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Most important are procedural theory and substantive theory.
2) esearch Methods- Contributed with the interview and observe methodologies used in the behavioral sciences.
Note: Most significant contribution should be emulation. Because there has been so little "scientific" study of architecture and design, this field of study would do well to copy and/or incorporate scientific methods used by behavioral scientists. An example of architecture and design having to rely on others research is the "Modern Movement in architecture" (Lang, 1987).
The behavioral sciences and the modern movement: It is strongly influenced by the behavioral sciences. It is important to note past efforts to clearly see the difficulties of utilizing the behavioral sciences on the problems of design: Empiricism in philosophy and psychology clearly had an effect on romantic classical architects at the beginning of the nineteenth century; in the beginning of the twentieth century, ideas began about psychology, aesthetic theory, and…
Lang, J. (1987). Creating Architectural Theory: The Role of the Behavioral Sciences in Environmental Design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
ehavioral Science Research
The study of psychology often involves observing the reaction that people will have to various events. In scientific terms, this is referred to as the stimuli of the environment. Where, different events will shape how someone reacts to a particular situation. In some cases, these reactions (behaviors) could be positive or negative. This all depends upon how the individual is interpreting the underlying stimuli. (Robbins 78 -- 97) To fully understand the impact of these different events, we will examine two news related articles on how terrorism is shaping the behavior of various individuals. This will be accomplished by comparing two articles from: Psychology Today and The Miami Herald. Where, there will be an emphasis on: the article, the research question, how the information was acquired and the conclusions that could be drawn from each. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights, as to how…
"What is Qualitative Research." QSR International. 2007. Web. 7 Sept. 2010.
Alvarez, Michael. "The Psychology Behind Political Debate." Psychology Today. 13 Jun. 2010. Web. 7 Sept. 2010.
Kaleem, Jaweed. "UF Muslims Fear Koran Burning." The Miami Herald. 7 Sept. 2010. Web. 7 Sept. 2010.
Robbins, Anthony. "The Power of State." Unlimited Power a Black Choice. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, 1997. 78 -- 97. Print.
computers social behavioral sciences. Please format:
It is difficult to visualize contemporary society without the use of computers. Quite simply, computers are ubiquitous, and have significantly affected not only every professional industry, but also every realm of life. Computers assist people in performing their jobs better, they help people to manage their personal lives, and they even play a substantial role in the way in which people not only socialize with one another but also communicate. These facts are all the more staggering when one considers the fact that personal computers have only been around since the early 1970's (Cox, 2013). Yet even a perfunctory analysis of today's social, professional, and governmental processes indicates, the deployment and usage of computers will not recede anytime soon, and is only likely to increase.
The objective of this work is to present an effective analysis at the way in which the pervasive usage…
Cox, L. (2013). "Who invented the computer?" TechNews Daily. Retrieved from http://www.technewsdaily.com/16919-history-of-computer.html
James, E. (2013). "The real value of big data for the enterprise." Dataversity. Retrieved from http://www.dataversity.net/the-real-value-of-big-data-for-the-enterprise-2/
Lee, H. (1973). "Use of computers in research." The American Journal of Economics and Sociology." 32 (3): 243-247.
Sim, T., Gentile, D.A., Bricolo, F., Serpelloni, G., Gulamoydeen, F. (2012). "A conceptual review of research on the pathological use of computers, video games, and the internet." International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. 10 (5): 748-769.
Gary Heiman's book "Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences -- 7th edition" provides readers with a complex description of the process of involving statistics in behavioral theories. The first chapter of the book deals with basic mathematical ideas and reinforces graph ideas that many readers are likely to be acquainted with. Upon coming into contact with this information, readers can recapitulate ideas they've interacted with in the past and are more likely to gain a better understanding of chapters to follow as a consequence.
To a certain degree, the first chapter is also aimed at having readers realize that they should not be intimidated with statistics in general. In order to put across this idea, Heiman emphasizes that statistics basically results from perfectly logical concepts being incorporated into formulas and calculations that a person can use with the purpose of reaching conclusions more effectively. In most cases statistical…
Heiman, G. (2013). Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences. Cengage Learning
" (Linden and Kleinm 1988, cited in ussell and Biegel, 1990). They believe the role of peer counselors should be expanded to involve peer counseling in support groups for new recruits and their spouses, teaching in the police academy, in-service training for police officers handling posttraumatic incidents, and providing retirement counseling. They have developed a peer training program in California that has been approved by the California Commission on Police Officers Standards and Training (POST). This program has been widely acclaimed by officers.
According to Kurke and Scrivner (1995) the most productive service for psychologists to offer is probably crisis intervention, as opposed to long-term treatment. In most communities adequate mental health resources are available to all citizens, and mental health practitioners in the private sector are available under many health insurance plans. These resources should be used. The department psychologist can maximize these resources by doing liaison work between…
Kurke, M. & Scrivner, E (1995) Police psychology in the 21st Century, Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers
Russell, H.E. & Beigel, a. (1990) Understanding human behavior for effective police work, Basic Books
Staff (2007) Inside the mind of the mind hunter: An interview with legendary FBI Agent John Douglas, Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 10, 8-15
Behavioral Finance Concept v. Efficient Market Hypothesis:
For more than a century, the concept of efficient markets has been the subject of numerous academic researches and huge debates. An efficient market is described as a market with a large number of balanced profit maximizers that are actively competing against each other to forecast the future market values for individual securities. The efficient market is also defined as a market where current information is nearly freely available and accessible to all participants. Generally, in an efficient market, competition will make complete effects of new information on essential values to be reflected instantly in real prices (Singh, 2010). The efficient market hypothesis has developed to become a significant cornerstone of contemporary financial theory even though the market seems to be more modern and characterized by increased inefficiencies. As a result, the standard finance for rational analysis framework has been placed in an…
"Analysis of Behavioral Finance Efficient Market Hypothesis for the Amendment and Innovation." (n.d.). Tastecaste.com. Retrieved July 25, 2012, from http://www.tastecate.com/freepages336095_Analysis-of-behavioral-finance-efficient-market-hypothesis-for-the-amendment-and-Innovation#
"Behavioral Finance -- A Challenge to the EMH." (2010). Accredited Portfolio Management
Advisor. Retrieved July 25, 2012, from http://www.cffpinfo.com/pdfs/APMA_Sample.pdf
Cunningham, L.A. (2002, January 6). Behavioral Finance and Investor Governance. Washington and Lee Law Review, 59(3), 767-837. Retrieved from http://scholarlycommons.law.wlu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1346&context=wlulr
Behavioral scientists and investigate often rely on criminal profiling to narrow down the list of possible suspects in a crime scene or in a potentially threatening situation. This is primarily done by matching personal traits and behavioral patterns of criminals to the way in which the crime was committed and that can help in shrinking the large pool of suspects to a few which makes it relatively easier to solve the crime. (Douglas, J.E., Olshaker, M., 1986). Profiling has often been a target of intense debate by people who feel victimized by the process, however, it must be understood that profiling can never lead to one specific person. It can only help in providing leads to possible suspects and that too by means of their personality traits and behavioral past. In other words, a person who has not committed crimes and doesn't have suspicious behavior or personality traits…
Douglas, Ressler, Burgess and Hartman: Criminal profiling from crime scene analysis, in: Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 4 (1986), p. 401 -- 426.
Douglas, J.E., Olshaker, M.: The Anatomy of Motive, Scribner, New York, 1999.
Adolescent Behavioral Traits
The 'era of the genome' officially began on April 12, 2003 when the entire human DNA sequence had been declared completed (Gannet, 2008). Although there was considerable resistance to the project from the beginning, the subsequent boom in medical and genetic advances are hard to ignore. For example, BAE and colleagues (2013) recently published a genome-wide association study that searched for and found specific DNA sequences significantly associated with agreeableness and long life spans. This study would not have been possible in the pre-genome era.
Despite these remarkable advances, however, genetic research has been going on for decades in the behavioral sciences, thereby laying a foundation upon which more recent genome era discoveries can be based. To better understand this foundation, a selection of studies examining the gene-by-environment influences on child and adolescent behavior will be reviewed and discussed in this essay.
Genetic Determination of…
Bae, H.T., Sebastiani, P., Sun, J.X., Andersen, S.L., Daw, E.W., Terracciano, A. et al. (2013). Genome-wide association study of personality traits in the long life family study. Frontiers in Genetics, 4(65), 1-9. Doi: 10.3389/fgene.2013.00065.
Feinberg, M.E. & Hetherington, E.M. (2000). Sibling differentiation in adolescence: Implications for behavioral genetic theory. Child Development, 71(6), 1512-1524.
Gannet, L. (2008). The human genome project. In E.N. Zalta (ed.) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2010 Edition). Retrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/human-genome/ .
Heylens, G., De Cuypere, G., Zucker, K.J., Schelfaut, C., Elaut, E., Bossche, H.V. et al. (2012). Gender identity disorder in twins: A review of the case report literature. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 9(3), 751-757.
The main topic being studied in McIlvane's research paper, "Translational behavioral analysis: from laboratory science in stimulus control to interventions with persons with neurodevelopmental disabilities" is translational behavioral analysis. It is largely defined as a hybrid of the two conventional methods of behavioral analysis: basic and applied behavioral analysis. Its distinction between these two forms largely involves its hybridization of them, and its identification as "a subfield of behavior analysis" (McIlvane, 2009, p. 273).
There are no research questions in this paper for the simple fact that it does not contain original research and is merely the author's reflection and analysis of this particular subject. The rationale for the paper is that translational behavioral analysis is a relative newcomer to the modes of science that were previously stratified as either basic or applied behavioral analysis. As such, it is worthy of study because it can bridge the gap…
Baer, D.M., Wolff, M.M., Risley, T.R. (1968). "Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 1, 91-97.
McIlvane, W.J. (2009). Translational behavioral analysis: from laboratory science in stimulus control to interventions with persons with neurodevelopmental disabilities. The Behavior Analyst. 32, 273-280.
iopsychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes through a biological approach (Cooper 2000). Practitioners in this field believe that biological processes may explain certain psychological phenomena, such as learning, memory, perception, attention, motivation, emotion, and cognition, particularly problems and issues connected with these phenomena. iopsychology is also called biological psychology, psychobiology, behavioral biology or behavioral neuroscience (Cooper).
Practitioners in this new field use varied and overlapping fields of study: cognitive neuroscience, which primarily examines the brain to understand the neural workings of mental processes; psychopharmacology, which deals with the effects of drugs on psychological functions; neuro-psychology, which is concerned with the psychological effects of brain damage in humans; behavioral genetics, which deals with behavior and psychological traits; evolutionary psychology, which is involved with how psychological processes have evolved; and comparative psychology, which compares findings among different species (Cooper). The last science centers on ethology, which…
Chudler, E. (2001). Biopsychology. http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/introb.html
2003). The Mystery of the Human Brain. The Quest Team. http://library.thnkques.org/TQ0312238/cgi-bin/view.cgi
Cooper, Cat. (2000). Biopsychology. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Online Encyclopedia. http://www.angelfire.com/az2/MystiCat/biopsychology.htm
Cummings, Benjamin. Behavioral Biology. Pearson Education, Inc. http://biosci.usc.edu/documents/bisc121-fuhrman_11/403.pdf
Behavioral and Cognitive Behavioral Theories
Psychodynamic and Cognitive Behavioral Theories
In this paper, there is going to an examination of Cognitive Behavioral and Psychodynamic theories. This is accomplished by focusing on: the two theories, their theoretical concepts, micro skills / techniques and a summary of these ideas. These elements will show how each one can address issues impacting the patient and the long-term effects upon them.
In the world of psychology, there are different theories which are used to explain how someone reacts to various stimuli. The result is that there has been contrasting ideas about the best way to understand human behavior. Two schools of thought which are very popular are the psychodynamic and cognitive behavioral approaches. (Okun, 2008)
To fully understand them requires examining each one. This will be accomplished by focusing on the two theories, their theoretical concepts, micro skills / techniques and a summary of these…
Larson, P. (2012). How Important is an Understanding of the Clients Early Attachments. Counseling Psychology Review, 27 (1), 10 -- 18.
Lucia, M. (2012). Therapeutic Activities and Psychological Interventions. Counseling and Psychotherapy Research, 12 (2), 118 -- 127.
Okun, B. (2008). Effective Helping: Interviewing and Counseling Techniques. New York, NY: Brooks and Cole.
Parpottis, P. (2012). Working with the Therapeutic Relationship. Counseling Psychology Review, 27 (3), 91-97
ehavioral Finance and Human Interaction a Study of the Decision-Making
Processes Impacting Financial Markets
Understanding the Stock Market
Contrasting Financial Theories
Flaws of the Efficient Market Hypothesis
Financial ubbles and Chaos
The stock market's dominant theory, the efficient market hypothesis (EMH) has been greatly criticized recently for its failure to account for human errors, heuristic bias, use of misinformation, psychological tendencies, in determining future expected performance and obtainable profits.
Existing evidence indicates that past confidence in the EMH may have been misdirected, as the theory's models do not show a thorough understanding of trading operations in a realistic light.
Researchers have suggested that a variety of anomalies and inconsistent historical results demand that traditional financial theories, namely the EMH, be reconstructed to include human interaction as a key decision-making process that directly affects the performance of financial markets.
This research paper aims to determine whether or not there is a…
Barrett, Larry. (January, 2001). Emotional investing a recipe for disaster. CNET News.com.
Bernstein, Peter. (1998). Against the Gods: The Remarkable Story of Risk. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Brennan, Phil. (March 12, 2002) The Great Stock Market Scam. NewsMax.com.
Business Week. (September 29, 1997) The Perils of Investing Too Close to Home.
hy the huge disparity in viewpoints when the science has been empirically established for twenty years or more? Journalist Bryan alsh references sociologists from Michigan State and Oklahoma State Universities (Riley Dunlap and Aaron McCright, respectively), who say there has been a "well-financed effort on the part of conservative groups and corporations to distort global-warming science" (alsh, 2011). In the book written by Dunlap and McCright (the Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society) they assert that global climate change science has been "assaulted" by fossil-fuel corporations, conservative think tanks" for over twenty years.
Hence, in conclusion, one way to spread the word to consumers and citizens is to battle back against the propaganda that seeks to deny the truth about climate change. In addition, very simple changes in lifestyles (using CFLs, taking the bus, hanging clothes out to dry, keeping the car tuned up, and sealing up leaks and…
Chevrolet. (2012). Somebody Has to Be First. Chevrolet VOLT. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from http://www.chevrolet.com/volt-electric-car/ .
Environmental Protection Agency. (2011). Frequently Asked Questions About Global Warming
And Climate Change: Back to Basics. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from http://www.epa.gov/climatechange .
Greenercars.org. (2010). Green Driving Tips. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from http://www.greenercars.org/drivingtips.htm .
A Cognitive Behavioral Study of Steven Henderson: Case Conceptualization and Treatment Plan
Theories of Counseling
This is a case conceptualization of a 26-year-old man who experienced sexual abuse as a child and the haunting memories of the abuse have led to difficulties in his personal, social, and educational functioning as an adult. The client is experiencing anxiety, depression, problems with motivation, an inability to confide in those close to him, and difficulties in developing educational and occupational goals for himself. He complained of very low self-esteem and believes that his inability to deal with his past sexual abuse has led to these issues. The case conceptualization explores the proposed treatment of this individual's issues using a cognitive behavioral approach. Empirical evidence for the use of cognitive behavioral treatment for trauma victims is discussed. The specific issues that the individual is experiencing as a result of the abuse are…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.-text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
Beck, A.T., Rush, J.A., Shaw, B.F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression.
New York: The Guilford Press.
Cloitre, M. (2009). Effective psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: A review and critique. CNS Spectrums, 14(1), S1, 32-43.
76). As automation increasingly assumes the more mundane and routine aspects of work of all types, Drucker was visionary in his assessment of how decisions would be made in the years to come. "In the future," said Drucker, "it was possible that all employment would be managerial in nature, and we would then have progressed from a society of labor to a society of management" (Witzel, p. 76). The first tasks of the manager, then, are to coordinate an organization's resources and provide a viable framework in which they can be used to produce goods and services effectively and efficiently. The second set of tasks concern guidance and control. In Drucker's view, this role is almost entirely proactive: "Economic forces set limits to what a manager can do. They create opportunities for management's action. But they do not by themselves dictate what a business is or what it does" (Drucker,…
Peffers et al. (2008) describes an attempt to identify and define a design science research methodology for information systems. One of the main challenges in this regard is that information systems, or what the authors refer to as "IS," is an applied research discipline. In this regard, the authors explain that theory from other disciplines is often used to inform information systems and towards problem solution within information systems. Hence, the applied nature of such theory makes it difficult to truly identify a focused and/or unique theory for IS itself. The danger inherent in this is that there is no strong component in IS that produces applicable research. Hence, there is the potential of losing research influence in various streams where applicability is important.
The purpose of the investigation was therefore to identify a design system research methodology that is grounded in existing literature while also providing guidance for researchers…
Hevner, A.R., Ram, S., March, S.T., Park, J. (2004, March). Design Science in Information Systems Research. MIS Quarterly 28(1).
Peffers, K., Tuunanen, T, Rothenberger, M.A. And Chatterjee, S. (2007-8, Winter) A Design Science Research Methodology for Information Systems Research. Journal of Management Information Systems
Behavioral Episodes in elation to Leopard Seals
Leopard seals are widely known for their ferocity and have been acknowledged as top predators for a long time now. These are large but slender mammals, with females usually exceeding males in size and weight. The spotty coats, distributed along their bodies, define the leopard appearance and allure to the hunting abilities they possess. With powerful jaws and canine teeth, leopard seals can prey on creatures of whatever size. Their agility and reputation have long formed individuals' negative perception upon the former. This document is to try to dismantle the negative image leopard seals have been inoculated with for such a long time. This proposal looks at some of the facts that have led people forming drastic opinions as well as some episodes that appear to indicate how little we may in fact know in relation to leopard seals.
Statement of Problem
Aguayo-Lobo, A., R., Acevedo, J., Brito, J.L., G., Acuna, P., Bassoi, M., Secchi, E., R., and Rosa, L.D. 2011. Presence of the leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx (De Blainville, 1820), on the coast of Chile: An example of the Antarctica -- South America Connection in the marine environment. Oecologia Australis 15(1): 69-85. doi: 10.4257/oeco.2011.1501.07
Ainley, D.G., Ballard, G., Karl, B.J., and Dugger K.M. 2005. Leopard seal predation rates at penguin colonies of different size. Antarctic Science 17(3): 335-340.
De Laca, T.E., Lipps, J.H., and Zumwalt, G.S. 1975. Encounters with leopard seals (Hydruga leptonyx) along the Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctic Journal of the United States 10(3): 85-9.
Hiruki, L.M., Schwartz, M.K., and Boveng, P.L. 1999. Hunting and social behavior of leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) at Sea Island, South Shetland Island, Antarctica. Journal of Zoology, London 249(1): 97-109. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/usdeptcommercepub/151/
Surveys research has traditionally been conducted in three ways: In-person, by mail, and over the telephone. A fourth option has been added to these modes through the survey opportunities available in digital media. This array of modes is a bit like the child's matching game in which the outlier is identified: To whit, "Which one does not belong?" Two of the four survey modes entail real-time interaction between a survey researcher and a respondent; the other two survey modes do not entail this "live" interaction. The presence of a "live" interviewer in telephone surveys research is believed to be an important variable in the non-response data. Typically, telephone survey participants are not offered a non-response option ("don't know"), but in this study, a non-response option was offered to the CATI respondents, since this was an important part of the investigation. Moreover, surveys research via the new digital media…
Propensity modeling is a statistical method common to market research -- the field in which the thrust of this research is intended; it is, therefore, wholly appropriate for the research topic and the research questions. The most substantive finding presented in the article is that data from surveys conducted through different modes are not directly comparable and cannot be merged into a single data set for analysis: Mode effects and non-response effects interact in mixed-mode surveys that utilize telephone and internet survey methods. The data clearly supports the findings and is easily auditable. Findings presented and discussed in this article are reasonable and are objectively presented with full descriptions of methods and procedures. Propensity score matching did explain the differences between the sample groups. The CATI respondents most often chose the most positive of the choice categories and, in general, responded more positively than their counterparts in the WAPI sample.
Lugtig, P., Lensvelt-Mulders, G.J.L.M., Frerichs, R., and Greven, A. (2011). Estimating nonresponse bias and mode effects in a mixed-mode survey. International Journal of Market Research, 53 (5), 669-686.
ehavioral Therapy vs. Freud's Psychoanalysis
Amazing advances have been made in the treatment of mental illness throughout the years (Merck, 2004). An understanding of what causes some mental health disorders has resulted in a greater sophistication in customizing treatment to the underlying basis of specific disorders. Thus, many mental health disorders can now be treated almost as successfully as physical disorders.
Most treatment methods for mental health disorders are either categorized as somatic or psychotherapeutic (Merck, 2004). Somatic treatments include drug therapy and electroconvulsive therapy. Psychotherapeutic treatments include individual, group, or family and marital psychotherapy; behavior therapy techniques; and hypnotherapy. There are many others, as well
Research reveals that for major mental health disorders, a treatment plan involving both drugs and psychotherapy is more effective than either treatment method on its own. This paper will discuss two treatment methods -- behavioral therapy and psychoanalysis -- in an effort to…
American Psychoanalytic Association (1998). About psychoanalysis. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.apsa.org/pubinfo/about.htm .
Beystehner, K. (1997). Psychoanalysis: Freud's Revolutionary Approach to Human Personality. Northwestern University. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/beystehner.html .
Guterman, J. (July 1996). Doing mental health counseling: A social constructionist re-vision. Journal of Mental Health Counseling. American Mental Health Counselors Association. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.jeffreyguterman.com/writing/solution.html .
HealthinMind.com. (2004). Individual Therapies. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://healthinmind.com/english/individth.htm .
Social learning theory states that an individual will learn from others through observation, modeling, and imitation (Bandura & McClelland, 1977). A person's behavior is dependent on the environment they come from and the models they grew up observing. Learning is believed to be a cognitive process that will take place in a social context. The social learning theory is often referred to as a bridge between cognitive and behaviorist learning theories because it covers memory, attention, and motivation. Albert Bandura proposed the theory, and it is one of the most influential development and learning theory. Bandura held to the belief that learning could not be fully accounted for by direct reinforcement. The theory proposed by Bandura was rooted in the traditional learning theory, but it added a social element. He argued that individuals could learn new behaviors and information by observing other individuals. Observational learning is the term he used,…
Akers, R.L. (2011). Social learning and social structure: A general theory of crime and deviance. Piscataway Township, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Akers, R.L., & Jensen, G.F. (2011). Social learning theory and the explanation of crime (Vol. 1). Piscataway Township, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Bandura, A., & McClelland, D.C. (1977). Social learning theory.
Cherry, K. (2011). Social Learning Theory an Overview of Bandura's Social learning Theory. The New York Times Company.(online article).
Attribution Theory and Emotional Intelligence
Attribution theory is a theory that focuses on creating an understanding of the ways in which people interpret events and the relationship of the events to their thinking and behaviors. The theory was proposed by Heider (1958), Weiner (1972 and 1986), and Weiner (1074). Attribution theory takes into assuption that individuals try to understand why people behave the way they do (attribute causes of events to behaviors). It also creates an understanding of behavior of individuals using three-stage processes that are considered to build the strength of the attribution. Among the processes include the fact that an individual should perceive or see their behavior, individuals should believe that their behaviors were due their intentional circumstances. Finally, individuals should determine whether they believe somebody else forced them to perform or engage in that behavior.
The relationship between these factors creates a web of causation…
Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R.E., & McKee, A. (2002). Primal leadership: realizing the power of emotional intelligence. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press.
Inglehart, R., & Norris, P. (2003). Rising tide: gender equality and cultural change around the world. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Macleod, D.V. (2004). Tourism, globalisation, and cultural change an island community perspective. Clevedon: Channel View Publications.
Matthews, G., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R.D. (2002). Emotional intelligence science and myth. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Positive Behavioral Intervention and Support (PBIS) in Elementary Schools and in Impoverished Settings
Extensive research has been carried out examining the design and implementation of Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports (PBIS) programs in schools, districts, and on even larger state scales. The research is highly consistent in finding positive effects on behavior and learning through the successful implementation of PBIS programs, however there are significant variations found in implementation schemes and in the environmental effects on the success of PBIS programs and interventions. Less research specifically pertaining to the implementation of PBIS on Title I elementary schools is available, however the literature that has been produced in this area clearly suggests difficulties in implementation but some measure of success when programs can be successfully designed and carried out.
There are currently approximately ten-thousand or more schools that have implemented PBIS programs (based on the latest data available and…
Barnes, C. (2002). Standards reform in high-poverty schools. New York: Teacher's College Press.
Barrett, S., Bradshaw, C. & Lewis-Palmer, T. (2008). Maryland Statewide PBIS Initiative: Systems, Evaluation, and Next Steps. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 10(2): 105-14.
Bradshaw, C., Koth, C., Bevans, K.,, Ialongo, N. & Leaf, P. (2008). The impact of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly 23(4): 462-73.
Bradshaw, C., Reinke, W., Brown, L., Bevans, K. & Leaf, P. (2008a). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: observations from a randomized trial. Education and Treatment of Children 31(1).
ability of a bipolar student to learn concepts in the subjects of Math and Science in the general classroom setting
According to sources retrieved from the American Medical Journal, bipolar disorder refers to the psychiatric diagnosis for a mood disorder. Individuals who suffer from bipolar disorder undergo various symptoms such as experiencing episodes of a frenzied state whose medical term is mania (or hypomania). This medical condition typically alternates with episodes of depression. Doctor Annabel Hathaway, a senior psychologist at the University of Stanford, children suffering from bipolar disorders have high intelligence quotient and commendable talents. However, they may have difficulties in coordinating their reflexes and reaction time. They also experience difficulties making transitions, and they may as well have co-morbid syndromes that that render them anxious, inattentive, distractible, moody, argumentative, and withdrawn. Likewise, bipolar disorders may render such children acute and perfectionist.
Psychologists explain that children with bipolar disorders…
Anglada, Tracy The Student with Bipolar Disorder: An Educator's Guide BP Children Organization < http://www.bpchildren.org/files/Download/Educator.pdf>
Child & Adolescent Bipolar Foundation Educating the Child with Bipolar Disorder State: Arizona Department of Education
Grier, Elizabeth Chesno, Wilkins, Megan L. And Carolyn Ann Stirling Pender Bipolar Disorder: Educational Implications for Secondary Students Michigan: University of Michigan Press
The Balanced Mind Foundation An Educator's Guide to Pediatric Bipolar Disorder < http://www.thebalancedmind.org/learn/library/an-educators-guide-to-pediatric-bipolar-disorder >
Thus the indifference curve II passing through D. must have a negative slope. It is generally assumed that such curves are convex to the origin.
Now I-I is a particular indifference curve. We may think of the consumption of any bundle of goods on it as yielding a particular level of satisfaction, or utility, to the consumer. However there are indifference curves passing through every point on figure 2, each one negatively sloped and each one convex to the origin. Those which pass through points above and to the right of D. link
Indifference curves that cross are incompatible with the assumption that consumers order bundles of goods consistently.
Up bundles of goods that yield higher levels of satisfaction than those on I-I and those below and to the left yield lower levels of satisfaction. Such curves can never cross one another, for this would violate the rationality assumption. Consider…
Bailey, M.J., The Marshallian Demand Curve, Journal of Political Economy, June 1994, reprinted in Breit and Hochman (op. cit).
Hicks, J.R., Value and Capital (2nd edition), New York (Oxford University Press) 1946, Chs 1-3.
Marshall, A., Principles of Economics (8th edition), London (Macmillan) 1936, Book 3.
Skurski, Roger. New Directions in Economic Justice. University of Notre Dame Press, 1983.
Art vs. Science in Education
Teachers and other educators have been debating what makes an effective teacher for as long as the profession has been recognized. Certainly in the last century, the topic of what makes a good teacher, and what comprises good teaching, has been an important topic in colleges of education. ecause the role of a teacher is so important, the topic of what constituted good teaching has been looked at philosophically, from the viewpoint of pedagogy, and through empirical research. The result has been a large supply of books and articles written about how to teach, how students learn, what techniques teachers should use and what makes for the best teaching materials.
Into this mix must be included the personal qualities an individual must possess if he or she is to be an effective and compassionate teacher (anner & Cannon, 1997). On top of everything else, teachers…
Ayres, Lynn. 2000. "Marriage in the Middle: The Art and Craft of Teaching Early Adolescents." Childhood Education, June 22.
Banner, James. M. Jr., and Cannon, Harold C. The Elements of Teaching. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997. 142 pp.
Bellanca, James. 1998. "Teaching for intelligence: in search of best practices." Phi Delta Kappan, May.
Jimerson, Shane R.; Ferguson, Phillip; Whipple, Angela D.; Anderson, Gabrielle E.; and Dalton, Michael J. 2002. "Exploring the Association Between Grade Retention and Dropout: A Longitudinal Study Examining Socio-Emotional, Behavioral, and Achievement Characteristics of Retained Students." The California School Psychologist, Vol. 7.
Issues of resistance are also high on the list of concerns about the school system, with the popular view being that race and economic class are the primary motivators and influencers of the way students resist teacher authority, assignments, and classroom/school activities. Definant behavior is increasing in some demographic areas, and seems to peak in secondary school. Often, disaffected or disadvantaged students are more defiant, sometimes due to that being the only psychological way they feel any control in their lives. Definance in the form of student conflicts exists, just as it would in the adult world, with the difference being that students do not yet have developed frontal-coretex areas, and therefore lose control more often. Understanding the link between psychological issues and definance often gives educators a better way to deal with individual problems (McFarland, 2001).
This leads quite succinctly to the idea that a number of at-risk youth…
Brenninkmeijer, J. (2010, February). Taking Care of One's Brain. Retrieved September 2010, from History of the Human Sciences: http://hhs.sagepub.com/content/23/1/107.short?rss=1&ssource=mfc
Capuzzi and Gross. (1996). Youth at Risk. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
Cooper, Heron and Heward. (2007). Applied Behavior Analysis. New York: Prentice Hall.
Fields, B. (2000). School Discipline: Is there a Crisis in Our Schools? Australian Journal of Social Issues, 35(1), 73+.
This is only one of the implications that individuals are facing when it comes to these kinds of limits. Some people choose to ignore the limits that are placed on them if they feel that those limits are too restrictive. Others do not even recognize the limits that are placed on them and feel as though the limit-placer has no right to do so in the first place. Despite these things, however, it usually does not end well from an organizational standpoint for people who continue to 'break the rules.' Being fired is one of the implications of ignoring limits, and getting into trouble with the law can also be an implication of this. Usually people either leave of their own accord or are brought into line before any of this takes place, but that's not always the case.
For the people who ignore limits there are other problems, as…
eduction of Prejudice
The Contact Hypothesis of Gordon Allport and the eduction of Prejudice
The literature covering the nature of prejudice, its scope, the effects of prejudice, and methods to reduce on prejudice is among the most extraordinary body of literature in all of social science. The total volume of research on the topic of prejudice is quite extraordinary and this body of work reflects several decades of scholarly investigation of the meaning of prejudice, its assessment, its etiology, its consequences, and methods to reduce prejudice. There are very few areas of study that have attracted a greater range of theoretical perspectives than the area of prejudice. Theorizing about the nature and manifestation of prejudice has also been accompanied by many spirited debates about the appropriate way to conceptualize methods to reduce prejudice in people. The result has been a rich body of measurement instruments and reduction strategies. The most…
Allport, G. (1954). The Nature of Prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Aron, A., Aron, E. & Coups, E. (2011). Statistics for the behavioral and social sciences: A brief course. (5th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice-Hall.
Bar-Haim, Y., Ziv, T., Lamy, D., & Hodes, R.M. (2006). Nature and nurture in own-race face processing. Psychological Science, 17 (2), 159-163.
Binder, J., Zagefka, H., Brown, R., Funke, F., Kessler, T., Mummendey, A., Maquil, A., Demoulin, S. & Leyens, J. (2009). Does contact reduce prejudice or does prejudice reduce contact? A longitudinal test of the contact hypothesis among majority and minority groups in three European countries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(4), 843-856.
Social Science esearch
Evans, A. And S. Frank. (2004). Adolescent Depression and Externalizing Problems: Testing Two Models of Comorbidity in an Inpatient Sample. Adolescence. 39 (153) [HIDDEN] etrieved from: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2248/is_153_39/ai_n6145265/
The Scientific Method, though requires data and data analysis to be effective. In its most basic outline, quantitative data is information that can be measured by numbers or numerical values. Quantitative inquiry is a method that is used in scientific methodology to gather a logical and provable manner of collecting and analyzing data. Qualitative research uses a less numerical and more open ended approach to data -- it investigates the why and how of decision making; whereas quantitative focuses more on the what, where, and when -- which are all numerically measurable. One method is not necessarily better than the other; it is entirely dependent upon the hypothesis that is being tested. Indeed, qualitative research is often used to form…
Evans, A. And S. Frank. (2004). Adolescent Depression and Externalizing Problems: Testing Two Models of Comorbidity in an Inpatient Sample. Adolescence. 39 (153) [HIDDEN] Retrieved from: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2248/is_153_39/ai_n6145265/
Guest, G., Bunce, A., & Johnson, L. (2006). How many interviews are enough? An experiment with data saturation and variability. Field Methods, 18(1), 59-82.
WA 2 social sciences
Genital herpes affliction owing to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), causes ill health and even death across the globe. Although in most cases symptoms are not found, the possibility of severe clinical manifestations cannot be ruled out, specifically in people living in inhospitable and unhygienic conditions. People additionally have a scope of mental responses to the determination; for a few, stresses about telling accomplices and the effect on their sexuality are very critical, especially immediately after the revelation. Moreover, genital herpes can be prenatally transferred and cause life-debilitating neonatal HSV contamination. In addition, it proffers the danger of acquiring HIV two to three-fold and additionally HIV transmission in those dually afflicted. This level of danger of ailment makes counteractive action and treatment of genital herpes disease very important globally. Be that as it may, this has still been…
Ashley, R.L., & Wald, A. (1999). Genital herpes: review of the epidemic and potential use of type-specific serology. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 12(1), 1-8.
Genital Herpes and Self-Image (2001).
HA Weiss, SL Thomas, SK Munabi, and RJ Hayes. (2006). Male circumcision and risk of syphilis, chancroid, and genital herpes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sex Transm Infect; 82(2): 101 -- 110.
Hofstetter, A. Rosenthal, S. Stanberry, L (2014). Current Thinking on Genital Herpes. Retrieved January 26, 2015, from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/820140
He wanted to show how conversation analysis and ethnomethodology may elucidate two interrelated matters of continuing concern to the ethnographer: the role of culture in shaping an informants' behavior and the apparent capacity of an investigated culture to compel the fieldworker to follow local habits of thought.
For this research, Watson defined ethnomethodology as "the study of how people, in their everyday lives, constitute the world as a recognizable state of affairs." Similar to conversation analysis, it is concerned with explication of order in social interaction and attempts to replace the existing Parsonian motivational approach to the analysis of social action to one with procedure. It asks not why but how. stipulates four basic moves in conversation analysis of ethnomethodology: 1) Conversation analysis and ethnomethodology look at utterances as tools for the performance of activities, not just things that stand in for other things. Further, activities performed by utterances are…
Button, G. & Dourish, P. (1996) Technomethodology Paradoxes and Possibilities. In Proceedings of ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI
Durkheim Emile. 1933 the Division of Labor in Society. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press
Frances, D. & Hester, S. (2004) an Invitation to Ethnomethodology: Language, Society and Interaction. New York: Sage
French, B. (2005) Issues and Innovations in Nursing Practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing 49(2), 125-134
The next step is to derive the process or processes that can be used to connect attributes of the current culture to attributes of the ideal/desired culture.
Another important point made on this site is that organizational change is behavioral change. While it is important to shift values and goals, these shifts are not meaningful in the absence of behavioral shifts.
However, knowing what the desired organizational culture looks like is not enough. Organizations must create plans to ensure that the desired organizational culture becomes a reality.
This website provides a general definition of "cognitive restructuring." This definition underscores both the advantages and weaknesses of this model. A primary strength is that it is a simple, straightforward model. Parsimony is indeed a virtue: Simple models (all else being equal) tend to be stronger and more viable.
Simple models also have significant problems much of the time, and this…
This website examines some of the key aspects of the concept of what researchers have called "survival anxiety." We are generally taught that anxiety is a bad thing. There is a great deal of energy devoted on both individual and cultural level on how to reduce anxiety. This makes sense to some extent: Too much anxiety can be psychologically paralyzing as well as physically harmful.
However, it is also true that all change of any significance will produce anxiety. And it is also true that change is needed. Therefore, part of what is required on both the individual and organizational levels is a way to assess what change is needed and beneficial -- and then to institute ways in which to work through the necessarily accompanying anxiety. The author presents a model in which an individual (although this could also work on the organizational level) first "unfreezes" old patterns (thus reducing anxiety), then institutes change. Finally, the individual "refreezes" the newly instituted changes in place.
The largest difference exists in the basis of the Western holistic treatment and the basis of Ayurveda. Western holistic treatments are based on TCM or 'Traditional Chinese Medicine'. The key components of TCM are as follows:
Qi (pronounced like "chee") - this is the vital energy necessary for life (blood, body fluid)
Zang-Fu - the internal organs; and Jing-Luo: - this governs the meridian and collateral systems of the body. (rown, 2001)
Practitioners of TCM also used a system referred to as "The Eight Principles" which are used to categorize illness or disease. These eight principles are comprised of "four pairs of polarities, including:
deficiency/excess; and Yin/Yang." (rown, 2001)
These principles are stated to determine:
1) Disease location;
2) the nature of imbalance;
3) the presence of a pathological (disease) factors; and 4) the strength of the body's own energies. (rown, 2001)
Summary and Conclusion
Ayurvedic medicine is…
Brown, Liz (2001) East Meets West and Western Medicine Takes a Back Seat: Why Ayurvedic and Chinese Medicines are at the Core of All That's Right with Holistic Healing Today. Better Nutrition Journal. December 2001. Online available at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FKA/is_12_63/ai_83076770/print .
Cooper, Edwin L. (2004) 12th International Congress of Oriental Medicine. Oriental Medicine and Biotechnology in the Post-Genomic Era - WHO's Traditional Medicine Strategy 2002 Date: November 6-9, 2003. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Journal. 2004 1(1):103-106 Oxford University Press.
Healing Choices (2007) Guide to Complementary and Alternative Healthcare. Online available at http://www.healingchoicesonline.com/ .
Herlihy, John a. (2003) the Mystery and the Miracle Ayurveda. 13 April 2003. AuthorsDen.com. Online available at http://www.authorsden.com/visit/viewShortStory.asp?AuthorID=1363&id=7866 .
Psychology -- Cognitive theoies
Use of the Session Bidging Woksheet in Cognitive Theapy
The pupose of the Session Bidging Woksheet is to assess the client's insight and compehension of the pio theapy session (Beck, 1995). Being awae of the fact that they will be questioned concening the pevious session encouages the client to pepae fo the pesent session by eflecting on the session thoughout the week. If the client cannot emembe thei esponses o the significant concepts fom the pio theapeutic session, the counselo and client come togethe to figue out a way so that they can moe effectively ecall the elements of the pesent session. The Session Bidging Woksheet offes a way of getting this done. This is impotant because seveal studies have shown that inceased memoy and undestanding of theapeutic sessions has a diect impact on teatment outcome (Shephed, Salkovskis, & Mois, 2009). Also this technique equies that…
references. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 37(2), 141-150.
Whipple, J.L., Lambert, M.J., Vermeersch, D.A., Smart, D.W., Nielsen, S.L., & Hawkins, E.J. (2003). Improving the effects of psychotherapy: The use of early identification of treatment failure and problem solving strategies in routine practice. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58, 59-68.
False Beliefs new
False Beliefs and Their Behavioral Consequences
Human psychology is so amazing that it can control human behavior with and without his conscious will. People often develop habits, behaviors or routines that become a vital part of their lives and once they become used to these habits, there are often negative aspects associated to these routines and habits that develop false believe in them (False Memories Can Influence Behavior, 2008). When there are false believes in the minds of people, they observe the world with same negative believes and perceptions and respond accordingly. The paper investigates whether the childhood memories affect the behavior in later age or not and how long-term or short-term it can be that the believes affect behavior.
The false believes are such a disease that is often beyond a person's ability to control. These believe inculcate in the minds of people and…
False Memories Can Influence Behavior, (2008), Retrieved from:
Geraerts, E, Bernstein, D.M., Merckelbach, H., Linders, C., Raymaekers, and Loftus, E.F.,
(2008), "Lasting False Beliefs and Their Behavioral Consequences," Association for Psychological Science, 19(8), pp. 749-753
Integrated Curriculum Analysis
A teacher's main objective usually centers in arousing the curiosity of the student enough to engage them in the process of learning. Engagement can often lead to enthusiasm, and enthusiasm leads to learning. One of the most effective methods of engagement is through the use of real-world tasks. Francom & Gardner (2014) determined that many of the recent models of learning provided instruction center learning that incorporated real-world tasks and problems that support the transfer and application of knowledge. The writer Howard Hendricks said "What is important is not what you do as a teacher, but what your students learn as a result of what you do." Students in today's educational environment follow the teacher's lead but collaborate much more with other students than in previous generations. A teacher must understand that collaboration and use it as well as the available technology to ensure that the students…
Francom, G. & Gardner, J.; (2014) What is task-centered learning? TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice Learning, 58(5) p. 27-35
Howard Hendricks Quotes." Quotes.net. STANDS4 LLC, 2014. Web. 26 Oct. 2014. Retrieved from http://www.quotes.net/authors/Howard%20Hendricks
Hutchison, A., & Reinking, D. (2011) Teachers' perceptions of integrating information and communication technologies into literacy instruction: A national survey in the U.S. Reading Research Quarterly, 46(4), 308 -- 329.
Nielsen, C.; DeFranco, J.F. & Malm, E.; (2015) Math, science and sustainability-enhanced career and technical education, Techniques: Connecting Education & Careers, 90(3) pp. 50-55
Can ayes Confirmation Theory Give an Adequate Explanation for Confirmation of Scientific Theories?
Theorizing in science is a complex and time-consuming undertaking. The theorist uses collected evidence from some means of scientific inquiry to project a generalized case. However, there is a difficulty with this process. There is some amount of probability that the theory will be wrong. Even if this is not a harmful outcome, it is difficult for the theorist to overcome in their professional lives. So, researchers want to understand the probabilities involved in the success of their theories.
ayes theorem discusses the probability that an event will occur, which in the use proscribed for this research is whether a theory is correct or not. ayes looked at two different events one of which can be used to add to the probability that the other is correct. For example, say that a statement (any given…
R Dawd, 'Scientific prediction and the undetermination of scientific theory building', PhilSci Archive, 2008, Retrieved 24 March 2012 from http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/4008/
D Garber, 'Old evidence and logical omniscience in Bayesian Confirmation Theory', J Earman (ed.), Testing scientific theories, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1983, pp. 99-132.
R Garlikov, The nature of the logic of confirmation in science, 2000, Retrieved 24 March 2012 from http://www.garlikov.com/Science.html
PE Meehl, 'Theory-testing in psychology and physics: A methodological paradox', Philosophy of Science, vol. 34, 1967, pp. 103-115.
Theory to Social Concerns or Human Behaviors
The Theory of Social Concerns or Human Behaviors provides a broad framework into which more narrowly focused research can be viewed from. This analysis will consider three individual research journal articles and first provide an overview of the work that was conducted. Then this analysis will try to relate the study and its results to the broader theories mentioned. The external factors related to a child's development can have a substantial influence on their development as well as be highly correlated with MEB issues later in life. The paper will conclude with a short discussion of why this research is important to society in regard to public health initiatives.
Parenting a Child with a Disability
Parents who have children with disabilities often have additional challenges that are presented in the situation when compared to the responsibilities of parents when their children…
Glanz, K., & Bishop, D. (2010). The Role of Behavioral Science Theory in Development and Implementation of Public Health Interventions. Annual Review of Public Health, 399-418.
Ha, J., Greenberg, J., & Seltzer, M. (2011). Parenting a Child With a Disability: The Role of Social Support for African-American Parents. The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 405-411.
Herrenkohl, T., Lee, J., Kosterman, R., & Hawkings, J. (2012). Family Influences Related to Adult Substance Use and Mental Health Problems: A Developmental Analysis of Child and Adolescent Predictors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 129-135.
Yoshikawa, H., Aber, J., & Beardslee, W. (2012). The Effects of Poverty on the Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Health of Children and Youth. American Psychologist, 272-284.
Good researchers tend to pull methods out of a tool kit as they are needed" (2006, p. 54). Notwithstanding these criticisms and constraints, though, most social researchers seem to agree that classification by some type of research paradigm is a useful approach based on the need to determine which approach is best suited for a given research enterprise. In this regard, Corby concludes that, "The contested nature of research makes it impossible and unhelpful to ignore the different aims and purposes of various research projects and the methods and approaches being used to carry them out" (2006, p. 54). Therefore, the different aims and purposes of the positivist research paradigm, the constructivist research paradigm and the pragmatic research paradigm are discussed further below.
Positivist Research Paradigm
The positivist research paradigm is a quantitative-based approach that generally seeks to identify trends and patterns that can be used to formulate predictions concerning…
Ames, S.L., Gallaher, P.E., Sun, P. & Pearce, S. (2005). A Web-based program for coding open-ended response protocols. Behavior Research Methods, 37(3), 470-471.
Authors provide a description of a Web-based application that provides researchers with the ability to analyze participant-generated and open-ended data. Authors note that the application was developed in order to take advantage of online surveying based on its ease of use and flexibility. Authors note that this application may be of particular value to researchers who are employing large sample sizes that are frequently needed for projects in which frequency analyses are required. The application uses a grid-based set of criteria to establish codes for participant-generated and open-ended data collected from online surveys and can be applied for scoring results from stem completion,-word or picture associations, and comparable purposes in which such participant-generated responses require categorization and coding. Authors advise that they use this application for their professional online surveying purpose in experimental psychology to examine substance abuse patterns derived from participant-generated responses to various verbal and nonverbal associative memory problems, but that the application is also appropriate for other research areas as well. Authors also note that the application helps improve survey reliability by providing a systematic approach to coding participant-generated responses as well as evaluating the quality of coding and interjudge reliability by researchers with little or no specific training for the purposes. Authors conclude that the coding application is helpful for survey research that uses open-ended responses in virtually any research area of interest.
Austin, T.M., Richter, R.R. & Reinking, M.F. (2008). A primer on Web surveys. Journal of Allied Health, 37(3), 180-181.
Authors report that survey research has become a widely accepted research methodology that has been facilitated through the introduction of computer-based and online survey methods. Authors also emphasize that although electronic survey methods are useful in a wide range of settings for a variety of purposes, they are not appropriate in every situation. Online surveys involve various technologies that have not been available (or required) for paper-and-pencil surveys and require special considerations involving their design, pilot testing, and response rates. Authors present the results of their empirical observations and professional experience in using Web-based surveys to illustrate some of the advantages and disadvantages of the approach, including security and confidentiality issues (they make the point that electronic surveys are particularly vulnerable to compromise and that survey data must be protected as the research progresses) as well as the special considerations that must be taken into account as they apply to this surveying approach. Authors also discuss issues such as sampling error, a "how-to" guide to writing survey questions for online media, and how to order questions to ensure that respondents answer accurately and faithfully. All in all, this was a very timely guide for researchers for identifying when Web-based surveys are most appropriate and what factors should be taken into account in the design, posting and analysis of online surveys.
However, in the most recent theory of evolution which discusses the living world appears as the result of chance and an output of different randomly selected natural mills. This kind of development came to present as a result of the need of more subjects or topics in areas such as cybernetic, general system theory, information theory, theories of games which is needed in most decision making process in line with real applications. In mathematics techniques however, there are a number of general assumption which are insufficient and most of the time very contradict themselves (Laszlo & Krippner, 1982).
Again, Laszlo (1982) outlined that von Bertalanffy considered the idea of organization to be involved at various stages in the expression of natural system. This could be highlighted from his first statement on the system which he made between the years 1925-1926, during the time when similar thinking of organism was being…
Bailey, K.D. (2004). Beyond System Internals: Expanding the Scope of Living Systems Theory. Los Angeles: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bailey, K.D. (2006). Living systems theory and social entropy theory. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 23, 291-300.
Bertalanffy, L. (1951). General system theory - a new approach to unity of science. (Symposium), Human Biology, 23, 303-361. Dec 1951.
Bertalanffy, L. (1972). General system theory: Foundations, development, applications. London: Allen Lane.
Industrial Organizational Psychology: Motivation
Applied behavioral science
This is a branch of science that comprises of fields such as sociology, psychology and anthropology that deals primarily with the human actions and seeks to give a general view on human behavior within the society. This is a field which takes an interdisciplinary approach when it comes to the study of human behavior. It explores the activities and interactions among human beings. Applied behavioral science therefore is a process of systematically applying interventions that are based on the behavioral science principles in order to bring an improvement of socially significant behaviors to a meaningful degree and demonstrate that the interventions used are the ones that are responsible for bringing an improvement in behavior. This case study is explored from cognitive psychology which focuses on internal states like motivation, decision making, problem solving and so on.
In this case study Jasmine has to…
Grant, A. (2012). Leading with meaning: Beneficiary contact, prosocial impact, and the performance effects of transformational leadership.
This article is on the impact of transformational leadership in any organization. This article is relevant to the case study since it brings out the advantages of applying transformational leadership within the case study.
Ajang, P. (2011). Assessing the role of work motivation on employee performance. Retrieved July 7, 2014 from http://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:140549/FULLTEXT01.pdf
This article looks at the importance of motivation of employees when it comes to their performance.it is relevant to the case study since we have seen the issue in the case study is the lack of motivation for employees hence it just emphasizes more on the fact that employee motivation is important when it comes to their performance.
IT professional must become the 'Renaissance Person' of the 21st century workplace: a brief essay describing how each of the 16 reference disciplines provides support for and inform IS/IT practice
Once upon a time, Informational Science and Informational Technology were thought of as enclosed, rarified disciplines. These disciplines were thought to be the provenance only of the technically astute. Thus, IS and IT personnel were usually relegated to their own, specific areas of most organizational hierarchies. Specialists in IS/IT practice were sometimes known as mere 'techie geeks,' with necessary and specific skills, but ones with little application outside the field. Thus was partly because the educations of IS/IT personnel, fairly or unfairly, were assumed to consist of matters specific only to the discipline of technology, rather than comprising any aspect of the humanities, social and natural sciences, or even the more theoretical aspects of technology such as Artificial Intelligence.
Smith, Mark. (11 Jul 2001) "The Learning Organization and Knowledge Economy." The Learning Organization. Last updated 11 May 2004. Retrieved 21 Jan 2005 at http://www.infed.org/biblio/learning organization.htm#_The_knowledge_economy
Thacker, S.M. (2000) "Customer Relationship Management." Retrieved 21 Jan 2005 at http://www.smthacker.co.uk/customer_relationship_management_CRM.htm
sex vs. gender and nature vs. nature on a multi-disciplinary approach. e base our discussion on a variety of papers which we present as annotated bibliography. The papers are then used in the development of rest of the paper. e present our paper on the following views: religion, culture, norms, society etc.
One of the major issues that has attracted a lot of debate in this century in the field of psychiatry revolves around nature and nurture (Keltner et al., 2001).Nurture is used to refer to upbringing and nature refers to biological aspects of life.There is a raging controversy that revolves around hereditary environment with several historical evidences used in order to explain the connection between the two. The history locates the genesis of this debate to John Locke.It'd worth noting that this controversy has never stopped. This is because it still remains a major question as to how much…
Walker PL and Cook DC.(1998) Gender and sex: vive la difference. Am J. Phys Anthropol 106: 255 -- 259,.[CrossRef]
Through the maintenance of proper scientific and ethical standards, the knowledge gained from this research could revolutionize the field of criminal justice and public rehabilitative systems.
Lowenstein, L. (2003). "The Genetic Aspects of Criminality." Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment 8(1), pp. 63-78.
Peele, S. & DeGrandpre, . (1995). "My genes made me do it." Psychology today 28(4), pp. 50-7.
Pieri, E. & Levitt, M. (2008). "isky individuals and the politics of genetic research into aggressiveness and violence." Bioethics 22(9), pp. 509-18.
eif, A.; osler, M.; Freitag, C.; Schneider, M.; Eujen, M.; Kissling, C.; Wenzler, D.; Jacob, C.; etz-Junging, O.; Thome, J.; Lesch, K. & etz, W. (2007). "Nature and Nurture Predispose to Violent Behavior: Serotonergic Genes and Adverse Childhood Environment." Neuropsychopharmacology 32(11). pp. 2375-83.
eitz, W.; eitz-Junginger, P.; Supprian, T.; Thorne, J. & osler, M. (2004). "Association of serotonin transporter promoter gene polymorphism with violence: relation…
Lowenstein, L. (2003). "The Genetic Aspects of Criminality." Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment 8(1), pp. 63-78.
Peele, S. & DeGrandpre, R. (1995). "My genes made me do it." Psychology today 28(4), pp. 50-7.
Pieri, E. & Levitt, M. (2008). "Risky individuals and the politics of genetic research into aggressiveness and violence." Bioethics 22(9), pp. 509-18.
Reif, A.; Rosler, M.; Freitag, C.; Schneider, M.; Eujen, M.; Kissling, C.; Wenzler, D.; Jacob, C.; Retz-Junging, O.; Thome, J.; Lesch, K. & Retz, W. (2007). "Nature and Nurture Predispose to Violent Behavior: Serotonergic Genes and Adverse Childhood Environment." Neuropsychopharmacology 32(11). pp. 2375-83.
In viewing the field of education, the issue of students' lacking retention of material has long been associated with a teacher's inability to enforce learning materials in such a manner that every student within a class -- despite their own personal learning style -- retains the information presented to them in a way that aids in their academic proficiency, attitude, and memory of the information given them. Deveci (2003) defines the concept of differed learning styles as the difference between how students learn and what they learn, noting that only when different learning styles are utilized within the classroom, will students be able to take on a more individualized approach to their work that will aid in their overall academic achievement and success (Deveci, 2003, p.25).
The experiment presented by Guven and Yazicilar in a recent edition of the Journal of Social and Behavioral Sciences aimed to present…
Deveci, H. (2003). The effect of problem-based learning to attitudes, success and retention in social studies. Eskisehir, Turkey: Anadolu University Publications.
Guven, B. And Yazicilar, O. (2009). The effects of learning style activities on academic achievement, attitudes and recall level. Journal of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1.1: pp. 2578-2583. Web. Retrieved from: Science Direct Database.
" Of these respondents, over 50% of them stated that they lack a disaster recovery plan (Anthes, 1998). However, most of the problems stem from the lack of communication at the corporate level. (Hawkins, et al., 2000).
Business Continuity Plans (BCP) and other forms of strategic planning are no longer a luxury, but a must-have factor and an important element of any organisation's risk management system. Organisations are increasingly dependent upon it systems and infrastructure and eventually subjected to many risks, so business is inherently risky. How long can your organisation afford system downtime? How long does it take to recover a disaster; and, what does it cost? These kinds of questions are the ones that have to be addressed for BCPs. Also important, however, is using strategic planning to look toward the future and determine where a business wants to be at a specific point, so that plans to…
Bolman, LG & Deal, TE (1997). Reframing Organisations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership, 2nd ed, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
Bowden, P (1985). Organisation and Strategy, McGraw-Hill, Roseville.
Byrne, JA. (1996, August 26). Strategic Planning. BusinessWeek. http://www.businessweek.com/1996/35/b34901.htm .
IT Security Plan
The technological advances that have been witnessed in the past twenty to thirty years, has placed a tremendous emphasis on data and information. Computers have changed the world in many facets and the ability to communicate and perform work have been greatly assisted by the digital age. Along with these new found powers, there exists also new found threats. The ability to protect these investments and resources of an informational matter, has produced new sciences and approaches to accomplishing such a task.
The purpose of this essay is to discuss and analyze how to establish an information security program to protect organizational information. This essay will address the specific guidelines and elements that compose such a program and explore ways in which these methods can be exploited for the fullest possible benefit. Specific guidelines will be discussed however this is a general overview of a program and…
Bulling, D., Scalora, M. Borum, R. Panuzio, J., and Donica, A. (2008, July). Behavioral science guidelines for assessing insider threat attacks. Public Policy Center, University of Nebraska. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1036&context=publicpolicypublications
Boscolo, C. (2008). How to implement network access control. Computerweekly, November 2008 . Retrieved from http://www.computerweekly.com/opinion/How-to-implement-network-access-control
Durbin, S. (2013). Security Think Tank: ISF's top security threats for 2014. Computerweekly, Dec 2013. Retrieved from http://www.computerweekly.com/opinion/Security-Think-Tank-ISFs-top-security-threats-for-2014
Grimes, R. (2012). IT's 9 biggest security threats. Infoworld, 27 Aug 2012. Retrieved from http://www.infoworld.com/d/security/its-9-biggest-security-threats-200828
psychology, it has intended to be a branch of the sciences. For it to be considered science, psychology must not hypothesize without testing. It is unfortunate that the history of psychology is marked with failed hypothesis. For it to be ethical, it has to draw conclusions after a formal laboratory experiment with stringent protocol instead of retrospective studies that result from past occurrences.
Science share basic procedures and expectations, it tests theories and get results, those results can be tested by others and achieve the same results, this is a challenge with psychology. For instance, normal therapeutic treatments involve research, diagnosis and treatment, but many results are scientifically indistinguishable. There is limited distinction between research and treatment.
There are issues that play a fundamental role in evaluation of psychological theories. First, is whether the theory adequately and formally describes the framework that accounts for observed psychological and other empirical data.…
Kline, P. (1984). Psychology and Freudian Theory. Methuen.
Rozeboom, W.W. (1960). The Fallacy of Null Hypothesis Significance Test. Psychological Bulletin, 416-428.
Skinner, B.F. (1948). Walden Two.
Stangor, C. (2007). Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Normal Distribution Curve and Its Application in Psychology
When a curve (reflecting the statistical results of the sampled population) is not skewed in any particular direction but is rather symmetrical (rather than being 'asymmetrical'). We have what is known as a "bell curve' or a Gaussian or a normal distribution. Not all symmetrical curves are normal, but all normal curves are symmetrical.
This specific type of curve is important in statistics since it has certain mathematical properties that can unilaterally be applied to a varying degree of situations all of which share the same characteristic of being bell-shaped (or of being normal distributions) in proportion. The normal distribution contains six standard deviations (three on each side of the mean).
The normal distribution is also the most straightforward of all and, therefore, the easiest in a way to compute particularly in terms of relationships of the mean, median, and mode to…
Cassela, G. & Berger, R. (2001). Statistical inference. UK: Duxbury.
Gravetter, F,. & Wallnau, L. (2007). Essentials of statistics for the behavioral sciences. Thamson Wadsworth, USA.
Weinbach, RW, & Grinnel, RM. (1991). Statistics for social workers, USA: Longman
School Counseling Program
Education has and will always be an important aspect in the development not only of the person but society as well. The building of a great nation has always been dependent on the knowledge, skills, and experiences the citizenries have that contributed to the betterment of the place they belong to. But all of these of course would never have seen fruition without the education provided to those who were responsible for society and nation building. From the primary education years all the way to the graduate and post-graduate levels, ensuring the right kind of education based on the interest and level of the student or learner is important. This is critical in enabling a person to perform at his or her peak because the right education course or career fit has been provided. A school counselor or education guidance personnel has always been instrumental in providing…
Instead, the mock jurors were most likely to sentence dangerous defendants to death, regardless of the PCL- label attached to those defendants. In fact, defendants who were considered a high-risk of future violence but were not psychopaths were most likely to be sentenced to death.
This study was fascinating in many ways. First, like many studies, it suffered from a representation sample problem. The participants were first year psychology students, which means that they may already have been more educated than many jurors, particularly in the issue of psychopathy. However, the researchers address this issue by citing a study that indicates no difference in mock juror and real juror results. The study eliminated the jurors who were morally/ethically opposed to the death penalty, which reflects the reality of jury selection in capital cases. However, they also excluded a student for failing to answer some of the factual questions about the…
Blonigen, D.M., Sullivan, E.A., Hicks, B.M., & Patrick, C.J. (2012, January 23). Facets of psychopathy in relation to potentially traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder among female prisoners: the mediating role of borderline personality disorder traits. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0026184
Cox, J., DeMatteo, D., Foster, E. (2010). The effect of the Psychopathy Checklist- Revised in capital cases: Mock jurors' responses to the label of psychopahty. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 28, 878-891.
The higher the humor score, the more the individual was able to place positive distance between their actions and tangible outcomes; they did not interpret their performance on the exams to be as indicative of their own personal worth as much.
Theoretical Support - The key to the brain mind connection can be found in a complex set of molecules called neuropeptides. Petptides are made up of amino acids, the very basic building blocks of protein strucutres. There are, in fact, 23 different amino acids, and peptides are amino acids strung together very much like a string of beads on a necklace. Peptides are found in most areas of the body, but especially the brain and immunie system. Neurally, there are a number of different peptides, including endorphins. Neuropeptides are the way that cellular communication occurs, including brain-to-brain messages, brain-to-body messages, body-to-body messages, and body-to-brain messages. Individual cells have receptro…
Kupier, N., Martin, R. (1993). Coping Humour, Stress and Cognitive Appraisals. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science. 251 (1): 81-96.
e., unreasonable expectations of especially favorable treatment or automatic compliance with his or her expectations" (DSM-IV, 2000));
d) has no empathy for those he has taken advantage of, such as family members (asking for a loan), landlords (failure to pay rent on time), investors (when the company goes "belly up" (DSM-IV, 2000)).
American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fourth Edition. Desk Reference. (ashington, DC: American Psychiatric Association).
Assumptions held by BPD Sufferers." BPD Central ebsite. Retrieved November 20, 2003 at http://www.bpcentral.com/resources/basics/assumptions.shtm
Bardi, Jason Socrates. "Molecules on the Mind." News & View section. Vol. 3, Issue 5, Feb. 10, 2003. The Scripps Research Institute eb site retrieved November 24, 2003 at http://www.scripps.edu/newsandviews/e_20030210/sutcliffe.html
Borderline Personality Disorder - Fear: A Roller-Coaster Ride." Retrieved November 20, 2003 at http://www.borderlinepersonality.ca/borderrollercoaster.htm
From the Inside Out by a.J. Mahari)
Diagnostic Criteria for Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Dysthymia Symptoms." Retrieved…
American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fourth Edition. Desk Reference. (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association).
Assumptions held by BPD Sufferers." BPD Central Website. Retrieved November 20, 2003 at http://www.bpcentral.com/resources/basics/assumptions.shtm
Bardi, Jason Socrates. "Molecules on the Mind." News & View section. Vol. 3, Issue 5, Feb. 10, 2003. The Scripps Research Institute Web site retrieved November 24, 2003 at http://www.scripps.edu/newsandviews/e_20030210/sutcliffe.html
Borderline Personality Disorder - Fear: A Roller-Coaster Ride." Retrieved November 20, 2003 at http://www.borderlinepersonality.ca/borderrollercoaster.htm
By experiencing and discussing each point of the theoretical aspects, I did get to know myself better and see both positive and negative sides of my personality. For instance, while discussing Freud's theories, I managed to explain certain emotional manifestations which, up to a point, were not entirely clear. Furthermore, discussions on matters such as child and life span development improved my perception on family relationships and inter-human communication.
A part of the importance of such courses is to better prepare us for the challenges one has to face throughout his lifetime. Although the experiences accumulated in academic preparation do not necessarily ensure a less troublesome road in life, they do offer additional support. Nonetheless, it is vital to create the proper theoretical background which will guide your actions in every situation. For me, the discussions relating to the stress, the pressure and the social tensions existing today have helped…
Boeree, C.G Personality theories. Sigmund Freud. Retrieved 19 September 2006, at http://www.ship.edu/%7Ecgboeree/freud.html
Buresch, T., Eiben, a.E., Nitschke, G., Schut, M.C. Effects of evolutionary and lifetime learning on minds and bodies in an artificial society. Free University Amsterdam. Retrieved 19 September 2006, at http://www.cs.vu.nl/~gusz/papers/2005_cec.pdf#search=%22life%20time%20learning%20importance%22
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nurses: how to use the technical attributes of nursing while still conveying compassionate care.
Even though nursing is an empirical, scientific discipline, knowledge derived from the humanities and behavioral sciences should also form the foundation of client-centered nursing practice. A nurse must deal with the patient's subjective, psychological perceptions of what 'good health' means when setting health-related goals. The nurse must also understand the patient's particular cultural context. However, given these factors, the nurse cannot ignore certain biological imperatives imposed by the patient's condition (such as if the patient is a diabetic and needs to lose weight).
Q2. Mary Mahoney was a pioneer of nursing during an era where African-American women were prohibited from securing employment or education in healthcare. "She was also very instrumental during her career in bringing together minority nurses...and in helping other people [of color] to get involved in nursing" (Eyes on the Prize, 2011, Minority…
Eyes on the Prize. (2011). Minority Nurse. Retrieved December 6, 2011 at http://www.minoritynurse.com/print/113
Myra Levine: Conservation theory. (2009). Nursing Theories. Retrieved December 6, 2011 at http://nursingtheories.blogspot.com/2009/07/myra-levines-conservation-theory.html
Theory of interpersonal relations. (2009). Nursing Theories. Retrieved December 6, 2011 at http://www.currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/interpersonal_theory.html
Ebert (1986) believes "there is absolutely no justification for preventing mental health professionals from participating in virtually all facets of hostage negotiation," (p. 580). As Hatcher, Mohandie, Turner & Gelles (1998) point out, most mental health professionals that do participate in any aspect of hostage negotiation do so "by invitation only in police-established hostage negotiation schools," (p. 461). With this training, the mental health professional is thus theoretically prepared to engage the perpetrator directly. However, the mental health professional is only prepared when the training provided is thorough and consistent, and in accordance with the parameters and goals of each crisis situation.
The pros of employing a psychologist as a primary negotiator are clear. Most significantly, the psychologist has expertise in human behavior and cognition and can apply that knowledge to making quick decisions. The psychologist can also provide post-traumatic stress intervention services to the hostage victims and…
Ebert, B.W. (1986). The mental health response team: An expanding role for psychologists. Professional Psychology, Research and Practice, 17, 6, 580-585.
Hatcher, C., Mohandie, K., Turner, J. & Gelles, M.G. (1998). The role of psychologists in crisis/hostage negotiations.Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 16, 455-472.
However, as criminals become more aware of undercover tactics, the covert officer is required to provide more and more proof that he is indeed a criminal- which leads to the officer committing acts that compromise his or her integrity for the sake of maintaining cover. y understanding the often conflicting nature of these goals, deception and integrity, we can see how an undercover officer can become confused, lost, and susceptible to temptation (i.e. criminal behavior).
y examining both aspects- environmental factors and personality factors- we take into account both sides of a complex relationship. These two groups of factors, when combined together, shed some light on the exact nature of criminal tendencies amongst police officers.
Definition of Terms
Covert: another term for undercover, meaning the use of deception for the purpose of gathering information or intelligence.
Non-covert: police officers that, even in plain clothes, maintain their own true identity instead…
Choo, A., and Mellors, M. (1995) Undercover Police Operations and What the Suspect Said (Or Didn't Say). Web Journal of Current Legal Issues, Blackstone Press, University of Leicester. Web site: http://wenjcli.ncl.ac.uk/articles2/choo2.html
Girodo, M. (1985) Health and Legal Issues in Undercover Narcotics Investigations: Misrepresented Evidence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 3(3),299-308.
Girodo, M. (1991) Drug Corruption in Undercover Agents: Measuring the Risk. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 9, 361-370.
Girodo, M. (1997) Undercover Agent Assessment Centers: Crafting Vice and Virtue for Impostors. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12(5), 237-260.
JIM Kouzes, lecturer and author of nine books of leadership, including the best seller, "The leadership Challenge," qualities that make an effective leader have different perspectives.
There are four things that everyone look for in a good leader. Firstly, people want a leader who is honest to them, trustworthy, and has integrity. Secondly, people want someone who looks forward that is forward looking, who has a vision of the future, and thinks about the long-term, also people want someone who can forecast things in case of crisis. Thirdly, people want someone who is consistent, competitive, expertise and knows what they are doing. Fourth, people want a person who is inspiring, energetic, optimistic and positive about the future.
Research on how leaders execute or put all those attributes into action, or execute those qualities has produced five practices that successful leaders indulge those practices on the job and contribute to the…
Brady, Chris. (2007): Launching a Leadership Revolution: Mastering the Five Levels of Influence. New York: Business Plus.
Citrin, James M. (2007): The Dynamic Path: Access the Secrets of Champions to Achieve Greatness Through Mental Toughness, Inspired Leadership and Personal Transformation. New York: Rodale Press, Inc.
Covey, Stephen M.R. The Speed of Trust the One Thing that Changes Everything. New York: Free Press, 2006.
Kouzes, James. (2003): Leadership Challenge. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Anderson, RW & Chantal K. 1998, Transition banking: financial development of central and eastern Europe, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Barley, 1983, emiotics and the study of occupational and organizational cultures, Administrative cience Quarterly, Vol.28, pp.393-413.
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Denison, D 2003, Reviews on Organizational Culture: Ashkanasy, Wilderom, and Peterson (ed.) The Handbook of…
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Woodbury, G 2001, An Introduction to Statistics, 1st edition, Duxbury Press, George Woodbury.
The two channel experiment I attempted involved driving and reading. Both of these actions are decidedly conscious. However, to have a primary and a secondary action or "stream" (Baars, 1997, p. 39) I chose to drive in an exceedingly familiar route -- from my part time job home. This is a lengthy journey involving a minimum of 35 minutes. Moreover, I engage in it daily (during most of the summer), and am thoroughly familiar with the surroundings on both sides of the vehicle. More importantly, I have been driving in this particular car for the past two years. As such, its novelty has worn off. I am well acquainted with all of the controls, the gadgets, and the levers to make it operate accordingly, so that in this experiment, driving functioned as a control of sorts as a task which -- while being conscious, is closer to involving…
Baars, B. (1997). In the Theater of Consciousness: the Workspace of the Mind. San Diego: Oxford University Press.
Davis, L.L., Lennon, S.J. (1988). "Social cognition and the study of clothing and human behavior." Social Behavior and Personality. 16 (2): 175-186.
Pashler, H. (1994). "Dual-task interference in simple tasks: data and theory." Psychological Bulletin 116 (2): 220-244.
Pashler, H., Johnson, J.C. (no date). "Attentional limitations in dual-task performance."