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Ballet NYC - Histoy and Mission
The Histoy and Mission of the New Yok City Ballet
Edga Degas's painting, entitled Dance Class at the Opea, shows fou women dessed in beautiful, almost etheeal looking ballet desses, complete with sashes at the waist and pefect buns.
Some of the women ae waiting and othes ae pepaing fo what the viewe believes, will be a fantastic pogam. Degas was able to potay movement, passion, and the belief that the balleinas wee pepaing fo something in such a distinctive, yet pesuasive way, that the viewe can't help but be pulled into the painting. This is often the case with ballet, a fom of at, of dance, unpaalleled by othes, yet studied by many. The gace, discipline and pain that come with ballet ae not only studied, but should be admied as well. As a shot intoduction to ballet, this pape will focus on…
references in this paragraph taken from: "Why Do We Need a Mission Statement?" BoardSource: Build Effective Nonprofit Boards of Directors through Good Governance. Web. 17 Nov. 2011. .
American-born choreographers and dancers also added to the development of American ballet. "Choreographers such as Ruth Page, Agnes de Mille, and Jerome Robbins created dances to specifically American themes. American dancers who have gained fame in the 1900's include Maria Tallchief, Suzanne Farrell, Cynthia Gregory, Edward Villella, and Arthur Mitchell" (Ballet History, 2006).
Ballet became firmly established in Australia in the early 1900's soon after visits by the ballerinas Adeline Genee of Denmark and Anna Pavlova of Russia. Pavlova was the one in particular that inspired Misha Burlakov and Louise Lightfoot to found the first Australian Ballet Company. Many dancers who visited Australia while touring stayed on to form companies of their own. The best known include: Helene Kirsova, Edouard Borovansky, and the Austrian-born Gertrud Bodenwieser. The Australian Ballet opened in November 1962 for its first season. Among the most famous people linked with the company are Sir Robert Helpmann,…
20th Century Ballet. (2006). Retrieved August 30, 2009, from Web site:
Ballet History. (2006). Retrieved August 30, 2009, from Dance 4it.com Web site:
By being able to do so -- by actually doing so -- he also changed the role of ballet in society and the role of classical male dancers in society. This change was certainly not an enormous one, but in the context of gender relations and the role of high art in society during his lifetime, it was startling (amsay, 1995).
Audiences in Nijinsky's era rejected the legitimacy of masculinity in ballet; that is, they reject the possibility that true masculinity could ever be evident in the bodies of male dancers. Travesty performances, in which gender was treated with as much scorn and derision as race was in black-face performances (which come somewhat later than the travesty performances, but only just) were a society-wide affirmation that only certain gender expressions were acceptable and that the ones performed on the stage of classical dance would be considered acceptable to the audience…
Ramsay, B. (1995). The Male Dancer: Bodies, Spectacle, Sexualities. London: Routledge.
Garafola, L. (1989). Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. New York: Oxford University Press.
Garafola, L. (1999). "Reconfiguring the Sexes." The Ballets Russes and Its World. Lynn Garafola & Nancy Van Norman Baer. (Eds.) New Haven: Yale University Press.
Garafola, Lynn. "The Sexual Iconography of the Ballets Russes." Ballet Review 28.3(Fall 2000): 70-77.
Ballet Russe and Nijinsky influence the gendering of ballet? Consider both repertories and choreography.
Today, when the average individual thinks of dance, they quite often think of ballet. But if ballet itself is a cultural stereotype of what 'dance is,' the specific art form of ballet itself has a legion of cultural stereotypes attached to it. Legendary choreographic interpreters past and present have attempted to break such ballet cliches and stereotypes, with different degrees of success. But perhaps the greatest tradition breakers of ballet as an artistic form have come from the dances and dancers of the Ballet Ruse, such as Nijinsky.
Some of the stereotypes the Ballet Russe under the leadership of Nijinsky attempted to break were that ballet as a female art, conducted in a series of tightly constrained feminine steps, performed by dancers in highly recognizable dance costumes such as tutus, to conventional (then popular) strains of…
Jonas, Gerald. Dancing: The Pleasure, Power, and Art of Movement. New York: Harry
N. Abrams, Inc., 1992.
George Balanchine and Serge Diaghilev were similar and yet different in various ways. For instance, both were prominent figures in the 20th century: they worked together in the Ballets Russes for five years in the latter half of the 1920s; Balanchine was the choreographer and ballet master, Diaghilev the promoter. Diaghilev had staged works, too, and is regarded as a pioneer in the field -- uniting new music and modernist styles and tactics with the traditional ballet forms to bring a new spectacle to the stage -- works like The Rite of Spring, for instance, which was so controversial that it caused a fight to break out in the theater on the evening of its first performance (Kelly 293). Balanchine, on the other hand, was devoted more towards the art of dance: he opened schools and worked in New York and in Hollywood. He lived for dance, it could…
Fisher, Barbara. In Balanchine's Company. CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2006.
Kelly, Thomas. First Nights: Five Musical Premieres. CT: Yale University Press,
In the flower-drum dance, they performers used drums as they danced.
Most Chinese dances derived from "folks" or people who danced during celebrations in communities until the Han dynasty (WorkArtsWest 2005). In the Han era, a musical entertainment court would be established for the imperial court, documented and enhanced folk songs and dances. The political stability and economic prosperity that followed during the Tang dynasty allowed the growth and flourishing of poetry, music and dance between 618 and 907 AD. Dances in the Tang dynasty received past techniques from the Zhou, Qin, Han, Wei, Jin and Nanbei dynasties. Earlier in the rule of this dynasty, uddhism was introduced in China and trade broadened. As a consequence, social relationships expanded rapidly and dances were influenced by folk dances from other countries, like India, Rome, Persia, Korea, Cambodia, urma, Vietnam and other central Asian countries. It also merged with other fine art…
CCTV. Ballet in China. China.org.cn, 2005
Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the Republic of Finland. Dance. eGovChina.2005. http://www.chinaembassy_fi.org/eng/whys/e106246.htm
Howard, R. National Ballet of China Fuses Peking Opera Flair with Bland Western Choreography in "Red Lantern." San Francisco Chronicle, September 19, 2005. http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi ?
Serge Diaghilev and the Ballets Russes
Perhaps one of the greatest influences on Russian ballet was Serge Diaghilev, the impresario of the Ballets Russes from 1909 until his death in 1929. The Ballets Russes made an incredible impact on the world of ballet, spreading like wildfire from France to London, and later to America, and encompassing such legends as Nijinsky, Massine and Balanchine, as well as many other leading European composers and artists of the period. Thanks to Diaghiliv and his regisseur Serge Grigoriev, we now have the beauty of such ballets as Les Sylphides, The Firebird and Petrushka.
Serge Diaghilev was born of Russian nobility in Perm, Russia, on March 19, 1872. In 1890 his family moved to Saint Petersburg, and at the university there, Diaghilev was supposed to study law, but he soon became enamored with the arts and realized that was where his future lie. Shortly after…
Cochran, Alex. "Serge Pavlovich Diaghilev." An Interdisciplinary Study of St. Petersburg, 1855-1928 22 July 2002 http://webserver.rcds.rye.ny.us/id/Dance/Cochran/Cochran's%20Page.
Fowler, Jim and Caz Atkinson. "A Tribute to Serge Diaghilev." De MontFort University 27 October 1997. 22 July 2002 http://www.dmu.ac.uk/~jafowler/diaghil.html .
Fowler, Jim and Caz Atkinson. " A Tribute to Serge Grigoriev." De MontFort University 27 October 1997. 22 July 2002 http://www.dmu.ac.uk/~jafowler/grigori.html .
Souche, Estelle. "Diaghilev's Ballets Russes." Dance Pages 22 July 2002 http://www.cmi.univ-mrs.fr/~esouche/dance/dance1.html.
The desire to possess a perfect body causes the loss of control on eating habits and the development of a preoccupation with appearances is the result. "Once youngsters become aware of how they look it can become quite a consuming interest." (Anorexia linked to child dancers)
The study to establish any connection between childhood dancing and adult eating habits was conducted on five hundred and forty six women in the age group seventeen to fifty five. Each of the participants was questioned on their possibility of dancing in childhood. They also answered questionnaires that were designed to measure disordered eating habits, body image and any signs of depression. Just over one third of the participants answered in the positive regarding dancing during childhood. The results displayed the fact that those that had danced in their childhood showed a greater tendency for bulimic behavior and were more worried about their weight…
Abraham, S. (1996) "Characteristics of Eating Disorders Among Young Ballet Dancers." Psychopathology. Vol: 29; No: 4; pp: 223-9. Retrieved at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=8865353&dopt=AbstractAccessed on February 21, 2005
Anorexia linked to child dancers." BBC NEWS. UK Edition. Retrieved at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/4121221.stm . Accessed on February 20, 2005
Anshel, Mark H. (June 1, 2004) "Sources of disordered eating patterns between ballet dancers and non-dancers" Retrieved at http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/summary_0199-474742_ITM&referid=2090Accessed on February 21, 2005
Athletes: AAP outlines medical concerns for female athletes" Retrieved at http://www.caringonline.com/eatdis/topics/athletics.htm. Accessed on February 21, 2005
Dance is a way to express feelings and thoughts through movement. A recent matinee showing at the Ballet Hispanico demonstrated how culture and dance can merge to form a vehicle to communicate an instance, a feeling, and an experience. Founded by Tina Ramirez, a Venezuelan American choreographer and Dancer, Ballet Hispanico is a Manhattan based American dance company that presents dances reflective of Latino and Hispanic-American experiences since 1970. The company works with forty-five choreographers worldwide and has a repertoire of more than seventy-five works. Commissioning almost 80 works and having acquired eleven more, there is a distinct variety in the performances offered at the Ballet Hispanico.
The matinee showing that began April 5th, 2016, and ended April 10th, 2016 featured a performance called "CLUB HAVANA" that was choreographed by Pedro Rulz. Music was by several artists that included Perez Prado, Ruben Gonzalez, and Francisco Repilado. Showing all five days…
"Summer Intensive -- Ballet Hispanico." Ballethispanico.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 12 Apr. 2016.
Ballet Hispanico,. "Home -- Ballet Hispanico." Ballethispanico.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 12 Apr. 2016.
Nutcracker allet by Tchaikovsky is in the fairy tale genre in the classical ballet type. The overall theme of Act One, Scene One of the ballet is to set the stage of the story: it is Christmas time and the Christmas tree is being decorated. The characters are happy and joyous and looking forward to their time together. The music is crisp and engaging. The characters move about and dance with a gentleness that makes everything seem small and familial and intimate and close. The basic dance steps that are seen are the en pointe, the pirouette, the port de bras, and the saute. Each is simple and conveys a feeling of honest exuberance and happiness, and this is all in keeping with and consistent with the theme and mood setting by this opening scene. The mime and pantomime movements are also there to be seen and help to indicate…
Goode, D. (2011). The Story of the Nutcracker Ballet. NY: Random House.
Hoffmann, E. T. (2015). The Nutcracker. NY: Bollinger.
Rite of Spring - Vaslav Nijinsky & Igov Stravinsky
In what ways has The Rite of Spring laid the foundations for postmodernism in art, music, and dance?
The Rite of Spring by Igor Stravinsky, choreographed by Vaslav Nijinsky, laid the foundations of postmodernism in art, music and dance by promoting the ideas rooted in Kant and Nietzsche -- namely that truth exists not as an objective reality but rather as a construct of the mind -- a subjective, internalization of externalities (Knight 89). Postmodernism in the 20th century was essentially a reaction to the modernism of the 19th century and modernism's elevated belief in Reason, based on Enlightenment ideology which came about as a result of the Scientific Revolution and Protestant Reformation in Europe. The postmodernist reaction to the inheritors of the Enlightenment was to elevate irrationality and absurdity -- the idea that human beings, far from using Reason, very…
Buckle, Richard. Nijinsky. UK: Trinity Press, 1971. Print.
Griffin, G. Edward. The Creature from Jekyll Island. NY: Amer Media, 1998. Print.
Hans Richter. Dada: Art and Anti-Art. NY: Thames and Hudson, 1997. Print.
Hewett, Ivan. "The Rite of Spring 1913: Why did it provoke a riot?" Telegraph, 16
omantic era began in the late eighteenth century as a reaction against the Age of Enlightenment and was a period of great change and emancipation. The movement started as an artistic and intellectual reaction against aristocratic social and political norms of the Enlightenment and against the scientific rationalization of nature. During the Enlightenment literature and art were primarily created for the elite, upper classes and educated, and the language incorporated in these works was highly poetic, completely different from that spoken by the masses. Artists of the omantic era accessed the ballads and folklore that was familiar to commoners, rather than from the literary works popular with the aristocracy. This shift in emphasis was most strongly manifested in the visual arts, music, and literature. This was the beginning of a period of artistic freedom, experimentation, and creativity. The movement stressed strong emotion, imagination, freedom from classical correctness in art forms,…
Constable, J. (1821). The hay wain. [Painting] The national gallery. Retrieved January 6, 2012, from http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/john-constable-the-hay-wain
Kartha, Deepa. (2010). Romanticism: Chariteristics of romanticism. Buzzle.com. Retrieved January 6, 2012, from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/romanticism-characteristics-of-romanticism.html
Nourrit, A. (1832). La Sylphide. Ballet encyclopedia. Retrieved January 6, 2012, from http://www.the-ballet.com/sylphide.php
Shelley, P.B. (1820). The Question. About. Com A Today. USATODAY.com. Retrieved January 6, 2012, from http://classiclit.about.com/library/bl-etexts/pshelley/bl-pshel-question.htm
Mode Assessment: Case Study
Situation: allet Class
Where did you observe the class/children?
The children were practicing in a large dancing hall of a private ballet school when I had the chance to observe them. The walls were adorned with large mirrors while the students were practicing; this was the case for both, the regular sessions as well as for special events
What ages were the children you observed?
The ages of the group ranged from 4 to 10 years.
Were there adults present in the observations? (If so what was their role?)
The adults were present in the class room. The class, taken on a weekly basis, provides development for children in a social and creative environment. The presence of adults with children guides the young guns to develop coordination and motor skills and also create a relationship between the two by making them spend time together through dancing.…
Brotherson, S. (2009). What Young Children Learn Through Play. North Dakota: NDSU. Retrieved from: http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/yf/famsci/fs1430.pdf
CBTS401. (2015). The Role of the Adult: Adult Learner Relationships. Royal Academy of Dance.
CBTS403. (2015). Observation for Teaching. Royal Academy of Dance.
Fisher J. 2013 The Role of the Adult: Optimizing practitioners' time with children. Starting from the child: Teaching and Learning from 4-8. Fourth Edition. Buckingham: Open University Press, 72-93.
Balanchine to Petipa
George Balanchine was born in the year 1904. He was invited to come over the United States of America by Lincoln Kirstein, in the year 1933, and subsequently, Balanchine arrived in America in the month of October 1933. One of the very first things that Balanchine is reputed to have done after his arrival in the United States, was to found the 'School of American Ballet', which opened in the year 1934, with a class of twenty five students. It must be stated here that although Balanchine and Kirstein made several attempts through many years to start a Company, they did not succeed in their endeavor, but the School of American Ballet, however, has endured and remains intact, to this day. This was the Scholl through which Balanchine was able to present his very first ballet to the entire world, in America, which was named the 'Serenade'.…
Ballet Training Techniques. Retrieved From
http://www.the-ballet.com/techniques.php Accessed 15 October, 2005
Balustrade. Retrieved From
Denis and Michael enthall used the space for productions and actor training. From 1963 -- 76 it was the temporary home of the National Theatre of Great ritain (see Royal National Theatre). riefly closed due to funding cuts, it reopened in 1983. Again threatened by lack of funds, it was purchased and preserved by a charitable trust in 1998. In 2003 Sir Elton John became the theater's president, a restoration drive was organized, and the formation a new Old Vic company was announced. Directed by the American actor Kevin Spacey, the group is intended showcase new theatrical talent (Old Vic, 2003).
During the 1920s and '30s Lilian aylis put on all of Shakespeare's plays, opera, and ballet. She and her troop did it all on a shoe string: ginger beer crates made up the scenery, and the casts were so poorly paid that Lilian often made dinner for them…
Coloson, P. (2006). Georgian Portraits. Read Books.
Lilian Baylis. (n.d.). Retrieved April 8, 2009, from absolute astronomy: http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Lilian_Baylis
Old Vic. (2003, March 16). Retrieved April 8, 2009, from Everything2: http://everything2.com/title/Old%2520Vic
Thorndike, S. & . (1990). Lilian Baylis. Taylor & Francis.
Because her career did not end when she could no longer perform, she is a model for lifelong achievement and growth as well. She chose her career, not because she wanted to be famous, but because she loved dancing for its own sake. This is a message for any young person about to embark on a career. Don't choose a job on the basis of what it pays.
Like Suzanne Farrell, choose what you love to do most, rather than a job that promises money and/or fame.
Often what we love doing the most appears in some form in childhood. Farrell, for example, loved to play dress-up with her sisters and put on shows when she was child -- an activity that led eventually to the ballet and stage.
She started taking ballet lessons when she was a child, but because she had never been exposed to ballet, she had…
The growing dominance of the bourgeois class and the growing economic discontent in the society combined to create the atmosphere of dissatisfaction and conflict that eventually led to the development and declaration of the French Revolution.
King Louis XVI's passion for ballet dancing paved the way for ballet to thrive, develop and become rampant during his reign in the late 17th century. Under the leadership of Louis XVI's, ballet was institutionalized not only as an art form, but also as a profession. Moreover, during this period, ballet became a profession and art form no longer dominated by males, but also by females. It was also during this period that the comedie ballet became a popular form of ballet dance, particularly performed in Louis XVI's court ballet.
One of the most distinct characteristics of the Age of Enlightenment from other social and cultural movements that occurred in the history of humanity…
The "self-portraits" might perhaps be viewed in terms of the artist's own past illnesses: At 37, Taylor-Woods, having already survived both colon cancer and breast cancer, likely understands, on personal level, the state of "suspense" between sickness and health, life and death. he may, then, have been "bound" to breast cancer (the invisible ropes may symbolize the disease), cured of it, and her body "released to freedom." In my opinion, however, an artistic weakness of these pictures is that their esthetics and size make them look less like serious art than fashion advertisements for bras and panties! For me, "elf-Portrait uspended" is the least effective of the three exhibition subjects. The tension in the subject's body also appears to be that of someone hanging from ropes (which she in fact was); the tautness of her body kept me from "suspending my disbelief" (so to speak) that she was hanging in…
Sam Taylor-Wood: New Work: 29 October - 4 December 2004. Retrieved January 5, 2005 from http:www.artshole.co.uk/exhibitions/Oct%2005/Sam%TaylorWood htm>.
Sam Taylor-Wood: 'New Work' Art Exhibition at White Cube." Ballet-Dance
Magazine. Retrieved January 4, 2005 from http://www.ballet-dance.com/200412/articles/TaylorWood20041100.html
Jerome Robbins: Something to Dance About
Judy Kinberg's 2009 motion picture Jerome Robbins: Something to Dance About provides a view into the life of a person who played a significant role in the twentieth century's art movement. Jerome Robbins used his mastery to make Broadway musicals much more intriguing and choreographed some of the world's greatest ballet dancers. The film uses a great deal of resources with the purpose of providing viewers with a complex understanding of the artist's life. Things like personal journals, confessions from witnesses that interacted with Robbins (some of them were close to him), and videos showing his performances all come together in painting a picture of the artist.
It would be safe to say that Robbins changed the way that many people perceived dance and music. His involvement in the industry provided these people with a completely new point-of-view on the domain and made it…
Besides other awards, he was given a special Congressional Gold Medal by the United States Congress in 1986-87. Copland left an endowment from his estate to a Fund for Composers, which gives $600,000/annum to promote new compositions and performances (Congressional Gold Medial eceipients; Trudeau; Pollack, 548; ockwell).
Copland was an active composer of numerous genres from 1925 to the mid-1960s. His works expressed a new semblance of Americana so easily identifiable that even when performed by foreign orchestras there is a sense of the pioneer days, of American patriotism, and even retelling of American mythology. A few seminal examples of this are:
Fanfare for the Common Man was written in 1942 for the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra and was inspired by a speech by Vice-President Henry Wallace called the era the "Centruy of the Common Man." The piece was part of a program supoprting the American entry into World…
"Congressional Gold Medial Receipients." 23 September 1986. artandhistory.house.gov. .
Copland, a. Aaron Copland: Selected Writings: 1923-1972. Ed. R. Kostelanetz. New York: Routledge, 2004.
-- . "Day and Night: Aaron Copland." March 1975. Youtube.com. .
-- . "Fanfare for the Common Man." June 2001. YouTube. .
hen in Rome
The film hen in Rome deals with a young woman has lived a fairly sheltered life and has had limited experience with relationships. The romances she has had have made her feel that love and romance are unimportant in her existence. This changes when she goes to Rome for her sister's wedding and meets her love interest. The male character proves to be Beth's ideal partner. However, since this film is clearly in the genre of romantic comedy, there has to be complication which separates the would-be lovers. In this case, Beth (Kristen Bell) becomes angry when she sees Nick (Josh Duhammel) kissing a woman after they have had encounters indicating mutual attraction. So, she takes several coins out of the Fountain of Love which mythology states will make the owners of the chips fall in love with her. As it turns out, there were several…
Impressions. Perf. Alvin Alley Dance Theater, 2009.
Losing Isaiah. Dir. Stephen Gyllenhaal. Perf. Jessica Lange and Halle Berry. Paramount, 1995.
When in Rome. Dir. Mark S. Johnson. Perf. Kristen Bell and Josh Duhamel. Touchstone, 2010.
Taking this into consideration, formalist films always try to come up with the idea that are merely personal imaginations, and events in the film are practically impossible in real life situations. Due to this, the style used in formalist films is usually very high. Its editing is sharp for the purpose of reminding the audience that it is merely a work of an artist. Formalist films always have a deeper and symbolic meaning which only the film elite can understand it. These are audiences who have adequate knowledge of evaluating a film in order to get its meaning.
Andrew, Dudley. The Major Film Theories: An Introduction. London: Oxford University Press, 1976. Print.
Braudy, L & Cohen, M. " Eisenstein, Sergei" The Dramaturgy of Film Form (The Dialectical Approach to Film Form). Film Theory and Criticism: Introductory eadings. By. New York: Oxford UP, 2009. 24-40. Print.
Braudy, L & Cohen,…
Andrew, Dudley. The Major Film Theories: An Introduction. London: Oxford University Press, 1976. Print.
Braudy, L & Cohen, M. " Eisenstein, Sergei" The Dramaturgy of Film Form (The Dialectical Approach to Film Form). Film Theory and Criticism: Introductory Readings. By. New York: Oxford UP, 2009. 24-40. Print.
Braudy, L & Cohen, M." Pudovkin, Vsevolod." Film Theory and Criticism: Introductory Readings. New York: Oxford UP, 2009. 7-12. Print.
Braudy, L & Cohen, M. " Balasz, Bela" Film Theory and Criticism: Introductory Readings. New York: Oxford UP, 2009. 273-81. Print.
It is for this reason that I am renewing my application to your institution.
One of INSEAD's most attractive qualities is the internationalism of its student body and its curriculum. I have visited other campuses and programs, and though international communities and thought patterns are nominally represented, neither students, faculty, nor alumni were as connected to the international community as I feel is necessary for a truly effective education in today's business climate. Real estate is a global business, and I intend to pursue it as such -- with all of the responsibilities and opportunities that this entails. INSEAD's program will help me build international contacts and find opportunities outside of my native France, making me a more effective and a more well-rounded individual.
I have already begun to shift towards this international perspective, but I lack the experience and the managerial knowledge and skills that would enable me to…
SOCIOLOGICAL TERMS (Terms in Italics)
Varsity Jackets, Subcultures, and the Function of Sports in Society
In sociological terms, the varsity letter jackets worn by the students would be considered status symbols because they have specific social connotations that correspond to achievements that are valued by the group. They represent group identity in high school based on membership in sports teams. In many cases, sports teams also feature subcultures in which group norms and values are used by members of the group to maintain a degree of exclusivity to membership in their group as well; in the high school setting, these would typically be referred to as cliques.
In general, competitive sports can be viewed from the structural-functional sociological approach or from the symbolic-interaction approach. In the former, sports would be viewed primarily in connection with their functions, such as a means through which participants maintain physical fitness or pursue enjoyment;…
combined music "arts" create a "combined" product. Use specific examples "e-book," website resources, web research, reading, . support discussion. Include discussion program music, opera, ballet, musical theater, music -western cultures.
Music in connection to other domains
Individuals in the Middle Ages observed that music was appreciated to a larger degree when it was combined with other artistic elements. Minstrels often travelled from town to town and provided the masses with a wide artistic diversity, ranging from singing to juggling, and sometimes doing both concomitantly in an attempt to win the audience's hearts. Music played an important role in performing a series of activities, as it contributed to influencing people that they were transported to a whole new environment where beauty dominated the mind of every individual.
Music was most probably strongest connected to writing during the Middle Ages, as the fact that writing was not wide spread played an important…
Bonds, Evan, "Listen to this," (Prentice Hall, 24.09.2010)
Obasan, Oppression, & emembrance
Children whose parents survived the Holocaust often report that their parents spent their entire lives attempting to conceal the fact that they were persecuted, had narrow escapes, and -- for many survivors -- were interred in concentration camps. The desire to protect their children from the horrors they experienced is certainly one of the reasons that survivors give for their silence. But their silence also enables them to keep their fears, anxieties, and regrets at bay, at least for those brief periods of time when forgetting has its intended effect. In effect, the reluctance of survivors to remember puts up a barrier that neither generation can easily cross -- not the generation of survivors, who have grown old in the years that have passed since World War II, and not the generation of children who have managed not to ask too many questions or follow their…
Goellnict, DC Tulsa Minority History as Metafiction: Joy Kogawa's Obasan. Reviewed work. Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature, Vol. 8, No. 2 (Autumn, 1989), 287-306.
Kogawa, "The Penelope Work of Forgetting:' Dreams, Memory, and the Recovery of Wholeness in Joy." Rufus Cook, Reviewer. College Literature, Vol. 34, No. 3 (Summer, 2007), 54-69.
Ueki, T "Obasan: Revelations in a Paradoxical Scheme" Reviewed work. MELUS, Vol. 18, No. 4, Asian Perspectives (Winter, 1993), 5-20.
Since his first dance routine more than half a century ago, Paul Taylor has become one of the world's most popular and respected choreographers. His works are performed by companies throughout the globe. Taylor has created more than 150 dance pieces. His style is unique and he is often seen as a distinctly American artist.
critics and audiences all over the world agree that Taylor is a giant among modern dance choreographers. He has developed what is very much his own style of dance -- a style that celebrates vigor, athleticism and strength -- making Taylor, in a very special sense, an American choreographer. (iography of Paul Taylor)
Taylor has been responsible for the choreography of more than ninety performances with his own company, which has a distinguished history. The company has also performed in more than 300 cites in the United States, as well as performances in…
Bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1996.
Greskovic, Robert. "Field of Dreams." Dance Magazine Feb. 1994: 138+. Questia. 10 Feb. 2005 http://www.questia.com
Hardy, Camille. "Quality Comes First in Second Companies." Dance Magazine Nov. 1995: 70+. Questia. 10 Feb. 2005
Le Grand Hautbois
During the reign of Louis XIII and especially Louis XIV, the courts were alive with new Baroque music and instruments. Many new wind instruments were being created with a variety of innovations and some other instruments were being newly invented. It was a time of experimentation, as these just introduced instruments had to be tried out for their range, sound and quality. Louis XIV from his childhood on throughout his life was always surrounded by music. He and musicians such as Lully would create ballets and compositions (Palisca 1968). During this time, King Louis XIV also revived and updated Le Grand Hautbois with the new instruments. Although little is written about Le Grand Hautbois, with Whitwell the compiler of the information that is available from writers during that period, this does not negate the importance of this twelve-player band to the French royal court and other European…
Anthony, James. French Baroque Music. New York: W.W. Norton, 1974
Bernard, Leon. The Emerging City: Paris in the Age of Louis XIV. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1970
Blunt, Anthony Art and Architecture in France 1500 to 1700. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1980
Buelow, George. History of baroque music. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004
Stravinsky fountain is near the George Pompidou Centre, called the most Avante Garde building in the world. The Pompidou Centre is named after Georges Pompidou, a French president who hoped that Paris would have a center so that people could join together and admire all types of art, including sculptures. The Centre was created in 1977.
The Stravinsky Fountain or La Fountaine Stravinsky, faces the southern side of the Centre. It is located just over the center's music department. The fountain is a humorous and whimsical depiction of Stravinsky's compositions. Artists Jean Tinguely and Niki de Saint-Phale created the sculptures in the fountain in 1983. In all, 16 sculptures make up the fountain.
The fountain represents Stravinsky's work and composition style. Some of his work was represented by his mentor, Rimsky-Korsakov. His music was traditionally very straightforward and to the point. Some of tones were dull. A classification of his…
Fisher, Teresa. Paris. Florida: AAA Publishing, 2000,-page 127.
Frank, Jeff. Sculptor Niki de Saint Phalle dies a 71. NC Times. May 23, 2002
Jill, Johnston. The Cyclops of Fountainebleau. Art in America; New York. June 1996.
Niki de Saint Phalle, 1930-2002. Art in America. New York; Jul 2002.
Black Swan: A Study in Hollywood Psychology
The film Black Swan was noteworthy in the way it explored the dark side of ballet, including eating disorders, psychological manipulation, and how the pressures of achieving perfection can wreak havoc with the developing psyche of a young woman. The central protagonist Nina is a rising star in a prestigious city ballet company. She is given the task of dancing the lead role of Swan Lake. This is one of the most technically and emotionally demanding of all roles in ballet. The White Swan Odette, is supposed to embody purity, while the Black Swan Odile, embodies all that Odette is not and thus temporarily seduces the prince and the audience with her sexuality and bravado. Nina is told early on in the film by the ballet company director that while she is technically proficient she lacks the qualities needed to embody the Black…
Igor Stravinsky is one of the greatest composers in history. The purpose of this discussion is to provide basic biographical information and important musical contributions of the subject. In addition there will be a reaction to one of his musical works.
Igor Stravinsky was born in 1882 in Oranienbaum, ussia. Stravinsky's father was a bass player with the St. Petersburg Opera house and Stravinsky was exposed to music at an early age. In his autobiography Stravinsky writes that one of his first memories of music was women singing in his village. He recalls hearing them singing in unison as they walked home. Stravinsky also states that he would imitate their voices and was complimented on how accurate an ear he had for music. He writes of this experience,
To this day I clearly remember the tune, and the way they sang it, and how, when I used to…
Igor Stravinsky," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2003
http://encarta.msn.com© 1997-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
Berceuse (Lullaby). Igor Stravinsky. The Rite of Spring/Firebird (1997). Naxos Music Label. http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=91062670
Haimo, E., & Johnson, P. (Eds.). (1987). Stravinsky Retrospectives. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
" This he maintained was the highest honor he could claim. " (Seroff, 1956, 113)
Some of the melodies that Claude Achille Debussy created for example the C'est l'Extase' -- based on the ninths and series of common chords has continuous modulations which are embedded with a lot of changing tones and may have been symbolic of a breeze and the sounds of small voices. Like wise the use of rhythmic characteristics and melody in 'Spleen' is like Chabrier the 'L'Ombre des Arbres' which modulates differently. This was at that time a very daring attempt in music during the 1880's. The performance of La Damoiselle Elue' by the Societe Nationale, was conducted by Gabriel Marie competed by the works of Paul Dukas - Overture to 'Polyeucte', Raymond onheur, 'Iris', and many by Paul Fournier; Ernest Chausson 'Poeme de l'Amour et de la Mer', Pierre de reville 'Medeia', Henri Duparc 'Phidyle'.…
Bruhn, Siglind. Images and Ideas in Modern French Piano Music: The Extra-Musical
Subtext in Piano Works Ravel, Debussy, and Messiaen. Pendragon Press: Stuyvesant, NY, 1997.
Cortot, Alfred. French Piano Music. Oxford University Press:
Unfortunately, I could not hear any sound from my right ear even with the help of hearing aid. For this reason, I used my right ear for the cochlear implant. My right ear had been sleeping for 28 years until the cochlear implant woke it up on September 19th, 2002" ("FAQ," Heather hitestone ebpage, 2010). Heather writes on her webpage that she strongly supports implants for children and decided to have one as an adult so she could hear the voices of her two young sons.
hitestone was not only "the first deaf Miss America; in fact, she was the first Miss America with a physical disability of any kind" ("Heather hitestone," Alabama, 2003). She and continues to come fire because of her public and vocal support of acoupedics and orally-based deaf education. Today, hitestone lives in Alabama, raising her children. hitestone married a hearing man, John McCallum, an aide…
"FAQ." Heather Whitestone. Official Webpage. February 23, 2010.
"Heather Whitestone." Alabama. 2003. February 23, 2010.
Arrival and Intercession by the Firebird
The Firebird flies in, typified by high and rapid notes, as he arrives, followed by his pleading, a sweet singing and an obvious pleading and intercession on the part of Prince Ivan.
Dance of Kastchei's etinue, Enchanted by the Firebird
As all are enchanted by the Firebird, they dance and respond to his fiery brilliance, depicted by trills and arpeggios.
King Kastchei's Infernal Dance by All his Subjects
One can hear the tromping and panting of the subjects as they dance faster and faster in response to the Firebird. The music becomes more and more rapid and sweet, yet is interrupted by loud beats of percussion and phrases of increasing threats.
This part of the music is slow and rhythmical, putting one to sleep, as if one were drifting on a slow tide out to sea. The sweet melody is truly a beautiful…
Last.Fm. 2008. Igor Stravinsky, the Firebird, Listen Free at Last.FM. (Entire track of Igor Stravinsky's the Firebird). Retrieved November 18, 2008 at http://www.last.fm/music/Igor+Stravinsky/the+Firebird .
Sherrane, Robert. 2007. Igor Stravinsky. Music History 102: A guide to western composers and their music. New York, NY: Julliard School.
Shoemaker, Paul. 2005. Igor Stravinsky, the Firebird Review, Music Web International. Retrieved November 18, 2008 at http://www.musicweb-international.com/classrev/2005/Sep05/stravinsky_firebird_6110081.htm .
Stravinsky, Igor. 2000. The Firebird (Original 1910 Version). (Score). New York, NY: Dover Miniature Series.
oreover, they work well with solo dance moves (which is why they worked out so well for Beyonce. Thus I would describe De Keersmacker's work as timeless, "avant-garde" (Gardner, 2011) ballet that pushes the envelope.
A.3. It is difficult to pinpoint specific themes in the choreography of De Keersmaker. The Choreographer herself admitted that she dislikes themes and tries to eschew them from her work (Jenkinson, 2009). Therefore, if one were to explore the lack of themes in the choreographer's work, they would revolve around innovation and novelty. She incorporates a wide variety of media within her choreographed pieces, such as varying elements of sound (both musical and otherwise), text and different varieties of light. She also sings along to her songs (Williams, 2003).
A.4. The main way that this choreographer's work is influencing larger society is through the form of flattery known as imitation. Beyonce's lifting of several of…
Macaulay, Alastair. "In Dance, Borrowing is a Tradition." The New York Times. 2011. Web. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/22/arts/dance/is-beyonce-a-choreography-thief-in-countdown.html?ref=anneteresadekeersmaeker&_r=0
Williams, Ann. "Rosas - Anne Teresa De Keersmaeker'Once'." Ballet Magazine. 2003. Web. http://www.ballet.co.uk/magazines/yr_03/nov03/aw_rev_anne_teresa_de_keersmaeker_1003.htm
Rosas Danst Rosas Anne Teresa de Keersmaeker 3. 2010. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zS_kWttptS4
The piano plays quick octaves and the urgent bass motive portrays an intense wild ride. This strong galloping is also being formulated by the piano's triplet rhythm which allows for the development of the dramatic storyline's urgency.
5. ) There are four different characters in this piece: the Narrator, the father, the son, and the Erlkonig. Although Schubert uses one singer to portray and sing all of the four parts of the characters, the listener is able to quite clearly differentiate them from one another. The son is sung in the high register in a minor key with dissonant harmonies. On the other hand, the father is sung in low register while the Erlkonig is sung in a coy with pleasant and soft melodies in the major key.
6. ) There are two ways that Schubert builds momentum in his piece. The first way is by using the bass as…
Kamien, R. (2010). Music: An appreciation, brief edition. (7th ed. ). New York: McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages.
Michael Bennet-What makes him unique
Michael Bennett was born in 1943 under the full name of Michael Bennett DiFiglia. He was devoted to the theater and over the course of his life was a dancer, choreographer and director; before succumbing to AIDS complications at 44 years old. His unique style was his legacy to Broadway -- particularly regarding Musical Theater.
Musical theater has a rich and storied history; dating back centuries. First conceived as "narration with song and dance incorporated"; it was meant to glorify beautiful females, dancers, singers and the occasional comedian (eynolds, 882). Broadway Musicals were not always successful; but dance continued to be integral and professionals of all genres fell under the purview of the choreographer (eynolds 693).
By the 1970s the cost of staging a Broadway show was exorbitant. It was often decided to pare back dancing and choreography as a means of saving money (Clark).…
Clark, Daryl Kent. "Michael Bennett: A Singular Sensation,." 100 Treasures - Michael Bennett. Dance Heritage Coalition, Jan. 2012. Web. 26 Feb. 2014. From http://www.danceheritage.org/treasures/bennett_essay_clark.pdf
Cerasaro, P. 2013 Tony Awards Clip Countdown: #7 - Michael Bennett Masterpieces. 2013. Web. 8 Feb. 2014. http://www.broadwayworld.com/article/2013-Tony-Awards-Clip-Countdown-7-Michael-Bennett-Masterpieces-20130603
Cohen, Selma J., and Dance Perspective Foundation, eds. "Musical Theater."International Encyclopedia of Dance. Oxford: Oxford University, 2005. Online.
Dietz, Dan. Off Broadway Musicals, 1910-2007: Casts, Credits, Songs, Critical Reception and Performance Data of More than 1,800 Shows. Jefferson, NC: McFarland &, 2010. Print.
The machines were used to create vertical and horizontal movements which had not been done before. In other words, a god could be pictured using the machine as floating down onto the stage, or boats moving across it. Night or dawn could appear, or ghosts (Lawrenson 92). Most of these machine-plays were produced at the Theatre du Marais. There is a difference here, too. The French machine plays reached the public, whereas the English masques of the early century were performed mainly for royalty. Certainly the stage sets for court ballets and opera were more elaborate and special than the public designs since they were subsidized by the royal coffers.
Both English and French theatre took over the new Italian techniques for changing scenery. The French theatre abandoned triangular prisms used in conjunction with painted backdrops. At the beginning, these were painted simultaneously and dropped over or pulled back to…
I especially appreciate the opportunity to place musical compositions and composers within a historical context. Placing music within a historical context illuminates some of the variables that characterize a piece like "ite of Spring." Understanding the cultural, political, and military events taking place during the composer's lifetime is essential to understanding the music. Although analyzing classical pieces can prove difficult because of shifting time signatures, counterpoint, and layering of sounds, I am now much more able to distinguish between different styles and composers. The course content has awoken my mind and my ears to rhythms and melodies and I look forward to exploring Western classical music more in-depth. For example, pieces like "ite of Spring" have made their way into movies and therefore continue to have an impact on musical culture.
Alsop, M. (2008). "Getting Hooked on the 'ite' Sound." NP MUSIC. etrieved Dec 19, 2008 at http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=9041627
Alsop, M. (2008). "Getting Hooked on the 'Rite' Sound." NPR MUSIC. Retrieved Dec 19, 2008 at http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=9041627
Kelly, T. (1999). "Igor Stravinsky's "The Rite of Spring." NPR Online. Retrieved Dec 19, 2008 from Igor Stravinsky's "The Rite of Spring"
Revolutions in Music: Stravinsky's Rite of Spring." (2006). PBS.org. Retrieved Dec 19, 2008 at http://www.pbs.org/keepingscore/topicfeature2.html
Thomas, M.T. (2006). "Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring." San Francisco Symphony. Retrieved Dec 19, 2008 at http://www.keepingscore.org/flash/stravinsky/index.html
Dancing appears glamorous, easy, delightful. But the path to the paradise of the achievement is no easier than any other. There is fatigue so great that the body cries, even in sleep. There are times of complete frustration; there are daily small deaths. (Graham).
Are there ever any outstanding artists who create a new style or have a completely different vision of expression who are not compulsive, driven and somewhat disturbed? Or, is it actually these personal characteristics that make them become geniuses? Some of the stories related about the great dance innovator Martha Graham's impatience, anger, and obsessive personality are disquieting. Yet she was one of the most important individuals in Western art. As noted in an article by Porterfield about Graham's contribution: "(she) was to dance what Picasso was to painting and Joyce was to literature. One of the most influential dancers, choreographers and teachers of…
Bannerman, Henrietta. Overview of the Development of Martha Graham's Movement System. Dance Research, 17(2),Winter 1999.
Campbell, Mary. "An American Original." Dance Magazine. March, 1999.
Cohen, Selma Jeanne (Ed). Dance as a Theater Art. Princeton, NJ: Dance Horizons, 1992.
Daily Worker. "Graham Interprets Democracy." 7 October 1938.
Dance: If someone from a different planet were to come to earth, how would you describe to that being what dance is, how it fits into societies, what it means to both you and others in the world, and what role it plays in your lives?
Perhaps dance might not seem, on its surface, to be the easiest thing to describe to a visitor from another planet, who has come to earth to learn about our world's culture partly by studying dance. Earth is, by and large, an intensely verbal society and to overemphasize dance might seem to belie this fact. But dance is also universal, unlike language -- therefore the visitor may have chosen wisely in his or her subject choice. In fact, using dance to describe this world's society can be quite powerful, because dance as individual, collective, and performance-based movement is a way to transcend some of…
Jonas, Gerald. Dancing: The Pleasure, Power, and Art of Movement. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1992.
According to Joan Myers Brown, the founder of the Philadanco, her most favorite part of the Xmas Philes is the part about Silent Night, because of the settings, and the somber music, which make her want to actually sleep in Heavenly peace. The play is a renowned success, and it is hoped that this versatile group of African-American dancers would soon be performing in another play produced by the Philadelphia Dance Company. (Xmas Philes)
About Dance Advance Dance History, 1999. etrieved at http://www.danceadvance.org/01about/index.html. Accessed 4 November 2005
Ballet is a Cracker of a show. etrieved at http://www.bbc.co.uk/devon/stage/reviews/nutcracker.shtml. Accessed 4 November 2005
Baylin Artists Management, the Philadelphia Dance Company. etrieved at http://www.baylinartists.com/philadanco.htm. Accessed 4 November 2005
Dunbar, obert. Arts and Entertainment, Performance, A List. etrieved at http://www.philadelphiaweekly.com/view.php?id=1192Accessed 5 November 2005
Kasrel, Deni. Fall Guide: Dance. 15-21 September, 2005. etrieved at http://*****/articles/2005-09-15/cover7.shtml. Accessed 5 November 2005
Kasrel, Deni. Holiday Meets Hollywood.…
About Dance Advance Dance History, 1999. Retrieved at http://www.danceadvance.org/01about/index.html . Accessed 4 November 2005
Ballet is a Cracker of a show. Retrieved at http://www.bbc.co.uk/devon/stage/reviews/nutcracker.shtml. Accessed 4 November 2005
Baylin Artists Management, the Philadelphia Dance Company. Retrieved at http://www.baylinartists.com/philadanco.htm . Accessed 4 November 2005
Dunbar, Robert. Arts and Entertainment, Performance, A List. Retrieved at http://www.philadelphiaweekly.com/view.php?id=1192Accessed 5 November 2005
Laban Movement Analysis Method (LMA) is a teaching method that is used for describing, interpreting, visualizing, and documenting human movement. The descriptive nature of the Laban approach is multidisciplinary, and it uses terminology and language from psychology, anatomy, medicine, and the study of muscle movement. In the contemporary world, it is used as a tool for athletes, therapists, actors, dancers, even anthropology, sociology and health and wellness systems.
What analysis did Rudolf Laban make in regards to movement? Movement for Laban is usually divided into categories of analysis: The Body (how the body connects), Effort (dynamics and energy required for movement); Shape, Space, the Mobility and Stability of the movement, Inner and Outer functions and expressions, and the amount of exertion or recuperation. Overall, Laban's analysis describes both the structure and characteristics of human movement. This analysis looks at the way each part of the body moves, which are connected,…
Constantin Stanislavsky is the father of modern acting theory. His theories which he extols in his four books, My Life in Art (1924), An Actor Prepares (1936), uilding a Character (1941), and Creating a Role (1961) have had an unparalleled effect on actors and acting instructors throughout the world. Acting theorists such as Vsevelod Meyerhold, Uta Hagen, and ertold recht have all taken his theories into account while developing their own. Indeed, entire movements in world drama have been in part inspired by the work of Stanislavsky.
ut what of his influence on Russia? During Stanislavsky's life and his career Russia went through many changes. Two major events in Russian history would determine the fate of theatre and as a result Stanislavsky. The first was the failed revolution in 1905. "The great rehearsal," Lenin called it and that's exactly what it was. The second major event was the 1917…
Staislavski, Constantin. An Actor Prepares. New York: Theatre Arts Books. 1936.
Brockett, Oscar G. The History of Theatre. Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon. 1991.
Meyerhold and Stanislavsky: Art and the Politics in the Russian Theatre." Russian Theatre Website. http://rutheater.home.att.net/stana.htm
Konstantin Sergeyevich Stanislavsky." King Norton Boys. http://www.kingnortonboys.bham.sch.uk/sujects/drama/pages/stanisl.pdf
CULTURAL Characteristic FOUR: Hospitality. An essential part of the Uzbek cultural heritage is hospitality. The country is located at the crossroads where trade routes pass through opening up the door to Central Asia. Many villages had oasis facilities and so caravans passing through would stop and use the hospitality of people in small villages where there was water, shade and rest. The "Silk Road" runs right through Uzbekistan. The hospitality that was shown to these caravans was in the form of safety from the dangers of the road, a place to sleep, food and water for the camels, hot tea, food, and graciousness, according to Central Asian Cultures.
The route through Uzbekistan is called the Silk Road because on many of the "complex overland routes gained their name from the most famous of luxury items" to pass through -- and that was silk (www.centralasiacultures.com/silkroad). It was not just silk…
Adams, Laura L. (1999). Invention, Institutionalization and Renewal in Uzbekistan's National
Culture. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 2(3), 355-373.
Central Asia Cultures. (2010). Uzbekistan -- Uzbek Culture, Customs and Traditions. Retrieved June 4, 2010, from http://www.centralasiacultures.com/uzbekistan .
Djumaev, Alexander. (2005). Musical Heritage and National Identity in Uzbekistan.
These pastel-colored etches influenced Degas' late-life paintings. Those were characterized by women frequently engaged in some type of grooming, such as bathing. Rather than the tightly-structured lines of his earlier works, these later works seemed more hurriedly-drawn and less meticulous than his early works.
For example, in oman Drying Her Hair, a pastel on paper, Degas depicts the back of a nude woman, drying her hair. Unlike many of his works, which overtly differentiate between women of different classes and different occupations, this image in the photo is very every-woman. The bather is classically female, but the painting holds no clues as to her lifestyle outside of the bath. Moreover, the work demonstrates Degas' unique use of light, as it contains unrealistic amounts of shadow, almost as if the bather is caste in an artificial light. Though Degas rejected much of what has come to be associated with Impressionism, his…
Degas, Edgar. Dancer at Rest, Hands Behind her Back, Right Leg Forward. Brooklyn Museum,
Brooklyn, NY, 1882-1895.
Degas, Edgar. Portrait of Mlle Fiocre in the Ballet "La Source." Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn,
The earth lay white under the night sky."(Kawabata, 1) This opening phrase of the novel is very revealing: the hero comes from the intimacy of darkness (the tunnel) into the open blankness of the Snow Country. The setting thus translates the sense of innocence but also that of emptiness and loneliness.
Camus' Stranger also hints at solitude and alienation even from the title. Mersault is already a famous literary character, the modern alien in society. The main difference between him and Shimamura is the fact that the latter has a Romantic bent towards fantasy and a narcissism that keeps him locked in his own world. The common trait that they share is their permanent sense of anxiety. Mersault, unlike Shimamura, is literally afraid of the people that surround him. Incapable of empathy, Mersault feels like a complete stranger not only because he cannot connect with the others but because he…
Camus, Albert. The Stranger. New York, Vintage, 1954.
Kawabata, Yasunari. Snow Country and Thousand Cranes. New York: Knopf, 1958
Of course, the much shorter pleated skirt we now associate with modern Japanese school girls is also a chic look, and the carrying over of this simple design into a popular and often fetish-linked fashion for Western girls of modern times is an important note of timelessness.
Court" Fashion for Japanese Males, Asuka Period (593-710):
Eastern influence is not reserved for Westerners alone, as one can see in Asuka and Nara period clothing designs from Japan. Chinese influence was strong during this time period for clothing styles in Japan between 593 to 794 AD. uddhism and Chinese culture design was popularized by the imperial court members that wore clothing of this kind. The hakama trousers remained intact, but without the binding ties below the knee that earlier periods had emphasized. The upper garment of this period, the "ho" ("Japanese Dress in Former Times...") was less form fitting than previous designs,…
Asian Art Museum of San Francisco. "Orientalism - East Meets West." Galley of Fashion. January 2005. http://gbacg.org/orientalism_fashion.htm
At-Home Dress." Metropolitan Museum of Art. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/orie/hod_1994.302.1.htm
Banyan." Metropolitan Museum of Art. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/orie/hod_1981.208.2.htm
Bhatia, Nandi & Puwar, Nirmal. "Fashion and Orientalism." Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body and Culture. October 2003. v7 n3-4.
Anthology aims at studying and collecting various groups of arts that describe a similar theme. According to the poems, dancing is a common feature. Dancing is a unifying factor in the poems, and considered a common, yet important, practice. Poets use dancing as a way of expressing love and affection. Dancing is a way of expressing hidden emotions that are better expressed in form of movements as Renee, Rosiebrownie and Moore put across. The poets use dancing to explain a vivid love story with confession of emotions, and also used dancing as a tool of reconciliation to a lost love as Cornelius puts across in his poem "The Empty Dance Shoes."
Poetry devices such as personification, imagery, symbolism, and repetition have been used in the poem to explain dancing. Dancing has been associated to poems personas', and brings joy, happiness, unity. It also makes the personas fly, glow…
Belitt, Ben. "Dance Piece ." n.d.
Coolbirth, Ina D. "Dancers, The." n.d.
Dickinson, Emily. "I Cannot Dance Upon My Toes." n.d.
Eady, Cornelius. "The Empty Dance Shoes." n.d.
After World War I, the German nation and its people were devastated. The public was led to believe that Germany was going to win the war, and it looked forward to a much- improved socio-economic climate. Instead, the war was lost and the country was facing a very dreary future. As a result, the government established the Weimar epublic under the leadership of Friedrich Ebert, a past leader of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and a supporter of the war efforts. Some historians believe it was fate that Weimar Germany did not succeed. From the beginning the challenges were too great, the situation too grim and the individuals involved too unprepared. As a result, Weimar Germany had a short and bumpy ride that combined the best with the worst: Culturally, it remains one of Germany's most creative periods of time in art, literature and thought. Politically and economically,…
Delmar, Sefton. Weimar Germany. New York: American Heritage, 1972.
Gay, Peter. Weimar Culture. New York: Harper & Row, 1968.
Kracauer, Siegfried. From Caligari to Hitler: A Psychological History of the German Film. Princeton: Princeton Press, 1947.
Library of Congress. Library of Congress. "Country Studies, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/cshome.htm . Updated 6 February 2004. Visited 11 March 2004.
Middle School child -- "Joanne" case study in the quick maturing quality of today's youth of a ten-year-old girl (Observation done a middle school during student's lunch period)
Joanne" (pseudonym) is a ten-year-old young woman of Greek-American extraction. Her father is a Greek-American, naturalized during his adolescence in the city of Chicago. Her mother is a Greek immigrant. Joanne has been a resident of the area for most of her own life and education, however she frequently travels to Greece during the summers. At home, she speaks both Greek and English. Her mother is only fluent in Greek, and her father expresses difficulty in communication in both languages, according to his own report, depending on the length of time he has spent in either area. He frequently travels on business back and forth to Greece, and has done so all of his life, having minimal contact with his daughter and…
Textbook on Child Development.
Hennessy, K.D., Rabideau, G.J., Cicchetti, D., & Cummings, E.M. (1994).
"Responses of Physically abused and nonabused children to different forms of interadult anger." Child Development, 65, 815-828.
music of Ives, Copland, Angier, and Reich reflect an American sound? Does one sound more American than another or do you connect with one more than another? hich one, why?
The definition of a quintessentially American sound often is based on the music's inspiration. For example, Aaron Copland's Appalachian Spring is often called the archetypical American work of song, blending folk dances and sounds of the American mountain region into a ballet that is both classical and primeval all at once. However, according to Copland when he elaborated on his creative process: "I can't tell you how many times people have said to me after seeing the ballet, 'hen I see that ballet I can just see the Appalachians and hear your music and feel spring.' Neither of which I knew anything about when I was writing the score" (Thomas, "Copeland). The recurring motif of the work is both simple…
"John Angier music composer." International film and TV production resources. 2 Dec 2013.
Swafford, Jan. "Charles Edward Ives." Charles Ives. 1998. 2 Dec 2013.
Age of Extremes
The ise of the evolutionary Arts
The chapter under review is set in the context of the troubled times that Eric Hobsbawm describes in his book "The Age of Extremities" -- a time which saw two world wars, the greatest economic depressions in world history and the communist revolution in ussia and elsewhere. There was an environment of revolution in Europe and elsewhere -- in India for example where the fight for independence from British rule was at its height during the later part of this period. Therefore according to Eric Hobsbawm, the time period from 1914 to 1945 was one where the socio-political scenario had a deep impact on the arts and culture and their expression.
The ise of the evolutionary Arts
During the period from 1914 to 1945, Eric Hobsbawm notes that in the established world of arts and culture the only two innovations that…
Hobsbawm, E. (1994). The age of extremes. New York: Pantheon Books.
art form, dance provides the means by which to fuse political and creative power. The body can communicate political ideology, subverting social norms in subtle ways. Dance frequently communicates issues related to race, class, gender, and power. Dance can also be used to either reflect or change values and norms.
For example, ballet was born in the Baroque court of Catherine de Medici, who recognized the potential for dance to symbolize the bringing about of order in a chaotic world ("Baroque Court: Catherine de Medici"). A similar function of dance can be found among the Bedoyo of Java, for whom dance undertook a cosmological as well as a political pertinence: creating or exhibiting order in a world that was otherwise chaotic or unpredictable. Dance reveals the potential for human beings to be disciplined and use their bodies to create order, as opposed to allowing themselves to slip into temptation. In…
"Asante Court: The Asante of Ghana," (n.d.).
"Baroque Court: Catherine de Medici," (n.d.).
"Bedoyo of Java," (n.d.).
"Louis XIV: The Sun King," (n.d.).
If anything, the urge to document their performance as fully as possible -- extended long shots and all -- runs the risk of swamping the narrative, but for Kelly, perhaps, the balletic dream was the narrative, or at least, the point of constructing the story in the first place.
Extended detours into pure ballet notwithstanding, the "stage-oriented" economy of Singin' in the Rain does not permit it to linger on the outright repetition of any shot or sequence. However, allied techniques allow it to achieve a certain degree of formal and sentimental unity. In terms of large-scale structure, the decision to bookend the film's action between two theatrical premieres is extraordinary. Unlike a more explicitly flashback-driven story like Sunset Boulevard (a near-contemporaneous but darker meditation on Hollywood's transition to sound), the trajectory here is less circular than spiral in form: The gala debut of the film-within-a-film that closes Singin' in…
Pinker maintains that evolution follows a branching, rather than linear pattern. Many species develop concurrently, each with their own survival instincts. Humans, and their survival instinct of language, are just one branch of the evolutionary process rather than a pinnacle rung.
Holding the belief that we can, or might someday communicate with animals creates empathy, which leads to humane treatment of animals. A belief that animals cannot communicate with us due to inferiority leads to a sense of dominion over them.
This is also a pattern of belief and behavior that is seen with regard to humans who are perceived to have inferior languages or grammars. They are somehow less human, and therefore less deserving of humane treatment.
Pinker states that it is ridiculous to attempt to teach human language to animals. They are not biologically configured for human speech or sign. They have no need for human language as…
Pinker, Steven. The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1994.
" In other words, this barmaid "is automatic and impersonal" and reflects the upper-class social nature of Paris with its drinkers and party-goers enjoying themselves immensely while the barmaid merely stares into oblivion as if bored to death with her surroundings and her life (Monan, 2006, 435).
In contrast to these two paintings by Manet, Edgar Degas' Ballet ehearsal (1876, oil on canvas) presents "the infinite variety of particular movements that make up continuous motion" via a group of ballerinas practicing their moves in a spacious studio somewhere in Paris. Obviously, the ballerinas in this painting are part of the upper classes. Artistically, Degas used several devices to bring the viewer into the pictorial space. First, the frame cuts off the spiral staircase, the windows in the background and the group of ballerinas in the right foreground. Second, the rapid diagonals of the bases of the walls and the floorboards…
Monan, Berence. (2006). Impressionism. Berlin: Broschiert Sprache.
Muller, Joseph-Emile. (1974). Impressionism. New York: Leon Amiel Publishers.
Pool, Phoebe. (1967). Impressionism in Europe. New York: Thames & Hudson.
Tinterow, Gary. (1994). Impressionism: Styles, Manner and Genres. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Modern Art.
Versailles was more than just a place inhabited by the French royal family and those close to them, as it was a location where art was in the making, with Moliere and Lully being two of the individuals responsible for transforming the palace into the home of French art in the seventeenth century.
Louis, Lully, and Moliere all collaborated in assisting France in experiencing a process of enlightenment, as the country changed most of its policies during the seventeenth century with the purpose of having these three men and the rest of the country's people exploit its ability to host the concept of art. Even though Louis is likely to be condemned for bringing France into a financial impasse because of his excessive spending, most people are likely to agree that art is one of the best things that one can possibly invest in. The Sun King enabled people to…
Calder, Andrew, "Moliere: The Theory and Practice of Comedy,"
Continuum International Publishing Group, 2000
Campbell, Peter Robert, "Louis XIV, 1661-1715," Longman, 1993.
Parkin, John and Phillips, John, "Laughter and power," Peter Lang, 2006.
Bankwest is an Australian banking institution that provides banking services to all Australians equally. This bank is a relatively old institution. It has been in operation for over a hundred years building a reputation of community involvement and support that exudes compassion and benevolence. They do this by supporting many charitable projects and organizations in addition to a number of banking services such as Some of those being retail, business, institutional, investing funds management, "superannuation, insurance and investment and share broking" (Bankwest About 2011).
Bankwest was founded in 1895. At that time it was the Agriculture Bank of Western Australia. The government in Australia designed the bank to build up the farm production industry (Bankwest History 2011).
Several years later in 1945, the bank started trading on the stock exchange on experienced growth on the western area of Australia. Eventually becoming an industry leader in the market (Bankwest History 2011).…
BankWest.com: CaseStudy. 2010. Industry Specialization Media Awards. < http://www.bankwest.com.au/Media_Centre/Bankwest_Awards/Best_of_the_Best_2010/index.aspx [12 March 2011].
Tribe, A. 2011. Business. < http://www.bankwest.com.au/Business / > [13 March 2011].
BankWest.com:Community. 2011. About Community Sponsorships. < http://www.bankwest.com.au/About_Us/Community_Sponsorships/index.aspx > [12 March 2011].
BankWest.com: Home Loans. 2011. Personal Home Loans. < http://www.bankwest.com.au/Personal/Home_Loans / > [ 12 March 2011].
forum of world leaders converging at the next World Economic Forum or simply a teenaged brother and sister trying to persuade the other to take out the garbage for the night, negotiation involves its participants wielding tools of power in order to further their cause. Studying the uses of power in negotiation is tantamount to exploring the psychological ballet played out by the negotiators as they attempt to prevail over their counterpart(s).
efore exploring the applications of power in negotiation, it is important to define the boundaries of this study. Negotiation can simply be defined as an "arrangement of terms with others." (arnhart & arnhart, 1989, 1390) Alternatively, negotiation between two people can be likened to dancing. The negotiators meet and 'step on each other's toes' while each strives to extort information and apply influence over the other. Like individual dancers who learn to modify their personal styles to complement…
Adair, W., Okumura, T & Brett, J.M. (2001) "Negotiation Behaviour When Cultures Collide: the U.S. And Japan" Journal of Applied Psychology 86(3), 371-385
Adair, Wendy & Brett, Jeanne.(October 22, 2001) "Time, Culture and Behavioural Sequences in Negotiations." New York, Cornell University Website www.johnson.cornell.edu/leadreship
Barnhart, Clarence L. & Barnhart, Robert K. (1989) The World Book Dictionary. Chicago, World Book, Inc.
Ben-Yoav, O. & Pruitt, D.G. (1984) "Accountability to Constituents: A Two-Edged Sword." Organisation Behaviour & Human Processes, 34: 282-295