123). In this study, Martinez-Contreras and her associates report the results of recent research that has provided additional evidence concerning the function of these proteins in precursor-messenger NA (pre-mNA) splicing (2007).
The splicing repression can function in two discrete ways in heterogeneous nuclear NP proteins; the first way is by antagonizing the recognition of splice sites directly and the second way is through interference with the binding of proteins that are bound to enhancers (Martinez-Contreras et al., 2007). A growing body of research concerning the role of hnNP proteins has determined that these proteins can restrict communication between factors bound to different splice sites; by contrast, a number of studies have identified a positive role for some hnNP proteins in pre-mNA splicing (Martinez-Contreras et al., 2007). Moreover, the research to date suggests cooperative interactions between bound hnNP proteins that may facilitate splicing between specific pairs of splice sites while concomitantly…… [Read More]
Similarity of Glycolysis in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Glycolysis is reported as being a pathway that is practically universal for energy extraction that carbohydrates hold available and this is true for eukaryotes, prokaryotes as well as aerobes and anaerobes. (Essential Biochemistry, 2014, paraphrased) Only eukaryotes have mitochondria. Some prokaryotes are reported to be photosynthetic and to use "an electron transport chain to make ATP." (Essential Biochemistry, 2014, p. 1)
It is believed that cellular respiration may have undergone evolution through modification processes that are photosynthetic in order to gain their energy from food. (Georgia Tech University, 2014, paraphrased) In Substrate-level phosphorylation, a phosphate is transferred to ADP from a high-energy phosphorylated organic compound. Oxidative phosphorylation is reported to synthesize the largest part of the cell's ATP and it is stated that this takes place during respiration of cells. The energy for ATP syntheses resulting in ATP from ADP as well…… [Read More]
Altogether, the Icelandic findings implicate epigenetic silencing of the RCA1 gene in sporadic breast tumors. They even suggest that "the RCA1 gene is implicated in sporadic breast tumorigenesis through epigenetic silencing and deletion of the RCA1 gene," and that RCA1 methylation is also found to be important in hereditary breast cancer, indicating similarities between RCA1 methylated and hereditary RCA1 breast tumors (irgisdotter, et al. 9).
While heredity factors strongly contribute to 5 to 10% of all breast cancer cases overall, it is questionable whether they have the same degree of risk as mutations in RCA1 and RCA1. The three studies examined in this research all strongly point to RCA1 mutation as being responsible for high percentages of sporadic cancer, and possibly having an effect on hereditary breast tumors. One would think that further studies need to be done to examine the exact effects and possible prevention of the RCA1 mutation.…… [Read More]
The Polypeptide Chain Configuration in Hemoglobin and other Globular Proteins
By Linus Pauling and Robert B. Corey (1951)
The article named above describes a continuation in the study of hydrogenbonded planar-amide configurations of polypeptide chains. It also discusses evidence on the possibility of the existence of such chains in fibrous proteins, and in molecules of globular proteins.
The article first notes that globular patterns such as ovalbumin, can "on denaturation be converted into a form showing the B-keratin x-ray pattern." Because of such reactions, there is an observance of the fiber axis distance, which is the same as that of ft keratin, which the authors claim has already been suggested in a previous paper. For this reason as well, the authors here claim that the same structure (observed above) should be represented by denatured proteins, with some modifications, which they claim is quite an important discovery.
Significant data on…… [Read More]
The next database used for the search is Medline. I began with the same search terms, celiac disease biochemistry, however it did not return any articles. Next, the search was expanded my search by simply searching celiac disease. This returned 544 articles. The first article is titled Celiac Disease and is from the National Library of Medicine. This article is clearly not useful. Next the search was expanded to celiac disease chemistry. This search returned 23 results. From scanning these titles, the information is very useful, detailing the latest genetic research and vitamin interaction research. The first listed is Vitamin D Test. This article comes from a website and is informative in nature, but makes no reference to any specific studies. This article cannot therefor, be credibly used for research. The next article is from the same website and is titled Vitamin B12 and Folate, it is clear that Medline…… [Read More]
student with a Bachelor of Science degree in Communications, minors in both Psychology and Sociology, and a desire to attend law school, my request to enter a Biochemistry program may be unusual. After all, people who focus on the hard sciences usually do so because of plans to work in a particular industry or to pursue additional field-specific education via Masters or PhD programs. Because I have no intention of pursuing a graduate degree in Biochemistry or a related field, I may, in fact, seem to be a flawed candidate for the Biochemistry program, who would be taking up space in a highly competitive program that might be better used for someone who intends to pursue Biochemistry. However, my goal in attending law school is to pursue patent law. To become eligible to sit for the Patent Bar, a candidate must have a demonstrable science or technical background. Therefore, the…… [Read More]
Personal Statement: Regarding My Future Pharmacy Career
Even a casual reader of today's newspapers will know that the modern drug industry has been subjected to increasingly rigorous scrutiny and litigation. In the current climate, it is easy to forget what it is like to live in a land where antibiotics are not a phone call to the doctor away, and research dollars for drug research are scarce, not the subject of a highly theoretical media debate about ethics. In the country I grew up, the rare sight of the face of a pharmacist was always a welcome one. I remain infused with my childhood faith, now grounded in study and experience, of the power of drugs to heal the human body, not to harm them.
As a young girl in Southeast Asia I suffered from acute bronchitis. I was profoundly grateful for the relief that pharmaceuticals could bring to my…… [Read More]
Doctor Determine Treatment for a Diagnosis of Hereditary Fructose Intolerance:
Explain how enzymes are involved in processes such as the breakdown of fructose.
The enzymes work as a lock and key process where the relevetn active part of the enzyme fits into the substrate (i.e. The molecule on which the enzyme acts) and activates it. There are various active sites on the enzyme and only the enzyme that will 'fit' in the substrate will work. After part of enzyme matching with substrate, enzyme breaks down substrate into two smaller products.
The following image illustrates:
(adapted from http://waynesword.palomar.edu/molecu1.htm)
At times the process can be blocked by an impediment that stops the 'key' from 'turning, as happens in the case of a lack in aldolase B. which can prompt hereditary fructose intolerance
Explain how a deficiency in aldolase B. can be responsible for hereditary fructose intolerance.
Hereditary fructose intolerance is a disease…… [Read More]
, and otjak, C. (2006). Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Mediates Fear Extinction via Habituation-Like Processes. The Journal of Neuroscience 26(25): 6677-6686.
Kim, S., on, S., Mao, X., Ledent, C., Jin, K. And Greenberg, D. (2006). Role for Neuronal Nitric-Oxide Synthase in Cannabinoid-Induced Neurogenesis. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., October 1, 2006; 319(1): 150-154
Kogan, N., Blazquez, C., Alvarex, L., Gallily, R., Schlesinger, M., Guzman, A., and Mechoulam, R. (2006). A Cannabinoid Quinone Inhibits Angiogenesis by Targeting Vascular Endothelial Cells. Mol Pharmacol 70:51-59.
Lundqvist, T. (2005). Cognitive Consequences of Cannabis Use: Comparison with use of Stimulants and heroin with regard to attention, memory and executive functions. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. 81: 319-330.
Maccarrone, M., Lorenzon, T., Bari, M., Melino, G., and Finazzi-Agro, A. (2000). Anandamide Induces Apoptosis in Human Cells via Vanilloid Receptors
Evidence For A Protective Role Of Cannabinoid Receptors. J. Biol. Chem., 275 (41): 31938-31945.
Massi, P., Vaccani, A., Ceruti, S.,…… [Read More]
Norepinephrine is usually quickly removed from the synapse and pumped back into the cell that released it in order to turn off and reset the system. By blocking the removal of norepinephrine, tricyclics appear to prolong or intensify norepinephrine's message to the post-synaptic cells.
However, the fundamental biochemical effect of antidepressants on the brain that is responsible for their benefit remains a mystery. It is thought that the change in neuroamine signaling at the synapse caused by anti-depressants "may set off a cascade of events involving second messenger systems that eventually results in the improvement of the symptoms of depression" (Enna, 1991, 187). Unfortunately, how these medications truly operate remains largely unknown.
Another group of anti-depressants is called selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, first introduced in 1988. Unlike the tricyclics, these new anti-depressants have little direct effect on norepinephrine in the brain; instead, they block the re-uptake of serotonin which gives…… [Read More]
I have worked in research and DNA analysis in formal laboratory analysis, and believe in the paradigm of lifelong learning.
I am a lifelong student, and each year realize how many wonderful new ideas need exploring; how many exciting and vital places visited through reading; and how much joy I receive simply by having the right set of tools that allow me to read, research, study, analyze, and make decisions based on information. At present, I am studying the physiology of reproduction and assist in laboratory research with Drs. Forrest and Talcott. This technical expertise well qualifies me for the position, although it is my passion for expanding the understanding and synthesis of learning about science that can help BGS expand its membership and relevance for society at large.
The task, then, of a modern leader at any level is to be a good corporate citizen, practicing the very tenants…… [Read More]
life I have been a go-getter. I graduated from high school at 16 because I was eager to begin my college education. Currently I am working on dual Bachelor degrees. One will be in Biochemistry and the other will be in Psychology. The same personality trait that has allowed me to graduate from high school early, pursue a dual degree program and many other accomplishments, is what will turn me into a service orientated and dedicated dentist.
One of the things I have pursued as a University of California, San Diego student, is my membership in the campus "For Los Angelitos" club. One of the things we did as a club was to travel to poverty stricken areas and provide lessons about oral hygiene. Equipped with small bags filled with oral care products, we traveled to Tijuana, Mexico where we provided oral care education to the children of the area.…… [Read More]
Breaking the Cycle of Addiction
Breaking the Addiction Cycle
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the addictions and drug use faced by obert Downey Jr., and discusses the effects these abuses had on Downey Jr. And his career. The paper will also analyze alternative courses Downey could have taken, and propose potential advice for Jr.
obert Downey Jr. purportedly began using drugs at just eight years old, when his father began dispersing drugs to the child. This is not uncommon among young child stars that face much pressure and often grow up in homes where drug abuse and addictions are common. It was not until the age of 22 however, that Downey would first enter a drug rehabilitation facility for cocaine and heroin abuse. Many of his first films during this time, approximately during the late 80s and early 90s won much acclaim, even Academy Award nominations.…… [Read More]
Criminals -- Born or Made
Since the construction of the first civil society, behavioral rules distinguishing what is acceptable and what is criminal have existed. Even though individuals typically have a concept of conventional moral behavior, criminal conduct is represented in every society and culture. Criminal deviance is not a novel construct, and has long been the intrigue of researchers, philosophers, and theorists to determine criminal motivation and link the relationship between individuals and the execution of criminal acts. One central argument that has evolved in the realm of criminality is the nature vs. nurture debate, which questions if criminals are born or made. Biological, psychological, and sociological disciplines each offer theories into the origin of criminality to explain if criminal behavior is a consequence of genetics or a matter of the environment in which they are raised (Jones). The biologist introduces genetic evidence and explains the effects of varying…… [Read More]
This accord me shorter travelling times that will not take much from my study, work, and family times. Thus, I will be able to manage my time better without any aspects of my life suffering from neglect. I have seen many people who have to travel great distances from their homes to the college and by the time they have arrived, they are too drained out to concentrate on their studies. Since I have a family of my own, taking up residence at the college is not an option because I want to be able to spend as much time as I can with my family whenever I am not at work or at school.
Indeed, should I be admitted at Emmanuel College I know that I will be able to hurdle the challenges that lies ahead and hopefully complete the biochemistry program. Being a full-time student and engaging in…… [Read More]
Genomics and Implications for the Future
The Human Genome Project has completed its monumental mapping of the genetic sequence in human DNA, and the field of genomics is taking advantage of these initiatives and innovations in technology to pursue scientific inquiries that could not have been imagined just a few years ago. More importantly, perhaps, new applications are being discovered based on the growing body of scientific evidence being developed by this emerging science. To determine what genomics is and how it is being used today and may be used in the future, this paper provides an overview of the biochemistry involved in the study of genomics, followed by an analysis of current and future trends in this field. A summary of the research will be provided in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
Background and Overview.
Today, genetic-engineering techniques are increasingly being applied to a growing number of life forms,…… [Read More]
Mixture a Compound
Mixture and a Compound
Three main terms are usually used in the field of chemistry. These are element, compound and a mixture. These three will be the element of key discussion in the paper.
There is a great difference between a mixture and a compound. A compound is formed from two elements that combine together chemically by sharing electrons. The physical and chemical properties of the constituent elements are different in the beginning in their individual states from the physical and chemical properties of the final compound. Thereby the final chemical as well as physical properties of the compound are determined by the elements. On the other hand, a mixture may have many constituent compounds, or elements that are mixed (Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell, and Farrell, 2008, p. 45). The constituent elements of the compound cannot be separated physically but in the case of mixture, the constituents can…… [Read More]
This is particularly the case in sub-Saharan Africa where clinicians have often come to rely on signs and symptoms alone to make diagnoses." (Nicoll, Walraven, Kigadye, Klokke, 1995)
The laboratory environment is critical to administering testing to determine population rates of HIV / AIDS throughout nations and perhaps continents where the lacking of resources facilitates a substandard environment for care. In the case of the African nation of Mozambique, which perhaps can be understood as a case indicative of the environmental assessment one would find throughout Africa and therefore, can be labelled to be a median statistical nation. A nation representing the median would indicate that half of the population nations that are categorized as resourced deficient, half would be above Mozambique in terms of resource allocation and half would fall below.
esearch into the quality of HIV / AIDS case-detection and case-reporting system in Mozambique was conducted by (Chilundo,…… [Read More]
Noncoding DNA, also known as "junk DNA" describes portions of the DNA sequence that do not appear to have any presentable use -- they do not encode for proteins, etc. In fact, in a most eukaryote cells, a rather large percentage of the total genome is noncoding DNA, but this varies between species. However, it is now a misnomer to call this material "junk," because the more sophisticated we become at biochemistry, we find that many do have subtle biological functions, including the transcriptional and translational regulation of certain protein-coding sequences. esearchers also belive that other noncoding sequences have a likely, but unconfirmed function, as an inference from high levels of inherited tratis and natural selection processes (Masters, 2005, 163-5).
esearchers know that the amount of genomic DNA varies widely between organisms, as does the proportion of coding and non-coding DNA within these genomes. For instance, 98% of the human…… [Read More]
The picture to the left depicts the various elements that are responsible for thermoregulation in human skin. The illustrations shows the various layers of skin along with the veins, arteries and capillaries of the circulatory system that assist in insuring that the thermoregulatory system works properly. The sweat glands are responsible for selectively removing materials from the blood the sweat glands then concentrates or alters these toxins, and secretes them for elimination from the body. The perspiration or sweat is then removed through the sweat pore. This has a twofold purpose: to remove toxins and thermoregulation (in this case cooling the body).
Thermoregulation involving perspiration is brought about by both internal and environmental heat and exercise. As it relates to the latter, there have been many studies related to exercise and thermoregulation. According to Marino (2004)
"thermoregulatory effector responses of humans and concluded that temperature regulation during exercise is dissimilar…… [Read More]
The exchange of the defective gene could be brought about by a process called homologous recombination. One of the first gene therapy experiments, though well intentioned, caused the death of the patient. esearchers at the University of Pennsylvania introduced a normal gene into a boy's body by using the rhino virus as a carrier. The body's immune system attacked this as a pathogen. This led to eventual organ failure and death. Gene therapy projects all over the world were largely abandoned. But more recently, gene therapy is beginning to make a comeback. (ONL, 2009)
Gene therapy has been tested in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This is not a treatment that targets amyloid beta proteins or the tangles, but protects the brain cells from destruction. The regenerative properties of skin cells (stem cells) have been used to prevent the brain cells from "withering" away. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans reveal…… [Read More]
Through his study of oxidation and the enzymatic processes, he accomplished a major achievement, discovering the citric acid cycle as a way of oxidizing carbohydrate. The cycle breaks down fatty acids and creates other substances. The cycle is present in all forms of life from the single cell bacteria and protozoa up to complex mammals. The discovery of this common way of creating energy among life forms may help explain the origin of all forms of life in the evolutionary process. His discovery may also be utilized in creating new sources of energy and transforming one kind of foodstuff which may be useless, such as orange peels, into useful food sources, such as dog food (which is now done). Enzymes speed up biochemical processes, so may be used in antibiotics that fight infection, and household cleaners that break down fat in stains or on surfaces. Enzymes are used in meat…… [Read More]
As theories claim certain risk factors and ignore others, it is critical to evaluate the most common risk factors despite their discipline fields. There are five broad domains for risk factors: Individual, family, school, peer group, and community. Another key component to understanding risk factors is the age of onset, in which early onset is considered age 6-11, and late onset is considered age 12-14 (Shader, 2002). Each of the risk factor domains are also coupled with protective factors, such as high IQ and parental monitoring, that subtract from the probability of risk factors blossoming into delinquency. isk factors of juvenile delinquency can be grouped together in a variety of ways, and the five domains of individual, family, school, peer group, and community can be distilled further into: individual, social, and community categories. The three categories also branch into sub-categories, for example, the social category includes both family and peer…… [Read More]
So, although the reverse of these characteristic is not indicative of depression, their expression within the context of grief suggests the lack of clinical depression.
ith the fundamentals of depression outlined, it is reasonable to wonder why such symptoms and behaviors manifest themselves in certain people and why they do not in others. Many different researchers coming from many different scientific backgrounds -- from psychology to biochemistry -- have investigated the fundamentals of depression, and each have constructed models as to what its underlying causes are. Each of these investigations has attempted to explain the causes and symptoms of depression and has offered treatment possibilities.
The psychological models of depression have focused their attention on failed early attachment, inability to obtain desired rewards, impaired social relations, and distorted thinking." This approach to depression has yielded some valuable information regarding the disorder; yet, much of the results make it unclear as…… [Read More]
Animal models of addiction do not generalize well to substance dependence in humans as there are different criteria involved. For example, in animals "addiction" has been traditionally defined by a caged laboratory animal's tendency to press a lever for a reinforcing substance, whereas in humans the criteria for dependence (the clinical term for addiction) include a number of behavioral criteria and consequences that could never exist in laboratory animals (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). These criteria include: tolerance, withdrawal, taking more of a substance than originally intended, a history of unsuccessful attempts to quit, inordinate amounts of time spent in using and seeking the substance, a reduction in activities (occupational, social, or education) due to use, continued usage despite adverse consequences (APA, 2000). Interestingly, only three of these criteria need to be met in a year, so one need not demonstrate significant physical signs such as tolerance and…… [Read More]
Abnormal psychology is a field in psychology that addresses dysfunctions in behavior which are determined abnormally by standards of behavior .These standards have been established by clinical professionals in the field such as medical doctors, psychiatrists and psychologists. Behaviors considered to be abnormal are; schizophrenia, depression, attention deficit disorder, eating disorder, sexual deviance, obsessive compulsive disorder and anti-social disorder (Cherry, 2012). These disordered function outside the normal parameters of the functional behaviors considered to be standard. The paper will look at the origins of abnormal psychology and challenges when it comes to the classification and definition of normal and abnormal behavior. It will also look at how abnormal psychology has evolved into a scientific discipline. It will finally look at the theoretical models that have led to the advancement of understanding psychopathology.
Origins of Abnormal psychology
Abnormal psychology has been undergoing tremendous changes and progress. It is a very controversial…… [Read More]
Acid Denaturation of Catalase
The enzyme catalase is an integral component of endogenous antioxidant defenses in both plants (Blokhina, Virolainen, and Fagerstedt, 2003) and animals (Hermes-Lima and Zeneno-Savin, 2002). These defenses are required to keep reactive oxygen species (OS) in check, otherwise accumulation would result in harm to cells and tissue. OS species include the superoxide radical (O2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical (HO), singlet oxygen, ozone, lipid peroxides, and nitric oxide. However, under conditions of oxidative stress, OS species can accumulate and threaten cellular and tissue health. For example, hypoxia causes H2O2 to accumulate in the roots and leaves of some plants (reviewed by Blokhina, Virolainen, and Fagerstedt, 2003) and in mammalian cells, over 100 genes involved in antioxidant defense are induced (reviewed by Hermes-Lima and Zeneno-Savin, 2002).
Some enzymes are able to withstand extreme conditions, in terms of pH and temperatures. Although catalase activity has been studied extensively…… [Read More]
For centuries, people have sought to explain not only what people dream about, but also why humans dream. In older times, dreams were used for prophecy. Later, they were used in the growing field of psychology.
But, until fairly recently, people only theorized about what dreams mean, and not why people themselves have evolved the capacity to dream.
This paper examines various theories that explain why human beings dream. The first part of the paper looks at the writing of Sigmund Freud regarding dreams as the royal road to the unconscious. Implicit in Freud's writings is the view that dreams evolved as humans were forced to sublimate their natural desires to live in society.
The paper then looks at the work of J. Allan Hobson, who saw dreams as a result of the natural physiological workings of the brain. In this body of research, Hobson meticulously matches the features…… [Read More]
Amidation of Peptides in Humans
Modern biotechnology has experienced dramatic leaps in the body of knowledge concerning molecular processes in peptides and how they work. Many of these processes rely on amidation of peptides to achieve increasingly important medical and commercial applications. Peptides are created when two or more amino acids are covalently joined by peptide bonds, a process termed post-translational modification. One increasingly valuable application of post-translational modification is amidation. This paper provides an overview of peptides and their role in biological processes, how amidation of peptides works and its importance, and a description of the two functional domains of the PAM enzyme (PHM and PAL) and the roles they play in amidation. An assessment of whether amidation prevents C-terminal degradation is followed by a discussion of which peptides/proteins are susceptible to C-terminal degredation by carboxypeptidase. An analysis of whether E. coli can be modified to perform amidation will…… [Read More]
Structural Organization of Proteins
There are different protein structures, and these correspond directly to the kinds of functions that the proteins address. While many people feel that protein is all the same, this is not the truth. With a number of different kinds of proteins and a wide array of uses for them, it stands to reason that the structural organization of proteins will be different based on each one of those proteins and what type of function it has (Murray, et al., 2006). However, all proteins are similar in that they fold in three dimensions. The structure of the proteins are organized in a hierarchy that begins with the primary structure and moves through to the quaternary structure. Motifs and domains are the higher-level structures (Murray, et al., 2006). The primary structure services the polypeptide chain, and is a sequence of various residues (Van Holde & Matthews, 1996). That…… [Read More]
Some studies posit that casein consumption has a direct correlation to cancer cell growth, and patients with any form of cancer are counseled not to drink milk, and to limit the consumption of milk products. This is contradicted in terms of using milk to help with certain stomach and colon cancers (Hakkak, 2001). Men who drink large amounts of milk and consume numerous dairy products are at a higher risk for Parkinson's disease, and high levels of calcium intake (6 or more glasses of milk per day), also increase the chance for prostate cancer (Chen, 2007; Giovannucci, et.al. 1998). Additionally, a number of links have been made to digestive disorders such Crohn;'s disease and Hirschprung's disease, which are serious conditions of the digestive system and the bowel ("How Bacteria in Cow's Milk…" 2007).
The idea that the human body requires milk in order to produce calcium and create a stronger…… [Read More]
The two hypothetical systems working on an individual's brain during the experience of addiction are complementary within and between system changes. The first counteradaptation results in a decrease in the transmission of dopamine and serotonin release during withdrawal phases of the cycle (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively, dopamine and serotonin transmission is artificially increased beyond the normative range during drug use, then virtually stopped once the drug has left the body. This intensifies not only the "come down" feeling but also the preoccupation anxieties associated with substance abuse as well as the existing emotional, environmental, or social vulnerability which lead to the initial lapse. Sensitization is the component of addiction which compels an individual to continually seek greater quantities of the substance (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively once the brain has been exposed to a chemical which alters neural transmission, the body attempts to return to a homeostatic state.…… [Read More]
The information is then transcribed into the traits and phenotypes of the offspring depending on the dominance and recessive alleles within the gene (erg, Tymoczko, & Stryer, n.d). The egg is fertilized by the sperm from the mother and their nuclei fuses together to form a zygote. The zygote contains 23 chromosomes from the mother and 23 from the father. From this combination of genes and the environmental conditions of the uterus, the traits and phenotypes of the individual are determined.
The principle of segregation for all organisms is as follows:
1. Hereditary traits are determined by specific genes. In the DNA molecule, genes are coded to specify a certain, single characteristic; this includes height, weight, eye color, etc. Any variations of the gene that correlates to the same trait are called alleles.
2. Individuals carry two genes for each trait, one from the mother's egg and one from the…… [Read More]
Chomsky warns of ideological motivations of some scientific paradigms, just as with the aforementioned racial emphasis of early anthropology. Here, Russell espouses a Platonic episteme by enunciating the expectations of behavior between different classes. While Plato philosophized that persons are born with the characteristics fitting of their caste, Russell envisages a society in which "ordinary" men and women are expected to be collectivized and, therefore, devoid of individual expression.
Jean Jacques Rousseau paid his respects to the philosophy of Plato, although he thought it impractical, citing the decayed state of society. This sort of romanticism has been downplayed by the modern scientific establishment, who denounce the noble savage theory of human nature. Humans are not born purely good, modern science maintains. Instead, evolutionary traits are promoted at the biological level, thereby giving rise to how people are. It is not society that corrupts, but rather an interrelationship between…… [Read More]
At the time that yrd was tried in 1985 DNA technology was not capable of forensic analysis of biological evidence however; in 1997 a comparison was conducted of yrd's DNA with the bodily fluid in the rape kit that had been collected at the time of the incident resulting in yrd's exoneration for this crime. The importance of proper preservation of biological evidence is highlighted in this case and not only for the purpose of obtaining a conviction but also for the purpose of ensuring that the wrong individual is not charged, found guilty and sentenced to prison for a crime that they did not commit.
VI. Most Common Applications of lood Evidence
The work of George Schiro entitled: "Collection and Preservation of lood Evidence from Crime Scenes" states that prior to the documentation and collection of blood evidence the value of the evidence must be recognized by the crime…… [Read More]
" (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003)
Prior to visualization of the molecule of interest it is necessary to "fix and section the brain tissue. Double-labeling immunofluorescence is stated to detect "localization of a protein of interest as well as the distribution of the protein relative to another marker such as a neurochemical or organelle marker." (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003 Fluorescence imaging labeled tissue through use of confocal makes provision of "high-resolution analysis of the extent of colocalization, with a theoretical limit of resolution of 0.1 to 0.2 um." (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003) Immunofluorescence techniques are stated to "in general...utilize secondary antibodies conjugated to a flurosphore." (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003) It is important according to Volpicelli-Daley and Levey to choose flurosphores with "minimal background staining and a minimum overlap of excitation/emission spectra...when performing double labeling experiments." (2003)
IV. FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY
The work of Coling and Kachar (1997) entitled: "Theory and Application of…… [Read More]
However, advancements in pharmacogenetics promises new and better ways of managing diabetes. Studies have shown that Lisofylline, an anti-inflammatory compound is very effective in suppressing the autoimmune activity and in improving the islet secretion of insulin. Mice studies showed significant difference (25% vs. 91.6%) in the onset of diabetes among Lisofylline treated mice compared to placebo mice. Reduction of inflammatory cytokines IFN-? And TNF-? levels correlated with reduction in ss cell apoptosis. [Yang et.al, 2003] Recent study by Lipsett et.al (2007) has shown that Islet Neogenesis-Associated Protein (INGAP) is useful as a pancreatic regeneration agent. Successful tests in mice and regeneration of cultured human pancreatic cells have encouraged the researchers to seriously consider INGAP as an effective agent for improving insulin synthesis. [Lipsett et.al, (2007)]
A recent Cornell University study focused on an entirely different approach to diabetes management. The researchers examined the possibility of recombinant Commensal bacteria engineered to…… [Read More]
g., maggots in rotting matter.
Pasteur believed that germs, just as those that caused fermentation, could also be causing disease. With the support of other scientists and collaborators, he was able to isolate several disease causing bacteria, cholera (with Robert Koch) and small pox (work originally done by Edward Jenner), among several others. While working with cholera in chicken, Pasteur helped set the foundation for the idea of vaccinations; this had been proposed by others earlier. That a mild form of the virus or bacteria induces the creation of antibodies in the host. When infected by a virulent form of the virus or bacteria, the antibodies created in the system can destroy the infecting agents thereby protecting the host. Pasteur's work influenced the creation of vaccinations.
After successfully using it in the cure of cholera, small pox and several other diseases, Pasteur used this idea in identifying a cure for…… [Read More]
The specific categories include the following:
4) temperature; and 5) feelings.
FINDINGS of the STUDY
The following table labeled Figure 1 in this study states the responses given by participants in both groups in this study and as well provides totals and grand totals for both groups which for the purpose of this study are labeled as follows:
Group 1 - Memory Recall Group (Outside Light)
Group 2 - Memory Recall Group (Darkened or Muted Light)
Responses of Participants in Group 1 and Group 2
FIRST GROUP Color Smell Texture Temperature Feelings TOTALS GRAND TOTAL PARTICIPANT
SECOND GROUP Color Smell Texture Temperature Feelings TOTALS GRAND TOTAL PARTICIPANT
It is clear from the findings in this study which specifically show that Group 1 - Memory Recall Group (Outside Light) Participant responses were notably higher in their descriptive content more often describing more specific…… [Read More]
From an environmental perspective this work demonstrates the fact that the growth of this movement has been reinvigorated as a result of the fact that many have come to understand how dangerous many of the chemicals used in commercial agriculture are to the earth and the body. "The last few years have seen the issues of BSE, genetically modified foods, hormone disruption and antibiotic resistance come to the fore and there is a greater recognition that what we eat is vitally important to our health." She notes that many of the pesticides and herbicides we have used in the past have been a destructive force and are no longer even considered safe, but were deemed so prior to the modern research that has more scientifically established their unwanted and pollutant effects on both the body and earth.
Organic Food Benefits. Nutiva. Organic Food Association. 2003. http://www.nutiva.com/nutrition/organic.php.
This informative article demonstrates…… [Read More]
ymbols and images should be identified from true events in order to strengthen the themes and premises of the story. Furthermore, a central theme should be identified from the events in order to help the reader understand the points that the author is trying to make.
In reading nonfiction, the reader requires imagination in order to connect the events and themes of the story to his or her own life for the purpose of personal enjoyment and growth. The reader should be able to identify the various themes and symbols that the author has chosen to include in the story, and to interpret these in order to understand the central points of the author's writing. The symbols in the works discussed for example relate directly to the ideas of separation, deceit and growth. The reader gains the most from stories that they are able to clearly interpret and understand. In…… [Read More]
These proteins include homologous members of yeast. The presences of these proteins suggest that E. histolytica is skilled to perform homologous recombination, which is the same as in other organisms. DNA damage was evaluated by TUNEL assay. In yeast and in human cells, histone H2AX becomes rapidly phosphorylated when DSs are introduced into chromatin (Lavi et al.).
Studies show that histone as a protein plays a significant role in the transition between the expression of a fetal gene and that of the adult gene. The adult gene's metabolism becomes oxidative in order to adapt to air and to weight, as it generates methylated transmitters and creatine phosphate. The muscles get used to life on the ground as compared to the fetal life which takes place in an aquatic environment. Regulated proteins allow the muscles to respond in a more adequate manner to this environment.
Now, let us see how histone…… [Read More]
The amygdale manages our emotional response to an aroma. The memory and recognition of smell takes place in the hippocampus. The hippocampus is also where chemicals in an aroma trigger our unique repository of learned memories..." (Buckle, 2001).
Though there hasn't been much research, and most studies that have been done were small sample sizes, the healing qualities of aromatherapy look very promising. In 2005, Japanese researchers found that aromatherapy massage using lavender-based products reduced anxiety and stress and was helpful to the immune system. It was also noted that patients showed a considerable increase in lymphocytes (protective blood cells), while showing a decrease in depression.
Another study discovered that the use of aromatherapy after an operation lessoned the patient's feeling of nausea and vomiting. Antiemetics (drugs used to prevent nausea and vomiting) were reduced by almost 50% (Milivojevic, 2006). In small studies conducted in nursing homes, aromatherapy has indicated…… [Read More]
They accuse Coyne of giving modern intellectuals "permission to remain biologically illiterate, through assuring them there is nothing useful or important that they could learn that would help them address the intellectual problems they face." (Tooby and Cosmides).
ithout undertaking an independent investigation of the evidence used to support each author's work, it is impossible to determine who makes the most valid arguments. However, if the facts listed argued by Tooby and Cosmides are true, then they do much to bolster the arguments made by Thornhill and Palmer. In fact, the arguments made by Thornhill and Palmer are very sound from a logical point-of-view, even if it is ultimately impossible to prove or disprove their hypothesis. That at least one species of animal has evolved a special organ specifically to accomplish rape clearly establishes that rape can be an evolutionary function and can be related to genetic evolutionary success. Furthermore,…… [Read More]
16). Some of the options available to patients are (p. 16):
What it Is Colgate Total
Over-the-counter tooth- triclosan and fluoride paste containing the anti- toothpaste bacterial triclosan
Peridex or generic
Prescription mouth rinse chlorhexidine mouth containing'an anti-micro- rinse bial called chlorhexidine
Periochip tiny piece of gelatin filled with chlorhexidine
Atridox gel that contains the anti- biotic doxycycline
Thread-like fiber that con- tains the antibiotic tetracy- cline
Tiny round particles that contain the antibiotic minocycline
Periostat low dose of the medica- tion doxycycline that keeps destructive enzymes in check
Why it's Used
The antibacterial ingredient triclosan and fluoride reduces plaque and result- toothpaste ing gingivitis. The fluoride protects against cavities.
Peridex or generic
To control bacteria, result- chlorhexidine mouth ing in less plaque and gin- rinse givitis
To control bacteria and re- duce the size of periodon- tal pockets
To control bacteria and…… [Read More]
" (2001) When opportunities are provided to the students with Dysgraphia that accommodate writing challenges "they are more successful in the general education classroom." (Quenneville, 2001) Collaboration between classroom teachers and technology specialists is a requirement. Assistive technology has two primary purposes which are: (1) to augment an individual's strengths, thereby counterbalancing the effect of the disability; and (2) to provide an alternative mode of performing a task." (Quenneville, 2001) Assistive technology may either replace an ability that the student does not possess or assistive technology may provide necessary support for task completion due to impairment of the ability of the student.
One type of assistive tool is the computer, which assists the student through changing the writing process "...making it easier to develop and record ideas, to edit ideas, and to publish and share with others." (Quenneville, 2001) There are various supports, which may be used at various stages…… [Read More]
The human stress response is influenced by a host of personality characteristics and life experiences that cannot be duplicated in animal studies. (Anisman & Merali, 1999, p. 241)
Because stressful stimuli often elicit cortisol secretion, some researchers have proposed the use of cortisol levels as an index of the stress response. (Anisman & Merali, 1999, p. 241)
esearchers have indicated that human and animal anxiety/stress profiles differ along cognitive behavioral lines. These findings are based on the idea that anxiety is understood as an affective (emotional) state in humans (Wall & Messier, 2001). esearch was conducted regarding stress utilizing hesus monkeys. The study uses a hormone Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) which was injected into half of the pregnant hesus monkeys in the study. ACTH is secreted from the anterior pituitary in response to corticotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus. It is secreted in response to various types of stress. Blood samples were…… [Read More]
Since anorexia nervosa is so widely talked about and studied by
scientists and researchers all over the world, those who are affected with
this disorder sometimes find themselves the center of attention in the mass
media, due to their celebrity status and the idea that they may be affected
with this type of eating disorder. One good example is Mary-Kate Olsen who
has been fighting this disorder for a number of years. Many photographs of
Ms. Olsen show her to be quite thin and apparently undernourished, two
important physical traits linked to this disorder. Hopefully, for those
like Ms. Olsen, the true causes of anorexia nervosa may someday be
discovered which would help a great deal in finding a long-lasting if not
Glanze, Walter D., Ed., et al. (1990). Mosby's Medical, Nursing and
Allied Health Dictionary. St. Louis, MO: C.V. Mosby Company.
Wolfe, Barbara. (2007). "Anorexia Nervosa."…… [Read More]
The largest difference exists in the basis of the Western holistic treatment and the basis of Ayurveda. Western holistic treatments are based on TCM or 'Traditional Chinese Medicine'. The key components of TCM are as follows:
Qi (pronounced like "chee") - this is the vital energy necessary for life (blood, body fluid)
Zang-Fu - the internal organs; and Jing-Luo: - this governs the meridian and collateral systems of the body. (rown, 2001)
Practitioners of TCM also used a system referred to as "The Eight Principles" which are used to categorize illness or disease. These eight principles are comprised of "four pairs of polarities, including:
deficiency/excess; and Yin/Yang." (rown, 2001)
These principles are stated to determine:
1) Disease location;
2) the nature of imbalance;
3) the presence of a pathological (disease) factors; and 4) the strength of the body's own energies. (rown, 2001)
Summary and Conclusion
Ayurvedic medicine is…… [Read More]
The main findings, are related to the reactivation of newly acquired memory representations in hippocampal networks that stimulates a transfer and integration of these representations into neocortical neuronal networks as the most important mechanism of memory consolidation. However, the authors give an account of these findings in the article discussed as well.
A more comprehensive review is offered by Frank Marcos and Benington Joel in an article called "The Role of Sleep in Memory Consolidation and Brain Plasticity: Dream or Reality?" published in the Neuroscientist (12/2006). The authors make reference to current evidence for and against the hypothesis that sleep facilitates memory consolidation and promotes plastic changes in the brain. The findings of the study refer to the fact that despite recent accumulation of positive outcomes the precise role of sleep in memory and brain plasticity remains uncertain. They suggest the employment of more integrated approaches that combine behavioral and…… [Read More]
Today, self-inflicted pain is generally interpreted as a form of psychopathology, but within the mystical context, "pain unmakes the profane world with its corporeal attachments and leads the mystics away from the body to self-transcendence," thus pain and discipline elevates the individual into a world of deeper human community (Post). According to Glucklich, pain is even blotted out via a process in the brain known as gate-control that significantly alters biochemistry and consciousness, therefore "intentionally painful manipulations of the body could lead to states of self-transcendence or effacement" (Post).
Glucklich believes that today's society has lost the capacity to understand why and how pain could be valuable for mystics and members of religious communities, and even for humanity as a whole (Post). Historians of religion have long acknowledged the ubiquitous presence of intentionally painful rituals and practices, and have used this awareness as a key to understanding religious experiences (Post).…… [Read More]
Admission to graduate school depends on the test takers scores on the verbal and quantitative sections of the GRE.
ackground of the GRE
Historically speaking, there has been widespread criticism of the GRE, as some have argued for decades that GRE scores do not constitute a meaningful measure of a potential graduate student's knowledge or capability for success. Many schools and universities have disagreed with the subject test requirements, and the GRE has been considered in certain historic times as irrelevant. In fact, recent reports and questionnaires indicate that the GRE is not as significant in determining graduate admissions as once believed. Researchers have suggested implementations and changes in the GRE that would make it more realistically predictive, such as the development of improved versions of GRE test subjects in more areas of the social sciences. The graduate schools could use these social science scores to as a better gauge…… [Read More]
pag). Some business will continue as usual, of course: Abbott's nutrition division, based in Columbus, Ohio and employing approximately 2,000 people, announced that the nutrition unit will "fall under the umbrella of a new medical products company that will retain the Abbott name in a split announced ednesday" (Rouan n.pag). In addition, the announcement has apparently met with international investor approval: "At the news, Abbott's shares went up 7.3% in premarket trading on ednesday" (M2 Pharma n.pag).
The split is expected to occur in 2012 and will result in the currently-unnamed pharmaceutical company and the diversified medical products company, retaining the name "Abbott" (Abbott Laboratories n.pag).
(a). Pharmaceutical Company:
The pharmaceutical company is projected to have annual sales of approximately $18 Billion, a portfolio including Abbott's high-profile drugs such as Humira and Lupron, and a pipeline of "promising new specialty medicines and formulations" (Abbott Laboratories n.pag). According to Abbott's press…… [Read More]
Role of Information Technology in Promoting Lean Thinking/Practices in a Hospital:
How it Helps Streamlining Processes
Lean Thinking and Healthcare
Lean thinking has evolved from well-known business management disciplines such as the Toyota Production System (TPS), Just-in-Time (JIT) and Kaizen. The core principles of lean are fundamentally the same as these other disciplines, but lean thinking has developed this theory into a generic concept that can be more readily applied in a diverse range of industries using a more people focused approach. Lean thinking is more than an initiative; it is an all-encompassing business ethic that every function throughout the company supply chain must be committed to if the company is to achieve an integrated approach to improving our products, processes, people and plant capability.
Lean thinking is based on creating value driven activity by defining the value stream of a product from the customers' perspective. The value stream is…… [Read More]
Fruit ipening and Seed Dispersal
The reality of a fruit and its seeds is a complicated and fascinating thing. Fruits rely on a variety of factors in order to grow, ripen and finally reproduce. The process of fruit ripening affects not only the taste of a fruit, but also its ability to disperse seeds. Seed dispersal is essential for reproduction of fruit and many components must be present and perfect in order for effective seed dispersal to take place.
To start, it's important to point out that fruits come in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, types and tastes. Some fruits are sweet, some are sour, and some have no specific taste. The taste of any fruit depends largely upon the compounds inherent within it. Most fruits are comprised of a combination of fructose, acids, vitamins, proteins, starches and cellulose. The first two components mentioned, fructose and acid, are the…… [Read More]
Over the last several years, many health care professionals have been focusing on wide variety of approaches to fully understand the impact that depression having on people. At the heart of this area of research, has been studying the way that a person is reacting to a particular event. This is because there are certain genetic factors and traits that can have an effect on how they are interpreting a variety of situations. As a result, there has been an emphasis on comprehending how these elements can influence an individual's thinking. Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than, observations from Plomin (2003) who observed, "We are rapidly approaching the postgenomic era in which we will know all of the 3 billion DNA bases in the human genome sequence and all of the variations in the genome sequence that are ultimately responsible for genetic influence…… [Read More]
efining other techniques is laudable and important, but is not the domain of the proposed research. In addition, the mixed methods use of both mass spectrometry and bioinformatics methodologies is logically called fro due to the volume of data the mass spectrometry is expected to generate and the time consuming nature of any other mode of analysis save those available through specialized bioinformatics programs (Kuamr & Mann, 2009).
The selection of the model bacterial strain and of the previously validated antibiotic agent will be important considerations for this research, and will have a direct impact on the applicability of the results in other areas of research. Selection should be made on a basis of practicality not only in the ability to carry out the research, but also in light of how the findings can and might actually be applied. There are no real ethical implications that need to be…… [Read More]
Music in the Upper Grades
ye, ye Miss American Pie
As School Levies Run Dry, We're Paying to See the Day the Music Dies in U.S. Education
The quality of education for American students is a major concern for parents, educators, and politicians. New initiatives such as the No Child Left ehind act have been put into place by the ush administration in an attempt to satiate the nation's desire to believe children will come away from school with the experience and knowledge they will need to be successful in life and to improve the world. Unfortunately, policies such as this do not actually take the full needs of students into account. In fact, putting a high priority on standardized test scores has deprived many schools of the ability to provide a well-rounded and in-depth education because all resources such as time and money must go towards curriculum that matches…… [Read More]
GENESIS & COSMOLOGY
In chapter one of the Book of Genesis as found the Holy Bible, it states that "In the beginning, God created the heaven and the earth/and the earth was without form and void and darkness was upon the face of the deep/and God said, let there be light; and there was light" (verses 1-3). It then states "And God said, let there be lights in the firmament of heaven to divide the day from the night/and God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night; he made the stars also/and God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth" (verses 14, 16, & 17). These six verses relate the Biblical origins of the universe according to God's design, yet scientifically, this description is invalid and erroneous, due to the most…… [Read More]
In the third trimester of pregnancy, caution must be taken concerning congestive heart failure, hypertension and decreased renal and hepatic function, interstitial nephritis, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia and renal papillary necrosis, anticoagulation abnormalities, leucopenia, granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. The use of Celecoxib is aimed primarily at suppressing pain and inflammatory stimuli, but it may contribute to NSAID gastrointestinal toxicity. The lowest possible dose of celecoxib should be prescribed and taken. On the whole, NSAIDs can mask the usual signs of infection, therefore, caution must be taken in the presence of existing controlled infection. The physician should investigate symptoms and signs, which suggest liver dysfunction or abnormal liver lab results.
On September 30, 2004, Merck and Company voluntarily withdrew rofecoxib from the American and world markets because of its association with an increase in cardiovascular incidence (Keldaya 2005). A major Food and Drug Administration study linked the medication to a three-fold rise in the…… [Read More]