez/aos101/wk7.html
Meyer, W. (2012). Understanding the global warming debate. Forbes. Feb 9, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.forbes.com/sites/warrenmeyer/2012/02/09/understanding-the-global-warming-debate/
Philander, S.G. (n.d.). Why global warming is a controversial issue. Retrieved online: http://www.bo.cnr.it/campuscolloquia/philander_abs.htm
Strickland, J. & Grabianowski, E. (n.d.). How global warming works. How Stuff Works. Retrieved online: http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/global-warming7.htm
Other smells that give the shop character include the manure on farmers' boots, the odor of chain saw oil on loggers wearing flannel, wool, Carhart jeans, and dingy ball caps. The self-serve counter also offers up some tantalizing smells, such as hot dogs, pizza, hamburgers, and chili. All these smells combined remind me of the rodeo that comes through town. The aromas in the shop enhance the experience because they unify the entire experience.
The little store is truly a one-stop shop in that you can find almost anything you need. For example, the shelves are lined with the regular products you would expect to see in any shop including pharmaceutical items, such as pink, blue and green thermometers hanging from racks; staple groceries like Wonder bread with its red, blue and yellow packaging; toilet paper; liquor; cigarettes and Skoal; candy bars, ranging from Hershey bars to the healthy fiber…
Laws and Wages
Legislation and Wages: An Intricate Dance, but Who's Leading?
Government and employment have always had and will necessarily continue to have a complex and mutually influential relationship, not least in the area of wages. What people are able to earn has always been a pressing issue in any capitalist system, and can influence the formation and the actions of government in numerous direct and indirect ways. In the other direction, legislation enacted by the government can both directly impact employees' wages and have indirect impacts through the changing of burdens that employers must contend with in compensating employees and operating their businesses. This paper briefly examines the relationship between government and wages, and specifically between legislation and employers' abilities to pay wages and utilize wages as an effective workforce motivator and stabilizer. This examination shows that good intentions can sometimes have questionable results, even when the ethical…
Bernstein, D. (1993). The Davis-Bacon Act: Let's Bring Jim Crow to an End. Accessed 12 December 2012. http://www.cato.org/pubs/briefs/bp-017.html
Cornell. (2007). Lilly M. Ledbetter, Petitioner v The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company. Accessed 12 December 2012. http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/05-1074.ZD.html
US DOL. (2012). The McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act (SCA). Accessed 12 December 2012. http://www.dol.gov/compliance/laws/comp-sca.htm#.UMrWu3Pjmjc
US DOL. (2012a). Compliance Assistance - Wages and the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). Accessed 12 December 2012. http://www.dol.gov/whd/flsa/#.UMrWpXPjmjc
Zinn's a People's History of the U.S.
Should the U.S. apologize for slavery and its legacy? ho benefits if the U.S. doesn't apologize?
It is difficult to determine the answer to such a polarizing question. Some argue that slavery has been a form of life since the beginning of mankind and that if the African-American community is apologized to, then the Jewish people who were slaves should get apologies too. They argue that the sins of our ancestors are not our own and that we are not responsible for their actions. Yet, the American form of slavery was especially heinous. According to the text, the American form of slavery was the cruelest. Zinn points to two reason that American slavery was the most horrible: "the frenzy for limitless profit that comes from capitalistic agriculture" and "the reduction of the slave to less than human status by the use of racial…
Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States. New York: Harper. 1999. Print.
The third step is creating which is doing. It is taking action on what you find, what you suspect, what you think will make a difference. The last step is confirming. In this stage, you are evaluating your efforts, learning from feedback, and starting the cycle again.
6. Define "data-driven" decision making.
Data driven decision making uses student assessment data and relevant background information, to inform decisions related to planning and implementing instructional strategies at the district, school, classroom, and individual student levels. Data literacy consists of a person possessing a basic understanding of how data can be used to inform instruction. Studies have often shown that if instructional plans at the state, county, district, school, classroom, and individual student levels are based on assessment information relevant to the desired learning outcomes for students, the probability is increased that they will attain these desired learning outcomes.
Data from a variety…
Allen, Janet. (2004). Tools for Teaching Content Area Literacy. Stenhouse Publishers: Tyler
Kowalski, T.J., Lasley II, T.J., and Mahoney, J.W. (2008). Data-driven decisions and school leadership: Best practices for school improvement. Pearson: Boston.
Parkay, F.W., Anctil, E. and, Hass, G. (2010). Curriculum leadership: Readings for developing quality educational programs, 9th Edition, Allyn and Bacon: Needham Heights,
In fact, one of the most important functions of assessments is measuring the efficacy of any given lesson. If most students in the class perform poorly on an assessment, the nature or structure of the lesson might be to blame.
McMillan (2007) point out the need for setting goals and targets with high expectations of our students. I have found a great deal of pessimism surrounding our profession. This pessimism is unfounded. Students want to learn, because curiosity is an innate part of the human experience. Teachers should expect their students to possess an insatiable intellectual curiosity. Unfortunately, federal standards demand that teachers cannot digress too much from standard educational curricula issued by our state. We face a dichotomy in our profession between teaching for tests and teaching for intellectual stimulation. Teachers can work around the dichotomy by offering their students opportunities to expand their knowledge on their own such…
McMillan, J.H. (2007). Classroom Assessment: Principles and practice for effective standards-based instruction. 4th ed. Old Tappan, NJ: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.
Both of these measures are expected to improve school performance (Pohlman 2010; Seyfarth 1995).
Philosophy of Curriculum Development
Though each individual classroom and instructor operates on a largely independent basis, the philosophy and practicalities of Ms. Pohlman's approach to instructional leadership and the functioning of ush Strong Elementary according to her description exemplifies an instance of coupling that is more tight than loose (Glickman et al. 2007). There is a great deal of integration and guidance of the individual and independent instructors and instructional methods; this guidance is the result of independent input, but provides a clear overarching structure to the institution and the instructional methods and goals (Pohlman 2010). This is the reason that Ms. Pohlman's philosophy is best classified as leaning towards tight rather than loose coupling (Glickman et al. 2007).
Despite the fact that Ms. Pohlman's instructional leadership philosophy favors tight rather than loose coupling, she does…
Glickman, C.; Gordon, S. & Ross-Gordon, J. (2007). SuperVision and instructional leadership. New York: Pearson.
Pohlman, R. (2010). Personal interview. Conducted 21 February 2010.
Seyfarth, J. (1995). Personnel management for effective schools (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
The genders mentioned here are not entirely rigid, but it is far more common to see mothers exhibiting such behavior in these arenas. The same basic principles apply, however, where the parent uses derogatory or abusive language to drive children past what are perceived as their shortcomings. Pushing children to succeed is not abuse, but when it is done in a way that is unnecessarily cruel, it's psychological abuse.
Not all psychological abuse is situation specific, these two examples are simply easily recognized by most members of society. Many cases of psychological abuse occur across all situations, especially behind closed doors. It is the most common form of child abuse, not only because it occurs with both sexual and physical abuse but because it is often not perceived as harmful behavior simply because it leaves no outer bruises (Cook & Cook 2005, pp. 142).
Although half of all abuse cases…
Cook, J.L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child Development: Principles and Perspectives (2nd edition). New York: Allyn & Bacon Publishers.
Kairys, S. & Johnson, C. (2002). "The psychological maltreatment of children -- technical report." Pediatrics 109(4).
The State and school percent scoring tables also provide a useful marker of this, although I think that using these is slightly more complicated. As a result, I therefore actually find the State and school percent scoring tables to be the least helpful element in the result reporting. I also find that the State-Mean Developmental Scale Score is confusing as it is actually quite hard to understand what the figures given in the table represent. This then means that the table is of little use when you are trying to assess how widely your own performance differs from the state average.
Florida Department of Education (2005). Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test. etrieved on January 16, 2009, at http://fcat.fldoe.org/.
Popham, W. James (2000). Modern Educational Measurement: Practical Guidelines for Educational Leaders. 3rd Edition. Boston, MA: Allyn…
Florida Department of Education (2005). Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test. Retrieved on January 16, 2009, at http://fcat.fldoe.org/.
Popham, W. James (2000). Modern Educational Measurement: Practical Guidelines for Educational Leaders. 3rd Edition. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
In addition, I've heard a great deal of expressed frustration by the citizens of this country in regards to their rights, and the impact on their rights by the Patriot Act and regulations put in place by the Department of Homeland Security. Do these people not understand that their rights are nonexistent because of the authority of the state? Like a child and her parents, the state will do what it thinks is necessary for its people, and the people must obey."
Pretend for a moment," Augustine posed, "that the question at hand is not the sovereignty of the state, but the moral justice of the war. Do you agree that the decision to go to war was moral?" do not concern myself so much with morality," Hobbes countered, "as I do with the reason why these wars must continue to occur. Obviously, none is in favor of the death…
Teachers will continue to lead the educational process, but they need to be very sensitive about the issues facing the society as a whole and the children as individuals in this society. Then, education becomes a means of identifying the issues in the life of the students and gaining knowledge and understanding about them. Education in this global society also has to acknowledge that cultural diversity is valued and preserved (Tozer, Violas, & Senese, 2002, p. 190). Teachers have to ensure that their students are taught in ways that respond to cultural groups without bias (Tozer, Violas, & Senese, 2002, p. 420). In education, there is a responsibility for students to gain a respect for other races, religions and gender that are different from their own. This is the only way that a diverse society can successfully survive.
Best, S. And Douglas, K. (1991) Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations, New…
Best, S. And Douglas, K. (1991) Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations, New York, the Guilford Press.
Byrne, a. (1998). Interpretivism. In Roberto Casati (ed.), European Review of Philosophy. Stanford: CSLI Publications
Dewey, J. (1997). Experience and education. New York: Touchstone Books.
Giroux, H. (1997) 'Crossing the Boundaries of Educational Discourse: Modernism, post-modernism, and Feminism' in a.H. Halsey, H. Lauder, P. Brown and a.S. Wells (eds.) Education: Culture, Economy, and Society, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
These generally viewed race in terms of superior or inferior throughout history.
The time frame family studies explored involved biological and pathology theories dating from the 1899 through the twentieth century. Interestingly, these researchers found that in early history, race was more likely to negatively impact child education than socio-economic status, especially during times in history when most people were at a disadvantage economically (as in during the depression). As researchers moved into the twentieth century however, there seems to be a trend in research leaning toward less emphasis on race and minority status, with many researchers turning away from terms like "morons" or "inferior" or "degenerates" and more focusing on terms like "poverty" and "poor" or "welfare status" (Block, Balcazar & Keys, 2001, p. 18). Historical data gathering included a review of researchers and psychologist reports and collection as described in a comparison table which the researcher then reviewed…
Anderson, E. (1990). Streetwise: Race, class, and change in an urban community.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Block, P., Balcazar, F. & Keys, C. (2001). From pathology to power: Rethinking race, poverty and disability. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 12(1): 18.
Deyhle, D., Parker, L. & Villenas, S. (1999). Race is - Race isn't: Critical race theory and qualitative studies in education. Boulder: Westview Press.
Making principals and school administrators involved in the process along with parents creates additional support and potential for learning reinforcement at home and in creates greater cohesiveness in terms of the school's overall learning environment. hile any number of step-by-step curricular models exists for individual teachers, since the underlining principle of all curriculum design is to impart skills to students that build upon previous units of learning, it is better that there exist some continuity in curriculum planning between teachers. Also, if all teachers take a similar approach there is a greater chance that learning outcomes will build on one another, throughout a student's educational career.
Curriculum design will no doubt be different 10 years from now, as state and perhaps even national standards require learning outcomes to be more measurable and clearly defined within individual units. This may create more homogeneity in terms of basic skills demanded between schools.…
Hlynka, Denis. (30 Nov 2005). "Course Syllabus: Theory and Practice of Curriculum
Design and Development." Retrieved 30 Jan 2007 at http://www.umanitoba.ca/centres/ukrainian_canadian/hlynka/courses/132756/syllabus.html
Learning Outcomes." (2004). Learning Development Unit. Retrieved 30 Jan 2007 at http://www.livjm.ac.uk/lid/ltweb/ldu_12/learning_outcomes.htm
Ornstein & Hunkins. (1998). Curriculum: Foundations, Principles, and Issues.
A teacher must research the curriculum she or he will teach over the summer, to ensure that it is grade-appropriate and meets certain standards. The teacher must also be open to new possibilities, to try different approaches to structuring the syllabus and to changing the types of skills that are taught as a part of the curriculum, based upon his or her reading of educational journals, talking with colleagues, and reflecting upon the previous year.
But the process of curriculum design does not end when school begins. The teacher must assess the abilities of the students, and gain a sense of how the class functions as a unit. Are there many different levels of ability in the class? If so, the teacher may need to teach certain groups of students independently, to remedy current deficits in knowledge. The teacher should also be ready to alter the activities used to convey…
About the Curriculum Wizard." (2006). WNSS School Guide. Retrieved 22 Jan 2007 at http://www2.dpi.state.wi.us/sig/practices/cw/index.aspOrnstein, Alan C. & Ornstein, Allen C & Francis Hunkins. (1998). Curriculum: Foundations, Principles, and Issues. 3rd Edition. Allyn and Bacon.
Smith, M.K. (1996, 2000). "Curriculum theory and practice." The Encyclopedia of Informal Education. Retrieved 22 Jan 2007. www.infed.org/biblio/b-curric.htm.Last updated: 30 January 2005.
Students, by seeing that a concept can unite so many different aspects of an idea are better able to draw connections between what is learned in the classroom and subjects that are common to their daily lives.
For example, take the broad curricular concept of 'travel.' The most obvious application of this concept is in a literature class, where students can learn about travel from stories about other lands, or about people traveling over the course of a story. But students can also apply the concept to math class, as they learn to budget for a trip, and calculate the speeds of various modes of transportation. They can learn about the science of how trains and planes are propelled, as well as research the weather conditions and geography of a possible destination. They can learn about the different people, cultures, religions, and wildlife of a land, and even create art…
Gail G. Muir & Sally S. Blake. "Foundations of Collaboration." (2006). The Professional
Organizational Development Network in Higher Education. Retrieved 19 Jan 2007 at http://teaching.uchicago.edu/pod/muir.html .
What is concept-based curriculum?" (18 Jun 1998) District 118 Curriculum Design. Retrieved 19 Jan 2007 at http://www.d118.s-cook.k12.il.us/central/curriculum/what.html#generalization
Ornstein, Alan C. & Francis Hunkins. (1998). Curriculum: Foundations, Principles, and Issues. 3rd Edition, Allyn and Bacon.
This is a method of indirect instruction, an important component of art education, as noted in Mary E. Thompson's chapter on "Art for Students with Special Needs." Having a rebus charts with pictures illustrating the steps of the project also helps students follow directions, and for students with attention deficit issues, these students can refer to the chart to reorient themselves if they lose focus on the project.
Teachers should strive to minimize self-consciousness. For children in a wheelchair, the classroom should be physically accessible, not simply with wheelchair ramps, but also with a wide, clear path to the art center. Some art tools may need to be used in different ways, depending on the children's physical limitations. The teacher should have a wide range of adaptive art tools, like fat bingo markers, chunky crayons, large markers, double-handed ambidextrous scissors and glue sticks, which may prove less frustrating than a…
Thompson, Mary E. (1997). "Art for Students with Special Needs." Chapter 13 from An Introduction to Early Childhood Special Education. Edited by Linda L. Dunlap MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Legal Environment/Total ewards: A Changing Landscape
In the race for profit, employee pay has traditionally been seen by businesses as a competitive liability, and the trend for much of the 20th century was for employers to search for the cheapest, most efficient labor to protect their bottom line. Because of this approach, the U.S. government took several steps during the 20th century to protect employees from extortionary measures by employers to drive down wages and drive up productivity. However, as Chen and Hsieh point out in their 2006 article "Key Trends in the Total eward System of the 21st Century," recent decades have seen a dramatic shift in the way that corporations and human resources professionals view the issue of employee pay. Instead of being viewed as a liability, employee pay is increasingly being seen in a positive light, as a method for securing top talent, stabilizing turnover, and motivating…
Atkinson, W. (Nov 2009) Filling in around the edges. HR Magazine, Vol. 54, Iss. 11, 55-59.
Bohlander, G. & Snell, S. (2010) Managing Human Resources. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Chen, H. & Hsieh, Y. (Nov/Dec 2006) Key trends of the total reward system in the 21st century. Compensation and Benefits Review, Vol. 38, Iss. 6, 64-72.
Simon, T., Traw, K., McGeoch, B., & Bruno, F. (Summer 2007). How the final HIPAA nondiscrimination regulations affect wellness programs. Benefits Law Journal, Vol. 20, Iss. 2, 40-45.
The Vietnam War was a turning point in the Army's growing realization that senior military leaders, and not just political leaders, had a responsibility to be able to speak to soldiers, to the American people, and to the press about ethical issues.
The Professionalism Study of 1970, examined institutional systems and requirements for success in the Army, attitudes and values of senior officers, and tasks for the 1970s. One of the striking conclusions of the first study was that the Army contained "untoward and unhealthy pressures to strive for success" on the part of officers. Systems that regulated the selection, education, promotion, and reward of Army officers were in need of major correction.
It was clear that the Army needed to evaluate its concepts of values and ethics.
During the decades of the 1970s and 1980s senior commanders in all the services began to exert their influence on the direction…
Angelo, T.A., & Cross, K.P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers (2nd edition). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Carter, D. & Wilson, R. (1995). Thirteenth annual status report on minorities in higher education. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
Farris, P. (1996). Teaching, Bearing the Torch. Madison, WI: Brown and Benchmark
Recklessly creating a situation that increases the required amount of force is immoral. Officer Smith should have ordered the occupants out of the car from the cover of her own vehicle. Using cover effectively would have required the occupants to take far more overt action, getting out of the car and turning around, in order to be a threat to the officers. Officer Smith unnecessarily increased the danger to herself, and therefore the risk that she would have to use deadly force. Creating a dangerous situation for others is immoral, and that was the result of Officer Smith approaching the car. Some might argue that the death of an armed robber may be a net positive for society, but death is an excessive punishment for robbery, and the police do not have the moral, or legal authority to appoint themselves judge, jury and executioner upon encountering criminals on the street.…
Kappeler, V, et. al. "Perspectives on the development of police character. Forces of Deviance: Understanding the Dark Side of," 84-108 Waveland Press, Inc. 1998
Worden, Robert. "Ther "causes" of police brutality: theory and evidence on Police Use of Force. And Justice For All: Understanding and controlling police abuse of force." 31-60, Police
Executive Research Forum, 1995.
starting the personal journal I found it hard, but after writing the journal entries for the past 8 weeks I have learned a lot, and I found myself to have a better understanding of the curriculum than I did before starting the unit. Before I began the unit I would have had trouble even saying or spelling curriculum properly, and it was not something I thought about very much. However, after doing more research on curriculum and also doing the weekly reading, as well as participating on online discussion with other students, I find that everything together has helped me a lot and given me a better understanding of curriculum. Because of that higher level of understanding I was able to complete the weekly questions and tasks. Now I find that I have to carefully consider my ideas on curriculum, where those ideas were a few short weeks ago, and…
Atweh, B., & Singh, P. (2011). The Australian curriculum: Continuing the national conversation. Australian Journal Of Education, 55(3), p. 189-196
Aubusson, P. (2011). An Australian science curriculum: Competition, advances and retreats. Australian Journal Of Education, 55(3), p. 229-244.
Brady, L. & Kennedy, K. (2010). Curriculum Construction (4th Edition). Frenchs Forest NSW: Pearson Australia.
Hincks, P. (2010). Australian Curriculum -- an update. Ethos, 18(2), p. 6-7
Dave, who is an introverted, haunted, loner, acts out his rage and hurt upon another man having sex with a child prostitute. Sean eventually locates Katie's murderers, who were related to and associated with her boyfriend of whom her father did not approve, but not before Jimmy accuses and kills Dave of Katie's murder because he does not believe Dave's confession of murdering the other man. By the conclusion of the film, the remaining men find some relative resolution to their personal problems, which are primarily related to their families.
The film is masterfully composed and has a very subtle power to it, which is indicative of Eastwood's directorial style. Certainly, as a film, the film is meant to be a form of entertainment, but the film is superbly realistic and emotional. The film is about the connections between violence and emotions. There are visual and thematic parallels related to…
Role of Nutrition in Health
Nutritional Assessment is a detailed evaluation of objective as well as subjective data, relating to an individual's food intake, along with giving due consideration to factors such as medical history and lifestyle of the said individual. The purpose of a nutritional assessment is to identify the malnourishment and/or undernourishment in an individual's diet and to eradicate the factors that make it unhealthy and unfit. Once the data relating an individual's eating habits has been collected and organized, it can be used to evaluate the nutritional status of that person. The assessment is followed up by a plan to either intervene or to devise a new proper nutritious diet plan to help the individual attain a healthier status (Carol Rees Parrish, August 2003).
In keeping up with the current obesity and overweight statistics, the need for a balanced nutrition profile has increased tenfold. Australia today is…
Ageing, D. o. (1998). Australian Guide to Eating Healthy. http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/E384CFA588B74377CA256F190004059B/$File/fd-cons.pdf .
Carol Rees Parrish, M.R. (August 2003). Nutritional Assessment: Current Concepts and Guidelines for the Busy Physician.
Institute, M.O. (June 2012). Obesity in Australia.
Institute, N.H. Obesisty. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/obesity/ob_gdlns.pdf .
History U.S. Criminal Justice Systems/Police
It is undeniable that criminal justice and police activities are integral parts of every relatively peaceful nation in the world. ithout the actions and standards set forth by the agencies that "protect and serve" many wrongs would go not only unpunished but possibly unnoticed as well.
The basic purposes of policing in democratic societies are: 1. To prevent and investigate crimes; 2. To apprehend offenders; 3. To help ensure domestic peace and tranquility; and 4. To enforce and support the laws (especially the criminal laws) of the society of which the police are a part." (Schmalleger Chapter 5 Summary)
Though the developmental history of modern policing and criminal justice there have been many changes, changes in focus and standard, and even crime and justice. The very term professionalism has completely evolved across the board, more so in the policing industry than almost anywhere else. A…
Downer L.J. Legis Henrici Primi Abstract Retrieved April 25, 2004 at http://www.powellschicago.com/html/reprints/16560.html.
Fagin, James A. Criminal Justice New York, NY Allyn & Bacon, 2003.
Hirschel, J. David, and William Wakefield. Criminal Justice in England and the United States. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1995.
Coffee egional Medical Center, Inc. CMC") is a non-profit, 88-bed hospital located in Douglas, Georgia. Since 1953, CMC has served the healthcare needs of the community as the sole hospital-provider in Douglas, Georgia and surrounding Coffee County. CMC's mission is to provide the highest-quality healthcare, in a safe and caring environment, for both patients and families (Coffee egional Medical Center, N.d.).
CMC is an acute care hospital for adults and children in southern Georgia whose primary and secondary markets extend from Coffee to Jeff Davis and Bacon counties to Ben Hill and Atkinson counties.
Healthcare is miles behind the curve when it comes to technological innovation, an industry that historically has not been easy to innovate for. There are two key trends that have changed the game just in the last few months, explains Zoe Barry, CEO and Founder of Zappx, "opening up what could be a landgrab for…
Coffee Regional Medical Center. (N.d.). 2013 Community Health Needs Assessment.
Pozin, I. (2013, October 17). Industry to Watch in 2014: Healthcare Tech. Retrieved from Forbes: http://www.forbes.com/sites/ilyapozin/2013/10/17/industry-to-watch-in-2014-healthcare-tech/
There are many reasons that supplements have become popular. One reason is that many people realize that their diets are not adequate and they feel like they can "supplement" for the fact that they are not eating right. Other reasons include the fact that certain supplements are promoted as helping with many different conditions. For example, Gingko Bibola is promoted as helping mental processes. There is a lot of hype about supplementation and this will likely led to the continued growth of the trend.
Most of the supplements that are available are fairly safe. For example, a multivitamin does not need to be regulated and be available only with a prescription. There are some supplements that can have more serious consequences however and it is reasonable to argue that consumers should be protected. A person's primary physician would represent the ideal person to guide a patient in this process.…
Dvauchelle, J. (2014, January 13). Pros & Cons of GMO Foods. Retrieved from Livestrong: http://www.livestrong.com/article/213053-pros-cons-of-gmo-foods/
FAO. (2003). Weighing the GMO arguments. Retrieved from FAO: http://www.fao.org/english/newsroom/focus/2003/gmo8.htm
WebMD. (N.d.). Are Biotech Foods Safe to Eat? Retrieved from WebMD: http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/features/are-biotech-foods-safe-to-eat
eliability and Validity
eliability refers to the capacity of an instrument to capture the most accurate and "truest" score of an individual. A reliable test enables us to distinguish one individual from another with confidence that errors will primarily be generated by individual differences, and to a lesser extent, to the imperfections of the instrument. Indicators that a test is reliable include test-retest reliability that is accounted for by the internal consistency in the components of the test. The test-retest criteria is generally considered a manifestation of the consistency of measurement for individual performance over time, such that the score a person gets on a test today will be the same -- or nearly the same -- as the score the person gets on a test, say, in three, six, or twelve months. There are a number of substantive issues with the test-retest criteria, including chance covariation, memory, and…
Huck, S.W. (2012). Reading statistics and research (6th ed.).Columbus, OH: Allyn & Bacon.
Newton, P.E. & Shaw, S.D. (2013) Standards for talking and thinking about validity. Psychological Methods, 18(3), 301-319. Doi: 10.1037/a0032969
Sireci, S.G. (2007). On validity theory and test validation. Educational Researcher, 36(8), 477-481. (ProQuest Document ID: 1403803131)
Schwenk, G. (2009). Evaluating social influence relations: An item-response-modeling approach. Metodoloski zvezki, 6(1), 27-50.
Observations vs. interviews
Observations, as the name suggests, involve the observation of the study subjects, in a natural or an experimental environment. The researcher takes notes upon what he or she sees, either in a prominently-displayed position or in a less obtrusive position. Interviews may be unstructured, semi-structured, or highly-structured, but all types involve directly soliciting information from subjects (Aiken & Groth-Marnat & 2006).
There are potential benefits and drawbacks to both observations and interviews. In terms of validity, observer bias and lack of awareness can corrupt observational data. However, interviews can likewise be problematic given that the questions can intentionally or unintentionally be used to shape the respondents' replies in a particular and inaccurate fashion. Observations can be very difficult to reproduce, given they take place at specific moments in time and both methods make use of relatively small test populations, versus quantitative studies. This narrows the demographic reach…
Aiken, L.R. & Groth-Marnat, G. (2006). Psychological testing and assessment. (12th
ed.).Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Assessment strategies and tools: Checklists, rating scales and rubrics. (2014).
Assessment in mathematics. Retrieved from: http://www.learnalberta.ca/content/mewa/html/assessment/checklists.html
Cognitive Ability Testing
Psychological testing or psychological assessment is the strategy that psychologists use to determine the core component of individual personality, cognitive ability and IQ (intelligence quotient). It is the process of identifying individual strengths and weakness. In essence, cognitive ability is one of the important strategies for the psychological assessment. Traditionally, cognitive ability assessment primarily involves the use of pencil and paper to determine a wide range of individual abilities that include problem solving, intellectual functioning, language skills, and memory. With the advanced development of information technology, there is an increase in the use of computer technology to carry out the assessment. The cognitive testing uses both qualitative and quantitative approach to determine individual cognitive ability, and the results are interpreted based on the normative data collected.
Objective of this study is to carry out the assessment of cognitive ability of students and non-students using the Cognitive Abilities…
Aiken, L.R. & Groth-Marnat, G. (2006). Psychological assessment and Psychological testing, (12th ed.).Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN: 0205457428.
Bermingham D, Hill RD, Woltz D, Gardner MK (2013) Cognitive Strategy Use and Measured Numeric Ability in Immediate- and Long-Term Recall of Everyday Numeric Information. PLoS ONE 8(3).
Lakin, J.M. (2012).Multidimensional ability tests in the linguistically and culturally diverse students: The Evidence of the measurement invariance. Learning and Individual Differences. 22(3):397-403.
Lohman, D.F. (2006). The Woodcock-Johnson III and the Cognitive Abilities Test (Form 6): A Concurrent Valid Study. University of Iowa.
When the Davis-Beacon Act was developed it was established in order to stabilize the construction industry as well as promote fair wages. The way that the Davis-Beacon act is interpreted today in regards to prevailing wages, they tend to drive the price of the labor up unnecessarily causing tremendous expenses for the government. It also tends to promote unemployment because of the high price of the labor while discriminating against minorities in the construction industry. This act needs to be looked at again and amended so that it is more appropriate for today's times. Government expenses are at an all time high and having this act adding to those expenses is unnecessary. The act needs to be revised as to make free market competition available in the construction industry when it comes to government contracts. This would help to eliminate the excessive spending, the unemployment and the discrimination that is…
Contracts for materials, etc., exceeding $10,000; representations and stipulations. (n.d.).
Retrieved June 30, 2009, from Cornell University Law School Web site:
Davis-Bacon and Related Acts. (n.d.). Retrieved June 29, 2009, from U.S. Department of Labor
Here we see that the staff and the students had their own responsibilities and those responsibilities are quite different from the traditional ones we find in traditional schools. Horton thought that a significant aspect of the teacher's role was to empower students to "think and act for themselves" (Thayer-Bacon). We can see that Horton placed responsibility on both the students and the staff. They were to learn from one another but the staff was to be aware of the student's plight as well as help them be the best that they could be.
Is what Highlander does "really" adult education? Why or why not?
Highlander does educate but it is not typical in comparison to traditional learning. When we think of adult education, we think of textbooks, professors giving lectures, students taking notes, and a most definite dividing line between the two. Students and professors do not generally have to…
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-
Jacobs at p. 237.
Globalization and Labor
Globalization is a term used in a multiplicity of senses, such as the global interdependence of nations, the growth of a world system, accumulation on a world scale, and the global village (Petras Pp). All of these concepts, as well as many others, are rooted in the general notion that the "accumulation of capital, trade and investment is no longer confined to a nation-state" (Petras Pp). Globalization in the most general sense refers to the "cross-national flows of goods, investment, production and technology," and for advocates, the scope and depth of these flows have created a new world order, "with its own institutions and configurations of power that have replace the structures of nation-states" (Petras Pp). Globalization has deepened and extended the international division of labor, with everything from automobile parts to information collection and analysis now out-sourced to labor in distant nation-states (Petras Pp). Exporting labor…
Petras, James. "Globalization: A Critical Analysis."
Journal of Contemporary Asia; 3/1/1999; Pp.
Williamson Jr., Handy. "Globalization and Poverty: Lessons From the Theory and Practice of Food Security Discussion." American Journal of Agricultural Economics; 8/1/2001; Pp.
Bacon, David. "Globalization: Two Faces, Both Ugly." Dollars & Sense; 3/1/2000;
On the other hand there is another side to the vision of human life. There is the experience of human joy and happiness that also has to be taken into account. We find this side in works that resonate with color, joy conviviality and friendship. In this exhibition works by Renoir and Picasso have been selected to show this side of the human condition. In this context the famous painting by Renoir entitled, the Luncheon of the Boating Party portrays a very different sense of the human condition compared to that of Bacon. We also this sense of the gentleness and beauty of human life in Picasso's the Bathers.
Another artist who has much to say about the human condition is Giacometti. This famous sculptor portrays human being in terms existential searching and mystery. His sculptures refuse to comment directly on the human condition but leave us with a sense…
6. Picasso; "The bathers" ( 1918). Oil on canvas.
7. Giacometti: Standing Woman, bronze, 1959.
Hernando County and NCLB: Mandate for Drastic Change
The Hon. Ginny Brown-Waite
North Main Street
Hernando County's Current NCLB Situation
The Hernando County Situation in a Larger Context
National Commentary on NCLB
2004 Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) eport -District Level, Hernando
1004 Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) eport, Hernando
FCAT Grades and AYP Status, Hernando County Schools
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act has stamped modern American education with the mark of mediocrity. In mandating that all school districts in the nation live up to a set of standards or lose important Title 1 funding for their disadvantaged schools, and by imposing sanctions that are draconian in their effects, the federal government is imposing the will of Congress on the choices of parents. In addition, the dissonant requirement that states set their own standards creates disparity of a magnitude unimaginable before the federal government decided to intrude into this…
2004 Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) Report-District Level, Hernando. Retrieved June 18, 2004, from Florida Department of Education Web site: http://web.fldoe.org/NCLB/default.cfm
2004 Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) Report. Retrieved June 18, 2004 from Florida Department of Education Web site: http://web.fldoe.org/NCLB/default.cfm?action=report2&level=District&district=27 tough law deserves tough questions; Four Maryland elementary teachers examine the new "No Child Left Behind Act" and tell NEA Today exactly what they think. (April 2002) NEA Today, 20 (7), p. 14+. Retrieved June 18, 2004: www.questia.com.
Bacon, Deborah. (June 15, 2004) Seven county schools win A grades. Hernando Today. Retrieved June 18, 2004:
In short, I am eating too much of what is not beneficial, and not enough of what is. In order to address this problem, which could develop into a full-blown health crisis in a few years if I do nothing, I must make drastic changes to the way I eat. For example, one of my first goals must be to increase the amount of fruits and vegetables that I eat each day. According to Canada's Food Guide, my intake of fruits and vegetables should be roughly around 875 ML. I can achieve this goal by drinking 100% juices and eating more salads and leafy vegetables. Similarly, I must increase my amount of milk alternatives by drinking more milk and eating more cheese. Perhaps I can limit my intake of diet soda, replacing it with milk. By changing these eating habits, I will achieve to meet more of the recommendations of…
"Canada's Food Guide." Health Canada. (2007). The Canadian Government. 9 July 2008. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/food-guide-aliment/order-commander/eating_well_bien_manger-eng.php#2 .
Hidgon, Jane. "Vitamin C Deficiency." Micronutrient Information Center. (2006).
Oregon State University. 9 July, 2008. http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/vitamins/vitaminC/
Enker, Warren. "Bowel Function and Dietary Fiber." Continuum Health Partners. (n.d.).
However, the as does not mention any scars so the mutilation of her left hand could have been the result of an accident instead of intentional infliction of pain. Finally, since she was of mix blood, the ad mentioned that she may try to pass herself as a free woman, and therefore, she must have had many white features. Since she may have tried to get to friends for help, it can be assumed that escaping from slavery was a very difficult endeavor without aid from others.
Case #4 Virginia Gazette (Rind), Williamsburg, August 8, 1771
It was on April 1st 1771 that a slave named Jenny ran away from her master Edmund Bacon. Five months later Mr. Bacon took out an ad in the paper announcing that he would pay for her return. She was 23 years old, 5 feet 4 or 5 inches tall, and had at least…