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Childhood phobias usually disappear before adulthood. However, those that persist into adulthood rarely go away without treatment." (Gersley, p. 1)
This imposes a considerable responsibility upon the mental healthcare community find ways of identifying the roots causes of phobias and altering the behavioral patterns that cause these phobias to become ingrained. Hickey (2009) indicates that these root causes are often of a traumatic nature and that subjects tend to engage in "persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma and numbing of general responsiveness." (Hickey, p. 1) This is dysfunctional behavior, Hickey indicates, that can manifest in other forms of cognitive and emotional dissonance. It is thus that the preliminary review of literature presented here above helps to reinforce the rationales stated above for the engagement of such a study.
Accordingly, the research proposed here should initiate first with a more comprehensive review of available literature and a more exhaustive…
Friedman, M.J.; Keane, T.M. & Resick, P.A. (2010) Handbook of PTSD: Science and Practice. Guilford Press.
Gersley, E. (2001). Phobias: Causes and Treatments. AllPsych Journal.
Hickey, P. (2009). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Behaviorism and Mental Health.
Naik, P. (1998). Behaviorism as a Theory of Personality: A Critical Look. Personality Research.
ehaviorism in the 20th Century System of Psychology
The purpose of this work is to provide an outline of ehaviorism, which, is a major system of psychology in the 20th Century. Further the work will provide a substantive treatment of the supportive and critical perspectives associated with the system. Finally this work will include the applications of dualistic activity vs. monistic passivity, source of knowledge: self-generative vs. sensory and mentalism vs. materialism.
John roadus Watson was the founder of ehaviorism and held that:
"Psychology as the behaviorist views it is purely objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control ob behavior. Introspection forms no essential part to its methods nor is the scientific value of its data dependent upon the readiness, which they lend themselves to interpretation in terms of consciousness. The behaviorist, in his effort to get a unitary scheme of animal…
Anthropology, Psychology, and Sociology: Behaviorism - The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy 1988 Jan 1 Online at: Highbeam Research.
Skinner, Christopher H. Functional Behavioral Assessment: Principles, Procedures, and Future Directions - School Psychology review (2001)
Overskeid, Geir (2000) Why Do We Think? Consequences of Regarding Thinking as Behavior" The Journal of Psychology 2000 July 1.
Swann, WB, Jr. et al. (2005) Personality Psychology's Comeback and Its Emerging Symbiosis with Social Psychology. Personal Social Psychological Bulletin. 2005 Feb; 31(2): 155-65. PMID 15619589
activity: Written -- Behaviorism Essay Context: Behaviorism a great impact Core Knowledge Planning Objectives philosophies. In assignment, expand discussion earlier activity fully articulate behaviorism impacted philosophies.
Behaviorism and its influences
According to E.D. Hirsch, the content of education does matter when educating children. Contrary to the notion that students merely need to 'learn how to learn' and subject matter is irrelevant, Hirsch's concept of Core Knowledge is that certain aspects of cultural literacy are essential for students to function in an academic context. Hirsch based his theory upon what he had noticed as an educator, namely that "knowledgeable students, it turned out, could far more easily comprehend and analyze difficult college-level texts (both fiction and nonfiction) than their poorly informed brethren could" despite similar levels of intelligence (Stern 2009). Familiarity, in other words, does not simply breed contempt, but also is a critical component of knowledge.
Core Knowledge is…
Chen, Irene. (n.d). Behavioral Theories. An Electronic Textbook to Instructional Technology.
Classical model: Ralph Tyler 1949. (n.d). Retrieved:
Skinner also proposed a full social model of an ideal society based on his principles of behaviorism.
The growth of cognitive psychology (aided in no small part by advances in neuroscience and medicine) has served to both discredit many behaviorist claims and to bolster the theory in the eyes of some through an incorporation of cognitive theories (Graham 2010; Mills 1998). Focusing explicitly on how the mind processes, stores, and retrieves information -- exactly the kind of "mental states" rejected by early behaviorists -- cognitive psychology at first seemed directly opposed to behaviorism (Graham 2010). There has actually been an incorporation of the two theories by some, however, where cognitive processes join other influences on behavior (Mills 1998).
In modern applications of behavioral theory, certain philosophical elements and conclusions have become especially important. In one emerging view of behaviorism, the concept of a teleological view is increasing important, and a…
Graham, G. (2010). Behaviorism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Accessed 25 September 2011. http://seop.leeds.ac.uk/entries/behaviorism/#6
Mills, J. (1998). Control: A History of Behavioral Psychology. New York: NY University Press.
Rachin, H. (2010). Teleological Behaviorism and the Problem of Self-Control. In Self-Control in Society, Mind, and Brain. New York: Oxford University Press.
This interest was initially dispersed, being higher among some children and lower for the angrier and more depressive children. Still, with sustained efforts, the second category of children also registered an increase in its interest towards education. From the theoretical standpoint, this change can be explained by the efforts to stimulate children education. These efforts were directly made by the interns and the volunteers at the summer program, and they were indirectly supported by the children who were more eager to learn. The stimulation to learn not only directs the children towards an increased emphasis on learning, but it also stimulates their future social position. This stimulation effort is necessary and welcomed in summer programs for all children, since lacunas in educational stimulation can exist in any household, regardless of socio-economic status.
"Children of high stimulating home environments scored higher in social adjustment that those from a low stimulating home…
Epstein, I., 2008, the Greenwood encyclopedia of children's issues worldwide, Vol. 3, Greenwood Publishing Group
Huang, Y.S., 2007, the effect of home stimulation on social adjustment: comparative study of Asian-American and Causacian kindergarteners, ProQuest
Hunt, 1993, Literature for children CL, Routledge
Jordan, B., 1974, Poor parents: social policy and the "cycle of deprivation," Routledge
Unlike in the first article, we can see that Phillips' advice (or behavior) is consistent with the reader's. The reader's liberal view on online dating was reinforced by Phillips', particularly when she said "Joining a dating site is nothing to be ashamed of, and I have known several online matches that have led to happy marriages" (ibid, par. 4). Hence we can say that the consensus being painted in this article is towards the popularity and normality of online dating in today's time and age.
Case 3: A year and half ago, before turning sixteen years old, the reader has decided to set some dating guidelines which involved being in a relationship with someone who is not controlling and would treat her well. She also decided to defer her first kiss until she finds someone special. However, she is faced with the fact that most people her age are already…
Corcoran, N. (n.d.). Consensus. Retrieved from https://www.msu.edu/~corcora5/org/consensus.html on March 20, 2009.
Phillips, J. (2009a). Daughter says new girlfriend is nothing but trouble for dad.
Retrieved from http://www.chicagotribune.com/features/columnists/advice/chi-090309-dear-abby-column,0,7776082.column on March 30, 2009.
Phillips, J. (2009b). Romance that began online is no cause for embarrassment.
Behaviorism refers to a systematic approach to comprehending human and animal behavior (Staddon, 2014). The assumptions are that every behavior is a reflect created by responses to specific stimuli within any given environment. It can also be a consequence of a person’s history like punishment and reinforcement coupled with a person’s existing controlling stimuli as well as motivational state. The theory is weak in the sense that the focus is on environmental factors although behaviors do accept and understand the significance of inheritance in determining behavior. Skinner added another element to it further weakening the theoretical concept behind behaviorism. Essentially, he included private events (feelings and thoughts) to be subjected to the same examination as observable behavior generating the foundation for radical behaviorism (Staddon, 2014).
While Skinner devised a technique called operant conditioning by evaluating the controlling nature of consequences, the overall radical behaviorism stemming from his work has proven…
Staddon, J. E. (2014). The new behaviourism: Mind, mechanism and society. Psychology Press.
Kohn's belief of behaviorism
Kohn's belief is the most controversial since he believes that the other behaviorist theory is not entirely correct. For example, he believes that arrogance is an individual's authority as well as status and the willingness, eagerness to enforce an individual's theory through the exertion of control on other persons as outlined by others (Curran,1998)
It contradicts Darwin's ideas of natural selection-Darwinsm does contradict skinner's theory of operant conditioning. This is because Darwin believed that humans are constantly in a process of improving themselves in order to gain control of themselves (self-control).However "to increase self-control means to increase liberty" or rather free-will is a concept denied by Skinner (Dahlbom, 1984, p. 486)
Constructivism as a learning theory
Constructivism's meaning changes in regards to one's perspective as well as position. In the domain of education, various philosophical interpretation of constructivism exists. There is the personal constructivism…
Beecroft, R.S. (1966). Method in classical conditioning. In R.S. Beecroft, Classical
conditioning (pp. 8-26). Goleta, CA: Psychonomic Press.
Curran, J (1998). Motivating Students without Grades
history of behaviorism and psychoanalysis. The writer explores the changes the field has undergone since its inception as well as some of the people who were important to those changes. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
Throughout the last fifty years there have been massive changes in the field of therapy. Two of the most common approaches to therapy are behaviorism and psychoanalysis. Each of the approaches has followers who believe that it is the best approach. Each of the approaches has commonalties and differences in their foundations. Each approach was developed to answer need in the clients that the therapists treated and to address the questions of human nature and its reactions to various life events.
While behaviorism has been credited to John . Watson, it was Edward Thorndike who started the ball rolling at the turn of the century. He worked at several experiments…
Blanchard, E.B. (1982). Behavioral Medicine: Past, Present, and Future. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50 (6), 795-796.
Wilhelm Reich and Orgone Energy
http://search.dogpile.com/texis/search?q=%22Wilhelm+Reich%22&cat=web&top=1 behaviorism http://www.forerunner.com/forerunner/X0497_DeMar_-_Behaviorism.html
Within its strict perspective of humanity, there is no room for free will; actions are automatic responses to prompts from one's surroundings. It goes without saying that behaviorists do not allow for mankind's soul; this does not rest well with most, particularly with theologians and religious leaders. Naturally, such perspectives on humanity are not acceptable to many. What's more, behaviorism is harshly reproached for its inability to generalize behavior. True, it may predict specific actions but behaviorism does not even attempt to contemplate general behavioral patterns.
Despite its limitations, behavioral psychology is deeply embedded in mainstream psychology. Most notably, the experimental practices espoused by behaviorism are currently observed throughout the psychology field. In other words, its research procedures were recognized as objective and systematic; accordingly other schools of thought eventually adopted them. This respectable research practice undoubtedly facilitated psychology's standing as a true science.
Furthermore, behaviorist theories and practices are…
DeMar, Gary (1998). Behaviorism. Surviving College Successfully: A Complete
Manual For the Rigors of Academic Combat. New York: Wolgemuth & Hyatt Publishers.
Kunkel, John H. (1996). What Behaviorists Accomplished -- And What More
Can They Do?. The Psychological Record. 46(1), pp. 21-38.
My answer: Yes.
10. What do you feel was the strongest influence on your attitudes?
Interviewee: My mother and maternal grandparents.
My answer: My parents and siblings.
11. What role do you feel a person's race, gender, or ethnicity play when forming a person's personality and attitudes?
Interviewee: I think that culture can have a tremendous impact on a person's personality because it can help shape expectations and reasonable beliefs. However, every advancement in civil rights or culture has been because someone has defied expectations, and those people seem to credit a strong family unit for the strength to stand up to adversity.
My answer: I think they contribute greatly to a person's personality and attitudes when people are raised in a manner that seems to verify truths about stereotypes regarding their race, ethnicity, and gender. For example, watching the Katrina footage three years ago, so many of the poor…
Morris, C.G. & Maisto, a. (2005). Learning. In Psychology: An Introduction, 12d (pp. 185-
223). City of Publication: Prentice Hall.
Morris, C.G. & Maisto, a. (2005). Memory. In Psychology: An Introduction, 12d (pp. 224-
257). City of Publication: Prentice Hall.
The concepts of behaviorism have been very important and infinitely significant for the psychological treatment and cure of human beings, and have therefore been accepted as the foundation for 'pharmacological therapy'. According to neo-behaviorism, free will, or the idea of a person being completely responsible for his own actions or behaviors, does not exist at all, and this is in complete contrast to the existentialist theory which holds man responsible for all his actions. Neo-behaviorism states that all man's behavior is determined by his environment, wherein the main influences may be through association, or through the so-called 'operant conditioning', a theory propounded by Skinner, and animals upon which Skinner experimented showed that they demonstrated classic consequences as related to a typical behavior. (Behaviorism)
Skinner was responsible for much of the Behaviorist's theories, and his school of research was named 'Experimental Analysis of Behavior', or EAB. Skinner in fact takes a…
The whole language method of teaching reading, versus phonics instruction, is a common use of constructivist theory (Chen, 2010, Social constructivist).
As the structures of the human mind began to become better understood in the 20th century, cognitivism became a popular learning theory. It suggests that by understanding how the mind works, teachers are better able to enable students to learn. Assumptions of this approach include the idea that "some learning processes may be unique to human beings…[and] mental events are central to human learning and they must therefore be incorporated into theories of learning" (Ormond 1999). Learning is facilitated by making associations with students' previous learning experiences and skills. The learner is a highly active, involved participant in the learning process, because human minds and experiences can be so individualized. For example, understanding the rhythms of poetry and comparing them to contemporary rap song lyrics might be…
Chen, Irene. (2010). Behavioral theories. An electronic textbook on instructional technology.
Available November 20, 2010 at http://viking.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/et-it/behavior.htm#instruction
Chen, Irene. (2010). Social constructivist theories. An electronic textbook on instructional technology. Available November 20, 2010 at http://viking.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/et-it/behavior.htm#instruction
Ormrod, J.E. (1999). Cognitive learning theory. Human learning (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River,
Unfortunately such misunderstandings commonly erupt into violence. One has but look at the conflict that has occurred in Palestine for thousands of years to understand that cultural disagreements and right to ownership is a constant source of behavioral and cultural tension among peoples. Multiple factors motivate such tribes to fight for what they believe is legally or rightly theirs, particularly religious and strong cultural beliefs.
Problems often ensue when one group is unwilling to compromise on their stand or on their values, cognitions and motivation for pursuing a particular claim. In the case of the Assam tribal feud for example, varying militia groups have become involved in the conflict, claiming to represent either the Karbis or the Dimasas. Unfortunately in many cases like this the innocent again often end up severely injured or dead. Most of the dead reported in Assam include women and children or the elderly.
Bhaumik, S. (2005 - Oct). "Thousands flee Assam tribal feud." BBC News, Guwahati.
23, Oct. 2005: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/4367494.stm
Cataloguing U.S. abuses." (2004 - Dec). BBC News. October 23, 2005:
However, Crisp and Turner are quick to note that imagined contact is of course not meant to be a substitute for real contact, but more of a springboard towards building more cohesive race relations in a noticeably effective manner. "Encouraging people to mentally simulate a positive intergroup encounter leads to improved out-group attitudes and reduced stereotyping. It curtails intergroup anxiety and extends the attribution of perceivers' positive traits to others" (Crisp & Turner, 2009). Crisp and Turner spend a copious amount of time during the paper explaining how simply the act of imagining and how it can have a tremendous impact on people's perceptions and actions. For example, in a study they cite by Garcia and colleagues on the bystander effect, some participants were told to imagine they had just had dinner with 10 people. Others were told to imagine they just had dinner with one other person. Those who…
Burgess, D., van Ryn, M., Dovidio, J., & Saha, S. (2007). Reducing Racial Bias Among Health Care Providers: Lessons from Social-Cognitive Psychology. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 882 -- 887.
Crisp, R., & Turner, R. (2009). Can Imagined Interactions Produce Positive Perceptions? American Psychologist, 231-240.
Dovido, J., & Gaertner, S. (1999). Reducing Prejudice: Combating Intergroup Bias. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 101-110.
Levy, S. (1999). Reducing Prejudice. Journal of Social Issues, 745-765.
garbage is a terminal behavior that can be shaped by multiple methods like reinforcement (positive or negative) or punishment. The initial behavior is not taking out the garbage at all, except when nagged incessantly. The goal would be to create a terminal behavior that involves taking out the garbage on the person's own initiative. In this case, fixed outcome shaping would be more appropriate because the behavior should be reinforced consistently. The steps I would take to shape the behavior are as follows.
First, I would explain to the person that the target terminal behavior is to take out the garbage when it is full. This involves a degree of critical thought on the part of the subject, as the person takes initiative when the garbage is full. The goal is for the person to take out the garbage without being asked but it is critical to establish the goals…
Mood Diary Data Collection Grid
Time Mood Notes
I am Irritated Hungry, didn't sleep well
am Surprised Friend of mine stopped by & bought lunch at work pm Excitement/Happiness Getting off work early today pm Bored Work is dull, waiting to leave pm Irritable Lot's of traffic on way home/ended up late pm Tired Didn't feel like cooking, had cake for dinner pm Exhausted Going to bed early
Time Mood Notes
I am Aversion Hungry, didn't sleep well again. Feel nauseous
am Interest New job opening at work, considering pm Wonder Need some training classes, work is interesting pm Desire Decide I need to earn more pm Joy No traffic today! Pizza and beer for dinner pm Love ented romantic comedy, thinking of partner pm Anxiety Have a big presentation at work tomorrow
Time Mood Notes
I am Distress Hungry, didn't sleep well. (do I ever?)
Emotions." 20, October 2004. Available: http://pirate.shu.edu/~mazzongi/emotions.htm
Michael, J. (1993). Establishing operation. The Behavior Analyst, 16(2), 191-206.
Michael (1993) argued that the consideration of motivation, that he conceptually terms establishing operations, is substantive to the understanding of behavior. Michael offers the following definition of establishing operations: "…an environmental event, operation, or stimulus condition that affects an organism by momentarily altering (a) the reinforcing effectiveness of other events and (b) the frequency of occurrence of that part of the organism's repertoire relevant to those events as consequences" (1993, p. 191). A key point in Michael's position regarding establishing operations is that the difference between learned and unlearned establishing operations is of paramount importance in the ability of researchers and practitioners to "identify and control the various components of multiple determinations" of human behavior.
The multiple determinants to which Michael refers include discriminative and motivative variables. Discriminative variables refer to the availability of certain attributes to reinforce…
Neo-behaviorism and Classical S-R Behaviorism
Behaviorism is regarded as an approach in the field of psychology that emphasizes the significant role of environmental factors in shaping people’s behavior. This approach of psychology emphasizes that environmental factors influence behavior more than intrinsic or genetic factors. Based on this school of thought, all behaviors are influenced by interactions with the environment and therefore focuses on stimulus-response behaviors. The behaviorist movement has attracted several varying perspectives among different psychologists including John Watson’s classical S-R behaviorism. Classical S-R behaviorism is an approach that postulates that all psychological functions can be explained through observable, overt, and measurable muscular movements, nerve impulses, and glandular secretions (Moore, 2011).
However, classical S-R behaviorism has attracted considerable criticism from various psychologists on the premise that it’s insufficient to account for the wide range of human behavior. One of the major criticisms of classical S-R behaviorism is from Edward C.…
All the early pioneers of behaviorism including Watson were important to the development of psychology as a social science (Moore, 2011). In fact, Watson deserves the most credit for being the first person to propose behaviorism as a science, using the tools of the scientific method to measure human behavior. However, human behavior is remarkably complex and Watson’s early research failed to capture the nuances of human cognitive-behavioral responses. Pavlov built upon Watson’s foundation, and is probably the most famous of all the pioneering behaviorists. Pavlov’s famous dog experiments have become part of the common vernacular (Clark, 2004). Like Pavlov, B.F. Skinner focused on operant conditioning. However, Skinner took the entire concept of conditioning a step further by showing how stimuli could be manipulated to manipulate responses. Pavlov had yet to break free from the purely mechanistic methods of measuring human behavior. Skinner used behavioral research to show…
Psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic, transpersonal, and existential (HTE) psychology are the three primary movements in the study of the human experience. Each of these movements uses different research methodologies and epistemologies, and each focuses on different aspects of the human experience. Moreover, each of these movements presents unique therapeutic interventions and goals in the field of psychology. With each having contributed tremendously to the social sciences, psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic psychology can also be integrated for a richer understanding of human consciousness and the human condition. Historical context of the science and practice of psychology helps illuminate the field’s core values.
Historical Context and Rationale
Although inquiries into the human experience can be traced through the disciplines of philosophy and religion, the first scientific, empirical studies of human nature and behavior began more concertedly in the nineteenth century. William Wundt opened the first real laboratory dedicated exclusively to psychology…
Although behaviorism is now considered part of psychology, it was not always. Early behaviorists tried hard to set themselves apart from the psychology of their day, which many believed focused too much on the subconscious mind. Behaviorism was the first attempt to study human behavior using the scientific method. However, there were many different approaches to behaviorism.
II. The Early Foundations of Behaviorism
A. The structuralism versus functionalism debate
1. Structuralism: Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Tichener tried to show that they could use introspection as a scientific method with the goal of objectively understanding the structures of the human mind or consciousness.
2. Functionalism: William James and later behaviorists were more interested in how the mind works and why the mind reacts to stimuli as it does.
B. Functionalism was a direct extension of Darwinism.
C. John Watson, William James, and Chauncy Wright were proponents of functionalism, which…
Police officers are authorized to use force when necessary, a policy that is generally used to protect innocent people from violence and abuse, and protect the general public from harm. However, the authorization to use force can be easily abused. Police abuse of power in the form of police brutality is an ethical problem because it constitutes abuse of power, and also leads to mistrust of law enforcement. Mistrust of law enforcement in turn undermines the authority and legitimacy of the police and prevents cooperative measures of stopping crime like community policing models. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (2015), 44 million people on average each year in the United States have some kind of face-to-face contact with police and of those 44 million, just under two percent experience use of threatening or nonfatal force. While this number may seem small, on the ground the high rate of police…
Behaviorism and Positivism
Behaviorism basically believes in the laws of the observable. It is based on rational, scientific, factual data. "The behaviorist school of thought maintains that behaviors as such can be described scientifically without recourse either to internal physiological events or to hypothetical constructs such as the mind" (Wikipedia, 2010). Positivism believes in scientific method is the best way to explain human events and physical events. Behaviorism and positivism is working together mainly because the behaviorist believes that positivists' analysis of science is correct. "Positivism is based on pro-observation in comparison with other means of justifying scientific claims, and emphasizes verification" (Persson, 2010). Behaviorism and positivism are very similar because they both believe in science and observable, verifiable data.
In the early 1900's psychology was not based on pure science. It was known as a study of the mind, and there were not a lot of documented ways of…
Persson, J. (2010). Misconceptions of positivism and five unnecessary science theoretic mistakes they bring in their train. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 47 (5) 651-661
Smith, L. (1986). Behaviorism and logical positivism. . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Wikipedia (2010). Behaviorism. Retrieved on December 14, 2010 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Behaviorism
Compare and contrast 2 different behavioral theories/models of your choice.
Behaviorism vs. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)
The father of behaviorism is widely acknowledged to be B.F. Skinner. Skinner attempted to develop an 'experimental' approach to human psychology, and based many of his foundational theories upon experiments with rats rather than humans. Skinner believed that operant conditioning was the best way to motivate individuals to adopt new behaviors, or to extinguish existing behavior patterns. "When a particular Stimulus-esponse (S-) pattern is reinforced (rewarded), the individual is conditioned to respond" (Operant conditioning, 2012, Instructional Design). The focus of Skinner was upon externalities, rather than upon internal motivations of behavior.
For example, when dealing with someone who was a compulsive over-eater, rather than focusing on the psychological reasons the person felt compelled to overeat, Skinner instead would focus upon creating an environment that would reward healthy choices (such as buying a new…
Chin, Irene. (2012). An overview of behavioral theories. An Electronic Textbook on Instructional
Technology. Retrieved: http://viking.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/et-it/behavior.htm
Operant conditioning. (2012). Instructional Design. Retrieved:
Origins of Behaviorism
Behaviorism, Its Historical origins, principles and contribution to the broader field of psychology
Darwin (1809-1882) is the main scientist credited with evolutionary theory, and he was highly influential. In 1859/1985 he published The Origin of Species. This text proposed that evolution is inevitable and mechanical. He discussed the organism-environment adaptation, a precursor to the stimulus- response of behaviourism. He felt that his studies on plants and animals could be translated into human study. The human could be observed through anatomy and behaviour. This idea set the tone for behaviourism, "Animal behaviour became of interest to psychology as a result of evolutionary theory" (Mackenzie, 1977).
Children were studied as earlier versions of the adult species. Darwin expanded Haeckel's recapitulation theory and in 1877 he published A Biographical Sketch of an Infant. This was 294 pages of observations on children. Francis Galton (1822-1911) was Darwin's cousin; he continued the…
Aach, J.D. (1987). Behaviourism and normativity: The prospect of a Skinnerian psychologism (Watson, Husserl, Carnap, Skinner). Retrieved from ProQuest Digital Dissertations. (AAT 8624046)
Mackenzie, B.D. (1977). Behaviourism and the limits of scientific method. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press.
Robinson, D.N. (1995). An intellectual history of psychology (3rd Ed.). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
Smith, L.D. (1986). Behaviourism and logical positivism; A reassessment of the alliance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
adical behaviorism is a branch of psychological study that postulates that human "behavior" is at the integral part of psychological study. Unlike other disciplines such as cognitive psychology that concentrates on internal factors such as thoughts or rather obsessive preoccupations, behaviorism theory only considers the "observable" factors of the outside environment. In this paper, I analyze the strengths and weaknesses of radical behaviorism in light of cognitive psychological theory.
Skinner who relied on Behaviorist evolution advanced the theory that preceded philosophical argument that was presented by Watson. Fuentes (2000) traces the philosophical origin of the Skinner theory to empiricism and positivism. On the other hand, he argues out that its epistemological paradigm bear direct relationship to objectivism where reality dwells from without the individual, and knowledge is simply an illusion of reality (Fuentes, 2000).
Skinner's adical Behaviorism was anchored in the notion that learning is a product of change that…
Deubel, P. (2003). An investigation of behaviorist and cognitive approaches to instructional multimedia design. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 12(1), 63-90.
Funtes, B.F. (2000). Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan
Russell, J. & Cohn, R. (2012). Radical Behaviorism. Hoboken: Book on Demand
In their book, Progress in Modern Psychology: The Legacy of American Functionalism, Owens and Wagner (1992) suggest that contemporary psychology reflects a common vision of the naturalistic framework that was first inspired by William James and later refined by John Dewey, James owland Angell, Harvey Carr, among others. In this regard, Owens and Wagner argue that one of the key contributors to early functionalism was John Dewey. In sharp contrast to the aforementioned structuralist approach which would analyze a situation into its continent parts, Dewey believed that sensation and the subsequent motor responses could not be legitimately separated, but rather comprised a more linear analysis that provided a coordinated response to a given condition (Owens & Wagner, 1992).
According to Zuriff (1985), behaviorism is not the science of behavior (consisting of findings, principles, laws, and theories that are formulated through the study of behavior) but rather provides a conceptual…
Badcock, C.R. (1976). Laevi-Strauss: Structuralism and sociological theory. New York: Holmes & Meier.
Hawkes, T. (2003). Structuralism and semiotics. New York: Routledge.
Noble, C.E. (2006). Structuralism. In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved July 15, 2006, from Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service.
Owens, D.A., & Wagner, M. (1992). Progress in modern psychology: The legacy of American functionalism. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Humans had to learn to use freedom in a positive, rather than a negative fashion, said Sartre.
A modern manager, cognizant of such critiques, thus must try to create a workplace where a sense of connection to the product, place, and community is fostered. For example, at Google, workers are encouraged to use company time and equipment to pursue their own projects. Google is a place where workers can eat free meals, take free fitness classes, and combine work and pleasure. This creates a sense of togetherness, rather than fosters angst, alienation and exploitation. Skinner's concept of behaviorism, or rewarding positive behavior, is transformed so that giving back to the organization with creative input and ideas is reinforced. Google's mindset shows a sophisticated evolution beyond the concept of giving a worker a crude 'carrot' in the form a small bonus when he or she succeeds in fulfilling a mechanical objective…
Starting from 19th century psychology, school of thought of behaviorist shared commonalities and as well ran concurrently with the 20th century psychology of psychoanalytic and Gestalt movements, however it was different from Gestalt psychologists' mental philosophy in significant ways. Psychologists who had major influences in it were Edward Lee Thorndike, John B. atson, they opposed method of introspective and advocated to use of experimental methods: Ivan Pavlov, investigated classical conditioning, but he was not to the idea of behaviorists or behaviorism: B.F. Skinner, he did his research on operant conditioning.
During second half of the 20th century, it was widely eclipsed that behaviorism was due to cognitive revolution. Even though behaviorism as well as cognitive schools of psychological thought tends to disagree in terms of theory, they have gone a head to compliment one another within applications of practical therapeutic, for example, cognitive-behavioral therapy has shown utility in treating some…
Arntzen, E., Lokke, J., Kokke, G. & Eilertsen, D-E. (2010). On misconceptions about behavior analysis among university students and teachers. The Psychological Record, 60(2), 325- 327.
Chiesa, M. (2004).Radical Behaviorism: The Philosophy and the Science ISBN
Claus, C.K. (2007) B.F. Skinner and T.N. Whitehead: A brief encounter, research similarities, Hawthorne revisited, what next? The Behavior Analyst, 30(1), 79-86. Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2223160/?tool=pmcentrez
Diller, J.W. And Lattal, K.A. (2008). Radical behaviorism and Buddhism: complementarities and conflicts. The Behavior Analyst, 31(2), 163-177. Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2591756/?tool=pmcentrez
Behaviorist and Cognitive Theory
Psychology took a center stage and significant change in the early 20th Century when the behaviorism school of thought became dominant. This was a major change from other theoretical perspectives that existed before hence rejecting emphasis on unconscious and conscious mind. Behaviorism strove to see that psychology becomes a more scientific discipline in that focus will be mainly on observable behavior. This approach to psychology whereby the elements of philosophy, methodology and theory are combined. The primary tenet of behaviorism as it was expressed by JohnB.Watson, B.F Skinner in writing is that the primary concern in psychology should be the behaviors that can be observed both in humans and animals and not the unobserved events which take place within the minds of individuals. This school of thought maintains that behaviors can easily be described scientifically without recourse either to any psychological events that occur internally or…
Leahey, T.H., Greer, S., Lefrancois, G.R., Reiner, T.W., Spencer, J.L., Wickramasekera, I.E., & Willmarth, E.K. (2014). History of Psychology. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education. ISBN-13: 9781621785682
Fritscher, L. (2014). Cognitive Theory. Retrieved September 17, 2014 from http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/cognitivethedef.htm
Gonzalez-Prendes, A. & Resko, S. (2009). Cognitive-Behavioral Theory.
Diversity and Psychology
There were two major developments that influenced the field of psychology and the professions' views regarding multicultural competence, emphasized in 2003. The American Psychological Associations' 2002 Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct and the Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice and Organizational Change for Psychologists published in 2003 both stressed the importance of moving from a mono-cultural school of thought to a multicultural perspective and that these 'new rules' acknowledge an appreciation of differences as well as an "understanding of the inherent ambiguity and complexity in psychological practice (Pack-rown & Williams, 2003; Manesse, Saito, & Rodolfa, 2004). Knapp and VandeCreek (2003) said of these new guidelines that they articulate a need for greater sensitivity regarding linguistic and cultural minorities. The development of the new Code of Ethics and the APA's positioning were purported to be in response to a long awaited recognition of the need for…
American Psychological Association (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologist. American Psychologist, 58(5), 377-402.
Barbour, I. (2000). When science meets religion: Enemies, strangers, partners? San
Blumenthal, A. (2001). A Wundt primer: The operating characteristics of consciousness.
psychological work of John B. atson, B.F. Skinner, and Edward C. Tolman, along with the impacts that these three had on society. This paper will also compare and contrast these three iconic psychologists.
Edward C. Tolman is said by author Bernard J. Baars to have been the "…only major figure" in the emerging field of behaviorism "…who advocated the possibility of mental representation" (Baars, 1986, p. 61). Baars writes that more than any other behaviorist Tolman "anticipated…the cognitive point-of-view… [and] thought it necessary to postulate events other than stimuli and responses" (61). Tolman has made significant contributions to psychology, including: a) the use of cognitive maps in rats; b) the "latent learning" he pioneered though the use of rats; c) the concept of "intervening variables"; and d) the discovery that rats don't just learn their movements "…for rewards" but rather they also learn when no rewards are given, backing up…
Baars, Bernard J. (1986). The Cognitive Revolution in Psychology. New York: Guilford Press.
Geary, Eric. (2002). Psyography: Edward C. Tolman. Psyography. Retrieved October 27, 2012,
from http://faculty.frostburg.edu/mbradley/psyography/edwardtolman.html .
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (2005). Behaviorism / John B. Watson: Early
This presents a challenge to educators who may have a classroom full of students who are cognitively at different levels. Educational programs that allow students to advance at their own pace, such as accelerated reader, or explore knowledge independently might be ways to encourage cognitive development in students.
Constructivism is closely tied to the cognitive approach in that constructive learning requires that the students are the primary agents in their own learning. In this theory, students must construct new knowledge on the framework of existing knowledge (Ertmer and Newby, 1993). It is literally a building of a larger knowledge base that students achieve individually. If a student does not have the prior knowledge for a particular skill or concept, then he or she will be unable to construct something new. According to Jean Piaget, the most well-known constructivist, learning has to be achieved by discovery. This requires students to be…
Ertmer, P.A. And Newby, T.J. (1993). Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism: Comparing critical features from an Instructional Design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(4), 50-72. Retrieved October 20, 2006 at http://www.personal.psu.edu/txl166/kb/theory/compar.html
Evolutionary psychologists therefore explain current human behaviors, especially instinctive ones, in terms of adaptive successes. A baby would feel safer in the secure space of a crib rather than an expansive lawn. A small fluffy mouse initially presents no threat, as our human ancestors likely preyed on smaller animals. Loud noises, however, can mean danger, so a child instinctively cries in alarm.
Cognitive psychologists look at the internal mental processes that enable humans to learn skills such as languages, memory and problem solving. Notive cognitive psychologist Jean Piaget believed that humans go through different stages of cognitive development, and each stage should be marked by the acquisition of certain skills. In the Sensorimotor stage, which last from birth through two years old, babies learn to move and master their different senses. At the preoperational stage, from ages two to seven, a child should master motor skills such as…
Baum, W. 2005. Understanding behaviorism: Behavior, Culture and Evolution. New York: Blackwell.
Tavris, C. And Wade, C. 2000. Psychology in Perspective. New York: Prentice Hall.
Theory of the self-monitored students and CSCL
Another popular theory associated with the concept of CSCL is the self-monitored student s (Benbunan-Fich, 2002
). Benbunan-Fich (2002
) in their study give students the chance to explore and discover their abilities and then guide through ways that they can polish them. In the case of CSCL, the students realize that they will need guidelines and principles in order to attain a set objective and is not hesitant in instigating the process of learning whether collaboratively or individually. This is usually possible only for the students who are extremely gifted. This theory of self-monitoring or self-regulating has had either a direct or an indirect impact on all related educational theories like the students behavioural theory and constructivism theory (Benbunan-Fich, 2002
Theory of problem-based learning and CSCL
Problem-based learning (PBL) is another popular theory that has had an effect on the CSCL setup…
Benbunan-Fich, R. (2002). Improving education and training with IT. Communications of the ACM, 45(6), 94-99.
Bostrum, L. & Lassen, L.v (2006). Unravelling learning, learning styles, learning strategies and meta-cognition. Education + Training, Vol. 48, No. 2/3, pp179-189.
Brush, T., & Saye, J. (2004). PIHNet: a web-based environment for supporting problem-based historical inquiry. In Proceedings of society for information technology and teacher education international conference 2004 (pp. 4754 -- 4757). Norfolk, VA: AACE.
Chambers, D.W. & Fernandez, A.A. (2004). The Quality Of Learning. Quality Progress, 37(3), 50-56.
Whereas the behaviorist and psychodynamic models contradict each other in their fundamental assumptions and focus, humanistic perspective does not necessarily contradict behaviorism or the psychodynamic approach, except that it considers both of those views as explanations of only portions of human behavior rather than all human behavior.
The Cognitive Perspective:
The Cognitive perspective broadens the study of human psychology even further than the humanistic perspective. In addition to considering all of the influential elements within the behaviorist, psychodynamic, and humanistic views, cognitive psychology also studies the combined contributions of knowledge, memory, previous experience, subconscious desires, external factors, and volitional thought on external behavior (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).
Cognitive psychology accepts many of the fundamental concepts of other schools of psychological thought, and much like the humanistic point-of-view, merely considers them incomplete explanations of human behavior rather than oppositional theories.
According to cognitive psychologists, even the most inclusive theories like humanistic…
REFERENCES Coleman, J.C., Butcher, J.N., Carson, R.C. (1984) Abnormal Psychology and Human Life. Dallas: Scott, Foresman & Co. Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Throughout its history, psychology has undergone a number of evolutions. As the study of mind, the discipline has necessarily been subject to change as new research revealed information about the functions of the mind and its effect upon behavior. elatively simple conclusions drawn by those who are currently considered the founding fathers of psychology have been challenged and modified to become the various subdisciplines in psychology that we know today. Along with what can be considered the "mental" trends in psychology such as the behaviorist, psychoanalytic, the cognitive, and the evolutionary approaches, it has also been recognized that psychology has a firm basis in physiology.
In about 1913, the focus of psychology up-to-date profoundly changed as a result of work by the American psychologist John B. Watson. In an effort to bring more scientific merit to psychology, Watson advocated that the study of behavior should be used to draw…
The Journal of Evolutionary Psychology (2006). Evolutionary Psychology. Retrieved from: http://www.evolutionary-philosophy.net/psychology.html
Oracle ThinkQuest. (2011) History of Psychology. Retrieved from: http://library.thinkquest.org/C005870/history/index.php?id=historyp1
Rossman, J. (2007, Dec 3). Biological Psychology: Foundations of Biopsychology. Associated Content. Retrieved from: http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/428842/biological_psychology_foundations_of.html
Typical experimental research methods relied upon in the cognitive approach to psychology include measuring patterns of neural activity in response to specific stimuli and of the effect on external behavior of other internal processes such as hormonal activity.
I my opinion, the cognitive approach to understanding psychology is more comprehensive than the strict behavioral approach. Because the behavioral approach limits the analysis to a relatively narrow focus on behavior that is externally observable, it seems to ignore significant causal explanations for those behaviors. Conversely, the cognitive approach does not necessarily discount the value of externally observable behavior within the overall framework of understanding the many contributing influences on human behavior.
Cognitive psychology also seems to have more unexplored potential for future development of the field by virtue of the relatively recent evolution of various new technological applications of medical imaging processes. Specifically, whereas the methods and materials relied…
Motivation in Behavior
a) What does Tolman's theory of animal learning tell us about the motivation for human learning?
Unlike John Watson, B.F. Skinner and the other strict behaviorists, or the ussian physiologists like Ivan Pavlov, Edward C. Tolman argued that the behaviorist theory that learning was a matter of stimulus-response (S-) and positive and negative reinforcement was highly simplistic. Although he rejected introspective methods and metaphysics, he increasingly moved away from strict behaviorism into the areas of cognitive psychology. In short, he became a mentalist without actually using that term to describe himself and concluded that all behavior was "purposive" (Hergenhahn, 2009, p. 428). All of his experiments with rats moving through mazes at the University of Berkeley proved to his satisfaction that behavior was actually the dependent variable, with the environment as the independent variable, with mental processes as intervening variables. Tolman summarized this basic theory, which he…
Leaf, J.B. et al. (2010). "Comparison of Simultaneous Prompting and No-No Prompting in Two-Choice Discrimination Learning with Children with Autism." Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, No. 2 (Summer 2010), pp. 215-28.
Lerner, R.M. (2002). Concepts and Theories of Human Development, (3rd ed.) Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Lund, S.K. (2009). "Discrete Trial Instruction in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention" in E.A. Boutot and M. Tincani (eds). Autism Encyclopedia: The Complete Guide to Autism Spectrum Disorders. Prufrock Press, Inc.
Hergenhahn, B.R. (2009). An Introduction to the History of Psychology, (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth
The field is social psychology, and the selected title is bullying. The articles selected as follows:
Mundbjerg Eriksen, T. L., Hogh, A., & Hansen, A. M. (2016). Long-Term Consequences of Workplace Bullying On Sickness Absence. Labor Economics, 43: 129-150. doi:10.1016/j.labeco.2016.06.008
This peer-reviewed article explores the effects of bullying at the place of work. The study done in the article indicates that sickness, boredom, and poor productivity are some of the results of bullying from among employees. The article is significant in that it helps to understand the effects of bullying at the workplace and hence aids in deriving ways to reduce its occurrence. The social setting at workplace relates to the social psychology effects as seen with the occurrence of bullying (Mundbjerg Eriksen et al., 2016).
Priest, N., King, T., Becares, L., & Kavanagh, A. M. (2016). Bullying Victimization and Racial Discrimination among Australian Children. American Journal of Public Health,…
Kenneth Kotovsky and Herbert A. Simon are concerned with the "Human acquisition of concepts for sequential patterns." Their goal is to understand how an individual can produce a serial pattern. The process is based upon a rule which was learned by the individual under discussion through induction. Their research involves the use of computer programming and formal languages. Its goal is to understand which problems are likely to be more challenging for the human mind. The program is presented in various types and its results are evaluated as being successful.
B.F. Skinner in "About behaviorism" presents his views regarding the human behaviour patterns. According to him, the manner in which people behave is deeply influenced by the environment where they live. One of the things which differentiates his view is the importance given to subjective factors, such as the individuals' personal thoughts and feelings (which the author considers to be…
psychology, it has intended to be a branch of the sciences. For it to be considered science, psychology must not hypothesize without testing. It is unfortunate that the history of psychology is marked with failed hypothesis. For it to be ethical, it has to draw conclusions after a formal laboratory experiment with stringent protocol instead of retrospective studies that result from past occurrences.
Science share basic procedures and expectations, it tests theories and get results, those results can be tested by others and achieve the same results, this is a challenge with psychology. For instance, normal therapeutic treatments involve research, diagnosis and treatment, but many results are scientifically indistinguishable. There is limited distinction between research and treatment.
There are issues that play a fundamental role in evaluation of psychological theories. First, is whether the theory adequately and formally describes the framework that accounts for observed psychological and other empirical data.…
Kline, P. (1984). Psychology and Freudian Theory. Methuen.
Rozeboom, W.W. (1960). The Fallacy of Null Hypothesis Significance Test. Psychological Bulletin, 416-428.
Skinner, B.F. (1948). Walden Two.
Stangor, C. (2007). Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Skinner's radical behaviorism has been used to provide explanations for a number of behavioral phenomenon including criminal behavior (Skinner, 1966). For instance, the crime of burglary offers an example of how antisocial behaviors are learned through reinforcement. Members of society that commonly engage in theft or burglary learn their trade via the reinforcing aspects of stealing. The need to steal may be initially activated by means of some form of need or desire to have material gain; however, for many individuals who habitually engage in thievery repeated stealing is positively reinforced by the tangible acquisition of goods provided by these activities. For many of these individuals this behavior is reinforced by the notion that it is easier to steal from others then to apply oneself, work hard, and take the chance on getting the lees than desired rewards. However, many habitual criminals actually put in as much effort into…
Andrews, D.A. & Hoge, R.D. (1999). The psychology of criminal conduct and principles of effective prevention and rehabilitation. Forum on Corrections Research. Special Edition. 12 -- 14. Retrieved on April 1, 2013 from http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/pblct/forum/special/espe_b-eng.shtml
Bandura, A. (1977). Social leaning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Raine, A. (2002). The biological basis of crime. In J.Q Wilson & J. Petrsilia (Eds.) Crime:Public policies for crime control. Oakland: ICS Press.
Skinner, B.F. (1966). The phylogeny and ontogeny of behavior. Science, 153, 1204 -- 1213.
The main link between the brain and the mind is through the nervous system. It processes information from various regions in the body and transmits it via electrical and chemical signals. The study of the relationship that the brain has on the mind, consciousness and behavior is called behavioral psychology. Decades ago, scientists would use electrodes to stimulate various regions of the brain to understand how it affected the body. Today psychologists use modern radiological techniques to understand mental processes and behaviorism in diseases ranging from Huntington to Epilepsy. (Nobus, 2000)
Although many interesting stories and interpretations have led to the evolution of biological psychology, a great contribution to this field was made by the famous psychologist, Signmund Freud.
Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 and spent most of his life in Vienna. From early on in life, Freud had a strong inclination towards human concerns, and even…
Ablon JS., & Jones EE. (1999). Psychotherapy process in the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program. J Consult Clin Psychol, 67:64 -- 75.
Cameron, P. (1967). Confirmation of the freudian psychosexual stages utilizing sexual symbolism.Psychological Reports, 21(1), 33-39. doi: 10.2466/pr0.19220.127.116.11
Sigmund, F. (1925). An autobiographical study . Retrieved from http://www2.winchester.ac.uk/edstudies/courses/level two sem two/freudautopdf.pdf
Westen, D., & Gabbard, G. (2002). Developments in cognitive neuroscience: I. conflict, compromise, and connectionism. J Am Psychoanal Assoc, 50(1), 53-98.
Second, it suggests that once an appropriate curriculum has been compiled -- one that produces the appropriate results -- then this very same curriculum should produce the same results every time it is employed properly. And third, it suggests that language itself cannot be conceived of as anything other than a response to an external stimulus; therefore, we, as teachers, should not be concerned with the internal, conceptual aspects of learning a language, and only with the observable, verbal responses that our teaching techniques produce. Of course, these stand as direct consequences of accepting the theory of behaviorism within the context of teaching ESL; however, my experience has shown that, if anything, the version of behaviorism that allows for consciousness is the most beneficial for developing an efficient and successful approach towards teaching.
Unfortunately for the theory of behaviorism, this phenomenon is not easily explained without the existence of internal…
Cain, M.J. (2002). Fodor: Language, Mind and Philosophy. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Chomsky, N. (1975). Reflections on Language, New York: Pantheon.
Cole, David. (2004). "The Chinese Room Argument." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, March. Available:
Clark, R. E. (2004). The classical origins of Pavlov's conditioning. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 39(4), 279-294.
Classical conditioning is the cornerstone of behaviorism. However, it is often taken for granted how classical conditioning was introduced to the field of psychology. This article starts with a brief section about the precursors of Pavlov’s famous dog salivation response experiments. The precursor to Pavlov was Twitmyer’s knee-jerk reflexes. Like Green (2009), Clark (2004) talks a little of William James and his contributions to the early evolution of psychology. Then, Clark (2004) delves into the meat of the matter: Pavlov’s experiments. Using dogs as subjects, the Russian scientist revolutionized the study of human behavior with his studies showing how classical conditioning works. Clark (2004) traces Pavlov’s work, and also shows how it was received. Then, the author shows how Pavlov’s conditioning experiments became classical conditioning through the work of B.F. Skinner. Essentially, this research…
Dominant Learning Theories
Excellence in the field of pedagogy depends on an understanding of the major learning theories and models along with an ability to use them when appropriate. Even if one doesn't agree with these major learning theories, it's still important to be aware of them as a professional. A strong comprehension of the major learning theories can also help to guide one's actions and choices as an educator, scholar or general pedagogue.
Behaviorism, for example, is a major learning theory which asserts that the bulk of learning that occurs in human beings is done through conditioning. This is important as it puts a lot of focus on the power of the environment and how the environment can shape a person's behaviors through the stimuli acquired. Behaviorism is a school of learning which pays very little attention to mental states, finding things like moods and emotions to be too…
Cherry, K. (2014). What Is Behaviorism? Retrieved from about.com: http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/f/behaviorism.htm
Euromedinfo.eu. (2013). Behavioral, cognitive, humanist approaches. Retrieved from euromedinfo.eu: http://www.euromedinfo.eu/behavioral-cognitive-humanist-approaches.html/
Fritscher, L. (2014). Cognitive Theory. Retrieved from about.com: http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/cognitivethedef.htm
Since we observe the responses of our peers and friends, we are very much attuned to how we interact with others, and how their succeed or fail. The theory of self-efficacy is fundamental to understanding social cognitive learning, because it implies that the process of using this theory creates greater confidence. Since individuals learn from their cultural environment, it is imperative to construct a positive enforcing messages through the educational process to ensure that individuals feel that they can accomplish any and all given tasks.
A contextual example of the social cognitive learning model can be seen in the case of student as in the provided example. As is a student who feels no self-efficacy when it comes to mathematics, despite numerous opportunities to learn from math, he has taken no opportunities to improve himself. When questioned he clearly asserts that he cannot learn math, something that appears counterintuitive from…
Canine Behavior: Genetics vs. Environment
The debate over nature vs. nurture as it applies to learning dates back over a hundred years. Certainly, during much of the 20th century, the distinction between learned and inherited behavior appeared much clearer than it does today. The concept that any type of behavior was either learned or merely developed without learning seemed a rationale and straightforward belief. esearch based on these expectations caused some scientists to conclude that rat-killing behavior among cats, for example, is a learned behavior rather than an instinctive one, that human fears are all acquired, or that intelligence is completely the result of experience. Learning theorists were arguing at this point that most behavior is learned and that biological factors are of little or no importance. The behaviorist position that human behavior could be explained entirely in terms of reflexes, stimulus-response associations, and the effects of reinforcers upon them…
Ader, R., Baum, A., & Weiner, H. (1988). Experimental foundations of behavioral medicines: Conditioning approaches. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Black, A.H., Solomon, R.L., & Whiting, J.W.M. (1954, April). Resistance to temptation as a function of antecedent dependency relationships in puppies. Paper presented at the Eastern Psychological Association meeting, New York. In American Psychologist, 9, 579.
Brush, F.R., Overmier, J.B., & Solomon, R.L. (1985). Affect, conditioning, and cognition: Essays on the determinants of behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Dogs and People: The History and Psychology of a Relationship. (1996). Journal of Business Administration and Policy Analysis, 24-26, 54.
How does Bandura’s concept of self-efficacy relate to your pursuit of obtaining your terminal degree? What strategies can you use to improve your self-efficacy in your academic research and writing?
Self-efficacy refers to what we believe we are capable of doing. People with high self-efficacy set challenging goals and commit to achieving them, which is what I did when I enrolled in this degree program. If I did not have a high sense of self-efficacy, I could have talked myself out of the program by claiming that it was too difficult or believing that nothing good would come from it. Instead, I believed in myself and worked through all the obstacles that I faced along the way.
Self-efficacy is also associated with the ability to manage stress, because setbacks and failures are not as overwhelming when we believe that all we need to do is try again a little harder…
An early influence on Gestalt psychology was the philosopher Immanuel Kant, who stressed that humans do not perceive the world as it is. Rather, they impose cause and effect relationships on it and therefore our perceptions are influenced by their experiences. Max Wertheimer was the strongest proponent of this approach. Gestalt psychology greatly declined when Nazis came to power in Germany and many scholars were forced to flee. In the United States, behaviorism was too strong to overcome, and many of its ideas were in opposition to Gestalt beliefs.
Humanistic therapy overlaps with CBT and both are very common in today's society. It emphasizes the growth and fulfillment of the self or self-actualization through self-mastery, self-examination and creative expression. Although the influences of the unconscious and society are taken into account, freedom of choice in creating one's experience is essential and is often referred to as self-determination. A humanistic therapist…
Individual Education Plan
In education it is important to understand the pedagogy and historical philosophical perspectives on educational theories to fully understand the educational plan in a comprehensive fashion. Understanding this element of an education plan can provide insights to education that can have practical consequences on implementation. This analysis will provide a background into three of such theories -- behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Furthermore, it will discuss how these theories may or may not be consistent with each of the thirteen disability categories under the IDEA and what challenges and obstacles may be present relative to these perspectives and an individual student's circumstances. It will further provide insights into how these theories may be relevant to different stakeholder involvement strategies in the individual education plan (IEP) for students. Finally, it will discuss how these learning theories can influence the style of instruction in the IEP.
Behaviorism is a…
Brooks, M., & Brooks, J. (1999). The Courage to Be Constructivist. The Constructivist Classroom, 18-24.
Feldman, R. (2015). Child Development. Pearson.
McLeod, S. (2007). Skinner - Operant Conditioning. Retrieved from Simply Psychology: http://www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html
Peoples, S., O'dwyer, L., Wang, B., Rosca, J., & Camelia, V. (2014). Development and application of the Elementary School Science Classroom Environment Scale (ESSCES): measuring student perceptions of constructivism within the science classroom. Learning Envrionment Research, 49-73.
Watson really created the field of behavioral psychology with his speech and his first book, and while it refined over the years with input from others, such as B.F. Skinner, it is essentially based on Watson's original ideas and studies, so he is the father of this type of psychology. His personal life derailed his career (the woman he had an affair with while he worked at Johns Hopkins was his lab assistant.) They later wrote a book together, and they conducted the Little Albert study together. He married her, but they divorced after having two children together. If his personal life had not interfered with his studies and work, he might have created even more foundations for behavioral psychology to build on. Before his problems, he was a respected member of the psychological community, and even became president of the American Psychological Association in 1915. His work was very…
Bentley, M., Dunlap, K., Hunter, W.S., Koffka, K., Kohler, W., McDougall, W., et al. (1928). Psychologies of 1925: Powell lectures in psychological theory (C. Murchison, Ed.) (3rd ed.). Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.
Grant, J. (2004). A "real boy" and not a sissy: Gender, childhood, and masculinity, 1890-1940. Journal of Social History, 37(4), 829+.
Scull, A., & Schulkin, J. (2009). Psychobiology, Psychiatry, and Psychoanalysis: the Intersecting Careers of Adolf Meyer, Phyllis Greenacre, and Curt Richter. Medical History, 53(1), 5+.
Watson, E. (2010). John B. Watson. Retrieved 22 April 2010 from the Muskingum University Web site: http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/watson.htm .
Overall Description of Reciprocal Causation: 3 (the author should offer a more extensive and comprehensive definition of the term. In fact, the author repeats the word "reciprocal" in the definition of reciprocal causation. An ensuing sentence makes no sense either: "Each one of the these variables influences each other in a cycle that can start on any of the variables.")
Differentiating from Behaviorism: 1 (the author does not adequately define behaviorism, which makes the comparison between the two theories a poor one. The author mistakenly states that behaviorism is about "trial and error.").
Using Student as...to elaborate on reciprocal causation: 4 (the example used is too long and verbose. However, the author does address each of the three parts of the cycle in detail, and discusses how teachers could have intervened at various points in the cycle.)
Spelling, Grammar, and Clarity of Writing: 1 (Poor writing and grammar make this…
Teaching philosophy tends to be very similar from person to person. However, it can also be very different from student to student that is preparing to be a teacher as well as the teachers who have complete their requisite teaching degrees. This is because what motivates these teachers can obvious vary from person to person and there are also a number of different theories and ideas out there that inform and influence the field of teaching. This obvious leads to a number of different perspectives and potential outcomes depending on the learning needs of each student and the overall dynamics that are present in a given learning environment. While the facets of each learning situation can vary, the ultimate idea behind teaching should be to use behaviorism as a way to get students to work and function together as isolation and people not jelling is the antithesis of what any…
ASCD. (2016). 3 Ways to Create an Inclusive Learning Environment. ASCD Inservice. Retrieved 6 July 2016, from http://inservice.ascd.org/3-ways-to-create-an-inclusive-learning environment/
Fiddes, P. J., Brooks, P. M., & Komesaroff, P. (2013). The patient is the teacher: ambulatory patient-centered student-based inter-professional education where the patient is the teacher who improves patient care outcomes. Internal Medicine Journal, 43(7), 747-750.
Gazarian, P. K., & Pennington, M. (2012). Clinical Teleconferencing: Bringing the Patient to the Classroom. Nursing Forum, 47(4), 210-216. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6198.2012.00279.x
Therefore, it is necessary to account for the acquisition of habits.
Due to certain limitations of the behaviorism approach, there have been revisions to the theory over the century. For example, although behaviorism helped people to forecast, alter, and change behavior over time, it did not attempt nor intend to understand how or why the theory worked. The present-day social cognitive approach asserts that behavior is results from an ongoing reciprocal three-way relationship among the individual (cognition), the environment (physical context, which consists of the organizational structure and design, social context or other people), and the person's past behavior. This broader view, called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) incorporates the cognitive in addition to the behavioral approaches to therapy and view people "as active seekers and interpreters of information, not just responders to environmental influences" (Nevid, 2007, p. 484). Many psychologists now believe that behavior is understood best by studying the…
Fall, K.A., Holden, J.M. & Marquis, A. (2004) Theoretical models of counseling and psychotherapy New York: Taylor and Francis.
Freud, Sigmund. (1926). Inhibitions, symptoms, and anxiety, SE, 20(14): 111-205.
Kohlenberg, R.J., Bolling, M.Y., Kanter, J.W. & Parker, C.R. (2002) Clinical behavior analysis: where it went wrong, how it was made good again, and why its future is so bright. Behavior Analyst Today. 3(3): 248-253
Martz, E (2002) Principles of Eastern philosophies viewed from the framework of Yalom's four existential concerns. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling. 24(1): 31-42
For example, behaviorism can explain the "fight and flight" response. Psychodynamics can shed light on some of the least understood aspects of the human experience: our dreams. Moreover, psychodynamics can help individuals understand behavior that is not motivated by stimuli but rather by instinctual desires. Finally, the humanistic perspective addresses the emotional and spiritual aspects of human existence and can shed light on the quest for individual expression, creativity, and spiritual awareness.
Each of these schools of thought can apply to certain populations better than others. For example, the humanistic perspective would be weak when trying to study infants or very young children but would be more useful to study adults. Similarly, psychodynamics applies more readily to adults than to young children. Behaviorism can apply to all populations in theory, but regarding stimuli-response, behaviorism can be best applied to understanding infant behaviors.
Learning that is imparted through an educational institution or training company within the workplace setting in known as Work-based learning (WL). WL is administered by an external teacher in professional capacity and supervised by an employee of the company where WL is imparted. An exhaustive literature review indicates that it was only after Moser report's shocking revelations, regarding lack of literacy, language, and numeracy skills in one out every five adults in ritain that U.K took expedited policy actions to introduce WL. WL is relevant for all adult and young learners and more pertinent for instruction of English as a second language (ESL). Since medium of interaction and business transactions in U.K is English, instruction of ESL is essential for empowering vast percentage of population that does not have requisite skills to compete in labor market due to lack of language skills. Increased use of computers and multimedia in teaching…
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Psychology is a diverse discipline encompassing a number of different subject areas. These areas are tied together by the common idea of understanding the psychological processes that drive our behavior. This gives rise to a number of different disciplines, such as motivation, behaviorism and cognitive psychology. These disciplines can then be divided into an even greater variety of sub-disciplines (Tougas, 2010).
These different disciplines have some relation, but there is no one unifying thread throughout this. They are related because of their psychological nature -- they arise in the brain and can be explained by the brain. But ultimately, these are elements of what it means to be human. In that sense, there are similarities but only in a general sense. For the most part, the different psychological disciplines only have these loose ties. This diversity of study can help however. People who study psychology are exposed to a number…
Tougas, J. (2010). Diversity -- the nature of psychology. Examiner.com. Retrieved April 3, 2016 from http://www.examiner.com/article/diversity-the-nature-of-psychology
Schacter, D. (1999). The seven sins of memory. American Psychologist. Vol. 54 (3) 182-203.
McLeod, S. (2014). Cognitive dissonance. Simply Psychology. Retrieved April 3, 2016 from http://www.simplypsychology.org/cognitive-dissonance.html