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Thus, the five faces in "The eturn of the Prodigal Son" are somewhat blurry. The overall effect is much more intimate and gentle than the brash and obvious messages in Caravaggio's work. Moreover, embrandt invites the viewer to contemplate the subject matter depicted in "The eturn of the Prodigal Son." Caravaggio spells out emotion brashly on the canvas, whereas embrandt holds back.
Unlike "The Crucifixion of Saint Peter," the mood of embrandt's painting is somber and stoic. Emotions are kept in check, unlike in Caravaggio's "Saint Peter." All five of the figures in embrandt's painting appear contented, but not necessarily overjoyed. The embrandt painting lacks dramatic intensity compared with the overtly baroque Caravaggio. Yet still, embrandt does depict a New Testament scene just as Caravaggio does. Drama is not wholly absent from either canvas, but Caravaggio is certainly more theatrical.
The differences between Caravaggio's and embrandt's work are also noticeable…
"Baroque Art." Survey of Western Art. Retrieved 4 April 2010 from http://loki.stockton.edu/~fergusoc/lesson7/lect7.htm
Harden, M. (nd). Baroque Art. Artchive. Retrieved 4 April 2010 from http://www.artchive.com/artchive/baroque.html
"Protestant Baroque." Lynn University Art Appreciation. Retrieved 4 April 2010 from http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/arts/painting/baroque/protest-baroq/protest-baroq.htm
"Rembrandt van Rijn." Retrieved 4 April 2010 from http://www.artchive.com/artchive/R/rembrandt.html
e. Jesus hrist, Virgin Mary, St. John the Baptist, are not depicted as ideals, perfect exterior forms but as specific and personal figures who are able to inspire and stir emotions. The viewer is no longer separated from the object of the painting, but becomes closer to it. In this sense, the viewer is able to relate to the experience of the characters. Young Mary is much more than an ideal of purity and grace; she becomes a representative of women, of believers, of children. The power is now in the hands of the audience who is able to attribute particular roles to the figures they see on the canvas. The content of the paintings thus becomes more intimate and emotional. Nonetheless, Baroque paintings continued to illustrate form and features similarly to the Renaissance, but it enriched the harsher lines and colors of the painting belonging to the previous centuries…
Caravaggio: The Holy Family with the Infant and St. John the Baptist. http://entertainment.webshots.com/photo/2434650850037029906dJmCQI
Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velazquez: The Supper at Emmaus (14.40.631)." In Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000-. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/vela/hod_14.40.631.htm
Francisco de Zurbaran: The Young Virgin (1632-3)." In Department of Religious Studies. University of Alabama. http://www.as.ua.edu/rel/nancarrowlecture.html
There is a kaleidoscopic plurality of symbols and links among them, but it is easier to decipher the central meaning of the whole: the spiritual supremacy of the pope. Thus a political program was transformed into a beautiful masterpiece." (Findlen)
ernini believed that in architecture the main focus was on the material and the invention, then on the manner in which the parts were ordered and finally on the "perfection of grace and delicacy" (Ingraham). Under these circumstances it can be argued that ernini's statues are architecturally-oriented and this contributes to their elevate expressivity, distinguishing him from other baroque sculptors.
Another important sculptor associated with the Italian baroque current is orromini. It is said that ernini and orromini were direct rivals and they competed for projects as well as for glory. One of the most important works of orromini is represented by the St. Agnese in Agone church. The work…
Blunt, Anthony. Borromini, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press Cambridge Massachusetts, Google Books retrieved December 9, 2009 from http://books.google.com/books?id=j8LlONLlf-cC&printsec=frontcover&dq=borromini&cd=1#v=onepage&q=&f=false
Findlen, Paula. Athanasius Kircher: the last man who knew everything, Routledge, Google Books, retrieved December 8, 2009 from http://books.google.it/books?id=6nnokX4nxtcC&pg=PA54&lpg=PA54&dq=fountain+of+the+four+rivers+interpretation&source=bl&ots=u8Z1H4gdLh&sig=DIXnKFtjwoLu5ATbyNHYpCYc8KQ&hl=it&ei=AMQfS9raIIzimwOzj_mfCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CCYQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=fountain%20of%20the%20four%20rivers%20interpretation&f=false
Giedion, Sigfried. Space, time and architecture: the growth of a new tradition.Google books, retrieved December 9, 2009 from http://books.google.com/books?id=ZHZnmKxkGMwC&pg=PA110&dq=borromini&cd=7#v=onepage&q=borromini&f=false
Ingraham, Catherine. Architecture:, animal, human: the asymmetrical condition. Routledge, Google books, retrieved December 9, 2009 from http://books.google.com/books?id=_BF4LRSNsPcC&pg=PA38&dq=bernini+sculptures&cd=8#v=onepage&q=bernini%20sculptures&f=false
Bernini and Caravaggio
Baroque art was a style that appeared in response to the 16th century Mannerist period and was characterized by religious iconography and figures but with a focus on the pre-Christian religions such as Greek and Roman mythology. The characteristics of Baroque art can be seen in many branches of the art world such as in sculptures, paintings, literature and architecture. The movement started around 1600 in Italy where the Catholic Church was particularly strong and spread throughout most of Europe very quickly. Many of the artworks from this period show the influence of the church on the daily lives of the people and how the artists fought against this. Following this period, the Baroque era is when the taboos of what was and was not appropriate to paint seemed to deteriorate, if not disappear forever, In many works of art at the time, the complete female and…
Three Baroque Artists
The purpose of this paper is to introduce, discuss, and analyze three works of art, Peter Paul ubens' "ape of the Daughters of Leucippus" - 1618, embrandt Van ijn's "The Descent from the Cross" - 1634, and Caravaggio's "The Death of the Virgin" - 1605/6. Specifically, it will contain an opinion and assessment on each of the works.
ape of the Daughters of Leucippus" is an oil on canvas painting, measuring about 88 x 82 7/8 inches, and the original resides in the Pinakothek Museum in Munich, Germany. This painting portrays the abduction of two nude women by two large and powerful men, with their stallion rearing in the background, and a cherub hovering near the edge of the painting. The colors are rich and vibrant, from the natural skin tones of the women, to the tanned and burly beards of the men. Action and upheaval…
Caravaggio. "Death of the Virgin." WebGalleryofArt. 2004. 11 March 2004. http://www.kfki.hu/~arthp/html/c/caravagg/07/45death.html
Martin, John Rupert. Baroque. New York: Harper and Row, 1977.
Pioche, Nicholas. "Caravaggio." WebMuseum. 27 July 2002. 11 March 2004. http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/caravaggio/
Peter Paul Rubens." WebMuseum. 27 July 2002. 11 March 2004. http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/rubens/
Manifesto: A Difference between aroque and Modern Art
The manifesto of the aroque artist was in the work itself -- there was no need to explain it in writing as the tools of the artist were fully capable of allowing the artist to present a view that was both pleasing to the artist and/or patron and illuminative/educative for the viewer. The entire aroque artistic movement was rooted in a spirit of counter-reformation that supported a more realistic and visually stunning sense of the wholeness of things as well as of the "nature" of humanity -- neither purely angelic nor brutishly animalistic, but somewhere in between, touched by sin.[footnoteRef:1] [1: Paul Johnson, Art: A New History (NY: HarperCollins, 2003), 16.]
This sense of fallen human nature would gradually be rejected by the modern world, displaced by a more naturalistic, evolutionary perspective. A new definition of man would be established by modern…
Bauer, Herman. Baroque. Cologne, Germany: Taschen, 2006.
Bussagli, Marco; Reiche, Mattia. Baroque and Rococco. NY: Sterling, 2009
Fuchs, R.H. Rembrandt in Amsterdam. Greenwich, CT: New York Graphic Society,
Kehinde iley's Santos-Dumont -- The Father of Aviation II from "The orld Stage: Brazil" series (2009) is a work of Baroque art in the sense that it expresses a dramatic scene that invites the viewer to participate in it. The eyes of the central subjects, for instance, gaze out at the viewer as though the viewer were the actual subject of the painting rather than the two dead black men whose eyes are fixed at the public. In this sense, the painting is a throwback to works like those of Rembrandt, the Dutch Baroque painter, who often included characters in his paintings whose eyes were turned towards the viewer as though the viewer were interrupting some important action by approaching the canvas.
Baroque art grew out of the Catholic Church's response to the rise of Protestantism and wanted to emphasize a naturalistic and realistic point in realistic arts (Johnson 178).…
"Afro-Brazilian Baroque." Art Remix: Minneapolis Institute of Arts. Web. 11 Apr
Johnson, Paul. Art: A New History. NY: HarperCollins, 2003. Print.
Wolfe, Tom. The Painted Word. NY: Picador, 1975. Print.
The Techniques of Five Baroque Painters
The Baroque era painters, different as they were in terms of personal style, approach, and technique, had in common the ability to imbue their works with a certain dramatic quality much in demand in the era. The Baroque had followed on the heels of the High Renaissance with its humanism and emerging scientifically revolutionary theses. The Protestant Reformation had begun and religious and political wars were raging through Europe. The Baroque style of painting has been linked with the Church's Counter-Reformation, an artistic expression of those mysteries taught by the Church regarding fallen human nature. The word "baroque" means "imperfect pearl" and was applied by later critics, who sought to criticize the artistic works of the period for their elaborate, or excessively detailed, or highly dramatic compositions. It was precisely for these reasons that the Church supported the Baroque painters -- they…
Bauer, Herman. Baroque. Cologne, Germany: Taschen, 2006. Print.
Bomford, David. Art in the Making: Rembrandt. CT: Yale University Press, 2006.
Brown, Jon. Painting in Spain: 1500 -- 1700. CT: Yale University Press, 1998. Print.
Self-Images in Baroque Art
'Baroque' is a word that is employed to describe 17th- and early 18th- century European art. The art form signified a shift from Renaissance art's classism and linearity (though a few artists from that period carried on with creating artworks in the older style). Baroque was also characterized by a shift towards drama, motion, theatricality, unpredictability, and impulse. This style thrived in many areas of the European continent including Italy, Spain, Flanders, and the Netherlands, and was marked by some common elements despite the existence of major distinctions between regions and artists. Baroque sculptures and paintings were structured around unpredictable diagonal lines, instead of the traditional pyramid or triangle.[footnoteRef:1] Self-portraits grew into a progressively ambitious form that took the aspects of self-awareness and self-promotion to new heights.[footnoteRef:2] In this paper, three Baroque self-images will be discussed, namely, Rembrandt, 1660; Salvatore Rosa, 1647; and Anthony van Dyck,…
PETE PAUL UBENS & CAAVAGGIO
The artistic period known as the enaissance continued without any sharp stylistic changes well into the 17th and 18th centuries; however, the art of this later period is often called Baroque, although there is no single Baroque style or set of stylistic ideals. Yet within the last one hundred years or so, Baroque has taken on the overall designation for the art of the period from circa 1600 to 1750. More recently, scholars have come to understand that Baroque styles were very different from those linked to the enaissance. For example, during the enaissance, art tended to be rather static, but during the Baroque, art became very dynamic and encompassed passion, opulence, a taste for the theatrical and introduced the virtuoso, being an artist that stood out from his contemporaries as a truly gifted genius.
Historically, the Baroque Period entailed many artistic ideals,…
"Caravaggio: 1571-1610." (2005). Internet. Olga's Gallery. Accessed May 16, 2005. http:www.abcgallery.com/C/caravaggio/caravaggio.html.
Held, Julius S. (1954). Peter Paul Rubens: 1577-1640. New York: Harry N. Abrams.
Payne, Robert. (1969). Caravaggio. London: W.H. Allen.
"Peter Paul Rubens." (2005). Internet. The Artchive. Accessed May 16, 2005. http://www.artchive.com/artchive/R/rubens.html#images .
An examination of "Virgin and Child with St. John the Baptist" by Jacopo del Sellaio, 1480-85 and "St. Sebastian Attended by Holy omen" by Nicolas Regnier (called Nicolo Renieri) 1615-1626 reveal the differences between early and later Renaissance painting in Italy. Jacopo del Sellaio's word dates to the late fifteenth century, and Renieri painted more than a century after that. The historical context of their work also signals the differences between Sellaio and Renieri. Sellaio studied under Fra Filippo Lippi and his style inevitably reveals his connection with the Lippi school. Sandro Botticelli studied under Lippi at the same time; Renieri and Botticelli influenced each other and this is especially evident in "Virgin and Child with St. John the Baptist." For instance, Botticelli's style is evident in Sellaio's work "in such traits as the texture and color of hair, the tilt of the Virgin's head and the elongation…
Castelvecchi, Davide. "Renaissance Painting Restoration Leads to Unusual Collaboration." Stanford Report. July 21, 2004. Retrieved online: http://news.stanford.edu/news/2004/july21/jacopo-721.html
Regnier, Nicolas. "St. Sebastian Attended by Holy Women," 1615-1626.
Sellaio, Jacopo del. "Virgin and Child with St. John the Baptist." Painting. 1480-85
According to Henry a. Millon, the sparkling gaiety of this style "was cultivated by a new age associated with the regency that followed upon the death of Louis XIV and then with the reign of Louis XV," meaning that these two French kings and their opulent lifestyles highly influenced the art that came about during the beginning and middle years of the 18th century in Europe (156).
Essentially, the Rococo is an interior style or, in other words, pertains mostly to the decoration of objects designed for the interior of palaces and royal residencies. As compared to the art of the aroque Era, that of the Rococo style is far removed from religious and national influences. Architecturally, one of the best examples of the Rococo style can be found in the Rococo room of the Salon de la Princesse at the Hotel de Soubise in Paris, decorated by Germain offrand…
Millon, Henry a. Baroque and Rococo Architecture and Art. New York: Doubleday, 1975.
Tapie, Victor L. The Age of Grandeur: Baroque Art and Architecture. New York: Phadeon Books, 1966.
Impressionism in art developed in the 19th century. Impressionist paintings were characterized by visible brush strokes, and subject was drawn from ordinary life and outdoors, rather than being confined to still life, or portraits and landscapes drawn in studios. Emphasis was laid on the effect of light changing its qualities as well as movement. These characteristics of impression can be well observed in the works of art by Gustave Caillebotte, Edgar Degas and Edouard Manet in their paintings Paris: A ainy Day, The Absinthe Drinker and The Bar at the Folies Bergere respectively.
Paris: A ainy Day is an oil painting drawn in 1877 encompasses the Impressionist use of landscape scene. The curator of the Art Institute of Chicago was quoted describing the painting by Hedy Weiss in the Chicago Sun-Times (December 12, 1995) as "the great picture of urban life in the late 19th century." The masterpiece gives…
1. Gaustave Caillebotte, Paris Street: A Rainy Day, retrieved on July 9, 2012 from http://sites.google.com/site/beautyandterror/Home/bourgeoisie-and-proletariat
2. L' Absinthe-Degas, retrieved on July 9, 2012 from http://labsinthedegas.blogspot.com/
3. Edouard Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergere, retrieved on July 9, 2012 from http://sites.google.com/site/beautyandterror/Home/capitalism-and-the-death
It would have been as ridiculous for a working class man or woman to make art as it would have for that same person to become an accountant. Still, artists throughout time have snuck in their personal values in their paintings. Hieronymous Bosch is one of the artists I believe to have inserted personal values into Church-commissioned art.
Even in the modern era, art is still entwined with money. The artist needs to live, sure. But that is not the only connection between art and money. Art galleries exist because art has become big money. Art symbolizes wealth. No ordinary person can afford "real" art. Ordinary people purchase prints and reproductions, not original pieces by known or up-and-coming artists.
Art is like any other commodity now, for better or for worse. Artists have a greater chance than ever of making a viable living, given the plethora of opportunities in graphic…
Art of classical antiquity, in the ancient cultures of Greece and ome, has been much revered, admired, and imitated. In fact, the arts of ancient Greece and ome can be considered the first self-conscious and cohesive art movements in Europe. Style, form, execution, and media were standardized and honed to the point where aesthetic ideals were created and sustained over time. The art of classical antiquity in Greece and ome reverberated throughout history, impacting the art of subsequent eras in Europe. In fact, there can be no absolute "neoclassical" era in art history because of the way neoclassicism evolved throughout the centuries since the fall of the oman Empire. The arts of the enaissance borrowed heavily from classical antiquity, as can be seen in enaissance icons such as Michelangelo's David. Some suggest that medieval art pays homage to classical antiquity, even if the quotations from classical Greek and ome are…
Castelijn, D. (2012). The Influence of Classical Antiquity on the Renaissance. Oxford Department for Continuing Education. Retrieved online: http://www.conted.ox.ac.uk/courses/details.php?id=V350-130#pagetop
"Classical Antiquity in the Middle Ages," (n.d.). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved online: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/anti/hd_anti.htm
"Greek Art," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.ancient-greece.org/art.html
"Jacques-Louis David," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.jacqueslouisdavid.org/
Admittedly, these two teams were faced with a daunting challenge in acquiring and interpreting those works of art that were most appropriate for their exhibition goals, and interpretive efforts must use some framework in which to present the resources in a fashion that can be understood and appreciated by the targeted audiences.
Nevertheless, there is little or no discussion concerning the fusion of artistic styles in the two catalogs, with a preference for a neat and orderly, date by date, presentation of representative works that typify the points being made by the exhibition. Despite these shortcomings, both catalogs were shown to be authoritative references that were supported by relevant citations and imagery. Likewise, both catalogs provide useful overviews of the materials that are being presented preparatory to their interpretation, helping place the information in its historical context.
The research showed that interest and appreciation in colonial Latin American art…
Bailey, Gauvin Alexander. Introduction in Art of Colonial Latin America. New York: Phaidon
Paz, Octavio. Metropolitan Museum of Art: Mexico: Splendors of Thirty Centuries. Los Angeles: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Pierce, Donna, Gomar, Rogelio R. And Bargellini, Clara. Painting a New World: Mexican Art
ART CRITICISM AND THEORY: Question: How constraints practices artists/designers/architects influence make? Make reference TO response: - Site - Views art critics historians - Historical precedents - Materials technologies - Time - Audience expectations.
Post-modern art and theory
Artists in the post-modern era realized that they dealt with a lot of pressure coming from the public and that it was important for them to employ attitudes that would reflect positively on their works. Even with this, people need to understand that artists have always been constrained and that being limited actually had a constructive effect on most individuals. Chaos is difficult to discuss when regarding things from an artistic point-of-view, as while some people consider it to be an important asset, others believe that it is better for an artist to work with a limited amount of tools because this makes it possible for him or her to actually demonstrate that…
Gehry, Frank, "Fred & Ginger Building," 1996
Gehry, Frank, "Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao," 1997
Dir. Bill Viola. Ocean without a shore. 2007
Dir. Bill Viola. Silent Mountain. 2001.
William Blake's works included writings and illustrations, some of which were a bit moody and gothic, which also characterized this era. It was a time of modernization, when the opulence of the past simply did not seem relevant or even desirable any more, and it again illustrates just how different eras and ideas about society and money can alter art and artists' works. Art mirrors society and society's interests, which is why it has always changed through time, and will continue to do so.
2007). The restored hall of mirrors revealed to the public. etrieved from the Chateau Versailles Web site: http://www.chateauversailles.fr/fr/Panoramiques/Pano_GG_b1500.htm27 July 2007.
Blake, W. (2007). Infant joy (From Songs of Innocence). etrieved from the Mark Harden Artchive Web site: http://www.artchive.com/artchive/B/blake/blake_songs_25.jpg.html27 July 2007.
Fuseli, H. (2007). Satan starting from the touch of Ithuriel's spear. etrieved from the Tate Britain Museum Web site: http://www.tate.org.uk/britain/exhibitions/gothicnightmares/infocus/satanspear.htm#t27 July 2007.
Harden, M. ococo.…
2007). The restored hall of mirrors revealed to the public. Retrieved from the Chateau Versailles Web site: http://www.chateauversailles.fr/fr/Panoramiques/Pano_GG_b1500.htm27 July 2007.
Blake, W. (2007). Infant joy (From Songs of Innocence). Retrieved from the Mark Harden Artchive Web site: http://www.artchive.com/artchive/B/blake/blake_songs_25.jpg.html27 July 2007.
Fuseli, H. (2007). Satan starting from the touch of Ithuriel's spear. Retrieved from the Tate Britain Museum Web site: http://www.tate.org.uk/britain/exhibitions/gothicnightmares/infocus/satanspear.htm#t27 July 2007.
Harden, M. Rococo. Retrieved from the Mark Harden Artchive Web site: http://www.artchive.com/artchive/rococo.html27 July 2007.
Period/date- enaissance 1501- 1504
Location or origin- Florence Italy
Medium and size- Sculpture
Period/date- Baroque 1610
Location or origin- ome
Medium and size- Painting
The story of David and Goliath is one that transcends time. In particular, the story appeals to a wide array of diverse individuals, each with its own views on religion, culture and values. Through the universal appeal of David, many different interpretations have arisen throughout time. These interpretations, although distinct, often convey a fundamental truth prevailing during the period of its creation. Aspects such as war, political policies, civil unrest, and culture values often matriculate into the interpretation of the David of Goliath. Art is no different in this regard. Both the Baroque and enaissance periods gave rise to new and distinct forms of belief and expression. These concepts ultimately matriculated into many of the more commonly know masterpieces of today's time. The…
1) Hartt, Frederick, Michelangelo: the complete sculpture, New York: Abrams,1982
2) Howard Hibbard, Michelangelo, New York: Harper & Row, 1974, 59-61; Anthony Hughes, Michelangelo, London: Phaidon, 1997, 74
French omantic painter, Eugene Delacroix, is well-known from this period. Delacroix often took his subjects from literature but added much more by using color to create an effect of pure energy and emotion that he compared to music. He also showed that paintings can be done about present-day historical events, not just those in the past (Wood, 217). He was at home with styles such as pen, watercolor, pastel, and oil. He was also skillful in lithography, a new graphic process popular with the omantics. His illustrations of a French edition of Goethe's "Faust" and Shakespeare's "Hamlet" still stand as the finest examples in that medium.
Delacroix' painting "Massacre at Chios" is precisely detailed, but the action is so violent and the composition so dynamic that the effect is very disturbing (Janson, 678). With great vividness of color and strong emotion he pictured an incident in which 20,000 Greeks were…
Art: A World History. New York: DK Publishing, 1997.
Eysteinsson, Astradur. The Concept of Modernism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1992
Gardner, Helen. Art through the Ages. New York: Harcourt, Brace: 1959.
Hoving, Thomas. Art. Foster City, CA: IDG, 1999.
ather, the vines and clusters f grapes on the tree give the piece its true softness and roundness. This is mirrored by the effect of the figures' hair. Both faun and children all possess curling flowing ringlets that seem to hang as loosely as do the grapes, emphasizing a sense of liberty in the work.
The sense of softness and liberty bestowed upon the piece by the line and texture is oddly juxtaposed with the impressions created by other elements of Bacchanal: A Faun Teased by Children. Most obviously, the piece is composed in a way that makes the faun's posture seem unnaturally contorted, as if the scene has moved beyond teasing and into torment. The extreme angle of the head and neck, especially with the backwards-arcing back, evince more of a struggle to get away than the softer elements of the sculpture suggest. The same is true of the…
Delbeke, M., Levy, E., and Ostrow, S. Bernini's Biographies. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2006.
Metropolitan Museum of Art Works of Art Index. "Bacchanal: A Faun Teased by Children," Metropolitan Museum of Art. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/09/eusts/ho_1976.92.htm
Montagu, J. Roman Baroque Sculpture. Hong Kong: Yale University Press, 1989.
Metropolitan Museum of Art Works of Art Index, "Bacchanal: A Faun Teased by Children," Metropolitan Museum of Art.
The highlights on the victim and his hat, and the woman add interest and detail to the work.
This painting has extremely rich texture and pattern. Many of the details are intricate, and they make the painting come alive. The detail in the clothing makes it come alive, and it seems to have texture that the viewer could touch. The patterns of the fabric and the entire scene are quite vibrant too, and the give an overall feelings of depth and space that seems almost 3-D. The artist uses shading and shadow to create depth too, and it gives the effect of real fabric draped around the servant's head and in the tunic and feather on the hat of the victim. The texture of the four people's skin seems almost like porcelain and contrasts with the texture of the fabric they are wearing.
The clothing indicates this painting was painted…
Hubbard, Guy. "Clip & Save Art Notes." Arts & Activities Sept. 2002: 34+.
La Tour, Georges de. "The Cheat with the Ace of Clubs." Kimball Art Museum. 2006. 25 Sept. 2006. http://www.kimbellart.org/database/index.cfm?detail=yes&ID=AP%201981.06
The painting is shocking because of its dramatic perspective. First and foremost the table is not situated in the centre of the painting, nor is Jesus. In a symbolical manner this transmits the idea that God is no longer in the centre of man's world and this accounts for the chaos that seems to be omnipresent. The lower side of the painting is dominated by human figures and an atmosphere of panic and confusion seems to be dominating. The upper side of the painting is filled with angels. There is a clear separation lien between the scared world of the divine and the one of the people. The dark colours, as well as the composition succeeded into transmitting the desired message, managing to appeal to the viewer's emotions.
As opposed to the simplicity that the Protestants supported, a new style emerges, that is the aroque. This new artistic…
Feast in the house of Levi. http://www.law.harvard.edu/faculty/martin/art_law/feast_in_the_house_of_levi.htm (Accessed November 19, 2008)
Friedlaender, Walter, the anti-mannerist style. http://witcombe.sbc.edu/art-theory-baroque-Fall-2008/style3.html (Accessed November 18, 2008)
Mannerism. Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mannerism (Accessed November 19, 2008)
Nosotro, Rit. Art of the reformation and the counter reformation. Hyperhistory. http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/comp/cw20reformationart.htm (Accessed November 19, 2008)
Caravaggio: Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi dei Francesi -- "The Calling of St. Matthew"
Caravaggio has painted a Baroque masterpiece that depicts the reality of being a tax collector at the moment when Matthew is called by Christ to be a disciple. He looks up from the table where the "seedy" business of money collection is taking place and has an almost "incredulous" look in his eyes -- as if to say, "You want me?" Few people notice the presence of Our Lord -- the scene is dark -- but split down the middle, with Christ's emergence drawing the line between the light and the dark. A shaft of light falls on St. Matthew.
The video is very informative and gives a good take on the situation, providing context for the painting both as Caravaggio painted it and as it hangs in the chapel. The presenters discuss the significance of…
Lessons Plans for Teaching Baroque Artwork
Lesson Plan 1: Overview of Baroque Style Painting
Teacher Activity Description
Student Activity Description
Instruction Inquiry: A description of the learning activity and its objectives will be provided.
Teacher introduces the Baroque style of painting and describes the historical period in which it was most influential (early 16th century through the early 18th century) (Engel, 2012). For instance, according to Engel, "Baroque was generated when Italian art, as based on corporeal, exterior activity, aligned itself to northern or Germanic art with its emphasis on interior, psychological movements" (p. 3). In sum, Baroque paintings are characterized by several features, including dynamism (e.g., there is a sense of motion discernible in the artwork) that is complemented by distinctive artistic effects such as (a) strong curves, (b) elaborate decoration and (c) diminished lighting effects (Baroque painting, 2015. There were some regional difference in style, though,…
Baroque painting. (2015). Essential Humanities. Retrieved from http://www.essential-humanities.net/western-art/painting/baroque/ .
Engle, U. (2012, December). Riegl on the Baroque. Journal of Art Historiography, 7, 1-5.
Gatchev, G. D. (1987, September). Baroque in the Slav countries. UNESCO Courier, 21(1), 46-50.
Martin, J. P. (1977). Baroque. New York: Harper & Row.
We do not know if Grammatica is portraying something real or merely representing an image from the stage. This too, is symbolic of its period. The mannerist and baroque eras reflected a time when art was being made to serve the propagandistic purposes of a Church under siege. Like the headless warrior on the stone table, it also was under attack by evil forces. These forces needed to be fought by any means necessary. All were participants in this battle -- and so the figure of the lowly older woman following the direction of the more upper class Judith. Individual initiative is replaced by group action. Impulse is substituted for carefully-planned covert attack. Judith's pointing finger is indicative of a place to which the two must go, a prearranged location that apparently is known only to Judith. Again, secrecy is more important than openness, if secrecy means victory and ultimate…
The ancient cities of ome and Florence are layered ones. If one has the chance to walk the streets of these cities it is clearly that the they have had far more than the nine lives of the feline: Layer upon layer of human life and human ingenuity is displayed in the many different styles that line the streets. While we may tend to think of ome and Florence as the classical city that they once were (and of which they still bears many elements) they are also in many ways Gothic cities, for some of the cities' finest examples of architecture date from the Gothic period. This paper examines two particular Gothic churches - Santa Maria Maggiore in ome and the church of S. Maria del Fiore in Florence is no exception. Each church is examined for the combination of specific historical forces and styles, the building…
Brown, Peter. "A Dark Age Crisis." English Historical Review 88 (1973), 1-34.
Cameron, Averil. "The Virgin's Robe: An Episode in the History of Seventh-Century Constantinople." Byzantion 49 (1979), 42-56.
Croddy, S. "Gothic Architecture and Scholastic Philosophy." The British Journal of Aesthetics 39 (3), 263-272.
Davis, Michael, Science, Technology, and Gothic Architecture. Avista 8 (2) (1994/95), 3-6. http://www.area.fi.cnr.it/bivi/eng/schede/Toscana/Firenze/17cattedrale.htm
Art has always been used as a means of expression and of confirmation of events and movements that take place in the society in that respective period of time. The Neo-Classical and Romanticist art makes no exception to this rule and the two periods have been considered in the history of artistic art as two of the most representative for the expressivity they brought to the world of the arts as well as through the painters they inspired. Jacques-Louis David and Eugene Delacroix are two of the most representative painters of the New Classical period and the Romanticist art and their paintings are significant for the symbols and ideals these two periods provided for the artistic world.
Neo-classical art must be seen in the wider context of the 18th century and the era of Enlightenment when the new perceptions on the role of reason were redefined against the concepts of…
Art through the Ages
1. (Ch. 27) What is the interpretation of Goya's Saturn Devouring his Children?
The interpretation of Goya’s Saturn Devouring his Children is based on the myth of Saturn who feared that his children would overthrow him, so he devoured them one by one to avoid that risk. Goya lived many centuries after this ancient myth of antiquity originated. However, his own contemporary situation reflected the old myth in terms of the way the powerful rulers of the time were frantically lashing out, trying to preserve their own power by destroying the least possible threat. The wild-eyed and frenzied look of Saturn in Goya’s painting, produced between the years of 1819 and 1823, reflects what was happening in his own time. The effects of the French Revolution had spread throughout Europe and Spain had gotten to enjoy the Napoleon’s conquests. Goya’s painting reflected the insane frenzy for…
enaissance and Baroque Periods
The term enaissance describes, not only a movement in art, but also a corresponding social and cultural movement that moved through Europe at the conclusion of the Middle Ages. The enaissance period lasted from the 1400s to the 1600s, and spread through most of Europe, though it is probably the most heavily associated with Italy. The term "renaissance" means revival or rebirth, and the enaissance did mark a period of significant cultural revival. In order to truly understand the enaissance, it is important to understand that the Middle Ages, the time period preceding the enaissance was a period of retraction largely due to political instability. However, as Europe emerged from the Middle Ages and became more stable, the surrounding social landscape became supportive of an explosion in the arts and learning. The movement began in Italy in the 1400s and spread into France, northern Europe, and…
A&E Television Networks. (2013). Renaissance Art. Retrieved October 31, 2013 from The
History Channel website: http://www.history.com/topics/renaissance-art da Vinci, L. (1492-1498). The Last Supper. Retrieved November 1, 2013 from Encyclopaedia
Britannica website: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/331188/Last-Supper
Khan Academy. (2013). 1600-1700: The Baroque. Retrieved October 31, 2013 from The Khan
The compositional structure here is actually quite daring. Even though a viewer tends to "read" a painting left-to-right, as with a book, here the left side of the canvas seems to fade away into nothingness. It is not just the empty seascape on the left as compared with the dark richness of the forest on the right. The left half of the painting contains the subject of the painting after all -- Europa and the Bull. It is Rembrandt's genius to have the drama of Europa and the Bull taking place in the lower left corner of a very large painting, almost as though the moment of drama is on its way out, and the viewer is lucky to have caught it. But it is also clever how Rembrandt essentially balances the canvas with two central subjects, equally illuminated from above -- we have Europa and the Bull on the…
Rather than seeking to emulate an ideal, they sought instead to cobble together influences, styles, and techniques from a range of different traditions. Relying on what others have created without actually valuing those creations on their own merits is not respectful of either tradition or innovation.
The result was a hodge-podge of aesthetics that is not without merit, but that is criticized now (and for quite a time) for not having a clear focus. annerist artists neither venerated the past nor sought to create an entirely new way of seeing. They often did incorporate fantastical subjects and twisted the forms of both of these creatures and of human subjects into sinewy shapes. The effect was not so much dreamlike (or even nightmarish) but distorted.
Even as annerist artists borrowed freely from other traditions and so seemed to devalue the worth of innovation and the allure of the new, they did…
Modern art in general has had a much more positive regard for the innovative and new. The reasons for this are complicated but may reflect consequences that have arose since the Industrial Revolution. Industrialization brought about two important trends that affected the ways in which artists interact with and feel about the new. Industrialization made constant innovation a social good in a way that had never been true before. The fact that new technologies made it easier and easier to create novel objects in the commercial world bled over to a push toward the innovative in art.
The early phases of Modernist art played directly with the ideas of how technology and art intersected with each other and how the new era of the machine made it more difficult to create work that was based on the past. The machine changed everything and made it imperative for artists to re-evaluate what it meant to be an artist at all. Daumier's 1862 Nadar Elevating Photography to the Height of Art is an ironic visual exploration of the ways in which having artistic tools such as the camera made it impossible to make art as it once was. Timothy O' Sullivan's A Harvest of Death (1863) proved incontrovertibly that new technologies changed the way in which everyone (not just artists) would view the world.
The next phase of Modernist art continued the valorization of the new, although in far more ironic ways. Indeed, irony itself in many ways can be seen to be the way in which many artists chose to confront the emphasis on the new. Beginning with the (then) new century, artists tried to combine new technologies and new social mores to ensure their audiences that they were the newest and therefore the best thing. Giacomo Balla's Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash (1912) focused on the ways in which technology affects the literal ways in which people view the world while a work like Marcel Duchamp's Nude Descending a Staircase No. 2 (1912) incorporating much more traditional artistic techniques with the innovative idea that art could only be defined by the artist.
Modernism in art triumphed from the 19th century onward and in the early 20th century virtually changed the way art came to be perceived. From the Abstractionists to the Cubists to the Surrealists to the followers of Dada, the modernists continually reinvented themselves with newer and wilder movements, firmly rejecting tradition and all its preoccupations. It was only fitting, however, that modern artists should break so completely with the past: modern society had split from the old world with the Protestant Reformation, the Age of Enlightenment, the Scientific Revolution, and the Romantic Era, all of which followed one on the heels of the other. This paper will trace the history of the final era -- the modernist -- by examining five works of five different painters of the modernist era: Franz Marc's "Fate of the Animals," Pablo Picasso's "Guitar and Violin," Marcel Duchamp's "found" artwork "Fountain," Salvador Dali's Surrealist masterpiece…
Dali, Salvador. "The Persistence of Memory." Wikipaintings. Web. 14 Feb 2013.
Duchamp, Marcel. "Fountain." Tate.org.uk. Web. 14 Feb 2013.
Greenberg, Clement. "Avant-Garde and Kitsch." Art and Culture. MA: Beacon Press,
art is changed by the changes that occur in political culture. The writer presents examples and contrasts two of the following areas Baroque, ococo, Neoclassicism, and omanticism and argues the point of how the eras drive changes in artwork. In addition the writer devotes two pages to comparing three works of famous artists.
Art has always been influenced by the masses. Political culture, and change have been driving forces behind the changes in art that history has witnessed. When political and cultural changes occur it is generally because of changing attitudes of those who live in the era and drive those changes. This extrapolates to changes in many things including taste in artwork. Two periods in history provide classic examples of such change occurring and being directly related to political and cultural changes that were taking place in society during the time.
The Neoclassical period and the omantic era are…
http://www.oceansbridge.com/art/customer/product.php?productid=38385& cat=4037& page=19& maincat=M
Pierre Bonnard The Terrace
" In other words, this barmaid "is automatic and impersonal" and reflects the upper-class social nature of Paris with its drinkers and party-goers enjoying themselves immensely while the barmaid merely stares into oblivion as if bored to death with her surroundings and her life (Monan, 2006, 435).
In contrast to these two paintings by Manet, Edgar Degas' Ballet ehearsal (1876, oil on canvas) presents "the infinite variety of particular movements that make up continuous motion" via a group of ballerinas practicing their moves in a spacious studio somewhere in Paris. Obviously, the ballerinas in this painting are part of the upper classes. Artistically, Degas used several devices to bring the viewer into the pictorial space. First, the frame cuts off the spiral staircase, the windows in the background and the group of ballerinas in the right foreground. Second, the rapid diagonals of the bases of the walls and the floorboards…
Monan, Berence. (2006). Impressionism. Berlin: Broschiert Sprache.
Muller, Joseph-Emile. (1974). Impressionism. New York: Leon Amiel Publishers.
Pool, Phoebe. (1967). Impressionism in Europe. New York: Thames & Hudson.
Tinterow, Gary. (1994). Impressionism: Styles, Manner and Genres. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Modern Art.
cultural movements of European art after the Renaissance, namely those style periods of Mannerism, Baroque, and Rococo. In the late sixteenth century, Mannerism was a unique artistic technique that made use of distortions of scale and viewpoint. The Baroque movement in art and architecture enhanced Europe between the early seventeenth and middle eighteenth centuries as it emphasized dramatic and at times tense affects. The Baroque artists and sculptures consistently used very bold, curving forms, and extremely elaborate ornamentation. However, unlike Mannerism, they emphasized balance of incongruent parts. The Baroque musicians of the period also flourished throughout Europe and were known for their expressive dissension and complex embellishment of tones. Rococo, which originated early in eighteenth century France and may be considered by some experts as merely an extension of the Baroque movement, was an artistic approach used to create beautiful architecture and art works that were often based on flora…
enaissance and Baroque
An Analysis of Two Davids
The humanism, nobility, and power of the enaissance are reflected in Michelangelo's David (1504). The emphasis on drama, movement, and action is demonstrated in Bernini's David (1624). Both emphasize the heroic and favorite themes of the High enaissance, but it is Vasari who gives the greatest compliment to Michelangelo's David, calling it more excellent than all sculpture of ancient Greece and ome and even contemporary works (Vasari, 1998, p. 424). This paper will analyze the two works and the eras of art that produced them.
Differences between enaissance and Baroque
The most important thing to remember about the difference between the enaissance and the Baroque is that the former rose to glory prior to the feverish pitch of Protestantism, which to some extent put out its flame; the latter was a kind of rejuvenation of the themes posed by the enaissance --…
Bernini's David. (n.d.). Smart History. Retrieved from http://smarthistory.org/Bernini-David.html
Johnson, P. (2003). Art: A New History. NY: HarperCollins.
Palmisano, B. (n.d.). The Baroque Period of Art. Retrieved from http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Arts/scultpurePlastic/SculptureHistory/BaroqueSculpture/BaroquePeriodArt/BaroquePeriodArt.htm
Vasari, G. (1998). The Lives of the Artists. UK: Oxford University Press.
As the various are works are depicting the two as a perfect match. A good example of this can be seen in the painting the Meeting of Marie de ' Medici and Henry IV at Lyon. Where, Rubens is showing the two in heaven, looking down on themselves when they were younger riding lions. This is important, because the image of them in heaven is highlighting how they are God's match. While the lions are an illustration, of how they are from the same kind of background. As a result, a sense of mysticism is embraced with: heaven and the lions. While reality is depicted by: showing the two people as they actually appeared in real life. Therefore, the aroque style is illustrated through the use of: mysticism and realism that are connected to one another. ("Marie de ' Medici and Henry IV at Lyon," 2011)
Artermisia Gentileschi. (n.d.)…
Artermisia Gentileschi. (n.d.) the Art History Archive. Retrieved from: http://www.arthistoryarchive.com/arthistory/baroque/images/ArtemisiaGentileschi-Woman-Playing-the-Lute-1609-12.jpg
The King's Interior Apartments. (2011). Palace of Versailles. Retrieved from: http://en.chateauversailles.fr/discover-the-estate/the-palace/the-palace/the-kings-interior-apartments
Marie de ' Medici and Henry IV at Lyon. (2011). Arts Heaven. Retrieved from: http://www.artsheaven.com/peter-paul-rubens-the-meeting-of-marie-de-medici-and-henri-iv-at-lyon.html
The Merode Altarpeice. (n.d.). Home Schools. Retrieved from: http://www.homeschoolonline.co.uk/art/great-works-of-art/the-merode-altarpiece-by-robert-campin.html
Works of religious art have gone through changes during different art periods. The paper will look at three different works of religious art. These works of art will be from the Early enaissance period, the High enaissance period and the Baroque period.
The Early enaissance period
One artist who did religious art in the early enaissance period Domenico Ghirlandaio .the title of this art work was the last supper. This work was done in 1480's within the 15th century. The medium that was used in this painting was fresco. Currently the painting is located in Ognissanti, Florence.
This work of art was very large the dimensions being Height: 400 cm (157.5 in). Width: 880 cm (346.5 in).the artist uses the existing shape of the rom to create extra space. The view in the background, painting of the ceiling in the work of art and the shape of the…
Art and the Bible.(2012). The Last Supper. Retrieved February 24, 2014 from http://www.artbible.info/art/last-supper.html
Essential humanities.(2013). Renaissance Painting. Retrieved February 24, 2014 from http://www.essential-humanities.net/western-art/painting/renaissance/
Impressionism vs. Post-Impressionism
Impressionism vs. Post
This paper will explore impressionism vs. post-impressionism including the influences of each on each other and society, and the effects of each other on the 19th century. The paper will ascertain how one period revived or continued the style and characteristics of the other, or how one period originated in reaction to the other. Impressionist paintings tended to focus less on detail and more on making impressions of form and figure, as the name implies. The brush strokes were less inclined to add detail and structure or order. Post-impressionists considered this trivial, and created artistic work that was decidedly more expressive according to some; more organized and structured, the Post-Impressionist movement could be best described as a response to the Impressionist movement. Some focused on methods including Pointillism, or the use of dots of color, whereas others used bright fresh colors used by Impressionists…
Brettell, R. 2000. Impression: Painting quickly in France, 1860-1890. New Haven and London: Yale
Denvir, B. 1990. The Thames and Hudson Encyclopaedia of Impressionism. London: Thames and Hudson.
Sweeny, J.J. 1996. Post-Impressionism. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, Microsoft Corp.
Tinterow, G. And Henri Loyrette. 1994. Origins of Impressionism. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
The exoticism and escapism of Romantic Art is manifest by the focus in the features of Napoleon on the bright or the wider scenes of the battlefield. However, it is the works of Francisco Goya that perhaps most perfectly epitomizes the intense individualism and emotion of Romantic art. Even the titles of Goya's works like "Yo lo Vi (This I saw)" and "Para Eso Yo Nacido (for this I was born) places the artist's individual consciousness squarely in the center of the meaning of the painting. There is no attempt at objectivity, and no apology for the subjective nature of the representation.
The Third of May" although a political work, is not of a noble or significant figure, or a beautiful human body like "Marat." Most of the painting has a hazy quality, as if seen through the night, except for the illumination of the victims. It shows the ugliness…
Visual Arts - Communicate
Maya Lin's Vietnam Veterans Memorial
A description of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial (VVM) (which features 58,272 names; the letters spelling out the names are 0.53 inches high and are carved 0.015 inches deep into the walls) should include the fact that it is made up of two gabbro walls (gabbro is an igneous rock, chemically the same as plutonic basalt, which is black) that are each 246 feet 9 inches long. The two walls are built into the ground, there is an earthen embankment behind the walls, and the two walls meet at an apex which is 10.1 feet high at the point where the walls join. At the ends of the walls, the height is just eight inches (www.bvvinc.org).
The angle at which the two walls come together is 125° 12' and the walls are built on top of 140 concrete pilings that have been…
Beverly Vietnam Veterans. (2001). Locating a Name (on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial).
Retrieved May 27, 2014, from http://www.bvvinc.org .
Durbin, S. (2007). Gericault's The Raft of the Medusa. Art & Perception. Retrieved May 27, 2014, from http://www.artandperception.com .
Lin, M. (2000). Making the Memorial. The New York Review of Books. Retrieved May 27,
Romantic and Neoclassical Paintings
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres and Eugene Delacroix were contemporaries -- but they practiced two very different styles: the former was a Neoclassical painter and the latter a Romantic painter. Neoclassicalism emphasized symmetry and simplicity and found its inspiration in the ancient art of Greece and Rome: its practitioners celebrated the artistic styles of the Greco-Roman world, rejecting the drama of the Baroque and adopting a more intellectualized approached to the visual arts. The subjects of these paintings were often political, social historical and classical -- a portrait of the Horatii, for example, or of a scene in Homer's Iliad. The visual style was decorous, concise, restrained, balanced, rational, and sometimes witty: it appealed to the Enlightenment thinkers of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Romanticism on the other hand was more emotional: its subjects were more often focused on nature, the individual, the common man, the spirit…
"Ars Quatuor Coronatorum." Freemasonry.
"The Lady with an Ermine." Italian Renaissance. http://www.italian-renaissance-art.com/Lady-with-an-Ermine.html
The geniuses strained the boundaries of the characteristic styles more evidently and more quickly than those of their contemporaries to bring about such seismic changes.
Baroque: Style." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Classical: Style." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Baroque: Musical Context." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Classical: Musical Context." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Ludwig van Beethoven." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 2007. 23 Apr 2008. http://plus.aol.com/aol/reference/Beethove/Ludwig_van_Beethoven?flv=1&ncid=fLHHQXUNeT0000000474&icid=rbox_ref_center.M
Posner, Howard. "hat is basso continuo?" Early Music FAQ. 1994. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.medieval.org/emfaq/misc/continuo.html
Sadie, Stanley. "Baroque." The Grove Concise Dictionary of Music. New York: .. Excerpted at Classical Music Pages Homepage. Created by Matt Boynick. 1 Feb 1996. Revised 10 Oct 2000. 23 Apr 2008. http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/g_epoch_baroque.html
Sadie, Stanley. "Classical." The Grove Concise Dictionary of Music. New York: .. Norton, 1994. Excerpted at Classical Music Pages Homepage. Created by Matt…
Baroque: Style." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Classical: Style." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Baroque: Musical Context." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Classical: Musical Context." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Metropolitan Museum of Arts: Johannes Vermeer (Dutch, Delft 1632 -- 1675 Delft)
Young Woman with a Water Pitcher (1662)
History of the Painting
The Metropolitan Museum of Art (MMA) notes that this was the first Vermeer painting to enter an American public collection, and is one of a small group of canvases dating from about 1662 -- 65 in which isolated women appear as mistresses of their private domains.
Technical analysis reveals that a larger map than the one now visible originally extended to the left behind the woman, so that her head was framed within the wall hanging's lower left corner. In addition, the back of a chair set on an angle was placed in the left foreground and partly overlapped the window. The chair, the use of an open window as a spatial device, and the bright, local coloring are consistent with Vermeer's style in works dating from…
Metropolitan Museum of Art: Johannes Vermeer (Dutch, Delft 1632 -- 1675 Delft)
Young Woman with a Water Pitcher (1662)
Netta, I. (2001) Vermeer's world: an artist and his town. Munich; New York: Prestel,
CATHOLIC BAOQUE VS. THE POTESTANT BAOQUE IN NOTHEN EUOPE
Catholic Baroque in Italy vs. the Protestant Baroque in Northern Europe
The following study compares the theatricality of the Catholic Baroque in Italy to the Protestant Baroque in Northern Europe. The discussion will focus on Caravaggio's "the Crucifixion of Saint Peter" to embrandt's "The eturn of The Prodigal Son." It also extends to include the way each artist handles the religious subject reflecting both the different sensibilities of these two artistic styles and the religious thinking of these two areas.
The Baroque period is argued to have taken place between the 1500s and 1700s. As the 16th approached, Western Europe experienced a reformation that divided Christianity between Protestants and Catholics. Most countries in Northern Europe (Switzerland, Holland and Britain) became Protestants whereas Southern countries (Spain and Italy) became Catholics. The sharp divide caused different art styles. In their churches, the Protestants…
Forster M. R. (2001). Catholic Revival in the Age of the Baroque: Religious Identity in Southwest Germany, 1550-1750. New York: Cambridge University Press
Franchot J. (1994). Roads to Rome: The Antebellum Protestant Encounter with Catholicism. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press
Kleiner F. S. (2015). Gardner's Art through the Ages: Backpack Edition, Book D: Renaissance, and Baroque. New York: Cengage Learning
Kleiner F. S. (2016). Gardner's Art through the Ages: The Western Perspective, Volume 2. New York: Cengage Learning
renaissance -- Baroque Music
RENAISSANCE & BAROQUE MUSIC:
The music associated with the Renaissance Period, beginning circa 1450 and ending about 1600, brought about a number of significant changes as compared to its predecessor, being the Medieval Period. Musically, the Renaissance Period introduced the use of polyphony and saw the rise of the cantus firmus mass as Europe's first major musical form; in addition, there was an emergence of national schools of composition, a birth of new secular forms, the beginning of truly instrumental music and a series of inter-related developments, such as the use of monody and the bass continuo.
With polyphony, all of the musical parts are considered to be of equal importance and when combined produce not only an independent horizontal movement but also a vertical, being a combination of chords. The composers of the "ars nova," such as Guillaume de Machaut, created music of…
The twenty-one pieces of the work, minus the Overture, are divided into two acts, 8 pieces in the First Act, and 13 in the Second. 8 to 13 is an example of the Golden Ratio. There are also 49 entrances in The Magic Flute, divided up as 19 in Act I and 30 in Act II. This too is an example of the Golden Ratio. Furthermore, the Overture contains a division between 81 bars and 130, yet another Golden Ratio.
Golden Ratio is thus contained within Golden Ratio, an image of the endless repetition of the primordial forms. Each individual part of the Creation is complete unto itself. One can take apart the Cosmos and find perfect miniature "worlds" that can be put back together to form a coherent whole. According to the Classical canon of art, the human body is built upon the Golden Ratio. By drawing lines through…
Benstock, Seymour L., ed. Johann Sebastian: A Tercentenary Celebration. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992.
Boyd, Malcolm, and John Butt, eds. J.S. Bach. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Chua, Daniel K.L. Absolute Music and the Construction of Meaning. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Faulkner, Quentin. Wiser Than Despair: The Evolution of Ideas in the Relationship of Music and the Christian Church. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996..
Greek sculptures, 'Veiled and Masked Dancer' and 'Hermes and the Infant Dionysos' dating back to the art periods, and their connection to the realm of spirituality.
Is art linked to spirituality in any special way? One might find a number of reasons to answer in the affirmative; there, indeed, appears to be some sort of profuse series of links among the two. Art has always occupied a central position in religion. In religious rituals and houses of worship, one can witness sacred dances, sacred symbols, hymns, sacred pictures, tunes, and chants; these art forms have also been utilized as meditation and prayer aids by all religions. The above examples of art in religion alone make the former discipline appear to be intrinsic to connecting with or expressing the divine (Art and Spirituality 1). eligious art represents a superior art form in both Western medieval Christianity and Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Buddhists…
Ancient Greece - History, mythology, art, war, culture, society, and architecture. (n.d.). Praxiteles - Ancient Greek Sculptor. Retrieved October 16, 2015, from http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/People/Praxiteles/
Ancient Greece. History of Greece: Classical Greece. (n.d.). Retrieved October 16, 2015, from http://ancient-greece.org/history/classical.html
Garcia, A. (n.d.). Endnotes. Endnotes -- Statuette of a veiled and masked dancer this. Retrieved October 17, 2015, from http://mcuhistory.tumblr.com/post/60566947687/statuette-of-a-veiled-and-masked-dancer-this
History Canada -- Videos, TV Schedule & Watch Full Episodes Online. (n.d.). Hellenistic Greece - Ancient History - HISTORY.com. Retrieved October 17, 2015, from http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/hellenistic-greece
The image of Mary's fingers embedded into the flesh of the child almost appears as sculptured image, thanks to the use of color separation. In addition, the glossy enamel of the panel furthers the illusion of movement within the three-dimensional shape (Marx, "The Madonna of St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague").
Still further representations of Bohemian influence of the architecture of Prague can be seen within the Church of Virgin Mary Victorious in Prague. The building, built in 1611 as the Holy Trinity Church, was reworked in 1636 as Mary Victorious. The church is a resounding example of Bohemian art within architecture. Originally based on oman architecture, the structure was renovated to represent a more Bohemian culture ambiance. Introducing a single-nave layout, typical of the Bohemian simplicity, the church brought a sense of anti-reformation. The rebuilding also included a paneling of the frontage of the structure with traditional Bohemian artworks of…
Kren, Emil. "Bohemia." The History of the Style. 2003. Prague National Gallery. 19 April 2003. Prague National Gallery. http://www.wga.hu/tours/gothic/history.html#bohemia .
Marx, Dan. "The Madonna of St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague." Prague National Gallery. 2003. Prague National Gallery. 19 April 2003. http://www.wga.hu/html/m/master/xunk_bo/madvitus.html .
Meilach, Dona. "Prague: The City is the Museum." Arts and Activities 129.2 (2001): 55-57.
Official Site for the Czech Republic. "Church of Virgin Mary Victorious." Bohemia and Moravia Baroque Architecture. 2003. Czech Republic. 19 April 2003. Official Site of the Czech Republic. http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Arts/Architec/BaroqueArchitecture/BohemiaMoraviaBaroqueArchitecture/BohemiaMoraviaBaroqueArchitecture.htm.
auchenberg and Shochat
Shochat and auschenberg: Challenging Taboos
auschenberg's "Odalisk" (1955-58) and Shochat's "Johanan and the ooster, 2010" are separated by half a century and yet both works reflect one another artistically, in terms of style, theme and ideas. "Odalisk" is a parody of the 19th century portrait "La Grande Odalisque" by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, which depicts a nude Turkish concubine reclining on a bed peering over her shoulder at the viewer. auschenberg's composition (a collaged box standing one-legged on a pillow, a rooster perched atop the box, almost peering over its shoulder at the viewer) is a satirical glance backwards at the art which came before it -- and a comment on the sexual themes and intonations of the modern world. Similarly, Shochat's "Johanan" is a biting commentary on modern sexual mores -- a semi-nude man holding a rooster (i.e., cock) in an unabashed pronouncement of masculine sexuality…
Johnson, Paul. Art: A New History. NY: HarperCollins, 2003.
Rauschenberg, R. (1955-58). Odalisk. Comines. Retrieved from http://mediation.centrepompidou.fr/education/ressources/ens-rauschenberg-en/ens-rauschenberg-en.htm
Shochat, T. (2010). Johanan and the Rooster.
Weaver, R. (1984). Ideas Have Consequences. IL: University of Chicago.
1939, John Steinbeck published his novel The Grapes of rath, and that same year the film version of the story was released. The film was directed by John Ford and was very popular, and the book and the film together reached millions of people. In writing this novel, Steinbeck reflected many of the social, economic, and political currents of the time. The story is set in the Great Depression era, and the Depression was still have its effect in 1939. hat would bring about the end of the Great Depression was already starting in Europe, meaning orld ar II, which does not impinge directly on the story of the Joad family but which we can see from our standpoint today was about to bring about massive changes in American society. The very nature of the story of the Joads, however, links that story to the Depression and its effect on…
Banks, Ann. First-Person America. New York: W.W. Norton, 1980.Caldwell, Mary Ellen. "A New Consideration of the Intercalary Chapters in The Grapes of Wrath." Markham Review 3 (1973), 115-119.
Ford, John. The Grapes of Wrath. Twentieth Century-Fox, 1939.
The Grapes of Wrath." Contemporary Literary Criticism, Vol. 59. Chicago: Gale, 1989.
Groene, Horst. "Agrarianism and Technology in Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath." Southern Review (9:1)(1976), 27-31.
Looking at art and historical artifacts can tell us immense amounts of information regarding the society and culture from which these objects came from. Art can be revealing and informative in the same manner that books can tell readers about history and cultural conventions, many times providing specific details about its origin. These details can then provide viewers with an informed and comprehensive view of cultures and societies. Art is a reflection of not only the artist which creates the piece, but also a reflection of the atmosphere in which the artist lived. These reflections through art can point to specific themes and subjects that were important during the times that these artists lived. Power and Status are themes that can be considered universal in virtually all cultures regardless of their respective geographical location or historical era.
The intention of this essay is to provide the historical background…
"Bis Pole, Arts of Africa, Oceania and The Americas." MetMuseum.org. The New York Metropolitan Museum. Web. 21 Apr. 2011.
Stone, Richard E. "A Noble Imposter, The Foothil Ewer and The Early 19th Century Fakery." Metropolitan Museum Journal 32 (1997). Print.
The Baroque was a dramatic period in Europe: the religious unity the continent had enjoyed for centuries had come to a crashing halt with the Protestant Reformation. King was turned against King, prince against pontiff. Persecution and war were dominant themes, especially following the excommunication of Henry VIII from the Church. Bernini's David, sculpted between 1623 and 1624, represents the swirling, dramatic, grim activity of the times (Avery). It is indeed a strong manifestation of the Baroque principles and themes: David is reared back, depicted in mid-action, like a lock ready to be sprung on his foe. He is full of conviction, bent on striking, Unlike Michelangelo's Renaissance Era David, which aimed mainly for a frontal view to show off the human form and which conveyed a sense of the confidence, leisure, pride and grandeur of the Renaissance Age, Bernini's David is a figure of determination -- a…
Avery, Charles. Bernini: Genius of the Baroque. London: Thames and Hudson, 1997.
Cunningham, Lawrence; Reich, John. Culture and Values: a Survey of the Humanities.
NY: Cengage, 2014. Print.
In terms of Renaissance philosophy, Galileo Galilei is an example of a humanist who strongly defended the gradual flourishing and subsistence to the scientific revolution happening in his society during the Renaissance period. Galileo was a strong advocate for the usage of science in discovering truth and new knowledge, using the principles of mathematics and philosophy in strengthening the study of astronomy and physics in the society. Through Galileo, the nature of free scientific inquiry prevailed, challenging, though not condemning, philosophical and theological issues that cannot empirically answer truth and reality in life. Dante Alighieri's "Inferno," meanwhile, is a literary piece that represented his inquiry into the spiritual and humanistic foundations of human existence during his time. In a period wherein theological foundations and philosophies are being questioned, Dante's "Inferno" confronted the moral and spiritual issues being questioned by Dante and his society during this challenging period of Renaissance.
Errogenous Zones in Middle Ages, Renaissance, And Baroque
Art has always been used to showcase the desired and desirable in nature and in imagination. The definition of the erogenous zone is any body part that causes sexual desire or stimulation to increase. These zones can be located at various parts of the body and their sensitivity will be less or more depending on the individual. It has been argued that even before doctors made studies of these zones on the human body, the artists were already utilizing them in art to add a symbolic message of sexual desire and stimulation.
Besides the male and female genitalia, the most commonly known erogenous zones are the mouth and neck, chest and abdomen. Next to that are the fingers. Some find the feet and particularly the toes equally stimulating.
In the Middle Ages and entering into the early Renaissance, appreciation for the human…
role of Islam as a unifying force
Perhaps more than any other religion in the world, Islam has put to work its less obvious sense in order to unify the peoples sharing the same belief. Through its art, its common language and its judicial system that has the Koran teachings at its base, Islam was a unifying force among the Arabic peoples of the Arabic Peninsula, Northern Africa and the Middle East.
There is a short discussion I would like to address here and that is to identify the differences between culture and civilization. This will help us see how religion LO is included in this set of concepts. From my point-of-view, religion LO can be considered an element of civilization through its cultural component. If we exclude Marxist ideology that argue that civilization is but a certain level that culture has attained and make no distinction between the two,…
Monet used brushstrokes and many shades of vivid greens and pinks to portray the garden as if it were viewed through a mist.
In 1910, English writer oger Fry coined the phrase "post impressionism" as he organized an exhibition in London (Shone, 1979, p. 9). Just as the paintings of the impressionists caused a scandal in the art world some forty years earlier, the post impressionist work of artists such as Gaugin and Van Gogh "outraged all notions of what good painting should be" (Shone, p. 9).
The post-impression movement included, in addition to Gaugin and Van Gogh, artists such as Toulouse-Lautrec, Seurat, and the later work of Cezanne. Like the Impressionists, these artists used real-life subjects, portraying them with distinct brushstrokes, thick paint, and bright colors. Times were changing, and the post-Impressionists responded by modernizing what the Impressionists had done, imposing more form and structure to show greater depth…
Brettell, R.R. (1995). Modern French painting and the art museum. Art Bulletin 77 (2).
Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.
Hill, I.B. (1980). Paintings of the western world: impressionism. New York: Galley Press.
Shone, R. (1979). The post-impressionists. New York: Galley Press.
Dadaism and Surrealism
It has been since centuries that the Art has existed in this world and has undergone various stages. In simple words, art has got its own historical periods whereby every period has its unique invention and significance. Art has acquired immense success, has reached several milestones and the reason of this tremendous development is due to the improvement in diverse historical periods. The present is always improved by taking history as a source for improvement. History narrates the earlier civilizations through which present learns for the future development. In the same way, art has continued to be the most imperative subject of all cultures; be they ancient or present. The different art periods of diverse varieties have existed since times unknown. In this essay, Dadaism and Surrealism, the two distinctive historical art periods will be elaborated along with their similarities and differences.
As mentioned in Columbia…
ART BOOKS OF THE YEAR; Van Gogh's Letters, Grayson Perry's Pots a Scholarly Study of Caravaggio and a Glimpse into the World of the Insane Henry Darger -- Just a Few of the Treats Guaranteed to Give Pleasure This Christmas. (2009, December 10). The Evening Standard (London, England), p. 48. Retrieved June 27, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5038833735
Dada. (2009). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved June 27, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117013882
Essak, S. (n.d.). Dada - Art History 101 Basics: The Non-Art Movement (1916-23). Retrieved June 27, 2012 from http://arthistory.about.com/cs/arthistory10one/a/dada.htm
MobileReference. (2007). Encyclopedia of philosophy for smartphones and mobile devices - free 3 chapters in the trial version. Boston: MobileReference.com. Retrieved June 27, 2012 from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=cHI3qGaX9DsC&pg=PT440&dq=dada+art+movement&hl=en&sa=X&ei=hFKWT-_dA-el4gSjr9xG&ved=0CFcQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=dada%20art%20movement&f=false
Metropolitan Museum of Art: The Love Letter
This paper examines the piece The Love Letter, created in 1770 by Jean -- Honore Fragonard. The painting consists of oil on canvas and is 32 3/4 x 26 3/8 in. (83.2 x 67 cm) and originates in France. The painting was originally part of a series of decorative panels which were commissioned by Madame du Barry, one of the loves of Louis XV, for her house which was located at Louveciennes. However, once the panels were finished, she rejected them as being unsuitable for her tastes. This painting was executed before the entire series as a pitch to acquire her commission. The Love Letter in many ways is characteristic of Fragonard's style as a whole: it has warm and muted coloring with a strong eroticism which is present, though somewhat hidden. Fragonard is one who made an entire career from portraying the…
Artble.com. (2013). Jean-Honore Fragonard. Retrieved from Artble.com: http://www.artble.com/artists/jean-honore_fragonard#style_and_technique
Du.ac.in. (2013). Rococo. Retrieved from Du.ac.in: http://www.du.ac.in/fileadmin/DU/Academics/course_material/euroart/hyperlinks%202/Rococo%20features.htm