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Churchill and the Battle of Britain
"If we fail, then the whole world, including the United States…will sink into the abyss of a new Dark Age."
inston Churchill was truly one of the great communicators of history at a time when inspiring leadership had never been needed so much. During the 1930s, he had resolutely opposed the appeasement policies of Neville Chamberlain, warning repeatedly that Hitler and the Nazi regime were a menace like no other the est had ever faced in history. By the time he became prime minister in 1940, however, the Germans were already in the process of overrunning France and making preparations to invade Britain. Only the Royal Navy and Air Force stood in their way, and Hitler had no intention of risking a land invasion until his Luftwaffe had neutralized these threats. Churchill boldly refused to consider any of Hitler's offers for negotiations,…
Best, Geoffrey. Churchill: A Study in Greatness. Hambledon Continuum, 2006.
Hayward, Steven F. Churchillian Leadership: Executive Success in the Face of Adversity. Three Rivers Press, 1998.
Keegan, John. Winston Churchill. Viking, 2002.
Ramsden, John. Man of the Century: Winston Churchill and his Legend since 1945. Columbia University Press, 2002.
Battle at Dunkirk
It was the year of 1940 and during the spring of 1940 the Germans made advances into the Somme. It was during this year that the British retreated to Dunkirk. In Britain, the Battle of Britain happened between July and October and the Blitz on London initiated in September. In the House of Commons Neville Chamberlain had failed in getting the vote of confidence. There was a formation of a coalition government. Labor leaders protested of being servile to Chamberlain. He made his resignation and Winston Churchill was the next prime minister.
As much as 300, 0000 French and British troops were closed upon and they were pushed into a space of seven mile confinement surrounding the French port by oncoming Germans. Trapped along the beach with their back to the sea and facing the Germans, the combined powers did not have the ammunition or the air…
1. Fuller, J.F.C. The Second World War: A Strategical and Tactical History (Duell, Sloan & Pearce, 1948) 25-45
2. Sumler, David. "A History of Europe in the Twentieth Century (The Dorsey Press, 1973) p234.
3. Hart, B.H. Liddell "History of the Second World War" (G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1970) pp74-5, 77, 80-3.
4. Hart, B.H. Liddell. "The Other Side of the Hill." (William Morrow & Co, 1948) pp. 32-51
Battle of the Atlantic was one of the most significant and important battles that was fought during WWII. In order to understand the value of the battle and how it was won, it will be necessary to take a close and careful look at the strategic, operational, and organizational factors behind the Allied victory. The victory for the United States and Great Britain was significant, and a turning point in the war that should not be forgotten - but that is often misunderstood and overlooked. The Battle of the Atlantic was an attempt by the Germans to cut the sea lines of communications between the United States and Britain, mostly be using U-boats. If the Germans had been successful, Britain would have been isolated and the U.S. would not have been able to bring such an enormous amount of manpower to Europe. The Battle of the Atlantic was designed to…
Baer, G.W. 1996. One Hundred years of Sea Power. New York: Stanford University Press. pp. 189-205.
Cohen, E.A. & Gooch, J. 1991. Military Misfortunes. New York: Anchor. pp. 59-94.
Murray, W. & Millet, A.R. 2001. A War to be Won. New York: Belknap Press. pp. 234-261.
Overy, R. Why the Allies Won. 1997. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. pp. 44-62.
Morgan's skirmishers kept firing as they withdrew to join the second line of militiamen. Tarleton's main infantry and cannons then attacked Morgan's second line. (uchanan 321-322).
Morgan's second line fired a volley into Tarleton's infantry line, which scattered Tarleton's line. Tarleton's infantry regrouped and charged at the second line, joined by a unit of dragoons. The second line fired a second volley at Tarleton's main line before retreating to the back of the third line. (uchanan 322-323).
Detail the major phases/key events.
Tarleton believed that the Revolutionary forces were broken when second line retreated. He ordered a full advance on the third line positioned on the top of the hill. He ordered the reserve unit of Highlanders to flank the American right. (uchanan 324).
Militia commander Howard ordered his militia unit to engage the Highlanders in front of the right flank. However, the militiamen misunderstood his order and withdrew…
Buchanan, John (1997). The Road to Guilford Courthouse: The American Revolution in the Carolinas. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Babits, Lawrence E. (1998). A Devil of a Whipping: The Battle of Cowpens Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Historical Section of the Army War College (1928). The Battle of Cowpens. Washington, D.C.: U.S. House of Representatives.
Sunzi, (2010). Art of war. London: Parkstone.
Battle of Lex and Conc
Define the Subject/Evaluate the Sources
The Battles of Lexington and Concord were fought on two fronts in Middlesex County, Massachusetts on April 19, 1775. Principle adversaries included the British armed forces and the colonial militia known as Minutemen. The night before the battles on April 18, British officials entered Concord, Massachusetts with the intent of both seizing an arms cache and also capturing key rebels including John Hancock and Samuel Adams. The colonists intercepted the message, and their being forewarned allowed the minutemen time and opportunity to intercept the British. The minutemen instigated a skirmish in Lexington and Concord simultaneously, and won decisively. The Battles of Lexington and Concord are therefore widely referred to as the starting point of the American evolutionary War.
esearch sources for studying the Battles of Lexington and Concord include books, journal articles, new media, and multimedia. Tourtellot's (1959) book is…
"Battles of Lexington and Concord." History. Retrieved online: http://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/battles-of-lexington-and-concord
Fradin, D.B. (2009). Let it Begin Here! Walker.
Hamilton, S. (2014). Battles of Lexington and Concord. Minneapolis: Adobo.
"Lexington and Concord." U.S. History. Retrieved online: http://www.ushistory.org/us/11c.asp
Battles of World War II
Battle of Britain:
When Hitler conquered France in June of 1940, he acquired a forward base to launch his attack against England. Had England fallen in the Battle of Britain, the Nazis would have, at the very least, conquered the entire continent of Europe. The fall of Britain would have allowed Hitler to concentrate his forces on one front in Operation Barbarosa, the invasion of ussia, which he launched in 1941. Most
historians believe that, more than any other single fact, Hitler's decision to fight a war on two fronts, simultaneously, accounted for the eventual defeat of Germany at the hands of the Allies.
The Battle of Britain was won by the heroes of the British oyal Air Force,
flying Spitfire fighters who handed the German Luftwaffe its first defeat of the war in a savage, month-long battle over the skies of Britain in the…
1. Ambrose, S. The Good Fight: How World War II Was Won (2001)
2. Commager, H.S., Miller, D.L. The Story of World War II: Revised, Expanded & Updated from the Original Text by Henry Steele Commager (2002)
3. Kowalick, T.M. The Western Tradition Transcripts (1989)
4. Lucas, J. The Last European War (1976)
Battle of Waterloo and Napoleon last days as an Emperor. The paper briefly touches upon the war strategies of both sides and explains why Bonaparte encountered a crushing defeat at Waterloo.
BATTLE OF WATELOO, 1815
Battle of Waterloo fought in Brussels marked the end of French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte's illustrious military career. The Battle of Waterloo was fought on a very small area with relatively smaller armies and less military equipment, yet it occupies an extremely important place in history because of its impact and the number of deaths that occurred on this battlefield. Napoleon may have been severely disliked by other European powers, but the man enjoyed a great position of power in his own country and was seen as a true liberator of sorts. While his career was marked with frequent battles that began with French evolution in late 1790s and war with European nations in 1803, he…
BBC-UK-, Battle of Waterloo:
Eva March Tappan, ed., The World's Story: A History of the World in Story, Song and Art, 14 Vols. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1914)
Waterloo, Battle of," Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2002
battles Civil War. Identify explain impact war. Reference: Faragher, J.M., Buhle, M.
he Civil War was quite easily the most devastating war to occur on American soil. Prior to World War II, it would remain one of the deadliest martial encounters that the United States was involved in. Although there were several different battles that produced a profound impact on this war, some of the most pivotal ones occurred in 1863 and included the Battle of Gettysburg, the Battle of Vicksburg, and the Battle of Chancellorsville.
hese three battles would produce a critical impact on the outcome of the war. It is important to remember that despite the fact that the South had more accomplished military commanders at the inception of the Civil War, it was a fledgling nation with a tenuous financial situation. Moreover, it was considerably outmanned by the more populous North, which could also utilize martial assistance…
This possibility became even more remote following the conclusion of the Battle of Vicksburg, which took place the day after the Battle of Vicksburg. Grant was able to win his lengthy siege in Mississippi, which resulted in a devastating blow for the South (Faragher et al., 2009, p. 425). With back-to-back defeats in major battles in a day's time, the South was left in a position in which its crumbling chances would certainly not allow for foreign intervention. In fact, these twin victories for the Union would prove to be the turning point of the war, which would pave the way for more crucial victories, such as William Sherman's capturing of Atlanta. At this point it was just a matter of time and obstinacy on the part of the South before it conceded.
Faragher, J.M., Buhle, M.J., Czitrom, D., & Armitage, S.H. (2009). Out of many: A history of the American people, Volume I (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. (pg. 405-432).
attle of Waterloo took place on the 18th of June 1815, when the allied European forces teamed up with the Prussian forces to bring down the French forces under the command of Napoleon. The battle brought to an end Napoleon's dream of conquering and establishing his empire in continental Europe. This text analyzes the causes of, and events surrounding the battle.
attle Analysis Outline
The attle of Waterloo
Define the Subject
a) Who fought the battle?
The attle of Waterloo was fought by three armies -- the French Army (Armee de Nord) under the command of Napoleon, the multinational army under General Wellington's command, and the Prussian army under Gebhard lucher.
The French Army: the French army was by far the most equipped of the three, consisting of approximately 74,000 soldiers; 48,000 infantries; 14,000 cavalries; 7,000 artilleries and 250 guns[footnoteRef:2]. It consisted primarily of veteran soldiers, a majority of whom…
Evans, Richard. "Waterloo: Causes,. Courses and Consequences." Gresham University, accessed September 16, 2015 from http://www.gresham.ac.uk/lectures-and-events/waterloo-causes-courses-and-consequences
Hibbert, Christopher. Waterloo: Napoleon's Last Campaign. Hertfordshire, UK: Wordsworth Publishers, 1998.
Matthews, Rupert. The Battle of Waterloo: Europe in the Balance. London, UK: Acturus Publishing, 2015.
Roberts, Andrew. Napoleon and Wellington: The Battle of Waterloo and the Great Commanders who Fought it. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2001.
France only had Britain as its enemy between 1803 and 1805. Napoleon Bonaparte, the famous French leader and politician, after conquering Italy and Egypt had its eyes on England territory for occupation. His Grand Armee sat idly around Boulogne in the hundreds of anchored ships in the channel ports. Napoleon's naval strategies to crush the British oyal Army using his French and Spanish fleets failed at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805 (Dugdale-Pointon January 07, 2006). [1: Dugdale-Pointon, T. historyofwar, "Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)." http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/people_napoleon.html]
The Naval Strategies of Britain and France (1803-1805)
Both France and Britain derived towards war due to a mutual misunderstanding. Both the countries were not fully prepared to conduct a renewed war against each other. There were no geo-strategic reasons that compelled the two opponents to declare a war against each other. Britain wanted to rebel against France simply because they could no more…
References" An Admirable Hero; His Radical Tactics Paved the Way for Nelson's Victory at Trafalgar. Now the Navy Is Paying Tribute to the Scot Who Saved Britain."The Daily Mail (London, England), October 11, 2010, 15. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5045378449.Clayton , T., and P. Craig. Naval Historical Society of Australia, "Trafalgar - the Men, the Battle, the Storm." Last modified 2005. Accessed December 7, 2011. http://www.navyhistory.org.au/trafalgar-the-men-the-battle-the-storm/.Dugdale-Pointon, T. historyofwar, "Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)." Last modified January 07, 2006. Accessed December 7, 2011. http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/people_napoleon.html Fisher, Herbert. 1913. Napoleon. New York: Henry Holt and Company. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5637802.Historyworld , "HISTORY OF THE NAPOLEONIC WARS." Accessed December 7, 2011. http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?ParagraphID=mgo .Rodger, N. BBC, "Trafalgar: The Long-Term Impact." Last modified February 17, 2011. Accessed December 7, 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/trafalgar_impact_01.shtml .Stilwell, A. The Trafalgar Companion. West way, Borley: Osprey Publishing, 2005. http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=9SPR-2qwtSgC&printsec=frontcover&dq=the+trafalgar+companion&hl=en&ei=glDfTt3gEIinhAeMqr3vBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=the%20trafalgar%20companion&f=falseTrafalgar, Battle Of. 2009. In The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed., edited by Lagass, Paul. New York: Columbia University Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117049963 (accessed December 7, 2011).]
Manassas -- How the Skirmish at lackburn's Ford Shaped the attle
The Skirmish at lackburn's Ford shaped the attle of First Manassas by discouraging the Union Army, altering the Union Army's battle plans and encouraging the Confederate Army.
The Confederacy's chances of successfully seceding from the Union were initially poor, as the Union had the obvious upper hand: the Union Army was considerably larger and better equipped; their commander was George McClellan, whose abilities were undoubted; the Union had the international advantage of being a recognized nation; finally, the Union had the lion's share of factories that could steadily mass produce ordnance for the Union forces. In sharp contrast, the Confederacy: was an agrarian society with far fewer people, fewer factories and considerable resentment at being reduced to "economic vassalage" by the North's industrialization; much of the Confederacy's fortune involved cotton and the reliance of foreign markets on that cotton;…
Davis, William C. Battle at Bull Run: A History of the First Major Campaign of the Civil War. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1977.
Detzer, David. Donnybrook: The Battle of Bull Run, 1861. New York, NY: Harcourt Press, Inc., 2004.
Flagel, Thomas R. The History Buff's Guide to the Civil War: The Top Ten Rankings of the Best, The Worst, The Largest, and The Most Lethal People and Events of the Civil War, 2nd Edition. Naperville, IL: Cumberland House, 2010.
Gottfried, Bradley M. The Maps of First Bull Run: An Atlas of the First Bull Run (Manassas) Campgaign, including the Battle of Ball's Bluff, June-October 1861. New York, NY: Savas Beatie LLC, 2009.
During that time the Allies were exiting Normandy through Saint Lo. In august, when the Allies were in Paris, Hitler was setting his trap, and setting in position his scarce resources to ensure proper backup. The Germans did not count for the success of this operation, with provisions of resources captured from the Allies.
During this culminant attack Hitler guarantied his commanding officers that they would receive a strong support from battle planes. The attack to the airplanes, that was daily terrorizing German cities, would motivate the most reluctant officers of Luftwaffe to support the operation.
The German officers were prepared for a prolonged operation of air defense der Grosse Schlag (the big blow) the air officers planned a force composed by 3.700 air planes, prepared, trained and planned exclusively for defense.
Hitler did not realize that the air force prepared only for air-to-air combat would not be very effective…
Stephen E. 1995. D Day: June 6, 1944: The Climactic Battle of World War II. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Omar N. 1983. A General's life: An Autobiography by General of the Army. New York: Simon and Schuster Publishing.
The advent of the First World War brought with it the stark reality of the 'progress' which modern man had made. Mankind found out that despite the eloquence of the enlightenment, and the wonderful advancements made in medicine, education, literature, and the arts that man could still take up arms against his brother, and fight hand to hand if necessary in order to gain a foot of ground, or in retaliation for yesterday's loss of a comrade. The First World War plunged the entire western world into a deep pit, governed by the engines of war, empowered by the newly mechanized assembly line manufacturing of the industrial revolution. Fro all his advancement, and enlightenment, mankind was still closely related to the Romans who burned and conquered peopled under their iron fist, and the Huns where known to destroy everything in their path. Civilized, and enlightened, we still were…
DAYS LIKE THESE 19 MAY 1941. The Independent London, England. 5/19/2003
Brittain, Vera. Testament of Youth. New York: Penguin Books. 1994
World War II -- Eastern Front
While the personality of any dictator may significantly influence the military decisions of his/her dictatorship, perhaps the clearest instance of this phenomenon occurred in World War II's arbarossa, an invasion of Russia in the Eastern Front. Obsessed with his messianic delusions, Hitler's personal flaws resulted in the ultimate failure of the greatest invasion in recorded history. The failure of that invasion, in turn, directly resulted in Germany's loss of World War II.
Hitler's Personal Flaws Caused the Failure of arbarossa
Synthesis of reputable historical sources, some of which stress Adolf Hitler's personal flaws while others minimize or ignore them, reveals that Adolf Hitler's personal shortcomings caused the failure of arbarossa and, therefore, caused Germany's loss of World War II. Hitler's warlike personality was apparently dominated by "the three p's": prejudice, paranoia, and perplexity. Though Hitler was famously prejudiced against Jewish people, his prejudice against…
Citino, Robert Michael. The Path to Blitzkrieg: Doctrine and Training in the German Army, 1920-1939. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999.
Cooper, Matthew. The German Army, 1933-1945: Its Political and Military Failure. New York, NY: Stein and Day, 1978.
Keegan, John. The Battle for History: Re-Fighting World War II. New York, NY: First Vintage Books Edition, 1996.
Overy, Richard. Why the Allies Won. New York, NY W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1997.
musical style epitomized the 1920s? Jazz
What did John Steinbeck describe in he Grapes of Wrath? he dust bowl and its impact on agricultural families during the great depression.
National Industrial Recovery Act? An act created by President Roosevelt to stimulate the economy by allowing the government to regulate particular industries.
What did the Civilian Conservation Corps do? Created jobs on state and national lands to stimulate the economy.
What did Eleanor Roosevelt see as her primary role as First Lady? o be an advocate for civil rights
Which of the following was not true concerning the election of 1936? Incomplete Question
Which of the following pieces of legislation was an attempt at campaign reform in the late 1930s? Incomplete Question
he National Resources Planning Board facilitated? he National Resources Planning Board facilitated creating and implementing employment for young men during the great depression.
What feature of the Agricultural Adjustment…
The Manhattan Project was? The secret project for inventing the atom bomb
Who were the Scottsboro boys? Nine black teenagers accused of rape in a 1931 Alabama case. It revealed the deeply seated racism in Alabama due to its denial of a fair trail.
A. Philip Randolph's call for a massive march on Washington led to? Desegregation of the armed forces.
Turning Points of WWII: Battle of Midway, Battle of Britain, and Battle of Stalingrad
There were many significant turning points in World War II, within which, had they not happened as they did, the outcome of World War itself could, arguably, have been much different
In particular, many of the key battles fought during World War II; between the Americans and the Japanese; Germany and North Africa; Germany and England; Germany and Russia, or elsewhere, could arguably be considered the three most significant. Some of these would including the Battle of Kursk; the Battle of El Alemain; and the Battle of Moscow
However, it is my opinion that the three major turning points of World War II, which played the biggest roles in the war's turning out as it did, were: (1) The Battle of Midway; (2) the Battle of Britain, and (3) the Battle of Stalingrad. In this essay,…
Wellum's stream-of-consciousness when he is fighting is both funny and compelling: "I reckon I'm a little above, just a fraction, and therefore gaining. God, I hope so. Coupled with fear, I now also feel a sense of anger. What right has this German to fly his snotty little aeroplane over our England and try to kill me? Who invited him? Just because he's stupid enough to believe his bloody Fuhrer and his master-race-dominating-the-world crap, he flies for his wretched Fatherland and tries to impose typical Teutonic bullying on our country. The bloody arrogance of it! Well, you'll not shoot me down you black-crossed sod" (Wellum 154). As evidenced in this quote, Wellum showed coolness and patriotism when he is fighting. Although at times the book can get mired in technical details about aircraft warfare, it also shows the typical life of a British pilot during the era -- using humor…
The twentieth century had been tumultuous, particularly during the former half, the world witnessing two major world wars, many revolutions and nationalist struggles, each holding a significant bearing on the other. The major events being discussed are -- Chinese Revolution, Russian Revolution, India's independence, World War I and Treaty of Versailles and World War II. Though the events do not chronologically fall in order, each spanning over a few too many years, the developments and undercurrents of one has greatly influenced the other.
Revolution in China began in 1911 with the National Party of China -- Kuo Min Tang -- playing the major role initially. The prime motive of Revolution was to solve the political and economic problems that plagued the Chinese society during the turn of the century --feudalism and semi-feudal patterns of relations in agricultural production, introducing agrarian reforms with modern methods of production,…
Brian McArthur, Penguin Book of Twentieth Century Speeches (London: Penguin Viking, 1992), pp. 234-237.
Roberts, J.M. The Penguin History of the World, The Penguin. Third Edition Helicon Publishing, 1992
Kevin Reilly, Worlds of History: A Comparative Reader: Since 1400, Bedford/St. Martin's; (February 2000)
Mao Tse-Tung, Selected Works of Mao Tse-Tung: Vol. I, From: Be Concerned with the Well-Being of the Masses, Pay Attention to Methods of Work --The Concluding speech made by Comrade Mao Tse-tung at the Second National Congress of Workers' and Peasants' Representatives held in Juichin, Kiangsi Province in January 1934. Available at http://www.maoism.org/msw/vol1/mswv1_idx.htm. Accessed on 18.7.2003
Sylvia's Lovers is a rich and gratifying historical novel, which does not put on a pedestal imprudent behavior. In the novel, not only does Gaskell describe the significant historical events but also exposes the impacts that these historical events can have on the lives of lower class members of the society. The violence of war disrupts people's social lives, making them go for desperate choices, which change the bearings their lives take. This brings about a lot of misery among the people, especially those from the lower social class. The novel exemplifies the effects of the war on people integrating the social class (middle class and the poor). This is evident through out the novel including the marriage between Philip and Sylvia, and Charleys forceful recruitment into the navy.
Bowen, John. "The Historical Novel." A Companion to the Victorian Novel. Eds. Brantlinger Patrick, and illiam Thesing. Oxford: John…
Bowen, John. "The Historical Novel." A Companion to the Victorian Novel. Eds. Brantlinger Patrick, and William Thesing. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, 2007. 244-259. Internet resource.
Gaskell, Elizabeth. Sylvia's Lovers. Boston: MobileReference.com, 2010. Internet resource.
Shaw, MarionMatus. "Sylvia's Lovers and Other Historical Fiction." The Cambridge Companion to Elizabeth Gaskell. Ed. Jill Matus L. Cambridge [etc.: Cambridge University Press, 2007. 75-89. Internet resource.
He liked to show of the luxury than by now he could afford at the expense of the robberies conducted by him and his men and his very influential position. A closer look to Goering's life of luxury shows that he was more than enjoying his success, his arrogance and extravagance being by now well-known.
Goering had good organizational skills and he was appointed in charge of so many different positions because he had the capability to follow the Nazi ideology with more belief than many others. Goering was truly dedicated to the Nazi cause, although not entirely unmotivated.
Goering was the man that stood behind the elimination of the Jewish community from German economic life, as he fined the German Jewish community a billion marks and order their exclusion from economy, their properties, even schools, parks, or forests. Goering was one of the leading figures that planned the "Aryanisation"…
Hermann Goering, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermann_G%C3%B6ring ;
Hermann Goering, Jewish Virtual Library, available at http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/goering.html ;
Jagdgeschwader 1 (World War 1), available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jagdgeschwader_1_%28World_War_1%29 ;
Manvell, Roger and Franenkel, Heinrich, Goering, Greenhill Books, London UK, 2005;
By attacking from the North, Hitler effectively bypassed France's only real defense against invasion. Within two weeks, Paris was under Nazi control, and still seething from the harsh terms of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I, Hitler demanded that the surrender terms be signed in the very same spot as the armistice that ended that war, and in the very same railroad car, which he had brought out from its museum display for that purpose3. Belgium had surrendered to Germany without firing a shot, effectively dooming France to Nazi occupation, and nearly sealing the fate of more than a quarter million British troops sent to support Britain's ally, France. Only a last-
3. Hayes & Faissler p.444 minute scramble saved the British from capture, at the port city of Dunkirk, where the British used thousands of ships, boats, and dinghies to rescue them all and ferry…
Commager, H.S., Miller, D.L. The Story of World War II: Revised, Expanded & Updated from the Original Text by Henry Steele Commager (2002)
Hayes, C., Faissler, M. Modern Times: The French Revolution to the Present (1966)
Kowalick, T.M. The Western Tradition Transcripts (1989)
Lukacs, J. The Last European War (1976)
This would have given Hitler an advantage in Africa, and he could have conceivably taken over much more territory and been much harder to control and subdue. In addition, on the Pacific front, the Japanese were attempting to take over as much territory as they could find, all the way to Australia and beyond, and the Americans defeated them many times during 1942, including at the Battles of Coral Sea and Midway, where countless Japanese soldiers died, and numerous Japanese ships were sunk. If America had not entered the war, Japan could have gotten a much bigger foothold in the Pacific, and might have been impossible, or much harder to stop.
In Europe, there might have been far more dire consequences if America had not entered the war until 1942. England was weakening, and it is very conceivable that the country could have fallen to the Nazis in 1942. This…
knight was "a mounted warrior in the service of his liege-lord." Knights were professional soldiers. They were higher in rank in the cavalry. They wore coat of arms that bore the names of their heritage. They carried the colors of their Lords. (Hopkins, 1990) Their job was protecting the lands that belonged to their Lords and by extension the domain of the king. The rise of knights was associated with a martial meritocracy and an eventual aristo-meritocracy. Those knights who won battles for their masters rose through the hierarchical ranks. They were accorded greater power, lands and servants. The raison d' tre for knights was martial supremacy. Fighting was an often occurrence, because the common person could not defend themselves against an invading foe. In time of danger the people fled to the castle. When not engaged in combat, knights would participate in tournaments to win favors, power, and money.…
Bacon, Leonard. The Song of Roland, Dover Thrift Editions. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 2002.
Brault, Gerard J. Early Blazon: Heraldic Terminology in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries, with Special Reference to Arthurian Literature. Oxford,: Clarendon Press, 1972.
Gies, Frances. The Knight in History. London: R. Hale, 1986.
Hopkins, Andrea. Knights. 1st American ed. New York: Artabras, 1990.
Perhaps that more timely international cooperation could do better to save innocent people.
Stephanie Power covers a period from 1915 to 2001 with the increasing capacity of U.S. response to genocide. While in 1915, nothing could be done about the urkish genocide in Armenia, the U.S. role increased constantly to the ones played at the end of the 20th century in Yugoslavia and with the role in Saddam's Iraq. Perhaps such examples can help develop preemptive action towards genocide that can be acted upon in the future.
4. Between 1939 and 1941, Germany had started the war in Europe with its attack on Poland, on September 1, 1939, preceded by a series of aggressive actions such as the remilitarization of the Rhineland and the annexation of Austria and Czechoslovakia. With Great Britain and France declaring war on Germany, armed conflict proceeded in Europe with the rapid German victories over Poland,…
The Treaty of Versailles saw the creation of the League of Nations as the organization that would attempt to guarantee world peace. Wilson, however, could not convince the U.S. Senate to join the League of Nation, mainly because the Senate saw this as a limitation of U.S. right to declare war on other countries. Lack of support and U.S. non-adherence to the organization are possibly some of the low points of Wilson's foreign policy.
On the other hand, Wilson was also active in his attempts to establish solid democracies in Latin America and towards stabilizing these countries. U.S. interventions in Mexico, Nicaragua, Haiti or Panama marked the period of WWI as well.
Cushing, Lincoln. 1997. 1898-1998 Centennial of the Spanish - American War. On the Internet at http://www.zpub.com/cpp/saw.html.Last retrieved on August 16, 2007
ichard Hughes: A High Wind in Jamaica
This story, the first novel by ichard Hughes, takes place in the 19th Century, and mixes the diverse subjects of humor, irony, satire, pirates, sexuality and children into a very interesting tale, with many sidebar stories tucked into the main theme.
The first part of the story has an eerily familiar ring and meteorological link with the December, 2004 tsunami-related disaster in Asia. In A High Wind, first there is an earthquake, then hurricane-force winds, followed by torrential rains (although no tidal wave) devastate the island and the British children who lived there are sent to England. However, on the way they are attacked by pirates and unwittingly kidnapped by those pirates. From there, the novel has a definite Lord of the Flies tone to it: the English children actually take over control of much of the activities on board, which is as…
Greene, Graham. Brighton Rock. London: Heinemann, 1938.
Hughes, Richard. High Wind in Jamaica. New York: Harper, 1957.
Rhys, Jean. Voyage in the Dark. London: A. Deutsch, 1967.
Waugh, Evelyn. A Handful of Dust. Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 1962.
attle of Waterloo was the concluding and pivotal action of the Napoleonic Wars that successfully put an end to the French control of the European landmass and brought about extreme changes in the political frontiers and control of Europe. Taken place on June 18, 1814, near Waterloo, which is now known as elgium, the battle levels as a huge turning point in present history.[footnoteRef:1] It is clear that the attle of Waterloo is distinguished for the reason that it is in this battle, that one of the world's utmost war stars, Napoleon onarparte, suffered a humbling loss and the end of his livelihood at the hands of a comparatively unfamiliar ritish general. Assuming Napoleon won his war against the Russians and English and maintained his triumph, and was able to pass his regime on to latter administrations which could have held the wins, here are some likely ways the world…
And if Napoleon had won the Battle of Waterloo? May 7, 2014. http://www.thelocal.fr/20150611/and-if-napoleon-had-won-at-waterloo (accessed September 19, 2015).
Cornwell, Bernard. Waterloo: The History of Four Days, Three Armies, and Three Battles. New York: Harper, 2015.
Leggiere, Michael V. Napoleon and the Struggle for Germany: The Franco-Prussian War of 1813 (Cambridge Military Histories) (Volume 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.
Muir, Roy. Wellington: Waterloo and the Fortunes of Peace 1814-1852. Yale: Yale University Press, 2015.
Celtic history and influence in Britain spanned several centuries: between the 7th and 1st centuries BCE. The Celts originated in Central and Western Europe and they eventually migrated to the British Isles. The Celts would have a huge impact on early British linguistic and cultural development. They would later be considered adversaries of the omans, who successfully dominated and nearly obliterated Celtic culture on the islands. After the downfall of the oman Empire and waning oman rule in Great Britain, Celtic culture enjoyed a small resurgence. However, Druidic religion and culture would be overshadowed by Christianity.
However, the lingering effects of Celtic culture remained strong throughout British history. Celtic influence on British culture focuses on language, weapons, culture, religion, and art. Language and cultural identity are inextricable from Celtic influence, and many Celtic languages are still spoken throughout the British Isles today including Welsh, Manx, and both…
"The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle on Alfred the Great."
Navies in American Revolution
For hundreds of years, maritime expansion represented the only way to reach distant shores, to attack enemies across channels of water, to explore uncharted territories, to make trade with regional neighbors and to connect the comprised empires. Leading directly into the 20th century, this was the chief mode of making war, maintaining occupations, colonizing lands and conducting the transport of goods acquired by trade or force. Peter Padfield theorized that ultimately, ritish maritime power was decisive in creating breathing space for liberal democracy in the world, as opposed to the autocratic states of continental Europe like Spain, France, Prussia and Russia. The Hapsburgs, the ourbons, Hitler and Stalin all failed to find a strategy that would defeat the maritime empires, which controlled the world's trade routes and raw materials. Successful maritime powers like ritain and, in the 20th Century, the United States, required coastlines with deep…
Black, Jeremy, "Naval Power, Strategy and Foreign Policy, 1775-1791" in Michael Duffy (ed). Parameters of British Naval Power, 1650-1850. University of Exeter Press, 1992, pp. 93-120.
Black, Jeremy. European Warfare in a Global Context, 1660-1815. Routledge, 2007.
Dull, Jonathan R. A Diplomatic History of the American Revolution. Yale University Press, 1985.
Kelly, J.K. "The Struggle for American Seaborne Independence as Viewed by John Adams." PhD Dissertation, University of Maine, 1973.
Representations of War in the Longest Day and Saving Private Ryan
Hollywood's depictions and interpretations of the events that transpired on D-Day have long captured the attention of audiences worldwide. Though Hollywood depictions of the events that occurred prior, during, and after the invasion of Normandy may vary, they still aim to convey a similar message, one that assures the evil forces in the world will be overthrown and the world will be a much safer place. The Longest Day and Saving Private Ryan aim to present the events that lead up to the invasion of Normandy on D-Day in an artistic and creative fashion while attempting to maintain an air of realism. The approaches taken to depict the invasion of Normandy in The Longest Day and Saving Private Ryan are a positive contribution to the combat film genre. Though creative licenses were taken in each film, the manner in…
Beevor, Anthony. D-Day: The Battle for Normandy. New York: Viking Penguin, 2009.
Churchill, Ron. "Saving Private Ryan" a real life drama." UB Reporter 30, no. 2 (September
D-Day: June 6, 1944. http://www.army.mil/d-day / (accessed May 23, 2011).
The French tradition of the Arthurian legends, however, are far less overtly political in their approach to the tales and to Guinevere in particular, and though politics and loyalties are still important elements of these stories the aspects of romance, love, and sexuality are far more prominent. Beginning with the poet Chretien de Troyes, Guinevere began to take on a more active role that at once justifies the feminine and begins to suggest the degradation and un-holiness of the female body and intent. Though Man might still be the more active and potent partner, Woman can corrupt and influence Man, these tales suggest, and the character of Guinevere seems a brand new creation given her immensely increased prominence when compared to all known earlier forms of the legends (Fulton, 3).
Erec and Enide is the tale of one of Arthur's knights and the peasant maid he loves and marries, but…
Bruce, J. Douglas. The Development of Arthurian Romance in Medieval France. The Sewanee Review 13(3)(1905): 319-35.
Chretien de Troyes. Erec and Enide. Accessed 5 June 2012. http://omacl.org/Erec/
Chretien de Troyes. Lancelot or, the Knight of the Cart. Accessed 5 Juen 2012. http://omacl.org/Lancelot/
Fulton, Helen. A Woman's Place. Quondam et Futurus 3(2)(1993): 1-25.
Leadership of Wellington
The British general Arthur Wellesley beautifully fits the model of a maverick military commander offered by obert Harvey in his work Maverick Military Leaders, the Extraordinary Battles of Washington, Nelson, Patton, ommel, and Others. Maverick Military Leaders discusses Wellesley's first (and significant) battle against Maratha forces at the Battle of Assaye. In Harvey's formulation, the future Duke of Wellington can be understood to exhibit most, if not all, of the sixteen traits found in successful battlefield commanders; and indeed, Wellington would go on to defeat Napoleon and end the putative emperor's reign at the decisive Battle of Waterloo in 1815. The victory at Waterloo would secure Britain's position as a great power vis a vis continental politics and affairs for the next century-and-a-half. It can be fairly said that the qualities of leadership that Wellesley displayed at Assaye were a precursor in his eventually becoming one of…
Cavendish, Richard. (2003) History Today. www.historytoday.com/richard-cavendish/battle-assaye
Harvey, R. (2008). Maverick Military Leaders, the Extraordinary Battles of Washington, Nelson, Patton, Rommel, and Others. Skyhorse Pub Co Inc.
evidence back thoughts. OPTION #1:Discuss advantages
Great Britain and the fledgling United States each held distinct advantages and disadvantages at the start of the Revolutionary War. Britain, for its part, was advantaged by the fact that it had a plethora of soldiers with extensive experience in warfare. It also had a population of approximately 11 million from which it could use to support its martial effort. Additionally, Britain was aided by the fact that it had roughly 500,00 soldiers already stationed in the colony prior to the war's start. Britain would also go on to add about 30,000 German soldiers to its ranks.
America's advantages were not as formidable as those of Britain when the war initiated. It did have good leadership with generals such as George Washington. Moreover, it was indubitably aided by the fact that it best understood the purpose of the war and it had more to…
More recently two schools of military history have developed that attempt to consider its object from a more eclectic, objective perspective, dubbed the "New Military History" and "War and Society" history. New Military History "refers to a partial turning away from the great captains, and from weapons, tactics, and operations as the main concerns of the historical study of war," and instead focusing on "the interaction of war with society, economics, politics, and culture."
New Military History is a relatively broad category, and its perspective can be evinced both on the level of a particular methodology and ideology.
Along with the "War and Society" school of thought, New Military History seeks to uncover the multifarious factors driving and influencing military conflict, with a particular view towards the interaction between these factors and the actual practice of war. That is to say, these schools of thought do no entirely abandon any…
Alexander, Joseph G. "The Truth about the Opium War." The North American Review (1821-
1940) 163, (1896): 381-383.
Bello, David. "The Venomous Course of Southwestern Opuim: Qing Prohibtion in Yunnan,
Sichuan, and Guizhou in the Early Nineteenth Century." The Journal of Asian Studies.
Poison gas was regarded by many as a weak way to fight and anyone who thought of utilizing it was quickly dismissed. "…any power that used poison gas would inevitably be branded as beyond the pale of civilization for all the time and Cochrane's idea was quietly buried." (Stokesbury 94) However the British did use poison gas during orld ar I with some success, albeit at the cost of their advancement in the battle. "In their assault, which coincided with that of the French to the south, the British employed poison gas themselves for the first time. It helped gain some initial successes, though in places it blew back and hampered their own advance." (Stokesbury 95) Other things were also of concern to the British and Germans as their need for new allies became a primary objective. Their desire to generate new alliances was for effort to open up new…
"Dardanelles Campaign." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 22 June 2014. .
Stokesbury, James L. A short history of World War I. New York: Morrow, 1981. Print.
"The Ottoman Empire Enters WWI on the side of the Central Powers." Ottoman Empire enters WWI: 1914. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 June 2014. .
The invention of the radar system implies that killing civilians in London and other cities are not achievable. The various backers in these systems aided by the newly discovered radar system make the German aerial intervention inefficient. However, the surveillance in Germans border and that of Britain must be enhanced.
Another key tactic is to encourage and negotiate with their allies in staging strategic battles to win over the Euro zone area. In this case, it would be advisable to have Italy, under Benito Mussolini concentrating on the central and western regions of Europe. This would call for withdrawal of its armies from Ethiopia. Strengthening of the battle within the central Europe region would ensure that the Russian army does not easily get into the German protected areas. This will help keep the German troops from getting far away from its strongholds
Finally, I would advise the German troops would…
Keegan, John. The Battle for History: Re-Fighting World War II. New York: Vintage Books, 1995
Overy, Richard. Why the Allies Won. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1995
Weinberg, Gerhard L. A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994
Richard Overy. Why the Allies Won. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1995
New Pattern of Integration Through Governmental Coordination: European Perspective
The beginning of the European Union was with the coalition of six nations (namely France, Germany, Italia, Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg) who entered into a treaty back in the year 1951 to determine the ECU Coal and Steel Community. The next signed treaty was in the year 1957 to determine the ECU Economic Community. The Coal and Steel Community were also built with a firmer incentive to improve political stance as oppoed to the economic goals: to attain a peace settlement mainly between the countries of France and Germany. The treaty creating the ECU Economic Community was more motivated towards the achievement of the economic objectives, on the other hand, but had strong political stance as well. It basically aimed to determine a typical or single market by which goods, capital, services, amongst other things could move freely inside the European…
Begg, Iain et al., 2001, Social Exclusion and Social Protection in the European Union: Policy Issues and Proposals for the Future Role of the EU, South Bank University Working Paper, http://www.sbu.ac.uk/euroinst/policyreport.pdf
Ben-Gera, M. (2009). Coordination at the centre of government for better policy making. Conference Paper for Conference on Public Administration Reform and European Integration. SIGMA.
Biagi, Marco, 2000: -- The Impact of European Employement Strategy on the Role of Labour Law and Industrial Relations --, International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations, vol. 16, No. 2, Summer 2000, 155-73
Browne, Matthew, 2003: -- La methode ouverte de coordination et la Strategie europeenne pour l'emploi: Modele ou faux-semblant ? -- in Renaud Dehousse (ed.), L'Europe sans Bruxelles ? (forthcoming)
Undeclared War in the Atlantic
America's move to escort convoys into the Atlantic meant America was ready to enter undeclared naval war with Germany during World War II, and yet these very actions have been subject of many criticisms. That is, many claimed it happened because during the time of this war, the oosevelt administration did not establish clear defense tactics that would have defended the U.S. during war. The United States may have been a sitting duck until a time when it was attacked. Some claim the U.S. security was deeply influenced by what was going on elsewhere in the world. For example, if Britain were to crumble under the weight of war, then the Axis powers would essential control the resources of the entire Old World. The New World would then be living in war. This paper discusses more about the United States' undeclared war against…
Bailey, Thomas A. & Ryan, Paul B. 1979. Hitler vs. Roosevelt: The Undeclared Naval War.
New York: Penguin.
Kershaw, Ian. 2007. Fateful choices: Ten decisions that changed the world. 1940-41. New York:
Penguin, p. 624.
[footnoteRef:24] in the Archaic Period, Ancient Greece's initial maritime power was critical but also "sporadic."[footnoteRef:25] During the Classical Period, Athens in particular "pursued a policy of naval imperialism"[footnoteRef:26] and this Period saw the development of "siege warfare" in which the Greeks -- particularly the Athenians -- developed the skills to wage war on the open sea.[footnoteRef:27] in the Hellenistic Period, the scope of warfare was enlarged considerably, as whole areas of land were now in dispute. Consequently, there was an "ancient naval arms race"[footnoteRef:28] in which various kings extending beyond Greece fought for control of mainland Greece, islands of the Aegean, western Turkey and southern Syria.[footnoteRef:29] [21: EH.Net and C. Michael Hogan. "Economy of Ancient Greece." www.eoearth.org Web site. May 1, 2010. http://www.eoearth.org/article/Economy_of_Ancient_Greece (accessed January 17, 2013).] [22: Chester G. Starr. The Influence of Sea Power on Ancient History. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc., 1989, 7.] [23: Ibid.,…
race the events that led up to the War of 1812 and be very specific in describing those events.
Chapter 7 begins with background review of how (in the late 18th century) the young nation began to be concerned with education. Medicine, too, was beginning to actually define diseases and help heal people, and Americans were inventing technologies (like the cotton gin by Eli Whitney) including Whitney's machine "…to make each part of a gun according to an exact pattern" (192). In fact the development of Whitney's system of making weapons was important due to the fact that the U.S. was preparing for war with France; "Americans were deeply troubled by their lack of sufficient armaments for the expected hostilities" (192).
In 1789 Congress passed laws that gave preference to American ships in U.S. ports; moreover, between 1789 and 1810, the U.S. had "more ships and international commerce" than any…
The House of Representative elections of 1812 were pivotal to the launching of war with England as voters "…elected a large number of representatives of both parties eager for war with Britain" (210). Among those war-mongering elected officials were Henry Clay (Kentucky) and John C. Calhoun (South Carolina). Clay, as Speaker, appointed members he knew to be eager for war -- in particular, war to seize Canada from England -- to the Committee on Foreign Affairs (211). On June 18, President Madison "…gave in to the pressure" from the House and approved a declaration of war against Britain (211). Madison was very concerned about the threats to American vessels engaged in trade with Europe, and since Britain was hostile to the idea of Americans trading with France -- and of Americans gaining power on the high seas -- Madison reluctantly agreed to go to war.
What were the major outcomes of the war? As a result of Treaty of Ghent, the British gave up their demand for an "…Indian buffer state in the Northwest" and in time through additional negotiations the British agreed to allow full trade with American ships (213). The Treaty of Ghent also supposedly provided that the Native Americans would get back their tribal lands (that had been taken during the war); albeit, the Indians never did get their land back. The Treaty also called for a "mutual disarmament on the Great Lakes" and in time the Canadian-American boundary became the "…longest 'unguarded frontier' in the world" (213).
In conclusion, the War of 1812 did not go well for the new American nation, and it was a terrible blow to Native Americans who witnessed the killing of their peoples and the stealing of their ancient tribal lands. Still, with the addition of the Louisiana Purchase, America was now a much bigger nation, with new lands to populate and new challenges to face as well.
In regard to the naval force of the British, these frictions affected in particular the effective number of the marines that made up the fleet, despite the fact that the threat of the American uprising was looming and that the British strategists were well aware of the fact that the English power relied mostly on the naval forces. Therefore, once this aspect of the military force was weakened, the eventual failure of the naval operations was obvious. The internal situation in the Empire also led to a lack of consideration for the treatment of the sailors who had constantly rebelled against the negligence and the mistreatment they had been throughout the years subject to. (Trevelyan, 1962) Even more, following the actual clash with the American revolutionaries, the state of the navy was, according to Trevelyan, "a deplorable one (as) its ships were being evicted from the Mediterranean Sea, where the…
Boatner, Mark M. (1966) Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. New York: D. McKay & Co.
Gardner, Allen. (1913) a naval history of the American Revolution. Boston, Houghton. Retrieved 30 May 2007. http://www.americanrevolution.org/nav1.html
Halsall, Paul. Thomas Paine's Common Sense. Penguin: New York, 1982. Internet Modern History Sourcebook. Retrieved 30 May 2007 http://www.ushistory.org/paine/commonsense/singlehtml.htm
Jenkins, P. (1997). A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave.
The U.S. Debate over Membership in the League of Nations
After the end of orld ar I, the world was weary of war and the ravages that it had taken on the European continent and it would seem reasonable to suggest that policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic would be eager to form some type of league to resolve future conflicts. According to Margulies (1998), "Following the signing of the Treaty of Versailles at the Paris Peace Conference in June 1919, where he played a major role in negotiating that treaty, which established the League of Nations, President oodrow ilson turned his attention to persuading the U.S. Senate to ratify the new treaty" (273). The Senate of the 66th Congress was almost equally divided between the Republican Party with 49 and the Democrats who fielded 47 senators (Marguilies). Although the president could rely on the majority of the Democrats…
Egerton, George W. Great Britain and the Creation of the League of Nations: Strategy, Politics,
and International Organization, 1914-1919. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North
Carolina Press, 1978.
Janas, Michael. 2006. "Woodrow Wilson's Western Tour: Rhetoric, Public Opinion and the League of Nations." Argumentation and Advocacy 42(4): 229.
Euthanasia Is Illegal
Euthanasia otherwise known as assisted suicide refers to the painless extermination of a patient suffering from terminal illnesses or painful or incurable disease. According to Cavan & Dolan, euthanasia is the practice or act of permitting the death of hopelessly injured or sick individuals in a painless means for the purpose of mercy (Cavan & Dolan 12). The techniques used in euthanasia induce numerous artifacts such as shifts in regional brain chemistry, liver metabolism and epinephrine levels causing death. Advocates of euthanasia trust that sparing a patient needless suffering or pain is a good thing. If an individual is hopelessly hurt or ill with no hope of ever getting well, if such a person is in an unending and unbearable pain and cannot experience the things that make life meaningful, the best option for such patients is euthanasia. Euthanasia raises questions on morals, legal and essence of…
Baird, R. Caring for the Dying: critical issues at the edge of life. New York: Prometeus Books 2003, pp.117
Cavan, Seasmus, Dolan, Sean. Euthanasia: The Debate over the right to die. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, Oct 1, 2000.
Cohen-Almagor, R. Euthanasia in the Netherlands: The policy and practice of mercy killing. Netherlands: Springer, Aug 3, 2004.
Devettere, Raymond. Practical decision making in health care ethics: Cases and concepts. Georgetown: Georgetown University Press, 2009.
The already shaky relationship between the Qatar state and Iranian society was further undermined by the Western exploitation of Iranian resources during the second half of the nineteenth century.
From 1918 until 1921 "British subsidies kept the government afloat, and British military and administrative advisers attempted to reorganize Iran's army and to manipulate the various political factions within the country to British advantage" (Cleveland, 185)*. When Britain added insult to injury by offering Iran a loan in exchange for exclusive advisory privileges, anti-imperial demonstrations broke out in several cities. Widespread discontent grew further. The Qatar government was regarded as ineffective and pro-British. A determined military commander finally took action and put a stop to the chaos.
Reza Khan used the political climate to advance from the position of commander and chief of the army in 1921 to that of the shah of Iran in 1925. His election overthrew the Qatar…
WW2 Momentum Shift 1942-1944
One of the events that rocked the world and consequently shaped the world was the WWII that commenced effectively in 1939 and ended in 1945. It is however worth noting that some of the conflicts that eventually ended up in the culmination of the WWII started much earlier. The WWII parse involved majority of the nations, including the powerful nations at that time taking sides and aligning themselves and their military and diplomatic allegiance to either the Allies or the Axis, each side forming their combined forces. The commanding forces in the Allies were France, Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States and to some little extent China (odye-Smith J., 2014). One the other side of the divide the Axis were Italy, Germany and Japan. This war was largely seen as a continuation of the WWI bearing the 20 years of unresolved disputes that emanated from…
Rodye-Smith J., (2014). World War II. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/648813/World-War-II
Rogole J.A., (2002). The Strategic Bombing Campaign against Germany during World War II. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=10&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CGoQFjAJ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fetd.lsu.edu%2Fdocs%2Favailable%2Fetd-0413102-132317%2Funrestricted%2FRigole_thesis.pdf&ei=rnTVU7T2HOHj4QTl6YCwCA&usg=AFQjCNGr0G5t3esuMHkyG6efcmsHwe2lVg&sig2=f4uVuDX2XSnYn89JcB0wYA&bvm=bv.71778758,d.bGE
Yale Law School, (2008). The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Chapter 7 - The Attacks. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/mp07.asp
The ritish came to impose serious taxes as a result of the French Indian war. These in turn were unacceptable to a people which considered itself not to be responsible for the causes of the war. The confrontation had been in fact another matter of European dispute that had to be solved outside the continent in the colonies.
Third, there is a disagreement in the way in which the war was perceived at the local level. The American colonies viewed this struggle as a need for independence from a regime that continued to impose an undemocratic control over its institutions and the lives of the people. On the other hand, the ritish saw it as a rebellion that must be immediately squashed. In its view, it was a war for the maintenance of a certain order, while the Americans viewed it as one of disruption of this order. While the…
Brainard, R. (2005) "Shays' Rebellion." 18th century history. 11 June 2008. http://www.history1700s.com/articles/article1120.shtml
British Battles. (N.d.) the War of the Revolution 1775 to 1783. Accessed 11 June 2008 http://www.britishbattles.com/american-revolution.htm
Calliope. (2008) "Shays' Rebellion." A Historical Synopsis. 11 June 2008. http://www.calliope.org/shays/shays2.html
Jenkins, P. (1997) a history of the United States. New York: Palgrave.
This was known as pyrrexhia or trench fever. The first symptoms were shooting pains in the shins and was followed by a very high fever" (Simkin). It was not a deadly disease, but stricken men could not fight. Trench fever affected thousands of soldiers, and so did trench foot.
Trench foot is one of the most common ailments of soldiers in the trenches. Their boots and socks were always wet and muddy, and this led to the condition called trench foot. The feet would become numb and turn red or blue, and in extreme cases, it could lead to gangrene and amputation of the foot. The feet would also swell, fester, and develop sores. Soldiers had to change their socks at least three times a day to control the disease, and after the armies understood how severe is was, soldiers in the trenches received extra socks as part of their…
Bell, Fraser. "The Spirit of Our Time." Queen's Quarterly Spring 2004: 11+.
Cox, Gary. "3 France." Researching World War I: A Handbook. Ed. Robin Higham and Dennis E. Showalter. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2003. 51-78.
Duffy, Michael. "Weapons of War: Poison Gas." First World War.com. 2008. 22 Nov. 2008. http://www.firstworldwar.com/weaponry/gas.htm
Grotelueschen, Mark E. Doctrine under Trial: American Artillery Employment in World War I. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001.
Historians and scholars maintain that had that decision not been made, the war would have a mute point. But as history indicates, not only did ashington strike a decisive victory at Hessians, he then had another victory shortly thereafter at Princeton. ith the extension of enlistments by many soldiers and ashington's decision to spend the winter in Morristown New Jersey, the British had no choice but to withdraw (Billias 1969, p. 123).
ashington's delegation of the fortification of New York to Charles Lee was seen as a serious mistake by many. hat contributed to this decision was Congress' insistence that the gateway to the Hudson River be defended despite the problems that defensibility presented. Another contributing factor was the need for additional troop to bolter efforts in Quebec. Because of the broad and increasing threat levels, internal friction between regions erupted as well as the spread of dysentery, smallpox and…
Bilia, George. George Washington's Opponents. New York: William Morrow, 1969.
Ferling, John. First Men: The Life of George Washington. University of Tennessee Press, 1990.
Toth, Charles. Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite: The American Revolution and the European
Response. Troy, NY: The Whitston Publishing Company, 1989.
a) Madhu's business is not highly globalized. He produces and sells in the UK. However, one of his major inputs is chefs, and the ones with the skills he needs are not typically found in the UK. Indian chefs almost always come from India or from expat Indian communities elsewhere. This element of his business is globalized, because Indian cooking is a specialized skill that originates from a specific geography, and is not readily found either in the UK or in other parts of the world.
b) The four drivers of globalization are cost, market, government and competition. In the case of Madhu, the most important are market and competition. Cost is not a major factor. Madhu does not appear to have an issue with the cost of Indian chefs in Britain. There is no indication in the case that he is unwilling to pay a higher price…
Both World War I and II were world events that left territories, countries, nations, and individuals exhausted from the effort and from loss. These wars proved ultimately ironic when the term "the war to end all wars" proved tragically inaccurate with the outbreak of World War II. In addition to the devastation, however, were significant changes, developments and effects on the world and its paradigms. Decolonization, for example proved to be one of the most important effects. Whereas colonization was a mainly European paradigm as means of transport and new discoveries enabled increasing voyages across the world, the World Wars created the ability of territories to become autonomous, searching for their own identity rather than identities that were associated with those of their colonizers. For Italy, World War II also held its own specific events and paradigm shifts as the country became a territory affected by war and…
England Faces Modern Britain -- From ace and Soccer to Women Bishops and Gay ights" has been chosen for the discussion on the intersection of gender, race and inequality.
The article published in International Herald Tribune by Mark Ashurt is about the various issues which the Modern England is facing. The title itself shows the theme of the article, as the issues of acism, Gender, and Ethnicity are still existent in the Modern Britain. The first issue concerns the soccer world and is related to racism. John Terry, the former England captain is accused of racially abusing an opponent of Queens Park angers (Anton Ferdinand). The verdict of the jury is set to be out soon and will open a number of debated regarding the racism issue. Sports have not saved it from being in the middle of controversies related to racism, sexuality and gender. The article has linked the…
Ashurt, M. (2012, 13th July). England Faces Modern Britain -- From Race and Soccer to Women Bishops and Gay Rights. International Herald Tribune
Wallman, S. (1977). "Ethnicity research in Britain," Current Anthropology, v. 18, n. 3, pp. 531 -- 532.
Treaty of Jay 1794
Using the American foreign policy, the Jay's Treaty of 1794 as the context of discussion, this essay argues that the country's history of foreign relations and policy has been predominantly expansionist and imperialist.
As was mentioned earlier, Jay's Treaty is a perfect example of expansionist America, right after the American Revolution was won by Americans and American independence from Great Britain had been declared. The treaty is a negotiation between Britain and United States in the 18th century, wherein differences between the two countries has been settled in order to foster peaceful foreign relations and trade with each other. The treaty entailed the United States to turn its back behind the prospect of achieving good French-American relations, since Britain considers France its stiffest competitor in Europe. Patterson et. al.'s (2000) analysis of the treaty and its history shows the decision of the American government to approve…
Patterson, S., G Gifford, and K. Hagan. (2000). American Foreign Relations, Vol. 1. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
As an inciting event, it gave a direct reason for the
colonists to oppose British imposition on their lives. This minor incident
turned in a deadly attack that gave way to the beginning of the American
This is because another key player emerged that helped to spread the
anti-British sentiment and contribute to the resulting action from the
Boston Massacre. This player was Paul Revere, who 21 days after the Boston
Massacre began selling color prints entitled, "The Bloody Massacre
perpetrated in King Street" (Achieving Early America). By selling the
prints so quickly, Paul Revere cemented his status as an American Patriot
and helped to spread the events of the Boston Massacre that went on to lead
America towards independence. His engraving is very one sided in its
depiction of the Boston Massacre, as it shows the British Redcoats ordered
by a commander to mow down a group of…
"Boston Massacre a Behind-the-Scenes Look At Paul Revere's Most Famous
Engraving." Achieving Early America. 24 Apr. 2007
"Boston Massacre." Boston Massacre Historical Society. 2007. 24 Apr. 2007
"Boston Massacre Jump Back in Time." The Library of Congress. 2007. 24 Apr.
Mario, however, is not so lucky. He finds Bowser, and is forced to do battle with the giant beast until Bowser inadvertently casts himself into the fiery abyss of his own creation. Bowser's downfall is rather ironic: what ultimately ruins his grand designs of Mushroom domination is the structure of the castle that he built himself.
Despite the dissimilarities concerning the identities of their enemies, both Mario and Sir Gawain are victorious because they live up to their reputations as good and honorable heroes. Sir Gawain travels back to Camelot where he is praised by his King and the other Knights of the Round Table. Mario receives an identical homecoming -- he is praised as the conquering hero of the Mushroom realm. Stories, feasts, and games follow in both lands. Eventually in the Mushroom realm, even Bowser is allowed into the noble games and he races alongside Mario is his…
Northern and Southern Colonies before the Civil War
In the middle of the 19th century, the industrial revolution that was growing depicted the presence of the two countries all of the most progressive independent states. The symbolic status in England laid the foundation of working class exploitation, urbanization and industrialization and the other one based on village, farmhouse, agriculture, and trustworthy relations between tenants and squires in 1845. egarding the census of the 1850, the population of the United States was about twenty-three million; this was a rise from thirteen million in the year 1830. As of 1850, the North saw increased populations of immigrants incoming. The census that was carried out in 1860 showed the population of the United States to be about thirty-one million. This represented a thirty-nine percent increase in a span of ten years where the South only had eighth million whites compared to twenty million…
Fitzhugh, George. Cannibals All! Or, Slaves Without Master. (Port Royal, Caroline, VA: 1857). A. Morris, Publisher, chapter 1, 1-4
Hoffman, Elizabeth Cobbs and Gjerde Jon "Commercial development and immigration in the North at midcentury" in Hoffman, Elizabeth Cobbs and Gjerde Jon. Major Problems in American History: To 1877. (Boston, Massachusetts: 2007). Houghton Mifflin Company, chapter 11, 304-334
Hoffman, Elizabeth Cobbs, and Gjerde Jon. "Agriculture and Slavery in the South at Midcetury" in Hoffman, Elizabeth Cobbs and Gjerde Jon. Major Problems in American History: To 1877. (Boston, Massachusetts: 2007). Houghton Mifflin Company, chapter 12, 335-360
McPherson James M. "The United States at Midcetury" in McPherson James M. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. (Oxford: 1988). Oxford University Press, Chapter 1, 7-46
A Discussion of how the Boer ar helped to Shape Modern Day Canada
The Boer ar was not a Canadian war. Rather, it was a war started and perpetuated British influence and Canada's participation was mandated by British dominion. As a result of their colonization, Canada had little influence over strategies or direction of the war. At the time Canada was a self-governing colony which had no control over its foreign policy. Canada's military contribution to this war was very important but it was still Britain who had control over Canada's military. However, Canada's participation in the war was as a turning point in the country's history in which its fostering of its own command over its military eventually led it on an eventual path to independence. This essay will provide a brief overview of how Canada increased its sovereignty over its forces and its importance to the…
CBC. (2001). The Boer War. Retrieved from Canada - A People History: http://www.cbc.ca/history/EPISCONTENTSE1EP11CH2PA3LE.html
Morton, D. (N.d.). Epilogue. Retrieved from Images of a Forgotten War: http://www3.nfb.ca/ww1/independence.php
The Canadian Encyclopedia. (2012). Canadian Expeditionary Force. Retrieved from The Canadian Encyclopedia: http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/canadian-expeditionary-force
The Loyal Edmonton Regiment Museum. (2010). Boer War. Retrieved from Canadian Military HIstory: http://www.lermuseum.org/en/canadas-military-history/boer-war/
conservative intellectual movement, but also the role of William uckley and William Rusher in the blossoming of the youth conservative movement
Talk about structure of paper, who not strictly chronologically placed (ie hayek before the rest) - in this order for thematic purposes, to enhance the genuiness of the paper (branches of the movement brought up in order of importance to youth conservative revolt) For instance, Hayek had perhaps the greatest impact on the effects of the movement - uckley and Rusher. These individuals, their beliefs, their principles were extremely influential in better understanding the origins, history, and leaders of American conservatism.
Momentous events shape the psyche of an individual as the person matures. A child grows up in poverty vows to never be like his parents, and keeps this inner vow to become a millionaire. A young woman experiences sexual trauma as a teen, and chooses a career that…
George Nash, The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945 http://www.nationalreview.com/22dec97/mcginnis122297.html . National review online The Origins of Conservatism George Mc Ginnis
Volume Library #2, p. 2146
Schneider, Cadres for Conservatism
McGinnis, National Review Online
history western civilization a book called THE MAKING OF THE WEST.
Joan of Arc
Prior to becoming made into a saint in the early part of the 20th century, Joan of Arc was one of the primary causes of France's many victories in the Hundred Years War. The woman, who only lived to be 19 before she was eventually burned to death after being captured by the British, helped liberate many parts of France from British occupation during a relatively brief period of time, all of which took place during the 1420's prior to her death. Joan told several members of the French population that she was divinely inspired by visions from God to help her defeat the British and reclaim France's territory. With some dissent from France's military leaders, she was able to play an influential role in the Siege at Orleans, which was largely proceeded by several months'…
1415 Euopeans began a long pocess of expansion though impeial conquest and colonization. This ealy moden fom of impeialism continued up to the late eighteenth o ealy nineteenth centuy. Explain how and why the vaious Euopean powes expanded beyond thei oiginal bodes and in many instances beyond the continent. Be sue to distinguish between at least thee of the pincipal Euopean impeial powes, among which wee the Potuguese, Spanish, Bitish, Fench, Dutch, and Russians.
Thee wee many factos that caused Euopean powes to expand beyond thei oiginal bodes and, in many instances, beyond the continent.
One of these was simply colonization whee one county battled anothe and claimed its teitoy as its own. Anothe facto was tade whee the tade dealings of specific counties bought them into contact with anothe and, theeby impoted thei influence into foeign soil. The slave tade too was a contibutoy facto whee people fom one…
Jiu-Hwa Upshur (2012) World History Wadsworth; comprehensive, compact 5th edition)
John M. Cohen (1969) The Four Voyages, Penguin: UK
Japanese and Chinese forces battled against each other from 1937-1945 to gain control of the Chinese mainland. The Communist China defeated the Nationalist Japan and this incident gave birth to a number of other conflicts.
United States entered into the Sino-Japanese War after the Japanese attack on the Pearl Harbor. China declared war on Germany and Italy as well. Thus, the World War II began. China was helped by the United States and Britain who gave it immense loans and supplies. The two Super Powers also established their military air bases in China. With the help of America and Britain, China was able to overpower the Japanese troops ("Sino-Japanese War, Second").
Cold War is the difference of opinion between the Soviet Union-led Communist Nations and the United States-led Egalitarian nations. Nations all over the world involve themselves in cold war through half truths, economic conflicts, diplomatic negotiations and…
Chung, TK. "COLD WAR 1945-1960." fun front. TheCorner.org, 1979. Web. 4 Dec 2011. .
Howe, Christopher, ed. China and Japan: History, Trends, and Prospects. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. Questia. Web. 5 Dec. 2011.
"Imperialism, War, and Revolution in East Asia: 1900-1945; Korea as a Colony of Japan." Asia for Educators. Columbia University, n.d. Web. 5 Dec 2011. .
Mason, John W. The Cold War, 1945-1991. New York: Routledge, 1996. Questia. Web. 4 Dec. 2011.< http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103102552# >
The Effect of the Flappers on Today's Women
The 1920's in the U.S. And UK can be described as a period of great change, both socially and economically. During this period the image of the women completely changed and a "new women" emerged who appears to have impacted social changes occurring in future generations of both men and women. This new symbol of the women was the Flapper. The Flapper was a new type of young woman that was rebellious, fun, bold and outspoken (Zeitz, 2006). This research paper explains the rise and fall of the Flapper in the 1920's, explores its historical and current impact on women in terms of culture, work, gender and social behavior and reflects on its long-term impact of the position of today's women.
Evolution of the Flapper
Flappers, most often characterized as the "New Woman," originally emerged in the 1920s in the…
Allen, F.L. (1957). Only yesterday: An informal history of the nineteen-twenties. New York:
Harper and Row.
Baughm J.S. (1996). American decades: 1920-1929. New York: Manly.
Bliven, B. (1925, September 9).FlapperJane. New Republic, pp. 65-67.