Behaviorism Essays (Examples)

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Philosophy of the Mind

Words: 568 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60857854

Behaviorism and Positivism

Behaviorism basically believes in the laws of the observable. It is based on rational, scientific, factual data. "The behaviorist school of thought maintains that behaviors as such can be described scientifically without recourse either to internal physiological events or to hypothetical constructs such as the mind" (Wikipedia, 2010). Positivism believes in scientific method is the best way to explain human events and physical events. Behaviorism and positivism is working together mainly because the behaviorist believes that positivists' analysis of science is correct. "Positivism is based on pro-observation in comparison with other means of justifying scientific claims, and emphasizes verification" (Persson, 2010). Behaviorism and positivism are very similar because they both believe in science and observable, verifiable data.

In the early 1900's psychology was not based on pure science. It was known as a study of the mind, and there were not a lot of documented ways of…… [Read More]

References

Persson, J. (2010). Misconceptions of positivism and five unnecessary science theoretic mistakes they bring in their train. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 47 (5) 651-661

Smith, L. (1986). Behaviorism and logical positivism. . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Wikipedia (2010). Behaviorism. Retrieved on December 14, 2010 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Behaviorism
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Behavioral Theories

Words: 646 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80311294

Behaviorism

Compare and contrast 2 different behavioral theories/models of your choice.

Behaviorism vs. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)

The father of behaviorism is widely acknowledged to be B.F. Skinner. Skinner attempted to develop an 'experimental' approach to human psychology, and based many of his foundational theories upon experiments with rats rather than humans. Skinner believed that operant conditioning was the best way to motivate individuals to adopt new behaviors, or to extinguish existing behavior patterns. "When a particular Stimulus-esponse (S-) pattern is reinforced (rewarded), the individual is conditioned to respond" (Operant conditioning, 2012, Instructional Design). The focus of Skinner was upon externalities, rather than upon internal motivations of behavior.

For example, when dealing with someone who was a compulsive over-eater, rather than focusing on the psychological reasons the person felt compelled to overeat, Skinner instead would focus upon creating an environment that would reward healthy choices (such as buying a new…… [Read More]

References

Chin, Irene. (2012). An overview of behavioral theories. An Electronic Textbook on Instructional

Technology. Retrieved:  http://viking.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/et-it/behavior.htm 

Operant conditioning. (2012). Instructional Design. Retrieved:

 http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/operant-conditioning.html
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Historical Origins and Principals

Words: 1475 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69197406

Origins of Behaviorism

Behaviorism, Its Historical origins, principles and contribution to the broader field of psychology

Darwin (1809-1882) is the main scientist credited with evolutionary theory, and he was highly influential. In 1859/1985 he published The Origin of Species. This text proposed that evolution is inevitable and mechanical. He discussed the organism-environment adaptation, a precursor to the stimulus- response of behaviourism. He felt that his studies on plants and animals could be translated into human study. The human could be observed through anatomy and behaviour. This idea set the tone for behaviourism, "Animal behaviour became of interest to psychology as a result of evolutionary theory" (Mackenzie, 1977).

Children were studied as earlier versions of the adult species. Darwin expanded Haeckel's recapitulation theory and in 1877 he published A Biographical Sketch of an Infant. This was 294 pages of observations on children. Francis Galton (1822-1911) was Darwin's cousin; he continued the…… [Read More]

References

Aach, J.D. (1987). Behaviourism and normativity: The prospect of a Skinnerian psychologism (Watson, Husserl, Carnap, Skinner). Retrieved from ProQuest Digital Dissertations. (AAT 8624046)

Mackenzie, B.D. (1977). Behaviourism and the limits of scientific method. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press.

Robinson, D.N. (1995). An intellectual history of psychology (3rd Ed.). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Smith, L.D. (1986). Behaviourism and logical positivism; A reassessment of the alliance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
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Radical Behaviorist Critique

Words: 1231 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25094600

adical behaviorism is a branch of psychological study that postulates that human "behavior" is at the integral part of psychological study. Unlike other disciplines such as cognitive psychology that concentrates on internal factors such as thoughts or rather obsessive preoccupations, behaviorism theory only considers the "observable" factors of the outside environment. In this paper, I analyze the strengths and weaknesses of radical behaviorism in light of cognitive psychological theory.

Skinner who relied on Behaviorist evolution advanced the theory that preceded philosophical argument that was presented by Watson. Fuentes (2000) traces the philosophical origin of the Skinner theory to empiricism and positivism. On the other hand, he argues out that its epistemological paradigm bear direct relationship to objectivism where reality dwells from without the individual, and knowledge is simply an illusion of reality (Fuentes, 2000).

Skinner's adical Behaviorism was anchored in the notion that learning is a product of change that…… [Read More]

References

Deubel, P. (2003). An investigation of behaviorist and cognitive approaches to instructional multimedia design. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 12(1), 63-90.

Funtes, B.F. (2000). Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan

Russell, J. & Cohn, R. (2012). Radical Behaviorism. Hoboken: Book on Demand
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Psychology Term Comparison of Three

Words: 766 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6423877

In their book, Progress in Modern Psychology: The Legacy of American Functionalism, Owens and Wagner (1992) suggest that contemporary psychology reflects a common vision of the naturalistic framework that was first inspired by William James and later refined by John Dewey, James owland Angell, Harvey Carr, among others. In this regard, Owens and Wagner argue that one of the key contributors to early functionalism was John Dewey. In sharp contrast to the aforementioned structuralist approach which would analyze a situation into its continent parts, Dewey believed that sensation and the subsequent motor responses could not be legitimately separated, but rather comprised a more linear analysis that provided a coordinated response to a given condition (Owens & Wagner, 1992).

Behaviorism.

According to Zuriff (1985), behaviorism is not the science of behavior (consisting of findings, principles, laws, and theories that are formulated through the study of behavior) but rather provides a conceptual…… [Read More]

References

Badcock, C.R. (1976). Laevi-Strauss: Structuralism and sociological theory. New York: Holmes & Meier.

Hawkes, T. (2003). Structuralism and semiotics. New York: Routledge.

Noble, C.E. (2006). Structuralism. In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved July 15, 2006, from Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service.

Owens, D.A., & Wagner, M. (1992). Progress in modern psychology: The legacy of American functionalism. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
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Marx Sartre Existentialism and Skinner

Words: 363 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34474558

Humans had to learn to use freedom in a positive, rather than a negative fashion, said Sartre.

A modern manager, cognizant of such critiques, thus must try to create a workplace where a sense of connection to the product, place, and community is fostered. For example, at Google, workers are encouraged to use company time and equipment to pursue their own projects. Google is a place where workers can eat free meals, take free fitness classes, and combine work and pleasure. This creates a sense of togetherness, rather than fosters angst, alienation and exploitation. Skinner's concept of behaviorism, or rewarding positive behavior, is transformed so that giving back to the organization with creative input and ideas is reinforced. Google's mindset shows a sophisticated evolution beyond the concept of giving a worker a crude 'carrot' in the form a small bonus when he or she succeeds in fulfilling a mechanical objective…… [Read More]

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Starting From 19th Century Psychology School of

Words: 3034 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16938592

Starting from 19th century psychology, school of thought of behaviorist shared commonalities and as well ran concurrently with the 20th century psychology of psychoanalytic and Gestalt movements, however it was different from Gestalt psychologists' mental philosophy in significant ways. Psychologists who had major influences in it were Edward Lee Thorndike, John B. atson, they opposed method of introspective and advocated to use of experimental methods: Ivan Pavlov, investigated classical conditioning, but he was not to the idea of behaviorists or behaviorism: B.F. Skinner, he did his research on operant conditioning.

During second half of the 20th century, it was widely eclipsed that behaviorism was due to cognitive revolution. Even though behaviorism as well as cognitive schools of psychological thought tends to disagree in terms of theory, they have gone a head to compliment one another within applications of practical therapeutic, for example, cognitive-behavioral therapy has shown utility in treating some…… [Read More]

Work cited

Arntzen, E., Lokke, J., Kokke, G. & Eilertsen, D-E. (2010). On misconceptions about behavior analysis among university students and teachers. The Psychological Record, 60(2), 325- 327.

Chiesa, M. (2004).Radical Behaviorism: The Philosophy and the Science ISBN

Claus, C.K. (2007) B.F. Skinner and T.N. Whitehead: A brief encounter, research similarities, Hawthorne revisited, what next? The Behavior Analyst, 30(1), 79-86. Retrieved  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2223160/?tool=pmcentrez 

Diller, J.W. And Lattal, K.A. (2008). Radical behaviorism and Buddhism: complementarities and conflicts. The Behavior Analyst, 31(2), 163-177. Retrieved  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2591756/?tool=pmcentrez
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Theories of Behavior Applied

Words: 1009 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37297642

Behaviorist and Cognitive Theory

Psychology took a center stage and significant change in the early 20th Century when the behaviorism school of thought became dominant. This was a major change from other theoretical perspectives that existed before hence rejecting emphasis on unconscious and conscious mind. Behaviorism strove to see that psychology becomes a more scientific discipline in that focus will be mainly on observable behavior. This approach to psychology whereby the elements of philosophy, methodology and theory are combined. The primary tenet of behaviorism as it was expressed by JohnB.Watson, B.F Skinner in writing is that the primary concern in psychology should be the behaviors that can be observed both in humans and animals and not the unobserved events which take place within the minds of individuals. This school of thought maintains that behaviors can easily be described scientifically without recourse either to any psychological events that occur internally or…… [Read More]

References

Leahey, T.H., Greer, S., Lefrancois, G.R., Reiner, T.W., Spencer, J.L., Wickramasekera, I.E., & Willmarth, E.K. (2014). History of Psychology. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education. ISBN-13: 9781621785682

Fritscher, L. (2014). Cognitive Theory. Retrieved September 17, 2014 from http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/cognitivethedef.htm

Gonzalez-Prendes, A. & Resko, S. (2009). Cognitive-Behavioral Theory.
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Post-Modern to Contemporary Psychology

Words: 3161 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16183152



Diversity and Psychology

There were two major developments that influenced the field of psychology and the professions' views regarding multicultural competence, emphasized in 2003. The American Psychological Associations' 2002 Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct and the Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice and Organizational Change for Psychologists published in 2003 both stressed the importance of moving from a mono-cultural school of thought to a multicultural perspective and that these 'new rules' acknowledge an appreciation of differences as well as an "understanding of the inherent ambiguity and complexity in psychological practice (Pack-rown & Williams, 2003; Manesse, Saito, & Rodolfa, 2004). Knapp and VandeCreek (2003) said of these new guidelines that they articulate a need for greater sensitivity regarding linguistic and cultural minorities. The development of the new Code of Ethics and the APA's positioning were purported to be in response to a long awaited recognition of the need for…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Psychological Association (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologist. American Psychologist, 58(5), 377-402.

Barbour, I. (2000). When science meets religion: Enemies, strangers, partners? San

Francisco: Harper.

Blumenthal, A. (2001). A Wundt primer: The operating characteristics of consciousness.
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Psychological Work of John B Watson B F

Words: 1128 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23992265

psychological work of John B. atson, B.F. Skinner, and Edward C. Tolman, along with the impacts that these three had on society. This paper will also compare and contrast these three iconic psychologists.

Edward C. Tolman is said by author Bernard J. Baars to have been the "…only major figure" in the emerging field of behaviorism "…who advocated the possibility of mental representation" (Baars, 1986, p. 61). Baars writes that more than any other behaviorist Tolman "anticipated…the cognitive point-of-view… [and] thought it necessary to postulate events other than stimuli and responses" (61). Tolman has made significant contributions to psychology, including: a) the use of cognitive maps in rats; b) the "latent learning" he pioneered though the use of rats; c) the concept of "intervening variables"; and d) the discovery that rats don't just learn their movements "…for rewards" but rather they also learn when no rewards are given, backing up…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baars, Bernard J. (1986). The Cognitive Revolution in Psychology. New York: Guilford Press.

Geary, Eric. (2002). Psyography: Edward C. Tolman. Psyography. Retrieved October 27, 2012,

from  http://faculty.frostburg.edu/mbradley/psyography/edwardtolman.html .

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (2005). Behaviorism / John B. Watson: Early
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Behave Construct Cog Educators Are

Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6775403

This presents a challenge to educators who may have a classroom full of students who are cognitively at different levels. Educational programs that allow students to advance at their own pace, such as accelerated reader, or explore knowledge independently might be ways to encourage cognitive development in students.

Constructivism is closely tied to the cognitive approach in that constructive learning requires that the students are the primary agents in their own learning. In this theory, students must construct new knowledge on the framework of existing knowledge (Ertmer and Newby, 1993). It is literally a building of a larger knowledge base that students achieve individually. If a student does not have the prior knowledge for a particular skill or concept, then he or she will be unable to construct something new. According to Jean Piaget, the most well-known constructivist, learning has to be achieved by discovery. This requires students to be…… [Read More]

Reference

Ertmer, P.A. And Newby, T.J. (1993). Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism: Comparing critical features from an Instructional Design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(4), 50-72. Retrieved October 20, 2006 at http://www.personal.psu.edu/txl166/kb/theory/compar.html
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Psychological Perspectives - Evolutionary Psychology

Words: 614 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38420394



Evolutionary psychologists therefore explain current human behaviors, especially instinctive ones, in terms of adaptive successes. A baby would feel safer in the secure space of a crib rather than an expansive lawn. A small fluffy mouse initially presents no threat, as our human ancestors likely preyed on smaller animals. Loud noises, however, can mean danger, so a child instinctively cries in alarm.

Cognitive psychology

Cognitive psychologists look at the internal mental processes that enable humans to learn skills such as languages, memory and problem solving. Notive cognitive psychologist Jean Piaget believed that humans go through different stages of cognitive development, and each stage should be marked by the acquisition of certain skills. In the Sensorimotor stage, which last from birth through two years old, babies learn to move and master their different senses. At the preoperational stage, from ages two to seven, a child should master motor skills such as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baum, W. 2005. Understanding behaviorism: Behavior, Culture and Evolution. New York: Blackwell.

Tavris, C. And Wade, C. 2000. Psychology in Perspective. New York: Prentice Hall.
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CMC but You Move on

Words: 3655 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48122366



Theory of the self-monitored students and CSCL

Another popular theory associated with the concept of CSCL is the self-monitored student s (Benbunan-Fich, 2002

). Benbunan-Fich (2002

) in their study give students the chance to explore and discover their abilities and then guide through ways that they can polish them. In the case of CSCL, the students realize that they will need guidelines and principles in order to attain a set objective and is not hesitant in instigating the process of learning whether collaboratively or individually. This is usually possible only for the students who are extremely gifted. This theory of self-monitoring or self-regulating has had either a direct or an indirect impact on all related educational theories like the students behavioural theory and constructivism theory (Benbunan-Fich, 2002

Theory of problem-based learning and CSCL

Problem-based learning (PBL) is another popular theory that has had an effect on the CSCL setup…… [Read More]

References

Benbunan-Fich, R. (2002). Improving education and training with IT. Communications of the ACM, 45(6), 94-99.

Bostrum, L. & Lassen, L.v (2006). Unravelling learning, learning styles, learning strategies and meta-cognition. Education + Training, Vol. 48, No. 2/3, pp179-189.

Brush, T., & Saye, J. (2004). PIHNet: a web-based environment for supporting problem-based historical inquiry. In Proceedings of society for information technology and teacher education international conference 2004 (pp. 4754 -- 4757). Norfolk, VA: AACE.

Chambers, D.W. & Fernandez, A.A. (2004). The Quality Of Learning. Quality Progress, 37(3), 50-56.
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Psychology - History of Psychology

Words: 1415 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59949647



Whereas the behaviorist and psychodynamic models contradict each other in their fundamental assumptions and focus, humanistic perspective does not necessarily contradict behaviorism or the psychodynamic approach, except that it considers both of those views as explanations of only portions of human behavior rather than all human behavior.

The Cognitive Perspective:

The Cognitive perspective broadens the study of human psychology even further than the humanistic perspective. In addition to considering all of the influential elements within the behaviorist, psychodynamic, and humanistic views, cognitive psychology also studies the combined contributions of knowledge, memory, previous experience, subconscious desires, external factors, and volitional thought on external behavior (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).

Cognitive psychology accepts many of the fundamental concepts of other schools of psychological thought, and much like the humanistic point-of-view, merely considers them incomplete explanations of human behavior rather than oppositional theories.

According to cognitive psychologists, even the most inclusive theories like humanistic…… [Read More]

REFERENCES Coleman, J.C., Butcher, J.N., Carson, R.C. (1984) Abnormal Psychology and Human Life. Dallas: Scott, Foresman & Co. Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.

New York: Allyn & Bacon.
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Psychology Throughout Its History Psychology Has Undergone

Words: 946 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9514623

Psychology

Throughout its history, psychology has undergone a number of evolutions. As the study of mind, the discipline has necessarily been subject to change as new research revealed information about the functions of the mind and its effect upon behavior. elatively simple conclusions drawn by those who are currently considered the founding fathers of psychology have been challenged and modified to become the various subdisciplines in psychology that we know today. Along with what can be considered the "mental" trends in psychology such as the behaviorist, psychoanalytic, the cognitive, and the evolutionary approaches, it has also been recognized that psychology has a firm basis in physiology.

In about 1913, the focus of psychology up-to-date profoundly changed as a result of work by the American psychologist John B. Watson. In an effort to bring more scientific merit to psychology, Watson advocated that the study of behavior should be used to draw…… [Read More]

References

The Journal of Evolutionary Psychology (2006). Evolutionary Psychology. Retrieved from:  http://www.evolutionary-philosophy.net/psychology.html 

Oracle ThinkQuest. (2011) History of Psychology. Retrieved from: http://library.thinkquest.org/C005870/history/index.php?id=historyp1

Rossman, J. (2007, Dec 3). Biological Psychology: Foundations of Biopsychology. Associated Content. Retrieved from: http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/428842/biological_psychology_foundations_of.html
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Cognitive and Behaviorist Approach Comparative

Words: 448 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91019994



Typical experimental research methods relied upon in the cognitive approach to psychology include measuring patterns of neural activity in response to specific stimuli and of the effect on external behavior of other internal processes such as hormonal activity.

Personal Preference

I my opinion, the cognitive approach to understanding psychology is more comprehensive than the strict behavioral approach. Because the behavioral approach limits the analysis to a relatively narrow focus on behavior that is externally observable, it seems to ignore significant causal explanations for those behaviors. Conversely, the cognitive approach does not necessarily discount the value of externally observable behavior within the overall framework of understanding the many contributing influences on human behavior.

Cognitive psychology also seems to have more unexplored potential for future development of the field by virtue of the relatively recent evolution of various new technological applications of medical imaging processes. Specifically, whereas the methods and materials relied…… [Read More]

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Diverse Nature of Psychology the Human Mind

Words: 1131 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70500794

Diverse Nature of Psychology

The human mind is an incredibly complex tool. How it actually thinks and behaves is not always based on a single example, and thus there are clear elements of diversity within theoretical assumptions on how the mind works. Diversity is a crucial element to modern psychology and its various sub-categories. Modern psychology is heavily influenced by the extreme diversity found within its core concepts. There are a vast number of major concepts and sub-examples that differ enormously from one another and take their influence from other genres of study and the various findings of specific empirical research conclusions. Officially, there are four core "specialties," including clinical, counseling, school, and industrial / organizational psychology, although even these general topics are further diversified into more specific areas that highlight different findings and assumptions about man's position within modern society (Landrum 2010 p 13).

Therefore, there is great diversity…… [Read More]

References

Maslow, Abraham. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(40), 370-396. Web.  http://emotionalliteracyeducation.com/abraham-maslow-theory-human-motivation.shtml 

Landrum, R.E. & Davis, S.F. (2010). The psychology major: Career options and strategies for success (4th ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
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Motivation of Behavior

Words: 1331 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28858537

Motivation in Behavior

a) What does Tolman's theory of animal learning tell us about the motivation for human learning?

Unlike John Watson, B.F. Skinner and the other strict behaviorists, or the ussian physiologists like Ivan Pavlov, Edward C. Tolman argued that the behaviorist theory that learning was a matter of stimulus-response (S-) and positive and negative reinforcement was highly simplistic. Although he rejected introspective methods and metaphysics, he increasingly moved away from strict behaviorism into the areas of cognitive psychology. In short, he became a mentalist without actually using that term to describe himself and concluded that all behavior was "purposive" (Hergenhahn, 2009, p. 428). All of his experiments with rats moving through mazes at the University of Berkeley proved to his satisfaction that behavior was actually the dependent variable, with the environment as the independent variable, with mental processes as intervening variables. Tolman summarized this basic theory, which he…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Leaf, J.B. et al. (2010). "Comparison of Simultaneous Prompting and No-No Prompting in Two-Choice Discrimination Learning with Children with Autism." Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, No. 2 (Summer 2010), pp. 215-28.

Lerner, R.M. (2002). Concepts and Theories of Human Development, (3rd ed.) Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Lund, S.K. (2009). "Discrete Trial Instruction in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention" in E.A. Boutot and M. Tincani (eds). Autism Encyclopedia: The Complete Guide to Autism Spectrum Disorders. Prufrock Press, Inc.

Hergenhahn, B.R. (2009). An Introduction to the History of Psychology, (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth
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Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct Among Psychologists

Words: 1460 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65983053

The field is social psychology, and the selected title is bullying. The articles selected as follows:

Mundbjerg Eriksen, T. L., Hogh, A., & Hansen, A. M. (2016). Long-Term Consequences of Workplace Bullying On Sickness Absence. Labor Economics, 43: 129-150. doi:10.1016/j.labeco.2016.06.008

This peer-reviewed article explores the effects of bullying at the place of work. The study done in the article indicates that sickness, boredom, and poor productivity are some of the results of bullying from among employees. The article is significant in that it helps to understand the effects of bullying at the workplace and hence aids in deriving ways to reduce its occurrence. The social setting at workplace relates to the social psychology effects as seen with the occurrence of bullying (Mundbjerg Eriksen et al., 2016).

Priest, N., King, T., Becares, L., & Kavanagh, A. M. (2016). Bullying Victimization and Racial Discrimination among Australian Children. American Journal of Public Health,…… [Read More]

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Speed of Mental Processes F C

Words: 593 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49411162



Kenneth Kotovsky and Herbert A. Simon are concerned with the "Human acquisition of concepts for sequential patterns." Their goal is to understand how an individual can produce a serial pattern. The process is based upon a rule which was learned by the individual under discussion through induction. Their research involves the use of computer programming and formal languages. Its goal is to understand which problems are likely to be more challenging for the human mind. The program is presented in various types and its results are evaluated as being successful.

B.F. Skinner in "About behaviorism" presents his views regarding the human behaviour patterns. According to him, the manner in which people behave is deeply influenced by the environment where they live. One of the things which differentiates his view is the importance given to subjective factors, such as the individuals' personal thoughts and feelings (which the author considers to be…… [Read More]

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Psychology it Has Intended to Be a

Words: 863 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77367787

psychology, it has intended to be a branch of the sciences. For it to be considered science, psychology must not hypothesize without testing. It is unfortunate that the history of psychology is marked with failed hypothesis. For it to be ethical, it has to draw conclusions after a formal laboratory experiment with stringent protocol instead of retrospective studies that result from past occurrences.

Science share basic procedures and expectations, it tests theories and get results, those results can be tested by others and achieve the same results, this is a challenge with psychology. For instance, normal therapeutic treatments involve research, diagnosis and treatment, but many results are scientifically indistinguishable. There is limited distinction between research and treatment.

There are issues that play a fundamental role in evaluation of psychological theories. First, is whether the theory adequately and formally describes the framework that accounts for observed psychological and other empirical data.…… [Read More]

References

Kline, P. (1984). Psychology and Freudian Theory. Methuen.

Rozeboom, W.W. (1960). The Fallacy of Null Hypothesis Significance Test. Psychological Bulletin, 416-428.

Skinner, B.F. (1948). Walden Two.

Stangor, C. (2007). Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
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Theory and Criminal Behavior

Words: 847 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25165465

Theories

Skinner's radical behaviorism has been used to provide explanations for a number of behavioral phenomenon including criminal behavior (Skinner, 1966). For instance, the crime of burglary offers an example of how antisocial behaviors are learned through reinforcement. Members of society that commonly engage in theft or burglary learn their trade via the reinforcing aspects of stealing. The need to steal may be initially activated by means of some form of need or desire to have material gain; however, for many individuals who habitually engage in thievery repeated stealing is positively reinforced by the tangible acquisition of goods provided by these activities. For many of these individuals this behavior is reinforced by the notion that it is easier to steal from others then to apply oneself, work hard, and take the chance on getting the lees than desired rewards. However, many habitual criminals actually put in as much effort into…… [Read More]

References

Andrews, D.A. & Hoge, R.D. (1999). The psychology of criminal conduct and principles of effective prevention and rehabilitation. Forum on Corrections Research. Special Edition. 12 -- 14. Retrieved on April 1, 2013 from http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/pblct/forum/special/espe_b-eng.shtml

Bandura, A. (1977). Social leaning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Raine, A. (2002). The biological basis of crime. In J.Q Wilson & J. Petrsilia (Eds.) Crime:Public policies for crime control. Oakland: ICS Press.

Skinner, B.F. (1966). The phylogeny and ontogeny of behavior. Science, 153, 1204 -- 1213.
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Psychologists Use Scientific Methods to Study Behavior

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28253040

Psychologists Use Scientific Methods to Study

behavior and mental processes.

behavioral disorders.

unconscious mental processes.

the meaning of dreams.

Cognitive psychology can best be described as

the study of higher mental processes.

the therapeutic applications of critical thinking.

the area of psychology which attempts to reduce judgmental thinking.

a subspecialty of psychology based exclusively on observation rather than experimentation.

Who was a leading proponent of behaviorism in the United States until his/her death in 1990?

Carl Rogers

Skinner

Ivan Pavlov

Albert Bandura

Charles Darwin argued that ____ determines physical traits of survival.

A. cognition

B. genetics

C. environment

D. nurture

5. With what psychological approach is Sigmund Freud associated?

A. psychodynamic

B. humanistic

C. cognitive

D. sociocultural

6. Which of the following best describes a correlational study?

A. research that studies the naturally occurring relationship between two or more variables

B. research that explains the effects of one variable on…… [Read More]

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Biological Psychology

Words: 2139 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36635259

Behavioral Psychology

The main link between the brain and the mind is through the nervous system. It processes information from various regions in the body and transmits it via electrical and chemical signals. The study of the relationship that the brain has on the mind, consciousness and behavior is called behavioral psychology. Decades ago, scientists would use electrodes to stimulate various regions of the brain to understand how it affected the body. Today psychologists use modern radiological techniques to understand mental processes and behaviorism in diseases ranging from Huntington to Epilepsy. (Nobus, 2000)

Although many interesting stories and interpretations have led to the evolution of biological psychology, a great contribution to this field was made by the famous psychologist, Signmund Freud.

Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 and spent most of his life in Vienna. From early on in life, Freud had a strong inclination towards human concerns, and even…… [Read More]

REFERENCES:

Ablon JS., & Jones EE. (1999). Psychotherapy process in the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program. J Consult Clin Psychol, 67:64 -- 75.

Cameron, P. (1967). Confirmation of the freudian psychosexual stages utilizing sexual symbolism.Psychological Reports, 21(1), 33-39. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1967.21.1.33

Sigmund, F. (1925). An autobiographical study . Retrieved from http://www2.winchester.ac.uk/edstudies/courses/level two sem two/freudautopdf.pdf

Westen, D., & Gabbard, G. (2002). Developments in cognitive neuroscience: I. conflict, compromise, and connectionism. J Am Psychoanal Assoc, 50(1), 53-98.
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Adult Learning Fodor 1987 Offers

Words: 3581 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14163239

Second, it suggests that once an appropriate curriculum has been compiled -- one that produces the appropriate results -- then this very same curriculum should produce the same results every time it is employed properly. And third, it suggests that language itself cannot be conceived of as anything other than a response to an external stimulus; therefore, we, as teachers, should not be concerned with the internal, conceptual aspects of learning a language, and only with the observable, verbal responses that our teaching techniques produce. Of course, these stand as direct consequences of accepting the theory of behaviorism within the context of teaching ESL; however, my experience has shown that, if anything, the version of behaviorism that allows for consciousness is the most beneficial for developing an efficient and successful approach towards teaching.

Unfortunately for the theory of behaviorism, this phenomenon is not easily explained without the existence of internal…… [Read More]

Reference:

Cain, M.J. (2002). Fodor: Language, Mind and Philosophy. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Chomsky, N. (1975). Reflections on Language, New York: Pantheon.

Cole, David. (2004). "The Chinese Room Argument." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, March. Available:

 http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/chinese-room/ .
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history of psychology annotated bibliography

Words: 831 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36211058

Clark, R. E. (2004). The classical origins of Pavlov's conditioning. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 39(4), 279-294.

Classical conditioning is the cornerstone of behaviorism. However, it is often taken for granted how classical conditioning was introduced to the field of psychology. This article starts with a brief section about the precursors of Pavlov’s famous dog salivation response experiments. The precursor to Pavlov was Twitmyer’s knee-jerk reflexes. Like Green (2009), Clark (2004) talks a little of William James and his contributions to the early evolution of psychology. Then, Clark (2004) delves into the meat of the matter: Pavlov’s experiments. Using dogs as subjects, the Russian scientist revolutionized the study of human behavior with his studies showing how classical conditioning works. Clark (2004) traces Pavlov’s work, and also shows how it was received. Then, the author shows how Pavlov’s conditioning experiments became classical conditioning through the work of B.F. Skinner. Essentially, this research…… [Read More]

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Examining Different Learning Theories

Words: 962 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50408198

Dominant Learning Theories

Excellence in the field of pedagogy depends on an understanding of the major learning theories and models along with an ability to use them when appropriate. Even if one doesn't agree with these major learning theories, it's still important to be aware of them as a professional. A strong comprehension of the major learning theories can also help to guide one's actions and choices as an educator, scholar or general pedagogue.

Behaviorism, for example, is a major learning theory which asserts that the bulk of learning that occurs in human beings is done through conditioning. This is important as it puts a lot of focus on the power of the environment and how the environment can shape a person's behaviors through the stimuli acquired. Behaviorism is a school of learning which pays very little attention to mental states, finding things like moods and emotions to be too…… [Read More]

References

Cherry, K. (2014). What Is Behaviorism? Retrieved from about.com: http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/f/behaviorism.htm

Euromedinfo.eu. (2013). Behavioral, cognitive, humanist approaches. Retrieved from euromedinfo.eu:  http://www.euromedinfo.eu/behavioral-cognitive-humanist-approaches.html/ 

Fritscher, L. (2014). Cognitive Theory. Retrieved from about.com: http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/cognitivethedef.htm
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Social Cognition Is the Study

Words: 1991 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72025607

Since we observe the responses of our peers and friends, we are very much attuned to how we interact with others, and how their succeed or fail. The theory of self-efficacy is fundamental to understanding social cognitive learning, because it implies that the process of using this theory creates greater confidence. Since individuals learn from their cultural environment, it is imperative to construct a positive enforcing messages through the educational process to ensure that individuals feel that they can accomplish any and all given tasks.

A contextual example of the social cognitive learning model can be seen in the case of student as in the provided example. As is a student who feels no self-efficacy when it comes to mathematics, despite numerous opportunities to learn from math, he has taken no opportunities to improve himself. When questioned he clearly asserts that he cannot learn math, something that appears counterintuitive from…… [Read More]

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Behavior Therapy

Words: 1338 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48431061

Evolution and Development of Behavioral Therapy

The 20th century approach to psychology is notable because, while there was an emphasis on the medical approach to treating psychological disorders, there was also a focus on nonphysiological therapies that began to gain some credence in the medical profession. While nonmedical interventions were generally dismissed, "at least some nonmedical practices were no longer widely regarded by either professionals or the general public as quackery. An important contributor to the increased acceptance and status of nonmedical therapies was their enhanced relationship with science" (O'Donohue & Krasner, Year). These nonmedical therapies gained greater and greater usage in the mental health arena, and eventually came to be regarded not only as complementary treatments to standard medical interventions, but as "necessary components in the treatment of problems such as depression, attention deficit disorder, schizophrenia, and many of the anxiety disorders"(O'Donohue & Krasner, Year). One of the areas…… [Read More]

References

Fishman, D. & Franks, C. (Year). The conceptual evolution of behavior therapy. In Book Title.

City: Publisher.

Glass, C. & Arnkoff, D. (Year). Behavior therapy. In Book Title. City: Publisher.

O'Donohue, W., & Krasner, L. (Year). Introduction. In Theories of behavior therapy:
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Development of Canine Behavior Genetics vs Environment

Words: 4662 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91836586

Canine Behavior: Genetics vs. Environment

The debate over nature vs. nurture as it applies to learning dates back over a hundred years. Certainly, during much of the 20th century, the distinction between learned and inherited behavior appeared much clearer than it does today. The concept that any type of behavior was either learned or merely developed without learning seemed a rationale and straightforward belief. esearch based on these expectations caused some scientists to conclude that rat-killing behavior among cats, for example, is a learned behavior rather than an instinctive one, that human fears are all acquired, or that intelligence is completely the result of experience. Learning theorists were arguing at this point that most behavior is learned and that biological factors are of little or no importance. The behaviorist position that human behavior could be explained entirely in terms of reflexes, stimulus-response associations, and the effects of reinforcers upon them…… [Read More]

References

Ader, R., Baum, A., & Weiner, H. (1988). Experimental foundations of behavioral medicines: Conditioning approaches. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Black, A.H., Solomon, R.L., & Whiting, J.W.M. (1954, April). Resistance to temptation as a function of antecedent dependency relationships in puppies. Paper presented at the Eastern Psychological Association meeting, New York. In American Psychologist, 9, 579.

Brush, F.R., Overmier, J.B., & Solomon, R.L. (1985). Affect, conditioning, and cognition: Essays on the determinants of behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Dogs and People: The History and Psychology of a Relationship. (1996). Journal of Business Administration and Policy Analysis, 24-26, 54.
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bandura'self efficacy and chomsky'skinner debate

Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16952639

How does Bandura’s concept of self-efficacy relate to your pursuit of obtaining your terminal degree? What strategies can you use to improve your self-efficacy in your academic research and writing?

Self-efficacy refers to what we believe we are capable of doing. People with high self-efficacy set challenging goals and commit to achieving them, which is what I did when I enrolled in this degree program. If I did not have a high sense of self-efficacy, I could have talked myself out of the program by claiming that it was too difficult or believing that nothing good would come from it. Instead, I believed in myself and worked through all the obstacles that I faced along the way.

Self-efficacy is also associated with the ability to manage stress, because setbacks and failures are not as overwhelming when we believe that all we need to do is try again a little harder…… [Read More]

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History of Psychology Although the

Words: 857 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53888937

An early influence on Gestalt psychology was the philosopher Immanuel Kant, who stressed that humans do not perceive the world as it is. Rather, they impose cause and effect relationships on it and therefore our perceptions are influenced by their experiences. Max Wertheimer was the strongest proponent of this approach. Gestalt psychology greatly declined when Nazis came to power in Germany and many scholars were forced to flee. In the United States, behaviorism was too strong to overcome, and many of its ideas were in opposition to Gestalt beliefs.

Humanistic therapy overlaps with CBT and both are very common in today's society. It emphasizes the growth and fulfillment of the self or self-actualization through self-mastery, self-examination and creative expression. Although the influences of the unconscious and society are taken into account, freedom of choice in creating one's experience is essential and is often referred to as self-determination. A humanistic therapist…… [Read More]

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How Educational Theories Contribute to an IEP

Words: 1502 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50745286

Individual Education Plan

In education it is important to understand the pedagogy and historical philosophical perspectives on educational theories to fully understand the educational plan in a comprehensive fashion. Understanding this element of an education plan can provide insights to education that can have practical consequences on implementation. This analysis will provide a background into three of such theories -- behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Furthermore, it will discuss how these theories may or may not be consistent with each of the thirteen disability categories under the IDEA and what challenges and obstacles may be present relative to these perspectives and an individual student's circumstances. It will further provide insights into how these theories may be relevant to different stakeholder involvement strategies in the individual education plan (IEP) for students. Finally, it will discuss how these learning theories can influence the style of instruction in the IEP.

Behaviorism

Behaviorism is a…… [Read More]

References

Brooks, M., & Brooks, J. (1999). The Courage to Be Constructivist. The Constructivist Classroom, 18-24.

Feldman, R. (2015). Child Development. Pearson.

McLeod, S. (2007). Skinner - Operant Conditioning. Retrieved from Simply Psychology: http://www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html

Peoples, S., O'dwyer, L., Wang, B., Rosca, J., & Camelia, V. (2014). Development and application of the Elementary School Science Classroom Environment Scale (ESSCES): measuring student perceptions of constructivism within the science classroom. Learning Envrionment Research, 49-73.
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John Watson and His Contributions

Words: 1690 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50331218



Watson really created the field of behavioral psychology with his speech and his first book, and while it refined over the years with input from others, such as B.F. Skinner, it is essentially based on Watson's original ideas and studies, so he is the father of this type of psychology. His personal life derailed his career (the woman he had an affair with while he worked at Johns Hopkins was his lab assistant.) They later wrote a book together, and they conducted the Little Albert study together. He married her, but they divorced after having two children together. If his personal life had not interfered with his studies and work, he might have created even more foundations for behavioral psychology to build on. Before his problems, he was a respected member of the psychological community, and even became president of the American Psychological Association in 1915. His work was very…… [Read More]

References

Bentley, M., Dunlap, K., Hunter, W.S., Koffka, K., Kohler, W., McDougall, W., et al. (1928). Psychologies of 1925: Powell lectures in psychological theory (C. Murchison, Ed.) (3rd ed.). Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.

Grant, J. (2004). A "real boy" and not a sissy: Gender, childhood, and masculinity, 1890-1940. Journal of Social History, 37(4), 829+.

Scull, A., & Schulkin, J. (2009). Psychobiology, Psychiatry, and Psychoanalysis: the Intersecting Careers of Adolf Meyer, Phyllis Greenacre, and Curt Richter. Medical History, 53(1), 5+.

Watson, E. (2010). John B. Watson. Retrieved 22 April 2010 from the Muskingum University Web site:  http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/watson.htm .
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Reciprocal Causation 5 the Writer's

Words: 553 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6436198



Overall Description of Reciprocal Causation: 3 (the author should offer a more extensive and comprehensive definition of the term. In fact, the author repeats the word "reciprocal" in the definition of reciprocal causation. An ensuing sentence makes no sense either: "Each one of the these variables influences each other in a cycle that can start on any of the variables.")

Differentiating from Behaviorism: 1 (the author does not adequately define behaviorism, which makes the comparison between the two theories a poor one. The author mistakenly states that behaviorism is about "trial and error.").

Using Student as...to elaborate on reciprocal causation: 4 (the example used is too long and verbose. However, the author does address each of the three parts of the cycle in detail, and discusses how teachers could have intervened at various points in the cycle.)

Spelling, Grammar, and Clarity of Writing: 1 (Poor writing and grammar make this…… [Read More]

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Getting Everyone Involved With the Team

Words: 2146 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23997459

Teaching philosophy tends to be very similar from person to person. However, it can also be very different from student to student that is preparing to be a teacher as well as the teachers who have complete their requisite teaching degrees. This is because what motivates these teachers can obvious vary from person to person and there are also a number of different theories and ideas out there that inform and influence the field of teaching. This obvious leads to a number of different perspectives and potential outcomes depending on the learning needs of each student and the overall dynamics that are present in a given learning environment. While the facets of each learning situation can vary, the ultimate idea behind teaching should be to use behaviorism as a way to get students to work and function together as isolation and people not jelling is the antithesis of what any…… [Read More]

References

ASCD. (2016). 3 Ways to Create an Inclusive Learning Environment. ASCD Inservice. Retrieved 6 July 2016, from http://inservice.ascd.org/3-ways-to-create-an-inclusive-learning environment/

Fiddes, P. J., Brooks, P. M., & Komesaroff, P. (2013). The patient is the teacher: ambulatory patient-centered student-based inter-professional education where the patient is the teacher who improves patient care outcomes. Internal Medicine Journal, 43(7), 747-750.

doi:10.1111/imj.12197

Gazarian, P. K., & Pennington, M. (2012). Clinical Teleconferencing: Bringing the Patient to the Classroom. Nursing Forum, 47(4), 210-216. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6198.2012.00279.x
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Psychology Models Since Sigmund Freud

Words: 2736 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77173873

Therefore, it is necessary to account for the acquisition of habits.

Due to certain limitations of the behaviorism approach, there have been revisions to the theory over the century. For example, although behaviorism helped people to forecast, alter, and change behavior over time, it did not attempt nor intend to understand how or why the theory worked. The present-day social cognitive approach asserts that behavior is results from an ongoing reciprocal three-way relationship among the individual (cognition), the environment (physical context, which consists of the organizational structure and design, social context or other people), and the person's past behavior. This broader view, called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) incorporates the cognitive in addition to the behavioral approaches to therapy and view people "as active seekers and interpreters of information, not just responders to environmental influences" (Nevid, 2007, p. 484). Many psychologists now believe that behavior is understood best by studying the…… [Read More]

References Cited:

Fall, K.A., Holden, J.M. & Marquis, A. (2004) Theoretical models of counseling and psychotherapy New York: Taylor and Francis.

Freud, Sigmund. (1926). Inhibitions, symptoms, and anxiety, SE, 20(14): 111-205.

Kohlenberg, R.J., Bolling, M.Y., Kanter, J.W. & Parker, C.R. (2002) Clinical behavior analysis: where it went wrong, how it was made good again, and why its future is so bright. Behavior Analyst Today. 3(3): 248-253

Martz, E (2002) Principles of Eastern philosophies viewed from the framework of Yalom's four existential concerns. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling. 24(1): 31-42
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Psychological Perspectives Three of the

Words: 326 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72533626

For example, behaviorism can explain the "fight and flight" response. Psychodynamics can shed light on some of the least understood aspects of the human experience: our dreams. Moreover, psychodynamics can help individuals understand behavior that is not motivated by stimuli but rather by instinctual desires. Finally, the humanistic perspective addresses the emotional and spiritual aspects of human existence and can shed light on the quest for individual expression, creativity, and spiritual awareness.

Each of these schools of thought can apply to certain populations better than others. For example, the humanistic perspective would be weak when trying to study infants or very young children but would be more useful to study adults. Similarly, psychodynamics applies more readily to adults than to young children. Behaviorism can apply to all populations in theory, but regarding stimuli-response, behaviorism can be best applied to understanding infant behaviors.… [Read More]