154 results for “Band Of Brothers”.
Band of Brothers is the late historian, Stephen E. Ambrose's real story of Easy Company, 506th Regiment, 101st Paratroopers, who participated in "Operation Overlord," the D-Day Invasion of Normandy, in German occupied France, that marked the beginning of the end of the Nazi reign of terror across Europe during World War II.
Ambrose, a lifelong historian, wrote several books about World War II, and like the others, Band of Brothers leaves the reader with the unmistakable appreciation for the writer's personal admiration for the plight of the individual soldiers who, since the war, have often been referred to as "The Greatest Generation." Unlike traditional war stories that emphasize the particulars and the outcome of important battles while all but ignoring the day-to-day reality of the men in the trenches, Ambrose manages to accomplish both.
Band of Brothers follows the men of the 506th from their initial innocence and their collective…
Likewise, Ambrose contrasts the seemingly reluctant admiration for the work ethic of the German people (p.258), with the knowledge that they were also responsible, through their fanatical support of the Nazi party, for the piles of countless innocent civilian victims of the concentration camps that Easy Company liberated on their march into Germany (p.257).
Band of Brothers left me with a much greater understanding for the personal realities of mechanized warfare. At the same time, the book detailed the historic battles of the most important single war in modern history in a way that I appreciated much more than reading about some of the same events the way they are presented in History textbooks. In the mind of this reader, that is perhaps Stephen Ambrose's greatest contribution to the study and appreciation of History. I would recommend the book very highly, especially to readers who may find traditional academic texts about World War II boring, as well as to those who sometimes wonder what the significance is of learning about wars that took place more than half a century ago.
Band of Brothers left this reader with a much greater understanding for the relevance of World War II and how different the world we know today would be but for the heroism of the millions of men who answered the call to duty to prevent the Nazis from conquering the entire Western World and from unleashing the horrors of fascism and racial extermination in the United States, which would likely have, eventually, fallen under German (and Japanese) occupation had the Allies failed to liberate Europe in 1945. I plan to read several of Stephen Ambrose's other books about World War II, and someday, I also hope to visit the author's D-Day Museum in New Orleans.
Band of Brothers, Stephen Ambrose (1992) is talking about the experiences of orld ar II veterans (who are a part of the D-Day operations). It follows the creation, training and combat experiences of Easy Company. They are with the 506th Parachute Regiment, 101st Infantry Division. The author is taking a biographical and historical perspective when looking at the lives of these men. His primary focus is on helping readers to understand the challenges they went through and the significance of their contributions.
To achieve these objectives Ambrose is concentrating on several different ideas to include: sacrifice, bravery, camaraderie, loyalty, the importance of these events and what they are teaching everyone. The combination of these elements is providing the reader with a greater understanding of key aspects on orld ar II. This is the point that the individual will see the sacrifices, struggles and difficulties the various characters were experiencing. hen…
Ambrose, Stephan. Band of Brothers. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992.
Gardner, Ian. Tonight We Die As Men. New York: Osprey, 2009.
Plotz, David "The Plagiarist." Slate. Last modified 2002. http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/assessment/2002/01/the_plagiarist.html
Stein, Conrad. World War II in Europe. Berkley Heights: Enslow Publishers, 2011.
and of rothers
rief Summary of eyond and of rothers
The book "eyond and of rothers" has been written by the commander of the army, Dick Winters. Winters and his team was referred to as the Easy Company. However, the mission that they were trying to accomplish was far from being easy. Commemorated as the and of rothers, Winters and his soldiers suffered 150% casualties while they tried to liberate the European region. The way that Winters led his army and the way they fought the war is an unparalleled example of bravery. Many historians claim that commanders like Winters are very rare and they believe that he was the best leader of the forces during the World War II. He told his story and explained his experiences of the combat in this book.
On the day of the commencement of the combat, Dick Winters landed into France and took…
Winters, Dick. Beyond Band of Brothers: The War Memoirs of Major Dick Winters. American LibraryAssociarion, 2008.
The west part of the Peninsula had been defended by the 243rd Static Infantry Division, which could not work to its full potential due to the outdated weapons that it possessed. It is possible that the German troops on the Cotenin Peninsula had not been properly prepared for an attack because the Nazis did not expect one. Even if they had been expecting an attack, it is certain that they did not expect one of such importance.
The 91st Air Landing Division has been positioned in the middle of the Cotenin Peninsula, between the 243rd and the 709th. The men in the 91st had apparently been better trained than those in the other two divisions, but they had been disadvantaged because they had just arrived in the area, in May, 1944. Also, the 91st only had 7500 men a few days before the Allied invasion. However, they were joined by…
1. Hinsley, Francis Harry. (1979). "British intelligence in the Second World War: Its influence on strategy and operations." Cambridge University Press.
2. Levine, Alan J. (2007). "D-Day to Berlin: The Northwest Europe Campaign, 1944-45." Stackpole Books.
3. Polk, David. (1991). "World War II Army Airborne Troop Carriers." Turner Publishing Company.
4. "Band of Brothers." Retrieved November 28, 2009, from the BBC Web site: http://www.bbc.co.uk/drama/bandofbrothers/
When studying the history of the formation of the United States, one usually thinks in terms of separate events and individuals. However, the American republic was established, instead, by a series of important decisions and the joint efforts of some of the most prominent men of all time. In a matter of ten years, these critical interactions among the eight leading figures of John Adams, Aaron Burr, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and George Washington formed a nation that to this day remains one of the most successful "experiments" of democratic governments. As Joseph J. Ellis, the author of Founding Brothers: the Revolutionary Generation states:
What in retrospect has the look of a foreordained unfolding of God's will was in reality an improvisational affair ... If hindsight enhances our appreciation for the solidity and stability of the republican legacy, it also blinds us to the…
MASTRS OF ROCK & ROLL
TH KINGSMN: Composed of Jack ly on guitar and vocals, Mike Mitchell on guitar, Dan Gallucci on piano, Bob Norby on bass and Lynn arton on drums, the Kingsmen are best known for their hit "Louie, Louie" and essentially began the form now known as the "garage band" sound in 1963. Also, the Kingsmen were one of the earliest bands from the Northwest, being Portland, Oregon, where many bands in the years to come would call home. One of their local rivals was Paul Revere and the Raiders who established the Northwest R& B. sound so popular in the mid to late 1960's.
PAUL RVR AND TH RAIDRS: Like the Kingsmen, Paul Revere and the Raiders came out of the Northwest. Singer Mark Lindsay, along with drummer Mike Smith, created a new sound based on traditional classical music interwoven with boogie-woogie which resulted in their…
ERIC CLAPTON: Best known for his involvement in the band Cream (Clapton on guitar, Jack Bruce on Bass and Ginger Baker on drums), Clapton was perhaps the first guitarist to successfully combine a free-from musical concept with mass appeal. He was also one of the first rock musicians to gain a large following based on his instrumental abilities and creative musicianship. Along with Jimi Hendrix, Clapton remains one the best examples of consistency as a lead guitarist in the rock field.
LED ZEPPELIN: In the mid-1960's, guitarist Jimmy Page joined the Yardbirds which soon led to the creation of Led Zeppelin, made up of Page, Robert Plant on vocals, John Paul Jones on bass and John Bonham on drums. As a band, Led Zeppelin exerted a profound and very recognizable influence on rock bands and guitar players both nationally and internationally. Page's carefully calculated guitar frenzy, engineered through the use of distortion, surrounded Plant's expressive vocals to create a tension and excitement rarely matched by Zeppelin's numerous emulators in the 1970's and beyond.
PINK FLOYD: Composed of original singer Syd Barret and later replaced by David Gilmour on guitar (along with original members Roger Waters on bass, Rick Wright on keyboards and Nick Mason on drums), Pink Floyd incorporated many new musical sounds based on the use of electronic effects and the synthesizer. Musically, the band created brand-new ways to express themselves on their various instruments and launched a very complex musical idiom based on experimentation and innovation. Their biggest hit album "Dark Side of the Moon," remained on the charts for more than twenty years and influenced a whole generation of experimental electronic composers.
Representations of War in the Longest Day and Saving Private Ryan
Hollywood's depictions and interpretations of the events that transpired on D-Day have long captured the attention of audiences worldwide. Though Hollywood depictions of the events that occurred prior, during, and after the invasion of Normandy may vary, they still aim to convey a similar message, one that assures the evil forces in the world will be overthrown and the world will be a much safer place. The Longest Day and Saving Private Ryan aim to present the events that lead up to the invasion of Normandy on D-Day in an artistic and creative fashion while attempting to maintain an air of realism. The approaches taken to depict the invasion of Normandy in The Longest Day and Saving Private Ryan are a positive contribution to the combat film genre. Though creative licenses were taken in each film, the manner in…
Beevor, Anthony. D-Day: The Battle for Normandy. New York: Viking Penguin, 2009.
Churchill, Ron. "Saving Private Ryan" a real life drama." UB Reporter 30, no. 2 (September
D-Day: June 6, 1944. http://www.army.mil/d-day / (accessed May 23, 2011).
Henry stresses that the men have a choice: they are free men and do not fight because they are compelled to do so:
That he which hath no stomach to this fight,
Let him depart; his passport shall be made
And crowns for convoy put into his purse:
We would not die in that man's company
That fears his fellowship to die with us (IV.3).
Even during Shakespeare's time, the idea of fighting for freedom was clearly a compelling rhetorical strategy. On the surface, fighting for a piece of land might not seem to be a noble quest when done purely for the purposes of enriching the crown. This is why Henry's speech is so perfectly analogous to a speech made by a CEO or another business leader: often, quite cynically, shareholders and employees will assume that decisions are made for personal profit, not to advance the common good. Although…
Freiberg, Kevin & Jackie Freiberg. (2003). Guts! Doubleday.
During the speech, he claps the men's shoulders, and makes human, tactile contact with the soldiers. Even though he is a king, everyone is part of the family of soldiers, and through nobility they can lift themselves to high birth: "e few, we happy few, we band of brothers;/for he to-day that sheds his blood with me / Shall be my brother; be he ne'er so vile,/This day shall gentle his condition" (4.2).
Henry says that winning honor gains a soldier inner aristocracy, a radical idea at the time when the divine right of kings was a given, and also a way to propel his men forward into action. In fact, even the dispirited men who do not really believe in the need to secure the French land, because of Henry's words about their class and status may fall in line with what he says, in deference of respect for…
Henry V." (1989). Directed by and starring Kenneth Branagh.
Shakespeare, William. "Henry V." The Shakespeare Homepage. Retrieved 28 Apr 2008 at http://shakespeare.mit.edu/henryv/index.html
Tichy, Noel M. (2007). The Leadership Engine. New York: HarperCollins.
The 101st Division has also supported humanitarian relief efforts in Rwanda and Somalia, and have been deployed as peacekeepers to Haiti and Bosnia (101st).
As part of the 2003 invasion of Iraq, Operation Iraqi Freedom, the Screaming Eagles were deployed once again to Iraq (101st). "The division was in V Corps, providing support to the 3rd Infantry Division by clearing Iraqi strong-points which that division had bypassed" (101st). Using the city of Mosul as their primary base of operations, they then went on to become part of the occupation forces in Iraq before being withdrawn in 2004 for rest and refit (101st). The existing infantry brigades, artillery brigade, and aviation brigades were transformed as part of the Army's modular transformation, with the addition of re-activating a new 4th Brigade Combat Team, called Currahee, and its subordinate units to form a 6-7 major units division, one of the Army's largest (101st).…
101st Airborne Division. Wikipedia. Retrieved July 08, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/101st_Airborne_Division
101st 1 Airborne Division: Air Assault. Fort Campbell, Kentucky. Retrieved July 08, 2006 at http://www.campbell.army.mil/division.htm
Lone Sentry. Retrieved July 08, 2006 at http://www.lonesentry.com/gi_stories_booklets/101stairborne
Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War by Mark Bowden. Specifically, it will contain a general book report on the book, with emphasis on the leadership qualities of the angers in Somalia. "Black Hawk Down" was first serialized in the "Philadelphia Enquirer" by the author, Mark Bowden. The book was made into a commercially successful film that chronicles one U.S. Army anger mission in Mogadishu, Somalia when a United Nations Aid mission was operating in the country. Shortly after this mission and its' loss of U.S. soldiers, the Clinton administration withdrew the United States from Somalia. The story in the film is well-known, but the book goes into much more detail, and many of the situations change from the fictional account of the film, which was dressed up for Hollywood.
From the beginning, the plan related in "Black Hawk Down," to swoop into Mogadishu and grab two of General…
Bowden, Mark. Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War. NewYork: Penguin Books, 2002.
Mark Twain, The Prince and the Pauper
Anno Domini 1544,
October the First
My dear Hugh,
It is with a heavy heart that I take up quill and inkpot to pen this sad missive, informing thee of the death of Miles thy brother during that recent battle between his majesty our most puissant sovereign King Henry the Eighth and his sworn enemy, that perifidious frog the Dauphin of France, which did of late take place in pitched battle at Boulogne-sur-Mer in the month of August, in the year of our lord 1544.
As doubtless thou hast heard at Hendon Hall, in the heat of summer His Majesty did command His Grace the Duke of Norfolk to raise the engines of siege so as to break the will of the French garrison in that wretched town, so close to the Channel which doth separate our blessed England from the…
Integration in the CI/HUMINT Community
An Analysis of the Benefits of Integration in the CI/HUMINT Community and Strategies for Effective Implementation
The success of any counterinsurgency operation depends largely on the effectiveness and appropriateness of intelligence gathered. Human subjects are a crucial source of intelligence for counterinsurgency operations. Several years back, the U.S. Armed Forces opened up opportunities for women to occupy specific positions in counterintelligence/human intelligence (CI/HUMINT) discipline. However, women still remain underrepresented in the same, and researchers remain largely divided on whether their participation in the same ought to be increased. esearchers have raised concern that the decision to integrate women into HUMINT units could cost the country dearly in the long-term as it is likely to ruin unit cohesion and impede on overall effectiveness. Proponents of the whole idea of integration have, however, argued that the inclusion of women in HUMINT units will actually enhance…
Alderman, M. I. (1993). Women in Direct Combat: What is the Price for Equality? School for Advanced Military Studies Monograph, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.
Al-Ali, N. & Pratt, N. (2009). What Kind of Liberation: Women and the Occupation of Iraq. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Bartone, P.T. Johnsen, B.H. Eid, J. Brun, W. & Laberg, J.C. (2002). Factors Influencing Small-Unit Cohesion in Norwegian Navy Officer Cadets. Military Psychology, 14(1), 1-22.
Beal, D.J. Cohen, R.R. Burke, M.J. & McLendon, C.L. (2003). Cohesion and Performance in Groups: A Meta-Analytic Clarification of Construct Relations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88 (6), 989-1004.
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND WHAT DOES IT AIM TO STUDY?
Inspired by Kurt Lewin (1951), social psychology adopted the experimental method to study human behavior (Wood & Kroger, 1998). In this regard, Wood and Kroger (1998) report that, "Lewin's experiments in leadership style (autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire) became classics in the new experimental social psychology" (p. 267). Lewins' early work was carried on by Festinger and others who explored cognitive dissonance for the next 20 years at MIT and subsequently at the Universities of Michigan and Minnesota, making this one of the foundations of social psychology (Wood & Kroger, 1998).
Simply stated, social psychology uses the scientific method to study human social behavior (ogers, 2003). According to ogers, psychological social psychology "studies how social events and phenomena influence the ways in which individual people feel, think and act. It is concerned with the psychological processes (such as social perception and cognition) that…
Hayes, D. (2004). RoutledgeFalmer guide to key debates in education. New York:
Karakashian, L.M., Walter, M.I., Christopher, A.N. & Lucas, T. (2006). Fear of negative evaluation affects helping behavior: The bystander effect revisited. North American
Journal of Psychology, 8(1), 13.
The Rangers eventually located the battery of cannons that had been moved by the Germans and destroyed them with thermite grenades and helped secure the adjacent beaches for the rest of the D-Day invasion forces.
President Ronald Reagan and the Rebirth of Patriotism
President Reagan may have been a "B movie" actor who was best known for his roles in movies such as "Bedtime for Bonzo," but he was also enormously patriotic and served his country admirably during World War II by making a series of training films and helping raise funds for the war effort. As noted above, he was also a captain in the Army Air Corps, but his poor eyesight precluded his serving in combat. Nevertheless, his moving tribute to the men of the 2nd Ranger Battalion helped fuel a rebirth of patriotism in the U.S. that Brinkley suggests continues to the present day. Indeed, President Reagan…
Unfortunately, as promising as the potential benefits of incorporating brain-based, active learning, inquiry-based, hands-on participation, and multiple intelligence-based methods of academic instruction is, comprehensive programs of this nature are largely unavailable on a wide scale, owing to budgetary considerations. However, since virtually every tested addition of multidimensional instruction has been associated with beneficial results (Schroeder & Spannagel 2006), intuition would suggest that the addition of instruction via educational programming is also likely to be conducive to improvement over traditional lecture and textbook-only methods of instruction.
Obviously, if given the choice between non-academic programming and educational programming, most middle and secondary school students would prefer the former. On the other hand, where methods of instruction depart from the traditional limitation to lecture and textbooks only (Bimonte 2005), even voluntary class attendance increases. Nevertheless, contemporary education programs generally neglect the potentially valuable medium of televised instruction except in connection with…
Active Learning: Getting students to work and think in the classroom (1993). Speaking of Teaching, 5(1). Retrieved May 1, 2008, at http://ctl.stanford. edu/Newsletter
Adams, D. & Hamm, M. (1994). New designs for teaching and learning: Promoting active learning in tomorrow's schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bickman, M. (2003). Minding American education: Reclaiming the tradition of active learning. New York City: Teachers College Press.
Bimonte, R. (2005, November/December). If your class were optional, would anyone attend. Momentum, 36(4), 6.
Fraternity and Sorority
FATENITIES AND SOOITIES
Fraternities generally refer to any social organization that works for some specific causes. However Fraternities and sororities together refer to college or university-based organizations that provide its members with a sense of belonging and a common purpose. Fraternities were created in college to create a band of brothers. Its main purpose was to unite college students and create a more harmonious environment on the campus. Today, fraternities are usually mixed-gender but they were originally meant for men alone. The female version of these social organizations was called a sorority which came much later but is as effective as any college fraternity. Some fraternities are as old as the country itself like Phi Beta Kappan which was formed in 1776.
Fraternities and sororities are usually referred to as Greek societies and joining them is casually termed as going Greek. There are many studies currently underway…
Greek Life" Accessed March 24th 2005:
Fraternities and Sororities" Accessed March 24th, 2005:
programs discussed help build core competencies and competitive capabilities at L'Oreal.
L'Oreal is an international company that strives to ensure that all of its diverse employees feel at home and work together. L'Oreal FIT (Follow-up & Integration Track) acts as a two-year, personalized integration and support program designed to facilitate the transition of the employee into the corporate culture of the company. It is "adaptable to the needs of all new employees at L'Oreal. This global integration programme allows us to enrich and perpetuate our group's professional culture while taking account of each subsidiary's cultural characteristics and local needs" (L'Oreal FIT, 2011, L'Oreal). The program focuses on educating the employee so he or she can truly understand the product and the mission of the makeup company, regardless of his or her area of expertise. It is focused on providing the employee with a "personalised schedule of meetings, training and round-table…
L'Oreal FIT (2011). L'Oreal. Retrieved November 26, 2011 at http://www.loreal.com/_en/_ww/html/careers/Your-career-at-L-Oreal/Your-integration.aspx?&profile=&profileExcl=
Henry v Author: William Shakespear Please provide an essay Henry v interpretation Kingship relation actions play. Please include quotes
William Shakespeare's play, The Life of Henry the Fifth, is constructed on the central theme of kingship. "In terms of both plot and character, the play unfolds as the testing of a monarch" (Hall, 1997), and this paper attempts to present the main instances of action and choice which establish King Henry's portrait as a fit leader.
The beginning of the play acquaints the audience with a skilled rhetorician and a king decided to go to war against France -- "France being ours, we'll bend it to our awe, / Or break it all to pieces" (Shakespeare, 224-25). This resolve is expressed not only as a matter of state and claiming of national rights, but also as a personal quest for the purpose of proving his value as monarch. Notwithstanding Henry's…
Hall, J.L. (1997). Henry the V: A Guide to the Play. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Shakespeare, W. (1600). The Life of Henry the Fifth. In Dorius, R.J. (Ed.). (1955). The Life of Henry the Fifth. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Living Memory Disappears
Having read the second slide in the Power point presentation concerning the deaths of the last French veterans of World War I, what difference do you think it makes to our appreciation of history when those that actually experienced it die?
The appreciation of history is intensified when the living connection to the event is extinguished. That particular time in history cannot be revisited through the stories and tales from the people who actually lived through it, but can only be accessed via books, magazines, newspapers and photos. For this reason, the event actually becomes more significant because it is historical and there is no way to retrieve details of it anymore through the people who experienced it firsthand. The difference in appreciation of history comes from the knowledge that a closure to an event has arrived.
Belle Epoque and World War I
Henry the Fifth and the Ideal of a Monarch
Shakespeare's history plays are based mostly in fact yet have the insertion of beliefs and systems that where truly his own. In Shakespeare's Henry V can be seen a culmination of his goals of monarchical character development. Though the character King Henry does not always closely resemble his slightly more carefree youth, Prince Hal as seen through the story of his father, Henry V has aged into what Shakespeare thought to be the ideal king. (Losey 539) Shakespeare, through Henry V paints a vivid picture of a conscience driven monarch with a heart for life, god and country. Though some criticize the nationalistic romanticism of Henry's depiction the message of literature is meant to both entertain the viewer and make him or her think and Shakespeare clearly has this goal in both history and humor.
Throughout the drama Henry is depicted…
Dorius, R.J., ed. The Life of Henry the Fifth. Revised ed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1955.
Hall, Joan Lord. Henry V: A Guide to the Play. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1997.
Losey, Fredrick D. Shakespeare: The complete dramatic and poetic works of William Shakespeare. Philidephia, PA: John C. Winston Company, 1926
Slights, Camille Wells. "The conscience of the King: Henry V and the reformed conscience." Philological Quarterly 80.1 (2001): 37+. Questia. 12 May 2003 http://www.questia.com/ .
William Shakespeare and Robert Burns are both iconic figures in the UK. Also known as the Bard of Avon, Shakespeare is often regarded as England’s national poet. Shakespeare is also considered the world’s greatest English writer and dramatist. During his time, Shakespeare authored tens of plays, over a hundred sonnets, and several narrative poems and verses (Marche, 2012). Shakespeare’s work has been translated into virtually all major languages of the world. Also, his work is performed more regularly than any other work. Robert Burns, born close to one and a half centuries after the death of Shakespeare, was also a prominent poet. Similar to Shakespeare, Burns is regarded as Scotland’s national poet (Hogg, 2008). Referred to as the Bard of Ayrshire, Burns is also recognised worldwide for his work (Cairney, 2000). As poets and playwrights, both Shakespeare and Burns have substantially influenced English literature and language as well as…
This were then replaced with larger big band orchestras as technology allowed such large groups to be clearly recorded, "As the swing era began, shorts were made of many of the top orchestras," (Yanow 2). Big band orchestras began showing up in all the major Hollywood productions. They featured pre-recorded songs where the musicians lip singed. It is interesting to have such a crucial period on film. The Swing Era "was fortunately captured for feature films and short subjects at the time it was all happening," (Behlmer 1). Big bands became incredibly popular in feature films during the 1930s and 40s. Benny Goodman, "The King of Swing," had a movie- Hollywood Hotel in 1937 "the full orchestra plays an abbreviated version of that quintessential Swing Era arrangement of 'Sing, Sing, Sing' in the film," (Behlmer 1). From big Hollywood productions came popularity on the small screen. As televisions became the…
Behlmer, Rudy. "Big Bands in the Movies." Turner Classic Movies. 2009. Retrieved 16 Nov 2009 at http://www.tcm.com/thismonth/article/?cid=199314
Gridley, Mark C. Jazz Styles: History and Analysis. 9th ed. Prentice Hall. 2006.
History Link, "The Jazz Singer, the First Successful Feature Film with Sound, Debuts in Seattle at the Blue Mouse on December 30, 1927." The Free Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 15 Nov 2009 at http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&file_id=2485
Schoenherr, Steven E. "Recording Technology History." San Diego University. 2005. Retrieved 16 Nov 2009 at http://history.sandiego.edu/GEN/recording/notes.html#origins
Green Day, on the other hand, may have started off as a "Punk" band, but devolved into a "punk" band. In the song "American Idiot," Green Day states a problem created by the media, yet proposes nothing to resolve it. Though Green Day attempts to rebel against the media because they do not want to be "one nation controlled by the media," they are giving in to the media through the commercialization and mass production and dissemination of their music. The production of the music is also of a higher quality. Though the band exudes the sound of raw intensity, the utilization of post-production filters and effects detracts from the "anger" and "disenfranchisement" conveyed in the song. Additionally, if one goes beyond the music and analyzes their music video, one can note how highly stylized it is and the higher production value that it conveys compared to the "music video"…
Green Day. "American Idiot." American Idiot. Reprise, 2004. Mp3.
< http://www.rhapsody.com/green-day/american-idiot -- explicit/american-idiot>
The Sex Pistols. "Anarchy in the UK." Nevermind the Bollocks. Virgin Records, 1977. Vinyl.
The outcome of all of this was a rock concert which -- aside from the actual happenstance of performances -- was heavily controlled by the interest of the filmmaker. Though various aspects of the concert-attendance experience indicate that great care was paid to the appeal of the event itself, there is an explicit self-consciousness on the part of the subject as to the grander intention of the captured film to eulogize the touring band.
And with that purposeful modus operandi in mind, we may take note that the apparent distance between Direct Cinema and Cinema Verite really only serves academic purposes. From the perspective of the filmmaker or the documentarian, there is room both for a realistic portrayal of its subject and for the selection of an angle or impression. Given that the subject is a single concert event, wherein which the musical performances are the purpose of the document,…
Aiex, N.K. (1984). 'The Last Waltz': Variations on a Theme. Toronto, Canada: Annual Meeting of the American Culture Association, 6.
Bartholomew, D. (1979). 'The Last Waltz': Review. Film Quarterly, 56.
Bouqueral, L. (2007). Bob Dylan, the Ordinary Star. Oral Tradition, 22(1), 151-161.
Garbowski, C. (2001). The Catholic Imagination in Martin Scorsese's the Last Waltz. Journal of Religion and Film, 5(2).
Le Grand Hautbois
During the reign of Louis XIII and especially Louis XIV, the courts were alive with new Baroque music and instruments. Many new wind instruments were being created with a variety of innovations and some other instruments were being newly invented. It was a time of experimentation, as these just introduced instruments had to be tried out for their range, sound and quality. Louis XIV from his childhood on throughout his life was always surrounded by music. He and musicians such as Lully would create ballets and compositions (Palisca 1968). During this time, King Louis XIV also revived and updated Le Grand Hautbois with the new instruments. Although little is written about Le Grand Hautbois, with Whitwell the compiler of the information that is available from writers during that period, this does not negate the importance of this twelve-player band to the French royal court and other European…
Anthony, James. French Baroque Music. New York: W.W. Norton, 1974
Bernard, Leon. The Emerging City: Paris in the Age of Louis XIV. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1970
Blunt, Anthony Art and Architecture in France 1500 to 1700. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1980
Buelow, George. History of baroque music. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004
The Bees were a British and Australian band that was originally a pop singer-songwriter combinations and then reborn as funk and disco (Bee pp). The brothers Gibb were born in the Isle of Man during the 1940's and consisted of lead vocalist Barry, and twins, co-lead vocalist Robin and keyboardist-guitarist Maurice (Bee pp). The Bee Gees have found their way into every corner of popular music around the world (Taylor pp.)
The Gibb family moved to Brisbane, Australia in 1958 where the Brothers Gibb began performing at local clubs and eventually made their way to a local television show (Bee pp). It was their father taught them how to work an audience once he realized how good they were and threw his support behind them (How 1977). In the beginning, they performed under several names, including the Blue Cats and the Rattlesnakes, however, in 1962, they signed their…
"How Can You Mend a Broken Group." The Rolling Stone. July 14, 1977.
"The Bee Gees." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Bee_Gees
Taylor, Chuck. "The Bee Gees: Four Decades of Success." Billboard. March 2001;pp.
Larkin, Colin. Encyclopedia of Popular Music; pp 449.
German Influences on Texas Culture
If one has lived in Texas for any length of time, they will realize immediately that the Texas culture is influenced by German culture in a number of ways. Modern day Texas culture would not exist as it does today if it were not for German influence. Today Texas culture can be described as a blending of German and Texas traditions. Though German culture is not the only culture that has impacted the Texas of today, it is often considered one of the most significant influences historically.
Whether one examines the architectural landscape of the towns and cities, examines the art and music or simply talks with many of the German descendants living in Texas, one must immediately acknowledge the significant influence the German people have had on the development of Texas as known today. In early Texas history German influence was widespread, often comprising…
Alvarez, A. (2002). "Oktoberfest in Fredericksburg." Texana Food and Events. 19, November 2004: http://texana.texascooking.com/news/oktoberfest_fred2002.htm
Butt, H.E. (2004). "Oktoberfest in Texas." 20, November, 2004: http://www.heb.com/mealtime/celeb-oktoberFestTx.jsp
Galan. (2001). [Online]. "Accordion Dreams: cultures of music and dance." Available
British Invasion on the United States: 1964 -- 1967
The arrival of the Beatles in New York City in 1964 for an appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show marked the beginning of what has become commonly known as the "British Invasion." This period, lasting roughly from 1964 to 1967, was a time when British bands invaded and topped the charts of the American music industry influencing the culture and social behavior of a generation of baby boomers.
In the decade prior to the 1960s fashion designs were intended to encourage housewives and discourage feminism. Teenagers relied upon their peers and the media to determine their style and the practice of conforming to their elder's tastes was beginning to evaporate. For instance, hair styles were greatly influenced by the Rockabilly icon Elvis Presley, sleek and gelled back. Nearly half of America's population was under the age of 18 at the dawn…
"1962 -- 66: American Folk-Rock vs.The British Invasion." State University of New York at Oswego, (ND). Web. 13 May 2013.
Au, Lynda. "The British Invasion: It's effects and Influences." Prezi Inc., 14 January 2013. Web. 13 May 2013.
Bangs, Lester. "The British Invasion." The Rooling Stone Illustrated History Of Rock and Roll, Jim Miller (ed.). New York: Random House, 1980. Print.
Davis, Lina and Crystal Pike."Cultural Impact." The Beatles vs. The Rolling Stones, 2011. Web. 13 May 2013.
Well, I kind of introduced that into Lindy Hopping. And we call it an air step because that's the way that we envisioned it -- as a step. We said, This has to be done in time with the music. it's not a lift -- it's a step -- so you gotta do it as a step (Editors).
Many people would add innovations and other moves to the basic Lindy, and it would spread out to create an entire form of swing dancing that included air-steps, synchronized dancing, and jitterbugging, all popular forms of swing dance. However, Manning was a true innovator in swing dance, and has been honored with several documentaries. He also was interviewed for the Ken Burns documentary "Jazz," and HBO plans to make a full-length feature film about his remarkable life.
In conclusion, Frankie Manning is the true father of the Lindy Hop, and with his…
Author not Available. "Happy Feet." Personal Web Page. 2004. 29 April 2005. http://www.gotthatswing.com.au/happy.html
Crease, Robert P. "Divine Frivolity: Hollywood Representations of the Lindy Hop, 1937-1942." Representing Jazz. Ed. Gabbard, Krin. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1995. 207-228.
Editors of WNET. "Frankie Manning." Thirteen.org. 1998. 29 April 2005. http://www.thirteen.org/cityarts4/week11/my_html/uncut-week11.html
O'Meally, Robert G., ed. The Jazz Cadence of American Culture. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.
A Tribe Called Quest has performed live at a number of large music festivals including Bumbershoot and Lollapalooza. These big name, big draw venues allowed A Tribe Called Quest to project their sounds to the masses, enlightening large numbers of listeners to the transformative potential of hip-hop. As gangsta and other predictable forms of rap increasingly dominated the industry, A Tribe Called Quest was keeping things real. Their commercial success also depended on their high visibility in terms of live performances and music videos. The videos of A Tribe Called Quest parallel the content of their lyrics, and depict African-American street culture especially on the east coast.
A Tribe Called Quest drew upon the groundwork set by De La Soul in fusing jazz musical elements, instrumentation, and samples into hip-hop. In fact, A Tribe Called Quest, De La Soul, and the Jungle Brothers were schoolmates and formed a successful musical…
"A Tribe Called Quest." Rolling Stone. Retrieved Dec 8, 2009 from http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/atribecalledquest/biography
"Biography." A Tribe Called Quest. Website retrieved Dec 8, 2009 from http://atribecalledquest.com/html/biography/
Bush, John. "A Tribe Called Quest." All Music Guide. Retrieved Dec 8, 2009 from http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:dcfixq95ld6e
For most of the story the setting surrounded the narrator and his life. It was his house, his family, and his experiences that made up the majority of the story. However, after the narrator reconciles with Sonny and he is invited to be part of the narrator's life, the setting of the story changes to Sonny and that which surrounds his life; particularly his music. The narrator and Sonny visit a blues club where Sonny, after nearly a year without touching a piano, gets up on stage with the band and begins to play. Only at the end of the story, when Sonny is playing on stage, does his brother, and the readers, understand that music is Sonny's outlet for his emotional pain. All the pain of life that he has endured from a lifetime of drug abuse is released through his music. Sonny and his music become the focus…
Baldwin, James. Sonny's Blues. 1957.
social poblem of using and selling dugs is potayed in music. I'm inteested in studying this because music has at once been accused of gloifying dug cultue and also as being one of the few means of allowing uses to vent on the ealities of dug cultue. Clealy, the elationship between dugs and music is a complex one. This pape will seek to shed light on the motivations fo atists to incopoate dug cultue in thei songs and what they pesumably gain fom it, and what society pesumably gains fom it as well.
The fist song that this pape will examine when it comes to the teatment of dugs as subject matte fo songs is in the wok of 2 Pac in his famous song, "Changes." This song is so emakable in that it addesses a temendous amount of social injustice in that is still alive and well in the…
references. Music Ther Perspectives, 69-76.
Duff, C. (2003). Drugs and Youth Cultures: Is Australia Experiencing the 'Normalization' of Adolescent Drug Use? Journal of Youth Studies, 433-447.
Genius.com. (n.d.). Corner Bodega. Retrieved from genius.com: http://rap.genius.com/50-cent-corner-bodega-coke-spot-lyrics
Genius.com. (n.d.). The Way We Get By. Retrieved from Genius.com: http://rock.genius.com/Spoon-the-way-we-get-by-lyrics
Lyrics.com. (n.d.). Changes 2 pac. Retrieved from lyrics.com: http://www.lyrics.com/changes-lyrics-2pac.html
1970, backstage of ?The Ed Sullivan Show?, a kid was wondering around, waiting to perform on stage with his band when Ed Sullivan approached him and said "Never forget where your talent came from, that your talent is a gift from God." Like most people who have been given a special gift and are expected to use it for the benefit of others, the same was expected of the twelve years old and he lived up to the expectations. The boy was, and never stoped being, what I call, a sensitive. It seems to me that some people in the world are more susceptible to suffering than most of us, they see different and feel much more; they all appear to have in common a special affection for art, in which ever form: poets, painters, musicians, writers are all more or less sensitives. On June 25th 2009, on a Thursday,…
Cloud, John. "With a Dramatic Pause, the World Mourned the Death of a Brilliant but Troubling Idol." In Special Commemorative Edition Time. July 2009. Print.
Jackson, Jermaine. "My Brother Michael." Interview with Andrew Billen. The Times Magazine (2011): 44-49. Print.
Jackson, Michael. Moonwalk. New York: Harmony Books, 2009. Print.
But before Rock could get the chance Manila's man enveloped his position and Rock only escaped by slipping into a powder blue and pink cocktail dress and slinking out of town with a band of disgruntled waitresses. Oh, the horror.
And though Rock only escaped by the skin of his tutu, many good men did not return that day and the United States Government held an inquiry to determine what had gone wrong. Mistakes had been made, blame must be placed. Rock's brilliant career pirouetted to a halt.
Rock had only managed to get through those dark days because of the unconditional support of his brother, who encouraged him to take his God given talents and put them to good use. He began a second career, professional hit man.
Years of therapy had done little to diminish the shame of San Geronimo. Rock preferred to just not think about it.…
Zhu Yuanzhang: First Ming Dynasty Emperor
Zhu Yuanzhang was founder of the Ming Dynasty, the one dynasty that endured for so long (1368-1644), considering the fact that it was established by a commoner. The reason Ming Dynasty and its first emperor Yuanzhang occupy special place in Chinese history is because this was one of the only lonely two dynasties to have been formed by a landless peasant. It is not everyday that commoner emerges from nowhere, overthrown powerful rulers of the time, establishes his own dynasty that endures for three long centuries. But Yuanzhang managed to achieve this colossal feat and thus his name went down in Chinese history as a competent emperor, second commoner only after Liu Bang of Han Dynasty to rule China.
Yuanzhang's rise to fame and power was simply unprecedented in history. Born to a very poor family in Anhui province in 1328, Yuanzhang was orphaned…
1) David Curtis Wright; John E. Findling-editor, Frank W. Thackeray -- editor THE HISTORY OF CHINA, Greenwood Press. Westport, CT. 2001
2) Michael, Franz; China through the Ages: History of a Civilization. Westview Press: Boulder, CO. 1986.
3) Edward Thomas Williams: A Short History of China. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1928.
Curious young astronomers who ask, "what are stars made of?" And "Why do astronauts float in space?" will find answers here. A brief survey of the universe in a question and answers format.
Reading level: Ages 4-8
Paperback: 28 pages
Tayleur, K. Excuses! Survive and Succeed by David Montimore Baxter. (Mankato, MN) Stone Arch Books: 2007
Young David Mortimore Baxter, who knows how to stay out of trouble, shares excuses for avoiding chores, bullies, homework, and vegetarian dinners. David experiences his fifteen minutes of fame and the impacts it has on his friends and family.
Reading level: 9-12
Paperback: 80 pages
Williams, M. The Velveteen Rabbit. Square Fish: 2008.
By the time the velveteen rabbit is dirty, worn out, and about to be burned, he has almost given up hope of ever finding the magic of love. The original "Toy Story."
Reading level: Ages…
The architects are not simply referencing a general Neoclassical style but evoking specific elements of Roman architectural style that suggested wealth and success.
The Los Angeles Stock Exchange on Spring St. (which no longer houses the stock exchange) includes the neoclassical elements of symmetry and alternating bands of vertical and horizontal elements. It also features three bas-relief panels carved into the granite over the central entrance that reflect Roman and Greek styles of decoration on public buildings. These bas-reliefs, like the carvings on the Continental Building are meant to summon up a certain kind of wealth and triumph, in this case the capitalist economy. Buildings in the Classical world would not have had to be so direct in broadcasting their function and stature. But the architects of this neoclassical building understood that a 20th-century clientele needed more explicit cues (Hickey). Classical buildings shared a common vocabulary that had been lost…
Brain, David. Discipline and style. Theory and society 18: 807-868, 1989.
Carlihan, Jean Paul. The Ecole des Beaux-Arts: Modes and Manners. New York: Association
of Collegiate Schools of Architecture, 1979.
Christ, Karl. The Romans. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.
In addition many researchers point out that having a consistent vision and strong, defensible unique value proposition are also critical for the continued viability of a restaurant.
elationship marketing and the ability to build and sustain a loyal customer base are just as critical as the ability to manage a restaurant financially. The immediacy and trust that customers develop over time with a restaurant becomes an integral part of its brand, and the continual reinforcing of this trust-experience-loyalty triad is critical for the growth of any independent or franchised restaurant.
Additional factors that positively affect long-term restaurant viability are having a distinctive and highly differentiated concept that is defensible even in areas where there is high restaurant density. The core concepts of Differentiation, cost leadership, and focus have been suggested as competitive advantages for coping with competition (Porter, 1980, 1985). A firm can achieve profitability over a rival in two…
Bayou and Benett - Profitability Analysis for Table Service Restaurants. Cornell Hotel & Restaurant Administration Quarterly. April 1992.Pgs. 44-59
BB&T Capital Markets - CEC Entertainment Profile. BB&T Capital Markets Report. July 26, 2006. Barry Stouffer CFA, CPA
Bruderl & Schussler -, "Organizational Mortality: The Liabilities of Newness and Adolescence," Administrative Science Quarterly 35 (1990): 530-447.
Domino's (2005) - From the 2005 Analyst Day Presentation downloaded from the Internet on November 26, 2006:
Madam Eglantyne the Nun, is also an ironic charater. She eats in a very refined manner and attempts other fine characteristics such as speaking French, although she fares poorly at this. Ironically, not all her language is pure, as she swears cosntantly by "St. Loy," a saint renowned for not swearing. Unlike the general conception of the Nun, she is very concerned with outward appearances and did not much care for human beings. Indeed, she cared much more for her three dogs than the human beings around her. Another irony is that she has a coral trinket to fight worldly temptations, which is clearly failing badly.
A second character is the Friar, Hubert. While he is jolly, merry, and festive, his actions are nevertheless evil and cunning. He impregnates girls, for example, and marries them off. He deceived the faithful by hearing confessions for a fee, and even begged from…
7. Esperanza was being asked (or told) by Dona Trini that she was going to have to service more clients than just Mr. Haynes, and Esperanza told Dona that maybe an enemy was using a spell against her. Dona told Esperanza that she could think of eight enemies already.
8. Haynes was smuggling Esperanza across the border, and was sweating profusely. The immigration officer at first waved him through, but then yelled at him to stop. He recognized Haynes as the judge that had let his brother off with parole when accused of smuggling pot across the border.
9. This quote concerns the priest whom Esperanza has been contacting long distance in order to 'confess'. By his words, he has fallen madly in love with her (or at least in lust) and wishes for her to return posthaste, or perhaps never at all.
10. Esperanza met a man at a…
Escandon, Maria Amparo, Esperanza's Box of Saints, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1999
"Sonnet 130" by Shakespeare and "Sonnet 23" by Louis Labe both talk about love, as so many sonnets do. Their respective techniques however, differentiate them from each other. Shakespeare uses a rhyme scheme that became known as Shakespearean rhyme scheme or English rhyme. He writes about love in a sarcastic manner though. He is mocking the traditional love poems and the usual expressive manner in which women are often compared to. It is ironic in a way because Shakespeare himself also uses the very techniques in his previous writing when he is writing from a man's point-of-view and describing a woman. But in this sonnet he uses the technique of mocking this exaggerated comparison. Usually women are compared to having skin as white as snow, however, in reality, Shakespeare points out, women don't really fit this description, "If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun."
"An all-Negro show, headed by the rejuvenated Ink Spots, has everything it takes to be a top entertainment piece. The Spots, making their periodic visit here, were never better. Ella Fitzgerald takes second billing to the Ink Spots, but more than holds up her end with I've got hythm, Do Nothing' Till You Hear From Me ....Ink Spots come on with Shoo-Shoo Baby ["Cow-Cow Boogie"?] followed by Lovely Way to Spend An Evening and Don't Sweetheart Me ... Encore with My Heart Tells Me and beg off to thunderous hand with the inevitable If I Didn't Care" (Billboard Magazine, 2/6/44, courtesy More Than Words Can Say: The Ink Spots and Their Music, Goldberg, 1998).
Were the Ink Spots really the "heavyweight champions of quartet singing"? If you believe soul singer Jerry Butler -- founding member of the Impressions who was quoted in the ock & oll Hall of…
Du Noyer, Paul. The Billboard Illustrated Encyclopedia of Music. New York: Billboard
Goldberg, Marv. More Than Words Can Say: The Ink Spots and Their Music. Lanham,
MD: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1998.
Atahualpa clearly held great respect for the Andean traditional drink and considered that it was an insult for the visitors to show little interest regarding it and even to spill it. He probably considered that the Spanish were trying to impose their power through putting across such behavior and that it was essential for him to employ a similar attitude by throwing the letter. The Spaniards themselves failed to comprehend the ritual that they were taking part in and thus only managed to infuriate their host as a consequence of thinking that the 'chicha' was similar to any other drink (Yupangui & Julien 11).
The fact that the Andean culture was poorly organized made it difficult for Andeans to understand the attitudes that they needed to employ concerning foreigners and local affairs. They thus had the tendency to support any one who was strong enough to become king, regardless of…
Diego de Castro Yupangui (titu cussi), Catherine J. Julien, "History of How the Spaniards Arrived in Peru," (Hackett Publishing, 2006 )
Court Opening Argument
It is humbly submitted to the Hon'ble Court that this respondent as per the issues and syllabus cited submit that the issues of the litigation pertain -- not only to the law of marriage, but also to the recognition if it must be accorded to same sex marriages and unions, and whether no recognizing this social development amounts to denial of the constitutional rights of a group of citizens. It is also pertinent to question if the states in allowing adoption to opposite sex couples and denying the same to same sex couples. The question then becomes still deeper with the challenge of the validity of same sex marriages.
It is still with various states to give effect to the Defence of Marriage Act -- DOMA and the definition of marriage as per section 3 of the act makes marriage between a man and a woman alone…
African estaurant evival
New York is home to people from all over the world, and it is well-known that they often bring with them cuisine from their homelands. Foodies descend on food courts in subterranean malls in Queens, ussian bakeries in Brooklyn, and ethnic food trucks pretty much anywhere throughout the five boroughs. For being a cosmopolitan city with such cosmopolitan tastes, surprisingly little attention is paid to the diversity of African food. The continent of Africa is rich in food tradition and, increasingly, we are seeing these traditions manifest throughout New York. This trend is occurring in many places, in particular Manhattan and Brooklyn. In fact, several openings over the past few years have dramatically altered the African dining scene, and this development is very much worthy of coverage. This citywide exposure to the African food trend makes it an excellent topic heading into the summer eating season.
Kugel, S. (2007, March 18). Sampling a Continent at Home. Retrieved from nytimes.com: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/18/travel/18weekend.1.html?_r=0
Laing, N. (2013, October). New York's First African Restaurant Week Offers New Flavors and a Dash of Culture. Retrieved from fo2w.org: http://fi2w.org/2013/10/14/new-yorks-first-african-restaurant-week-offers-new-flavors-and-a-dash-of-culture/
Pearlman, E. (2014). Ponty Bistro. Retrieved from blacboardeats.com: http://www.blackboardeats.com/sp/ponty-bistro-gramercy-new-york-3
Spiropoulos, R. (2014, June 28). Dining African: 3 Restaurant Biz Success Stories Savor N.Y. African Restaurant Week. Retrieved from blackenterprise.com: http://www.blackenterprise.com/lifestyle/new-york-african-restaurant-week-wraps-in-style/
Sidney echet truly led the life of a jazz musician. He was a supporter of Dixieland Jazz who played the clarinet and was the first person to play Jazz on a Soprano Saxophone. Domineering is a word frequently used to express his music. Various fights showed he had a short temper that reflects in his music. His solos were often soaring and passionate, endlessly inventive, direct rather than ornate. Throughout his life, he never had the discipline needed to play in a regular band; he always preferred to be a soloist and worked in many different bands.
echet was born on May 14, 1897 in New Orleans, Louisiana to a black Creole family. His father Omar was educated in a private school so he spoke and wrote both Creole Patois and English. His mother Josephine was black, but was referred to as a passeblanc. echet grew up in…
Schuller Gunther. Early Jazz: Its Roots and Musical Development. Oxford University Press. 1968.
Chilton John. Sidney Bechet: The Wizard of Jazz. Oxford University Press. 1987.
Larlan Colin. Ed. The Guinness Encyclopedia of Popular Music. Stockton Press.1992.
Collier, James Lincoln. The Making of Jazz: A Comprehensive History. Dell.1979. Marsalis Wynton. Copyright (c) 1997 http://www.jazzradio.org/sidney.htm
This was the beginning of America's Golden Age of Musicals and thus it is important to understand what actually went into making a great musical. This was also a time when the Broadway show was assuming a standard format, one in which we still see to this day: two acts and several scenes. The first act being the key. The major songs are performed in the first act and then they would be later reprised, sometimes in both the first and the second acts. The show would open with a fast song, usually a dance number, employing all the chorus and introducing the principals into the play (2003, 84). The first love song would have to come soon enough so that it can be repeated in the first act. In Gershwin's Lady, Be Good!, the first love song was "So Am I."
The year 1926 was a big year for…
Green, S. (1980). Encyclopedia of the Musical Theatre. De Capo Press.
Hyland, W.G. (2003). George Gershwin: a new biography. Praeger.
Jablonski, E. (1998). Gershwin. De Capo Press.
Pollack, H. (2007). George Gershwin: his life and work. University of California Press; 1st edition.
The absence of such support could mean a quick relapse to the old habits. Indeed, those patients who prefer to battle their addiction alone are much more likely to relapse more quickly than those with a strong social and family network to support them. In this, open communication among family members, the physician an the patient is of vital importance. Support is directly related to effective communication, especially among family members.
In terms of social support, the narrator appears to be a little out of his depth when it comes to helping Sonny. This becomes clear in the way in which the narrator is unable to openly approach the issue of the abuse with his brother. Indeed, it is Sonny who volunteers the information about his habit to his brother, who does not seem entirely willing to listen. The narrator has to almost force himself to listen to his brother,…
Aftandilians, Tania. "Stimulants and Society." The Mind. Fall 2008. Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/items/1k13k7p1
Mullen, Tom. "Drugs drag im back; He beat heroin -- until now." Evening Chronicle (Newcastle, England). 1 Dec. 2009. Retrieved from FindArticles.com: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_6783/is_2009_Dec_1/ai_n42476603/
Nida. "Diagnosis and Treatmnet of Drug Abuse in Family Practice." 2009. Retrieved from http://www.nida.nih.gov/Diagnosis-Treatment/Diagnosis6.html
The music of United States changed significantly during the twentieth century, and each generation went on to develop its own music. These were all immensely popular, had strong rhythmic touch and were very different from the earlier forms which existed. These were used for dancing or just for the purpose of listening. When the twentieth century started it was the time for a variety called Ragtime. After the end of the First World War, Jazz had its origin and it influenced all other forms till it was affected by the stock market crash in 1929. This period was called the roaring twenties. Then it was time for a new form to emerge and this was in the music of the ig ands and led at different stages by Duke Ellington, Fletcher Henderson, Jimmie Lunceford, Glen Gray and Chick Webb in the beginning. They were then followed by…
Weinstock, Len. "The Big Band Era, Or How America Came Out Of the Great Depression and Went On To Win World War II, 1991" Retrieved at http://www.redhotjazz.com/bigbandessay.html. Accessed on 03/08/2004
Azinhais, Joao "The King of Jazz" Retrieved at http://www.redhotjazz.com/whitemanarticle.html. Accessed on 03/08/2004
Weinstock, Len. "The origins of Jazz" Retrieved at http://www.redhotjazz.com/originsarticle.html. Accessed on 03/08/2004
Slave Songs of the United States" A. Simpson & Co. Retrieved at http://docsouth.unc.edu/church/allen/allen.html . Accessed on 03/08/2004
ir Cargo, Inc. only flew cargo from December, 1941 (when Pearl Harbor was attacked) through November, 1944. t that time, Siddiqi explains that individual airline companies authored their own freight services, and on page 2 the author of this article notes that in time the major passenger airlines began offering freight forwarding service and that pretty well eliminated the need for a whole fleet of airline companies that just forwarded freight (Siddiqi). Only Flying Tiger stayed aloft as a strictly air freight company until the 1980s when Federal Express entered the picture. More on FedEx later in this paper.
The Literature -- the History of ir Freight Transportation -- Berlin ir Lift
When the long, bloody war was over it was time for the winning llies to divide up the territory that once was Nazi Germany, the negotiated, agreed-upon divisions gave the llies (U.S., Britain, and France) the Western…
April 20, 2012, from http://www.centennialofflight.gov.
Wilde, Robert. (2005). Berlin Blockade / Berlin Airlift. About.com. Retrieved April 20, 2012,
Gershwin was influenced by French composers of the early twentieth century. The orchestrations in Gershwin's symphonic works frequently seem comparable to those of avel; similarly, avel's two piano concertos demonstrate an influence of Gershwin. Gershwin asked to learn with avel. Gershwin's own Concerto in F. was condemned for being connected to the work of Claude Debussy, more so than to the probable jazz style. The association did not discourage Gershwin from enduring to explore French styles. The title of an American in Paris replicates the very voyage that he had intentionally taken as a composer (Biography, 2010).
Aside from the French influence, Gershwin was fascinated by the works of Alban Berg, Dmitri Shostakovich, Igor Stravinsky, Darius Milhaud, and Arnold Schoenberg. He also asked Schoenberg for composition teachings, but Schoenberg refused. ussian Joseph Schillinger's persuasion as Gershwin's teacher of composition (1932 -- 1936) was considerable in providing him with a technique…
A Complete Guide to George and Ira. (n.d.). Retrieved January 29, 2011, from Web site:
Biography. (2010). Retrieved February 1, 2011, from Web site:
How the Beatles Made History
Everyone knows their names, even if one never cared for their music: Ringo, John, Paul, and George. Just 15, 16 and 17 respectively, George Harrison, Paul McCartney and John Lennon came together in 1958—young but passionate musicians from Liverpool, England, who wanted to play jazz, blues and folk music on improvised instruments. By 1962, they had added Ringo Starr to the group. With Starr on drums, the group’s first single “Love Me Do” hit the airwaves and changed the face of pop music forever. Beatlemania became a thing and the Beatles themselves became “more popular than Jesus,” as Lennon put it four years later to a London journalist (Runtagh). The Beatles surely did make history (whether they were ever actually bigger than Jesus was a controversial point): they had more number one singles than any other British band or artist, and there 17 number…
The Evolution of Folk Music Vocals
By its definition, folk music technically refers to indigenous forms of music created by local, regional or native populations as a way of engaging in cultural expression. This means that at its core, folk music is not intended to command a commercial value nor is it necessarily folk music by definition once a form has been co-opted by an outside culture. However, this is also a definition for folk which has long been rendered obsolete by the aesthetic and vocal qualities that listeners tend to associate with the genre today. This is because the most historically significant instances in which folk music converged with the commercial zeitgeist would come to produce a highly distinctive set of sounds.
Indeed, when we think of folk music, one tends instantly to conjure image of a young Bob Dylan with harmonica rack and guitar, wheezing his…
EW. (2013). The Great Folk Rock Revival: how bands like Mumford & Sons and the Lumineers are leading a global phenomenon. Entertainment Weekly.
Holden, S. (2013). When They Hammered Out Justice in the '60s. The New York Times.
Jacobs, P. (2006). Bringing It All Back Home -- The Folk Music Revival. Rewind the Fifties.
McCormick, N. (2011). Folk Music: A Quiet Revolution. The Telegraph.
Substance / Alcohol Abuse among the Elderly
Substance/alcohol abuse among the elderly 60 years and older
Alcohol and substance abuse among the elderly is a significant social problem, not only because people in this age group tend to have very permissive attitudes towards social drug and alcohol usage but also because the stressors that accompany aging may result in increases in drug or alcohol usage to problematic levels. While people may begin experiencing age-related problems in their 40s and 50s, it is not generally until their 60s that most people begin to experience significant physical or emotional challenges related to age. These challenges are often accompanied by major life changes, such as retirement, the death of a spouse or friends, relocation, and diminished physical and intellectual capabilities. These changes may mean a lack of access to the coping mechanisms that have traditionally served the individual, leading to a rise in…
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2012). Substance abuse among older adults: Treatment improvement protocol (TIP) series, No. 26. HHS Publication No. (SMA) 12-3918. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Finkelstein, E., Prabhu, M., & Chen, H. (2007). Increased prevalence of falls among elderly individuals with mental health and substance abuse conditions. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15(7), 611-619.
Folkman, S., Bernstein, L, & Lazarus, R.S. (1987). Stress processes and the misuse of drugs in older adults. Psychology and Aging, 2(4), 366-374.
Garland, E.L., Schwarz, N.R., Kelly, A., Whitt, A., & Howard, M.O. (2012). Mindfulness-oriented recovery enhancement for alcohol dependence: Therapeutic mechanisms and intervention acceptability work. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 12, 242-263. doi:10.1080/1533256X.2012.702638
Electric guitar [...] history of the invention of the electric guitar and of primary inventor/developer Les Paul. What were his contributions, as a designer, and as a musician? How have the technical developments in electric guitars and amplification affected the evolution of rock? The electric guitar electrified rock, literally. A distant cousin of the acoustic guitar, the electric guitar had power, presence, and an attitude, and it made a difference in the music we listen to today. Some believe the electric guitar is rock and roll music, and it exemplifies how a new instrument can create a sound, and a legend, all its' own.
Guitars have existed in history for thousands of years. elated to lutes, (which had only two strings), most guitars had six strings, and were designed to be strummed or plucked. It was not until the 20th century that the acoustic, hollow-bodied guitar metamorphosized into the solid-body,…
Butters, P. (1996, November 7). The power of guitars: Exhibition amplifies instrument's history. The Washington Times, p. 4.
DeCurtis, A. (Ed.). (1992). Present Tense: Rock & Roll and Culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Friedlander, P. (1996). Rock and Roll A Social History. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Gracyk, T. (1996). Rhythm and noise: An aesthetics of rock. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Mbuti Pygmies of the Ituri Forest
The Mbuti pygmies are a nomadic tribe who inhabit the southern and central portions of the Ituri forest, in the epublic of Congo. They are an ethnocentric and homogenous society whose traditions, gender relations, kinship, social organization have remained unchanged until the last fifty years. The Mbuti tribe is divided into two sub-groups, the Efe and the Mbuti. Currently there are between 20,000 and 50,000 Mbuti people in the Congo (Ojo, 1996). The Mbuti pygmies are hunter-gatherers and have practiced hunting and foraging for thousands of years. Many of the foods they find in hunting and foraging expeditions, especially meat and wild honey, are used as trade items with neighboring tribes like the Bila or Bira people. The Mbuti pygmies are primarily net hunters while the Efe sub-groups of the Mbuti tribe use the bow and arrow. According to Denslow and Padoch (1988) in…
(Bayrock E 20110517 Comparison of kinship systems) Bayrock, E. (n.d.). Comparison of kinship systems. Retrieved May 17, 2011, from http://www.2cyberwhelm.org/archive/diversity/commun/htm/compare.htm
(Denslow J. Padoch C. 1988 People of the tropical rainforest) Denslow, J., & Padoch, C. (Eds.). (1988). People of the tropical rainforest. Berkley, CA: University of California Press.
(Ichikawa M. 1999 Mbuti of northern congo) Ichikawa, M. (1999). The Mbuti of northern Congo. In R.Lee & R. Daly (Eds.), The Cambridge enclyclopedia of hunters and gatherers (pp. 201-215). Cmbridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
(Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia Of World Cultures 1999 Effe and Mbuti) Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia Of World Cultures. (1999). Effe and Mbuti. Retrieved May 16, 2011, from http://find.galegroup.com/gps/start.do?prodId=IPS&userGroupName=alamco_main
ECB can be successful at emulating the stategic model set foth by the Geman Bundesbank. The discussion will focus on the fact that the ECB is facing diffeent poblems as it is still in the developmental phases. The investigation will seek to detemine whethe the tools of the Bundesbank can povide suppot fo the ECB in achieving economic stability in the Euopean Monetay Union.
Reseach about this paticula topic is impotant because the Euopean Union is expected to expand in the yeas to come. In addition, many membes of the Euopean Union have opted to have a single cuency. This means that economic stability is even moe essential in ensue that the Euopean Monetay System is economically efficient.
The methodology fo this eseach will encompass seveal foms. Fistly, the eseach will contain backgound infomation about the ECB and the Bundesbank. In addition, the eseach will contain a liteatue eview to…
JAZZ: KANSAS CITY AFTER-HOURS CLUS IN THE 1930S & THEIR CONTRIUTION TO JAZZ
The objective of this work is to examine the question of what would have happened to jazz if there had been a crackdown on illegal "after hour" clubs in Kansas City in the 1930s? Toward this end, this work will examine the literature in this area of study.
In the 1930s, while the rest of the United States and its cities were in the grips of The Depression, Kansas City was churning out jazz all night long. Kansas City was for all intents and purposes under the control of a local politician/mob boss/entrepreneur in the form of Jim Pendergrast who upon dying passed his power to his brother who was not as honest or ethical as Jim but who sustained an economic boom in Kansas City right in the middle of The Depression.
Where Did Jazz Get…
Pearson, Nathan W. (1994) Going to Kansas City. University of Illinois Press 1994.
Erenberg, Lewis A. (1999) Swingin' the Dream: Big Band Jazz and the Rebirth of American Culture. University of Chicago Press, 1999.
Ogren, Kathy J. (1992) The Jazz Revolution: Twenties America and the Meaning of Jazz. Oxford University Press U.S., 1992
Driggs, Frank and Haddix, Chuck (2005) Kansas City jazz: from ragtime to bebop-- a history. Oxford University Press U.S., 2005
Over the course of the 1960s, the United States saw great social and political upheaval, as countless young people revolted against a system that was fundamentally incapable of effectively representing them or their desires. Though the decade saw the development of a number of important social and political efforts, such as the civil rights movement, the hippie movement has come to define the era, and for good reason. Hippies not only opposed the Vietnam War, but they also formed a counter-culture, opposing repressive standards of dress, behavior, and even thought, and, ultimately, they ended up forcing the entire country to undergo a dramatic ideological shift. The films Head, Skidoo, and Psych-Out represent three different reactions to the social conflict that gave rise to the hippie movement, and each films' implicit or explicit treatment of psychedelic drugs, as well as its representation of preexisting entertainment genres, reveals its particular…
Becker, M. (2006). A point of little hope: Hippie horror films and the politics of ambivalence.
Velvet Light Trap, (57), 42-59.
Goostree, L. (1988). The monkees and the deconstruction of television realism. Journal of Popular Film & Television, 16(2), 50-50.
Thomas, K. (1968, Nov 20). Monkees cavort in head at the vogue. Los Angeles Times (1923-
Drama - World
Band of Brothers is the late historian, Stephen E. Ambrose's real story of Easy Company, 506th Regiment, 101st Paratroopers, who participated in "Operation Overlord," the D-Day Invasion of Normandy,…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
Band of Brothers, Stephen Ambrose (1992) is talking about the experiences of orld ar II veterans (who are a part of the D-Day operations). It follows the creation, training…Read Full Paper ❯
and of rothers rief Summary of eyond and of rothers The book "eyond and of rothers" has been written by the commander of the army, Dick Winters. Winters and…Read Full Paper ❯
The west part of the Peninsula had been defended by the 243rd Static Infantry Division, which could not work to its full potential due to the outdated weapons that…Read Full Paper ❯
Founding Brothers When studying the history of the formation of the United States, one usually thinks in terms of separate events and individuals. However, the American republic was established,…Read Full Paper ❯
MASTRS OF ROCK & ROLL TH KINGSMN: Composed of Jack ly on guitar and vocals, Mike Mitchell on guitar, Dan Gallucci on piano, Bob Norby on bass and Lynn…Read Full Paper ❯
Representations of War in the Longest Day and Saving Private Ryan Hollywood's depictions and interpretations of the events that transpired on D-Day have long captured the attention of audiences…Read Full Paper ❯
Henry stresses that the men have a choice: they are free men and do not fight because they are compelled to do so: That he which hath no stomach…Read Full Paper ❯
During the speech, he claps the men's shoulders, and makes human, tactile contact with the soldiers. Even though he is a king, everyone is part of the family of…Read Full Paper ❯
The 101st Division has also supported humanitarian relief efforts in Rwanda and Somalia, and have been deployed as peacekeepers to Haiti and Bosnia (101st). As part of the 2003…Read Full Paper ❯
Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War by Mark Bowden. Specifically, it will contain a general book report on the book, with emphasis on the leadership qualities of…Read Full Paper ❯
Mark Twain, The Prince and the Pauper Calais, France Anno Domini 1544, October the First My dear Hugh, It is with a heavy heart that I take up quill…Read Full Paper ❯
Integration in the CI/HUMINT Community An Analysis of the Benefits of Integration in the CI/HUMINT Community and Strategies for Effective Implementation Shea Larson The success of any counterinsurgency operation…Read Full Paper ❯
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND WHAT DOES IT AIM TO STUDY? Inspired by Kurt Lewin (1951), social psychology adopted the experimental method to study human behavior (Wood & Kroger, 1998). In…Read Full Paper ❯
The Rangers eventually located the battery of cannons that had been moved by the Germans and destroyed them with thermite grenades and helped secure the adjacent beaches for the…Read Full Paper ❯
esearch Questions: Unfortunately, as promising as the potential benefits of incorporating brain-based, active learning, inquiry-based, hands-on participation, and multiple intelligence-based methods of academic instruction is, comprehensive programs of this…Read Full Paper ❯
Fraternity and Sorority FATENITIES AND SOOITIES Fraternities generally refer to any social organization that works for some specific causes. However Fraternities and sororities together refer to college or university-based…Read Full Paper ❯
programs discussed help build core competencies and competitive capabilities at L'Oreal. L'Oreal is an international company that strives to ensure that all of its diverse employees feel at home…Read Full Paper ❯
Henry v Author: William Shakespear Please provide an essay Henry v interpretation Kingship relation actions play. Please include quotes William Shakespeare's play, The Life of Henry the Fifth, is…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
Living Memory Disappears Having read the second slide in the Power point presentation concerning the deaths of the last French veterans of World War I, what difference do you…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
Henry the Fifth and the Ideal of a Monarch Shakespeare's history plays are based mostly in fact yet have the insertion of beliefs and systems that where truly his…Read Full Paper ❯
Introduction William Shakespeare and Robert Burns are both iconic figures in the UK. Also known as the Bard of Avon, Shakespeare is often regarded as England’s national poet. Shakespeare…Read Full Paper ❯
This were then replaced with larger big band orchestras as technology allowed such large groups to be clearly recorded, "As the swing era began, shorts were made of many…Read Full Paper ❯
Green Day, on the other hand, may have started off as a "Punk" band, but devolved into a "punk" band. In the song "American Idiot," Green Day states a…Read Full Paper ❯
The outcome of all of this was a rock concert which -- aside from the actual happenstance of performances -- was heavily controlled by the interest of the filmmaker.…Read Full Paper ❯
Le Grand Hautbois During the reign of Louis XIII and especially Louis XIV, the courts were alive with new Baroque music and instruments. Many new wind instruments were being…Read Full Paper ❯
Bee Gees The Bees were a British and Australian band that was originally a pop singer-songwriter combinations and then reborn as funk and disco (Bee pp). The brothers Gibb…Read Full Paper ❯
German Influences on Texas Culture If one has lived in Texas for any length of time, they will realize immediately that the Texas culture is influenced by German culture…Read Full Paper ❯
British Invasion on the United States: 1964 -- 1967 The arrival of the Beatles in New York City in 1964 for an appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show marked…Read Full Paper ❯
Well, I kind of introduced that into Lindy Hopping. And we call it an air step because that's the way that we envisioned it -- as a step. We…Read Full Paper ❯
A Tribe Called Quest has performed live at a number of large music festivals including Bumbershoot and Lollapalooza. These big name, big draw venues allowed A Tribe Called Quest…Read Full Paper ❯
For most of the story the setting surrounded the narrator and his life. It was his house, his family, and his experiences that made up the majority of the…Read Full Paper ❯
social poblem of using and selling dugs is potayed in music. I'm inteested in studying this because music has at once been accused of gloifying dug cultue and also…Read Full Paper ❯
1970, backstage of ?The Ed Sullivan Show?, a kid was wondering around, waiting to perform on stage with his band when Ed Sullivan approached him and said "Never forget…Read Full Paper ❯
But before Rock could get the chance Manila's man enveloped his position and Rock only escaped by slipping into a powder blue and pink cocktail dress and slinking out…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
Zhu Yuanzhang: First Ming Dynasty Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang was founder of the Ming Dynasty, the one dynasty that endured for so long (1368-1644), considering the fact that it was…Read Full Paper ❯
Scholastic: 1993 Curious young astronomers who ask, "what are stars made of?" And "Why do astronauts float in space?" will find answers here. A brief survey of the universe…Read Full Paper ❯
The architects are not simply referencing a general Neoclassical style but evoking specific elements of Roman architectural style that suggested wealth and success. The Los Angeles Stock Exchange on…Read Full Paper ❯
In addition many researchers point out that having a consistent vision and strong, defensible unique value proposition are also critical for the continued viability of a restaurant. elationship marketing…Read Full Paper ❯
Madam Eglantyne the Nun, is also an ironic charater. She eats in a very refined manner and attempts other fine characteristics such as speaking French, although she fares poorly…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
7. Esperanza was being asked (or told) by Dona Trini that she was going to have to service more clients than just Mr. Haynes, and Esperanza told Dona that…Read Full Paper ❯
) "Sonnet 130" by Shakespeare and "Sonnet 23" by Louis Labe both talk about love, as so many sonnets do. Their respective techniques however, differentiate them from each other.…Read Full Paper ❯
Ink Spots "An all-Negro show, headed by the rejuvenated Ink Spots, has everything it takes to be a top entertainment piece. The Spots, making their periodic visit here, were…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
Atahualpa clearly held great respect for the Andean traditional drink and considered that it was an insult for the visitors to show little interest regarding it and even to…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
Court Opening Argument It is humbly submitted to the Hon'ble Court that this respondent as per the issues and syllabus cited submit that the issues of the litigation pertain…Read Full Paper ❯
African estaurant evival New York is home to people from all over the world, and it is well-known that they often bring with them cuisine from their homelands. Foodies…Read Full Paper ❯
Sidney echet truly led the life of a jazz musician. He was a supporter of Dixieland Jazz who played the clarinet and was the first person to play Jazz…Read Full Paper ❯
This was the beginning of America's Golden Age of Musicals and thus it is important to understand what actually went into making a great musical. This was also a…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
The absence of such support could mean a quick relapse to the old habits. Indeed, those patients who prefer to battle their addiction alone are much more likely to…Read Full Paper ❯
Charlie Parker Music: The music of United States changed significantly during the twentieth century, and each generation went on to develop its own music. These were all immensely popular,…Read Full Paper ❯
2). ir Cargo, Inc. only flew cargo from December, 1941 (when Pearl Harbor was attacked) through November, 1944. t that time, Siddiqi explains that individual airline companies authored their…Read Full Paper ❯
Gershwin was influenced by French composers of the early twentieth century. The orchestrations in Gershwin's symphonic works frequently seem comparable to those of avel; similarly, avel's two piano concertos…Read Full Paper ❯
How the Beatles Made History Introduction Everyone knows their names, even if one never cared for their music: Ringo, John, Paul, and George. Just 15, 16 and 17 respectively,…Read Full Paper ❯
Folk Music The Evolution of Folk Music Vocals By its definition, folk music technically refers to indigenous forms of music created by local, regional or native populations as a…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Substance / Alcohol Abuse among the Elderly Substance/alcohol abuse among the elderly 60 years and older Alcohol and substance abuse among the elderly is a significant social problem, not…Read Full Paper ❯
Electric guitar [...] history of the invention of the electric guitar and of primary inventor/developer Les Paul. What were his contributions, as a designer, and as a musician? How…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
Mbuti Pygmies of the Ituri Forest The Mbuti pygmies are a nomadic tribe who inhabit the southern and central portions of the Ituri forest, in the epublic of Congo.…Read Full Paper ❯
ECB can be successful at emulating the stategic model set foth by the Geman Bundesbank. The discussion will focus on the fact that the ECB is facing diffeent poblems…Read Full Paper ❯
JAZZ: KANSAS CITY AFTER-HOURS CLUS IN THE 1930S & THEIR CONTRIUTION TO JAZZ The objective of this work is to examine the question of what would have happened to…Read Full Paper ❯
Hippie evolution Over the course of the 1960s, the United States saw great social and political upheaval, as countless young people revolted against a system that was fundamentally incapable…Read Full Paper ❯