Biological Engineering Essays (Examples)

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Engineering Organizations

Words: 601 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94212113

Engineering Organizations

The first image displayed on the website for the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, rather eccentrically for an engineering organization, is two hands holding a clump of soil. Yet despite this earthy image, the society also stresses its technical nature, as members in the biological, agricultural, and other food related sciences could engage in virtual web conferences with one another, through web space accorded to the organization. Thus, the technical as well as the agricultural aspects of the organization enable members to improve their professional credentials and connect with other engineering professional in the agricultural field. Members can also make use of the organization's technical library and database of technical experts.

The ASAE also offers such perks for members as a group insurance plan and an e-newsletter. The offer of a group insurance plan illustrates that many members may not be members of a large corporate entity, and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

ASAE -- American Society of Agricultural Engineers. (2004) Official website. Retrieved 29 November 2004 at www.asae.org

IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, (2004) Official Website. Retrieved 29 November 2004 at http://www.ieee.org
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Elites in Engineering in the

Words: 11890 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80333793

Enginees should focus on the impovement of the pefomance of the economy. This elates to the tansfomation of the theoies of contolling the wold and adopting new famewoks in the opeating in conjunction with the planet. New enginees need to adopt and implement new theoies of focusing on the economic, social, and political concepts in elation to both technical and nontechnical disciplines (Cameon 2010 p.40).

Leades in Bitish Engineeing

Accoding to Lewis (1998, p.88), the technology style of the 19th centuy stetches fom the peak of one long wave to the peak of the next. The concened style would have made its fist appeaance in 1870s and would have held geat influence in the late Victoian peiod. It was maked though the diffusion of cheap bulk steel that emeged in the mid-Victoian peiods, advances in science-based industies such as engineeing and chemicals, spead of electic powe and the adoption of…… [Read More]

references of the current population without compromising the needs of the future population. This relates to the achievement of sustainable development thus improving living conditions of the citizens. Global warming is a problem affecting growth and development of the economy. This is through increasing the sea water level because of the high temperatures thus melting of ice caps. In order to minimize the effects of global warming, it is ideal to focus on the transformation of the engineering systems in the United Kingdom (Nuvolari et al. 2009 p.700).

Possible predictions about the future of British engineering

In order to address challenges affecting the current and future populations, it is essential to train engineers with the ability to make intelligent decisions in relation to maximum protection and quality life on the planet than endangering forms of life. Engineers will have to make decisions with reference to professional environment in relation to interactions between technical and nontechnical disciplines. The modern system should focus on the preparation of the engineers to become valuable facilitators of sustainable development and implementers of appropriate technology. This aims at addressing social and economic challenges facing the current engineers because of the modern systems and mindset of engineers in the context of the United Kingdom. This is essential in becoming an effective and efficient body of engineers with the aim of providing leadership to the world engineering body (Burgess 1972 p.10).

Future development in relation to the engineering systems and subsystems in the United Kingdom should focus on adequate implementation of technology in addressing essential needs of the future population. Technological developments should also focus on the improvement of conditions such as sufficient water, protection of the environment, and adequate infrastructure. This is vital in the achievement of the millennium development goals and objectives as outlined by the United Nations under the influence of its General Assembly. Future engineering should focus in the achievement of sustainable development thus addressing current and future needs of the world's population. It is vital to note future engineering should integrate numerous aspects in addressing social, economic, and political effects on the planet.

Reference List
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Environmental Engineering -- Contrails Are

Words: 1144 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23080508

Additionally, Bollier further states the contrail emissions to cause warmer weather.

The duration of contrails in the atmosphere can last for days, according to (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010). Trails may last for days and spread over hundreds of miles. According to Patrick Minnis, senior research scientist at NASA's Langley esearch Center in Virginia, "It helped us get a very good handle on the relationship between natural cirrus clouds and contrails, and separate the two effects. We estimate that contrails have an overall warming effect which is at least the same as aircraft CO2 exhaust, if not more." (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010)

The white streaks (Murray, 2006), which characterize the contrail left by a flying aircraft is suggested by Murray to be removed as a contaminant by lowering the altitude of the aircraft during flight. Additionally, "because contrails are released at high altitudes, have a more potent effect on the environment…… [Read More]

References

Fast, E. 2002, "Can contrails alter climate?," Environment, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 7.

Beam, S. 2005, "The Trouble with Contrails," Environment, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 4.

Bollier, S. 2007, "High Flyers and the Grounding of Equality," Multinational Monitor, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 31.

Harris, P., Kuper, S. & Lebel, C. 2010, Sandals Optional: Stories - Environment - Insight; Not all heroes of the green revolution fit the left-liberal activist stereotype.., the Financial Times Limited.
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Computing Pollution

Words: 1180 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82536596

Computing Pollution

Computers are being used in applications that gauge the pollution in the air and water and other areas of the earth environment. These applications are useful in determining the source of the pollution and in assisting in informing researchers what might be done to reduce such pollution.

Air Pollution Emission

One such application in computing pollution is described in the work of Emad, Sayed, and Kassem (nd)[footnoteef:1] who report that smoke is one common source of air pollution. Specifically stated is that the "rising process of smoke depends on atmospheric ambient, meteorological conditions, emission parameters, such as the atmospheric stratification, initial emission momentum and temperature, wind direction and speed as well as turbulent behaviors, and so on." (Emad, Sayed, and Kassem, nd, p.1) The smoke dilution process and scope are of great interest to environmentalists since regional air quality is affected critically by dispersion of pollutants. eported as…… [Read More]

References

Emad, AA., Sayed, M.E., and Kassem K.O. (nd) Computer Simulation for Dispersion of Air Pollution Released from a Line Source According to Gaussian Model. Canadian Journal on Computing in Mathematics, Natural Sciences, Engineering & Medicine Vol. 1, No. 3, April 2010. Online available at:  http://ampublisher.com/April%202010/CMNSEM-1004-013.pdf .

Hemann, J. And Granger, B. (nd ) Parallel Computing with IPython: An Application to Air Pollution Modeling. Available online at:  http://conference.scipy.org/scipy2010/slides/josh_hemann_airpollution_acrobat.pdf 

Maringanti, Chetan and Chaubey, Indrajeet (nd ) High Performance Computing Application to Address Non-Point Source Pollution at a Watershed Level. Agricultural and Biological Engineering. Purdue University. Online available at:  https://engineering.purdue.edu/ecohydrology/Chetan/ASABE2009.pdf 

Swarms of Tiny Robots to Monitor Water Pollution (2002) Daily University Science News. UNISCI online available at:  http://www.unisci.com/stories/20021/0114026.htm
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Agricultural Health in Pennsylvania Nursing

Words: 1173 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35450226

" (Murphy, 2009)

This is held by Murphy to be what is wanted since high carbon dioxide levels help to maintain high quality silage." (2009) Simultaneously, the gas that is "odorless and colorless" is stated to be that which is dangerous. The gas is stated to replace the oxygen in the silo and since this gas is present in high concentrations the individual receives very little in the way of warning that the gas is about to overcome them. This gas is stated to be characterized by "…a strong bleach-like odor and low lying yellow, red, or dark brown fumes. Unlike carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide levels reach a peak about three days after harvesting and rapidly begin to decrease thereafter particularly is the silo is ventilated." (Murphy, 2009)

Sealed silos are specifically designed so that there is no necessity to enter them however, there are various gases present in convention…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Murphy, Dennis J. (2009) Silo Gases the Hidden Danger. College of Agricultural Sciences -- Cooperative Extension. Agricultural and Biological Engineering. Penn State E-16. Online available at: http://www.age.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/e/E16%20.pdf

Murphy, Dennis J. (2009) Farm Respiratory Hazards. College of Agricultural Sciences -- Cooperative Extension. Agricultural and Biological Engineering. Safety 26. PennState. Online available at: http://www.age.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/e/E26.pdf

The Dirt on Pennsylvania Agriculture (2004) Trends in Rural Pennsylvania. March/April 2004. Online available at: http://www.ruralpa.org/dirtonpaag.pdf
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Future Trends in the Use of Computer

Words: 996 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82821614

Future Trends in the Use of Computer Technology in Surgery

The rapid levels of innovation occurring in the field of Computer Assisted Surgery (CAS) are leading to significantly greater levels of accuracy, patient care success, and lower costs of outpatient surgery treatment programs for hospitals and care centers. The intent of this paper is to analyze the future direction of CAS and its implications on the quality of healthcare and its associated costs. At a strategic level, the pace of innovation in CAS-based image processing and surgical navigation continues to accelerate with forecasts showing an adoption rate over 35% or more per year through 2015 (Bohn, Korb, Burgert, 2008).

Computer-Assisted Surgery Analysis and Predictions

The combined areas of image analysis and image processing, surgical navigation, pre- and post-operation planning, 3D imagery of organs and orthopedics, and the growth of computer-assisted radiology all are revolutionizing how computing technology is used in…… [Read More]

References

Bohn, S., Korb, W., & Burgert, O. (2008). A process and criteria for the evaluation of software frameworks in the domain of computer assisted surgery. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 46(12), 1209-17.

Deshmukh, T.R., Kuthe, A.M., Chaware, S.M., Vaibhav, B., & Ingole, D.S. (2011). Rapid prototyping assisted fabrication of the customised temporomandibular joint implant: A case report. Rapid Prototyping Journal, 17(5),

Dobbe, J.G., G., Du Pre,, K.J., Kloen, P., Blankevoort, L., & Streekstra, G.J. (2011). Computer-assisted and patient-specific 3-D planning and evaluation of a single-cut rotational osteotomy for complex long-bone deformitiesoste.Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 49(12), 1363-70.

Gerhardus, D. (2003). Robot-assisted surgery: The future is here. Journal of Healthcare Management, 48(4), 242-51.
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Benefits and Risks of Genetically Engineered Foods or Organisms

Words: 2177 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61352608

GENETICALLY ENGINEERED FOOD OR ORGANISMS: SCIENCE'S ANSWER TO WORLD HUNGER

The introduction and use of genetically modified or engineered foods or organisms have attracted attention, mostly alarmed in recent years (WHO 2014). These foods are manufactured from organisms by artificially altering or engineering their DNA for nutrition purposes. This is done by infusing an edible plant gene into the organisms for immediate and ultimate purposes. One is to optimize production and increase the resistance to plant disease while tolerating the harmful effects of herbicides. Another is to extract them from genetically modified or GM microorganisms or animals for future use. Still another object or prospect is to alter the nutrients themselves in foods in order to control or prevent allergies they cause (WHO).

The target of the United Nations Organization's Millennium Development goals is to cut down the proportion of hunger this year into half (World Hunger Education Service, 2015).…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Chatsko, M. (2013). Regulatory similarities between GMO foods and pharmaceuticals.

The Motley Fool: Interactive Data Managed Solutions. Retrieved on April 25, 2015

from http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2013/11/23/regulatory-similarities-betweengmo-foods-and-phar.aspx

CHGE (2012). Genetically Modified Foods. Center for Health and the Global Environment:
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GMO - Genetically Modified Organisms

Words: 324 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18912903

Furthermore, these crops could exhaust soil to such a degree that no more crops could be developed there, and thus contribute to rather than alleviate the problem of world hunger.

Another problem cited by opponents is the danger to biodiversity that might be created by GMO's. Genetically modifying foods may have a negative impact on the environment by destroying biodiversity, according to this group. Proponents however argue that biodiversity is encouraged rather than destroyed by genetic engineering. Indeed, they place it in the same category with modifications that have been brought about in nature itself in order to adjust to different environments, or by human beings in the past.

Biological engineering is a very controversial issue, and it appears that it will remain so for a long time, even while the field grows and develops beyond attempts to stop it.… [Read More]

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Neural Network

Words: 3129 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7103440

Artificial Intelligence

hat is AI?

Future of AI

The Expert System

hat is an Expert System?

Three Major Components of an Expert System

Structure of an Expert System

Neural network

Fuzzy Logic

Chaos Engineering

Field and Benefit

Debate on Comparison

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Expert System Defined

Consulting applies a knowledge-based system to commercial loan officers using multimedia (Hedburg 121). Their system requires a fast IBM desktop computer. Other systems may require even more horsepower by using exotic computers or workstations. The software used is even more exotic. Considering there are very few applications that are pre-written using AI, each company has to write it's own software to determine the solution to their specific problem.

An easier way around this obstacle is to design an add-on. The company Fuziare has developed several applications which act as additions to larger applications. FuziCalc, FuziQuote, FuziCell, FuziChoice, and FuziCost are all products…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barron, Janet J. "Putting Fuzzy Logic into Focus." Byte April (1993): 111-118.

Butler, Charles, and Maureen Caudill. Naturally Intelligent Systems. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1990.

Bylinsky, Gene. "Computers That Learn By Doing." Fortune 6 Sep. 1993: 96-102.

Liebowitz, Jay. "Roll Your Own Hybrids." Byte July (1993): 113-115.
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Synthetic Biology Most Eminent Mr

Words: 534 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9362112

While this is a future that is heralded by some as the next logical step in our own evolution -- why let it occur haphazardly and slowly if it can be accomplished through careful planning and design? -- others see this stance as full of dangerous hubris, and an insistence that humanity knows best despite the fact that it has shown itself time and time again willing to grossly misuse available technologies to detrimental ends. The synthetic creation of other "persons" and even the alteration of existing human beings is fraught with many ethical considerations, not the least of which is the fact that we simply don't know what we don't know -- the effects of such synthesis are likely to be surprising and unexpected, despite the best of intentions and the most careful planning.

This is no surprise to you, of course; you played your hand very close to…… [Read More]

Other possibilities using the techniques of synthetic biology are not so certain. AMny fear that such knowledge and capabilities will lead to the eventual genetic altering of mankind, and perhaps even the purposeful creation of an alternative being that will supplant humanity with a new race of "persons," possibly humanoid but in reality synthetically designed to be better than humans in their interactions with the world, use of resources, et cetera (Oxford 2008). While this is a future that is heralded by some as the next logical step in our own evolution -- why let it occur haphazardly and slowly if it can be accomplished through careful planning and design? -- others see this stance as full of dangerous hubris, and an insistence that humanity knows best despite the fact that it has shown itself time and time again willing to grossly misuse available technologies to detrimental ends. The synthetic creation of other "persons" and even the alteration of existing human beings is fraught with many ethical considerations, not the least of which is the fact that we simply don't know what we don't know -- the effects of such synthesis are likely to be surprising and unexpected, despite the best of intentions and the most careful planning.

This is no surprise to you, of course; you played your hand very close to your chest with evolution for years, fearing the effects it would have on society and on science. History has definitely shown that caution is prudent, and the way you lived your life is excellent evidence of this as well. Before folks go rushing off armed with your ideas, they ought to take a moment to get to know you, as well.

Sincerely,
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Prototyping Is a Great and Exciting Way

Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40746565

Prototyping is a great and exciting way to allow for faster manufacturing across numerous fields. Things like bioprinting allow for prototyping reaching new levels of science and technology. Prototyping has become an important aspect of things like tissue engineering. This means society can cross-new frontiers in the world of medicine and treatment thanks to prototyping. The one thing that surprised me the most about prototyping is the ability of organizations and people to use it in a variety of fields, especially in medicine like the aforementioned tissue engineering.

In article titled: "Printing and Prototyping of Tissues and Scaffolds" by Brian Derby, the author discusses the various ways in which prototyping opens new avenues for manufacturing. "New manufacturing technologies under the banner of rapid prototyping enable the fabrication of structures close in architecture to biological tissue. In their simplest form, these technologies allow the manufacture of scaffolds upon which cells can…… [Read More]

References

Derby, B. (2012). Printing and Prototyping of Tissues and Scaffolds. Science, 338(6109), 921-926. doi:10.1126/science.1226340
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Robotics How Close Are We to Creating a Bionic Man

Words: 1372 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1231835

Robotics: How Close Are e to Creating a Bionic Man?

hile the creation of a 'bionic man' similar to the Six Million Dollar Man of the 70s television series or the gun-slinging robot of estworld may still be the realm of popular sci-fi, technology has developed to a stage where we are closer to such a possibility than ever before. Some of these technologies include robotics, the development of organic polymers that could be used as artificial muscles, nano-technology, and artificial intelligence (AI). In this paper we will review the latest developments in the relevant technologies to find how close we are to developing a 'bionic man.'

Apart from the availability of the required technology, one of the factors that would eventually determine if (or how soon) we are able to develop a bionic man is -- the urgency or need for such a development. This is because technology does…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barnes, Peter. "Bionic Limbs for Amputees." September 23, 2002. Tech TV Website. October 1, 2002. http://www.techtv.com/news/scitech/story/0,24195,3400267,00.html

Battles without Troops." Article in Newsweek International: Special Issue. December 2001-February 2002. pp. 38-40

Bekey, George A. "Robot." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2002.

McCarthy, John. "What Is Artificial Intelligence?" Stanford University: Computer Science Department Website. July 20, 2002. October 1, 2002.  http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/whatisai/whatisai.html
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Rur and AI More Human

Words: 1955 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69929903

Kubrick himself suggested the baton be passed onto Spielberg due to that director's unique abilities.

The play was originally-based Brian Aldiss's short story "Supertoys Last All Summer Long," on which a.I. is based, in 1983 (Corliss 1-3). In the Kubrick formulation, the world is a lot darker and Gigolo Joe is much more aggressive. According to Corliss in the "Joe was much more aggressive, more twisted." Here he is, in Spielberg's word, David's "scoutmaster." Spielberg did this to solve many of the problems Spielberg had with the text, Joe being one of the biggest problems. By softening things and making them more human and less dark, he provided solution to the problem (Ibid 1). The Flesh Fair and Rouge City are vintage Kubric and remained a part of the body of the work. Garish scenery completes this menagerie Spielberg identifies himself with the abandoned child (ibid 2).

It is the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Corliss, Richard. Time 17 June 2001: 1-3. Web. 3 Nov 2010.


Horakova, Jana. "The (Short) Robot Chronicle. On the 20th Century Cultural History of Robots.." Proceedings (2006): pp. 241-248. Web. 3 Nov 2010. .

Capek, Karel. R.U.R . Gloucestershire, Great Britain: Echo Books, 2009.
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Differences Between the Technology in Use in 1910 and the Technology in Use Today

Words: 2234 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25941352

Technology in Use in 1910 and the Technology in Use Today

Technology during 1910 and its rapid evolution to the present era:

The 19th century witnessed major upheavals in science and technology ushering a gamut of changes and widespread ripple effect on the society. The dawning of science in industry brought about by the Industrial evolution was a watershed in global technology that continued to shape the future of mankind. It was in that era when development of large scale metal working techniques popularised steam power. ailroads appeared and facilitated in mass migration of populations. Urbanizations started, commerce flourished, fortunes were made and a new class of affluent appeared. Major scientific inventions like electromagnetism by Clerk Maxwell and greater sophistication of electricity brought about technological changes and improved quality of life with telegraph, electric light and radio transforming the world for the better. (Jeff, 2002)

Development in natural science spearheaded…… [Read More]

References

Chandrinos, K.V; Trahanias, P.E. (n. d.) "Beyond HTML: Web-based Information Systems"

Institute of Computer Science, Retrieved 15 March 2012 from  http://www.ercim.eu/publication/ws-proceedings/DELOS6/chandrinos.pdf 

Davenport, Thomas H; Short, James E. (1990) "The new industrial engineering information technology and business process redesign" Center for Information Systems Research. CISR WP No. 213, Sloan WP No. 3190-90.

EEA. (2010) "SOER 2010 -- Assessment of global megatrends"
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Legal Environment in Healthcare and Administrative Responsibility

Words: 1118 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2327677

Healthcare -- Administration and Legal

Many vectors -- science, research funding, social acceptance or rejection -- influence how and whether medical technology is eventually adopted into medical praxis (Hogle, et al., 2012). Undergirding the choices and changes is a shared body of ethical standards and law, the establishment of which is often not consensual or efficacious. Any emerging technology can encounter unanticipated social resistance and ethical concerns that can change the course of how medical science research progresses (Hogle, et al., 2012). Medical technology often poses questions about access to expensive innovations and considerations about race, gender, and social justice that are inseparable from the socio-economic levels of patients (Hogle, et al., 2012). In contemporary society, there are the inevitable considerations about patent issues, clinical practice, and the commercialization of medical innovations (Hogle, et al., 2012). The recent court decision finding in favor of Myriad Genetics, Inc. provides a good…… [Read More]

References

Cho, M. (2010, November 1). Patently unpatentable: implications of the Myriad court decision on genetic diagnostics. Trends in Biotechnology, 28(11), 548-551. Retrieved http://www.cell.com/trends/biotechnology//retrieve / pii/S0167779910001411?_returnURL= http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0167779910001411?showall=true 

Hogle, L., Tobin, S., Gaba, D. And Yock, P. (2012). Web-Based Research Integrity Training for Biomedical Engineers and Medical Device Researchers (Public Health Service). Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford School of Medicine. Retreived http://bioethics.stanford.edu/research / programs/science_and_society.html

Morrison, E. (2011). Ethics in health administration: A practical approach for decision makers. (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

Stempel, J., Steenhuysen, J., Wallace, J., Grebler, D. And Orr, B. (2012, August 16). Myriad wins gene patent ruling from U.S. appeals court. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved http://www.reuters.com/assets/
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Human Beings and the Future of Technology

Words: 2026 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53028951

Digital Knowledge and the Human Art of Thinking

Digital Knowledge, New Horizons for the Human Art of Thinking, and Creating Knowledge

Digital technology has introduced people to new paradigms of thinking and creativity necessary to make use of this elaborate technology. In the past, the limited technology environment reinforced a linear approach to education and thinking dictated by the use of books and expected to work in digital settings in much the same way they read in books. The current digital era offer people with a high level of autonomy in navigating across knowledge domains to construct knowledge from separate shreds of data. Such multidimensional thinking skills have enabled individuals to construct meaningful understandings of complex phenomena. This hyper-digital technology has revolutionized the digital thinking skills into digital skills. These skills serve students the ability to remain oriented and avoid getting lost in the hyper-digital space as they navigate across…… [Read More]

References

Kurzweil, R. (2006). The Singularity is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology. Princeton, N.J: Duckworth

Goertzel, B. & Wang, P. (2007). Advances in Artificial General Intelligence: Concepts, Architectures and Algorithms: Proceedings of the AGI Workshop 2006. Volume 157 of Frontiers in artificial intelligence and applications, ISSN 0922-6389. Washington, DC: IOS Press.

Honavar, V. (2004). Artificial intelligence and neural networks: steps toward principled integration. Neural networks, foundations to applications. University of Michigan: Academic Press.

Minsky, M. (2007). The Emotion Machine: Commonsense Thinking, Artificial Intelligence, and the Future of the Human Mind. White River Junction, Vt: Simon and Schuster
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Human Genome Project One of the Primary

Words: 999 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68761414

Human Genome Project

One of the primary concerns of the biological sciences today is human health. The more information is made known about the human body, the more curative and preventive steps can be taken to ensure the longevity and health of the human body. This is one of the ends of the Human Genome Project (HGP), which was concluded in 2003. The project ran for 13 years and was coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health.

US Department of Energy (2012). In addition, the Wellcome Trust in the U.K. became amajor partner in this effort, while contributions were also received from Japan, France, Germany, China, and other countries. The HGP's main goals were to gather information and apply the findings to human health. It should, however, also be noted that the project has several ethical and social implications.

Several main goals were identified…… [Read More]

References

Carroll, M.L. And Ciaffa, J. (2007) The Human Genome Project: A Scientific and Ethical Overview. American Institute of Biological Sciences. Retrieved from: http://www.actionbioscience.org/genomic/carroll_ciaffa.html

Green, E. (n.d.) Human Genome Project: Implications for Healthcare. Journal of Managed Care Medicine. Vol. 9, No. 2 Retrieved from: http://www.namcp.com/Journals/JMCM/Articles/Human%20Genome%20Project-Implications%20for%20Healthcare.pdf

US Department of Energy. (2012). Human Genome project. Retrieved from: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/home.shtml
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Programming Genetic Circuits Is Fundamentally

Words: 2235 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48470094

To elaborate, he used his 'transistor' to build logic circuits that program each cell's behavior. For instance, he was able to tell a cell to change color in the presence of both a specified two enzymes. Remarked Kleem (online): "Endy envisions plant-based environmental monitors, programmed tissues and even medical devices that "make Fantastic Voyage come true," (Kleem, 04.02.13).

In the first (grainy) image below, Endy's DNA "buffer gates" flash different colors according to their situation. In the image below that, we have a string of DNA -- we see the code of the a's, C's, T's and G's -- that has been programmed by synthetic biologist Eric Winfree of the California Institute of Technology --.

(Excerpted from Keim, B Computers Made Out of DNA, lime and Other trange tuff

Wired. http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2013/04/strange-computers/?pid=6598&viewall=true)

Timothy Lu, a researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is taking this idea further by building cellular computers…… [Read More]

Sources

Brumfiel, G (March 29, 2013) Tiny DNA Switches Aim to Revolutionize 'Cellular' Computing. NPR. http://www.npr.org/2013/03/29/175604770/tiny-dna-switches-aim-to-revolutionize-cellular-computing

Lovgren, Stefan (2003-02-24). Computer Made from DNA and Enzymes. National Geographic.  http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/02/0224_030224_DNAcomputer.html 

Heaven D (02 April 2013) DNA transistors pave way for living computers Newscientishttp://www.newscientist.com/article/dn23337-dna-transistors-pave-way-for-living-computers.html

Strain D (June 2, 2011 ) Flexible DNA computer finds square roots Science News http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/330621/description/Flexible_DNA_computer_finds_square_roots_
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Gene Technology

Words: 976 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72972058

Genetically Modified Foods: ational for Topic Selection

Genetically modified foods are frequently in the mainstream media, making them a highly relevant topic of discussion in the areas of genetic science and gene technologies. As with most technologies and techniques related to genetic science, genetically modified foods are controversial and thus politically charged issues. It is important to be armed with facts before forming an opinion about whether or not genetically modified foods are acceptable, feasible, or ethical.

Biological Basis

Genetically modified foods refers to organic foodstuffs -- plants and animals -- "whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally," (World Health Organization, 2013). However, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can also include medicines and vaccines (United States Department of Energy: Office of Science, 2013). The primary process used to modify the genes of organisms is called recombitant DNA technology; as the term suggests, recombitant…… [Read More]

References

Damery, P., D'Adamo, N., Graham, M., Hoffman, M. & Riedl, J. (n.d.). The debate on labeling genetically modified food. Retrieved online:  http://www.public.iastate.edu/~ethics/LabelGMFood.pdf 

"Genetically modified crops gaining ground in China: Report," (2013). The Times of India. 7 March, 2013. Retrieved online:  http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/environment/developmental-issues/Genetically-modified-crops-gaining-ground-in-China-Report/articleshow/18847379.cms 

Hiatt, S. & Park, S. (2012). Influence and regulatory approval of genetically modified organisms. Academy of Management Journal. Nov 26, 2012.

United States Department of Energy: Office of Science (2013). Human genome project. Retrieved online: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/gmfood.shtml
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HSMS Gap analysis Hazard identification and Risk assessments

Words: 14774 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45172476

HSMS Gap Analysis and Hazard Identification Risk Assessments

Description of APM Terminals

Legal Environment

Review of the Health and Safety Management System

Description

Gap Analysis

Hazard Identification

Physical Hazards

Health and Welfare Hazards

Risk Assessment

Physical Hazard -- Working at Height - Scaffolding

Health & Welfare Hazard -- Noise

Action Plans

Action Plan 1 - Management System

Action Plan 2 -- Hazards and Risks

Barbour Checklist: BS OHSAS 18001 Audit Checklist

Occupational health and safety management has numerous benefits for business, not only an employer's duty of care, a legal and moral obligation but also critical part of business equal in importance to other business functions like finance, marketing and production. When health and safety is embedded as part of business, results would be, good company image and reputation, better employee motivation and morale, improved efficiency and ultimately increased profitability.

The implementation of a sound health, safety and environment (HSE)…… [Read More]

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Behavioral Biology

Words: 2124 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34673982

ehavioral iology

iopsychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes through a biological approach (Cooper 2000). Practitioners in this field believe that biological processes may explain certain psychological phenomena, such as learning, memory, perception, attention, motivation, emotion, and cognition, particularly problems and issues connected with these phenomena. iopsychology is also called biological psychology, psychobiology, behavioral biology or behavioral neuroscience (Cooper).

Practitioners in this new field use varied and overlapping fields of study: cognitive neuroscience, which primarily examines the brain to understand the neural workings of mental processes; psychopharmacology, which deals with the effects of drugs on psychological functions; neuro-psychology, which is concerned with the psychological effects of brain damage in humans; behavioral genetics, which deals with behavior and psychological traits; evolutionary psychology, which is involved with how psychological processes have evolved; and comparative psychology, which compares findings among different species (Cooper). The last science centers on ethology, which…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Chudler, E. (2001). Biopsychology.  http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/introb.html 

2003). The Mystery of the Human Brain. The Quest Team. http://library.thnkques.org/TQ0312238/cgi-bin/view.cgi

Cooper, Cat. (2000). Biopsychology. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Online Encyclopedia. http://www.angelfire.com/az2/MystiCat/biopsychology.htm

Cummings, Benjamin. Behavioral Biology. Pearson Education, Inc. http://biosci.usc.edu/documents/bisc121-fuhrman_11/403.pdf
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Positive and Negative Impacts of DNA Microarrays

Words: 2243 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88372260

positive and negative impacts of DNA microarrays, Genetic engineering and cloning on the society, environment and the living beings.

In the past years, people have heard much about the biological revolution and they have seen it coming too. Biology, with its modern discoveries, has not only influenced agriculture, medicine and economy but it has affected the nature of man as well. In today's era, where both, biology and technology are developing at a fast pace it is impossible for anyone to survive without having sufficient knowledge about science. The information related to scientific issues will enable the people to make good choices about their health, environment, surroundings and the society in which they reside. This information also enables the people to logically analyze different inventions and advancements in biology so that they can decide that whether the projected discovery is good for them or not. (Silva, 2008)

In the past…… [Read More]

References

Agarwal, N. The California State Summer School for Mathematics and Science (COSMOS), (2010).The pros and cons of cloning. Retrieved from The California State Summer School for Mathematics and Science (COSMOS) website:  http://cosmos.ucdavis.edu/archives/2010/cluster7/Agarwal_Nisha_Cloning.pdf 

Asbury, L. The European Arabidopsis Stock Centre, (2005). DNA microarrays. Retrieved from The European Arabidopsis Stock Centre website: http://arabidopsis.info/students/microarrays.pps

Brock, D. Brown University, (2009). Cloning human beings. Retrieved from Brown University website: http://bioethics.georgetown.edu/nbac/pubs/cloning2/cc5.pdf

Silva, K. Flinders University, School of Biological Sciences. (2008). Biology and society: A new way to teach tertiary science to non-science students. Retrieved from Flinders University website:  http://dspace.flinders.edu.au/xmlui/bitstream/handle/2328/12252/2006009592.pdf;jsessionid=507BB9A61E39EF7034A7C025D0896D59 ?
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Malware Since the Earliest Days

Words: 1957 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9444607

However, nothing can be done until the malware actually occurs. With all the different viruses, worms and Trojans, how can security managers possibly predict what malware will occur next? In contrast, a behavioral rule defines legitimate activity in a system. Any activity not matching the profile will cause the security product to be triggered. As rules are not specific to a particular type of attack, they can block malicious behavior without having to recognize the precise attack used. Thus, there is additional protection against new attacks as they emerge. It is to effectively prevent any unauthorized applications, including malicious code and Trojans. or, it could protect a webserver by making it impossible for anyone to access the webserver to change the files and limiting the risk of a hack (Franklin, 2002).

However, the dilemma comes how many rules should the system have? The security manager must decide between an effective…… [Read More]

References Cited

Bowyer, K.W. (2003). "Living responsibly in a computerized world." Ethics and Computing. New York: IEEE press.

Control Guard. http://www.controlguard.com/index.asp

Franklin, I. (November 26, 2002) "Entercept Security Technologies: Rules or signatures?

The best method of prevention." Toolbox. Retrieved from website September 16,
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Gene Technology

Words: 1232 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32580332

Gene Technology

Genetically Modified Crop Plants

The term genetically modified organisms, popularly referred to as GMOs, constitute crops, animals and even microorganisms that have undergone development my man and technology. Through the great leaps man has developed in technology, it is now possible to 'create' organisms and plants through the combination of genes considered superior, resistant and quick-maturing. Farming and animal rearing land brings a challenge in the current world, due to population explosions. This trend has been brought about by the necessity to feed the ever-increasing food demand by world populations.

The world today carries over six billion people, a number that increases every day. The natural means of plant reproduction cannot support to feed this population due to the long time taken to grow to maturity, poor yields and the limited space for planting. Therefore, genetic modification has gained an edge in the development of such crops as…… [Read More]

References

Conway, G. 2000. Genetically modified crops: risks and promise. Conservation Ecology 4(1): 2. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol4/iss1/art2

McMichael, D. Costanza, R., H. Daly, C. Folke, P. Hawken, C.S. Holling, A.J. Pimentel, and D. Rapport. (2000). Managing our environmental portfolio. Bioscience 50: 149-155.

Deborah B. Whitman (2000) Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful? (Released April 2000) http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/gmfood/overview.php

Ellstrand, N. 2000. The elephant that is biotechnology: Comments on "Genetically modified crops: risks and promise" by Gordon Conway. Conservation Ecology 4(1):8. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol4/iss1/art8
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Human Manipulation

Words: 403 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26926483

Human Manipulation

Y

Human manipulation of biological information

Human manipulation of biological information

In this paper, I did Google searches on transgenic animals, spider goats, and glow-in-the-dark monkeys. A transgenic animal is one that carries a foreign gene that has been deliberately inserted into its genome. The foreign gene is constructed using recombinant DNA methodology. In addition to a structural gene, the DNA usually includes other sequences to enable it to be incorporated into the DNA of the host and to be expressed correctly by the cells of the host.

Transgenic sheep and goats have been produced that express foreign proteins in their milk. For example, spider goats are goats in which the gene from spiders that causes certain cells to produce silk into goats has been introduced, tricking the goats' mammary glands into producing silk along with milk. The goats would become biological factories for BioSteel, an incredibly light…… [Read More]

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Ethics Surrounding Human Embryonic Stem

Words: 5907 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 434586

Although these stem cells are only a few years old, they possess unlimited potential in terms of clinical research. Specifically, scientists are focusing their potential uses in transplant medicine in order to significantly reduce the level of both infections and overall organ rejection in organ transplant surgery.

The potential for using stem cells is of vast clinical and medical importance. These cells could potentially allow scientists to learn what occurs at the cellular and molecular levels of human development and use this information to identify certain molecular pathways that contribute to a variety of conditions. Furthermore, using these stem cells could also allow scientists to discover the genes that are triggered in response to certain cellular conditions that cause rapid, unchecked cell growth or irregular cellular patterns. Additionally, using stem cells to discover certain genetic conditions will lend immense amount of information to the scientists and afford researchers the opportunity…… [Read More]

References

Bellomo, M. (2006). The Stem Cell Divide: The Facts, the Fiction, and the Fear Driving the Greatest Scientific, Political, and Religious Debate of Our Time. New York: Amacom.

Bevington, Linda K., Ray G. Bohlin, Gary P. Stewart, John F. Kilner, and C. Christopher Hook. Basic Questions on Genetics, Stem Cell Research and Cloning: Are These Technologies Okay to Use? Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2002.

Carrier, Ewa, and Gracy Ledingham. 100 Questions & Answers about Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Transplantation. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2004.

DeGette, Diana. Sex, Science, and Stem Cells: Inside the Right Wing Assault on Reason. Guilford, CT: Lyons, 2008.
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Engineered Crops the Rapid Advancements

Words: 1088 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80687274

Glyphosate tolerant weeds started to grow uncontrollably requiring the use of greater quantities of pesticides than was necessary conventionally. [ranford, Sue]

Gene Contamination

Another problem is the increasing possibility of gene pollution on traditional crops by GM crops. In a brief article, which discusses the health dangers of genetically modified foods, the author cites a recent study by the UCS (Union of Concerned Scientists). In the study, which analyzed samples of conventionally grown crops such as maize, soybeans and canola, it was found that more than half of the seeds were contaminated to some level. As the report indicated the samples under study were, "pervasively contaminated with low levels of DNA sequences from GM varieties." [: Pearce, Fred] a clear example of this type of contamination is the shocking finding that traditional Mexican maize had genetically engineered genes. This problem will be more dangerous if pharming crops contaminate conventional crops.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) John Pickrell, "GM Organisms," New Scientist, Special Report, 13/12/2004

2) Branford, Sue, "Argentina's Bitter Harvest," New Scientist, 4/17/2004,

Vol 182 Issue

3) Pierce, Fred, "Gene Pollution is Pervasive," New Scientist, 2/28/2004,
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Human Genome Project and Its

Words: 2561 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46535812

"

The ethical concerns about the ability to obtain this information revolve around the possibility of discrimination against people who have less than superior gene pools and that those people will be shunned from society, or worse yet, rounded up and locked up before they have ever done anything wrong.

In addition there is also the concern that the wealthy will be able to genetically order perfect children with the highest IQ's the healthiest DNA and the best looks, while those who are not wealthy will have children the old fashioned way and there will be an eventual class distinction between the children who have been genetically ordered and those who are a toss of the dice.

The other ethical issue involves a perceived right to privacy. The recent health care privacy act has worked to further protect a person's right to decide who has information about him and why…… [Read More]

References

Bailey, Ronald (2001) Does Genetic Engineering Endanger Human Freedom?

The American Enterprise

Brave, Ralph (2001) Governing the Genome: WHICH GENETIC MODIFICATIONS SHOULD BE ENCOURAGED AND WHICH OUTLAWED? DEEP DIVISIONS EXIST EVEN AMONG ETHICAL SCIENTISTS AND INFORMED ACTIVISTS.

The Nation
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Water in Your Area Your Perspective on

Words: 1787 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28363722

water in your area? ("Your perspective on water differs whether you live near the Great Lakes, in the arid west, or by the coast."(McCarthy, 2009)

Outline a brief water conservation plan for your own daily use. How will these changes affect your personal life? What impact will it have on your local water supply?

There is plentiful water in my region (I live in the Great Lakes region). Nonetheless, a brief water conservation plan is the following:

To use water for just its needs and to ensure that tap water is not left running in between those needs.

To double used bathwater as water that can be used for washing the floor.

To, as much as possible, use rainwater for gardening

In order to supply water to humans certain technologies must be utilized.

Desalination is one of the methods that are used for promoting pure water supply. It literally means…… [Read More]

References

FAO report reveals GM crops not needed to feed the world http://www.psrast.org/faonowohu.htm

Forbes.com (11/03/2012) GMO Food Debate in the National Spotlight http://www.forbes.com/sites/rachelhennessey/2012/11/03/gmo-food-debate-in-the-national-spotlight/)

Greenopolis. Top 10 Environmental Success Stories and 10 Future Challenges. http://greenopolis.com/goblog/joe-laur/top-10-environmental-success-stories-and-10-future-challenges

Groves, J (19 December 2009 ) Climate change summit accepts 'toothless' U.S.-backed agreement - but deal is not legally binding DailMail.com http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1236659/Copenhagen-climate-change-conference-World-leaders-reach-Copenhagen-agreement -- officials-admit-enough.html#ixzz2Cg3714zQ
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Role of Engineers the Progress

Words: 953 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53129835

Environmental engineering is basically the performance of using science with the purpose of caring for the environment.

Environmental Engineers assist recycling processes by devising and implementing theories that are a result of systematic assessment. Society constantly consumes resources and produces waste, with little consideration in regard to the effects these actions have on the environment. This is where environmental engineers interfere and generate techniques by means of which particular waste can be recycled and the damage done to the environment can be minimized.

Being an environmental engineer means that one would have to study everything related to pollution and the degree to which the environment is affected by certain activities humans perform. People working in the domain are accustomed to experimenting on a daily basis, so as to find the best methods of reducing and even ending environmental damage. hile the public continues to be indifferent to the damage it…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Cortese, Anthony D. "The Role of Engineers in Creating an Environmentally Sustainable Future." (Second Nature, 1998). http://www.secondnature.org/history/writings/speeches/role_engineers.htm (accessed July 28, 2010).

2. Degalan, Julie and Middlekauff, Bryon Middlekauff, Great Jobs for Environmental Studies Majors (Chicago: VGM Career Books, 2002).

3. Petulla, Joseph M. Environmental Protection in the United States: Industry, Agencies, Environmentalists (San Francisco: San Francisco Study Center, 1987).

Cortese, Anthony D. "The Role of Engineers in Creating an Environmentally Sustainable Future." (Second Nature, 1998). http://www.secondnature.org/history/writings/speeches/role_engineers.htm
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How to Manage Conflicts in Organizations

Words: 3986 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44750332

Conflicts are natural. They are expected to arise in any interaction involving two or more individuals. No two people think, act or react in a similar manner. This variability offers the opportunity for a conflict to arise in any situation. Without conflict, life in organizations would be stagnant. The future of the organization would be jeopardized. Dissonance, or a need to find a better way of doing things, is often the seed, which spurs on the team to higher levels of investigation and searches. The origin of conflict can be often traced to false perception. (urton, 1968) In an organization conflict can play an important role in offering the workers and the management direction and purpose in spite of the difference of opinions between workers.

Through this paper, I hope to gain an insight to the various conditions that can cause conflicts between individuals in organizations. My personal experience in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Blitman, Bruce A. (2002). Conflict resolution techniques. Commercial Law Bulletin., 17, 4, 12-15

Brewer, Neil, Mitchell, Patricia, & Weber, Nathan. (2002). Gender role, organizational status, and conflict management styles. International Journal of Conflict Management., 13, 1, 78-94

Burton, J.W. (1968). System, States, Diplomacy and Rules. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Dunlop, Tara. (2003). The Impact of diversity and culture on organizational conflict. Retrieved July 12, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.unomaha.edu/~wwwpa/project/dunlop.html
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Genetically Modified Trees

Words: 1448 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95172873

Genetically Modified Trees

Scientists and environmentalists must join one another in support of genetically modified trees. Biotechnology has afforded mankind a new method for preserving and restoring the natural landscape of the earth through genetic engineering. The use of genetically modified trees will not only help support the natural landscape but also improve preservation efforts and encourage balance between the needs of environmentalists and commercial enterprises.

For thousands of years mankind has relied on trees for economic and health reasons. In recent years however the landscape has significantly changed as more and more natural forests are depleted to due natural and unnatural causes. This has resulted in multiple deleterious effects on both the health, economy and well being of mankind and the environment. Biotechnology has afforded new hope however, allowing researchers to produce artificial trees offering many of the same benefits, if not more benefits than natural forests offer both…… [Read More]

References:

Avise, J.C. 2004. The Hope, hype & reality of genetic engineering: Remarkable stories from agriculture, industry, medicine and the environment." New York: Oxford University Pres.

Booth, D.E. 1994. Valuing nature: The decline and preservation of old growth forests.

Lanham: Rowman Littlefield Publishing.

Sedjo, R. 2004. Genetically engineered trees: Promise and concerns. Resources for the Future. http://www.rff.org/rff/News/Features/Genetically-Engineered-Trees.cfm. Accessed 10/21/2005.
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Designing a Safety System Safety Management System

Words: 1790 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98207505

Designing a Safety System

Safety management system is a management policy to prevent or minimize injury within a workplace. Top organizations across the United States are increasingly investing in safety management because of the general believe that safety is central precondition to market competitiveness and "an integral part of high quality business operations." (Tervonen, Haapasalo, & Niemela, 2009 P. 17). Safety is defined as a state where all the business related risks are managed at acceptable level. Typically, safety management is a management policy used to protect workers from undetermined accidents. Safety management is very similar to corporate safety where corporate safety is a holistic management strategy to protect an organization as a whole against accidents, misuse, harm and crime.

Objective of this project is to design safety management system for Hobart Brothers Co. To design safety management system for the company, the paper provides essential components that could prevent…… [Read More]

References

Azadeh M.A.(2000). Creating highly and reliable manufacturing systems: an integrated approach. Intern J. Reliabil Saf Eng. 7(3): 205-22.

Honkasalo A. (2000). Occupational health and safety and environmental management systems. Environ Sci Policy. 3(1): 39-45.

Miettinen J. (2002). Corporate Safety Manual Jyvaskyla: Gummerus Printing Ltd. .

New South Wales Government (2012).Unit 2: Managing Workplace Hazards, and Consultation in the Workplace. NSW Education and Communities.
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Risk and Hazard Factors of

Words: 3788 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60811016

Even though users of light therapy are often advised not to look directly at the light source, the mechanisms of the eye focus incoming light onto the macula, the small region of the retina where vision takes place, and where age-related macular degeneration occurs. Since blue light wavelength make up only a small percentage of the light in white light, any form of light therapy using a high proportion of blue light therefore risks subverting a variety of defensive mechanisms that protect the retina against blue light hazard. These defensive mechanisms include the anatomical positioning and structure of eye and its surrounding features, as well as human posture, which makes it awkward for humans to gaze upwards for long periods of time. Sunnex iotechnologies, 2008)

The work of David H. Sliney entitled: "Ocular Hazards of Light" presented at the International Lighting in Controlled Environments Workshop states the following risks and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Figueiro, M.G., J.D. Bullough, R.H. Parsons, and M.S. Rea. Preliminary Evidence for Spectral Opponency in the Suppression of Melatonin by Light in Humans. Neuroreport, Vol. 15, 2004, pp. 313-316 in: Figueiro, Mariana, Bullough, John D. And Rea, Mark S. (2007) Light isn't just for vision anymore: implications for transportation safety. United States Department of Transportation Lighting Research Center Region 2 University Transportation Research Center Polytechnic Institute 31 Dec 2 -- "7

Figueiro, M., et al. Demonstration of additivity failure in human circadian phototransduction. Neuro Endocrinology Letters, Vol. 26, 2005, pp. 493-498.

Ingling, C.R., E. Martinez, and a.L. Lewis. Tonic-Phasic-Channel Dichotomy and Crozier's Law. Journal of the Optical Society of America, Vol. 73, 1983, pp. 183-189 in Figueiro, Mariana, Bullough, John D. And Rea, Mark S. (2007) Light isn't just for vision anymore: implications for transportation safety. United States Department of Transportation Lighting Research Center Region 2 University Transportation Research Center Polytechnic Institute 31 Dec 2 -- "7 Report

Lack, Leon, Bramwell, Toby, Wright, Helen, and Kemp, Krystyn (2007) Morning blue light can advance the melatonin rhythm in mild delayed sleep phase syndrome
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Co-Evolution the Objective of This

Words: 1213 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7110790

It is related in this work: "Humans and their collective microbiota are segmented into many local communities, each comprising an individual human with his or her symbionts. This ecological pattern, characterized by strong interactions within distinct local communities and limited interactions or migration between them, is described as a metacommunity." (Dethlefsen, McFall-Ngai and Relman, 2007) a second level of metacommunity organization is in existence because "individual humans belong to social groups that tend to share a similar microbiota." (Dethlefsen, McFall-Ngai and Relman, 2007) at each of these levels the structure of the metacommunity "allows selection to occur between the local units (or between individuals and social groups), which promotes mutualism...such selection occurs when a local symbiotic community succeeds or fails together, with more successful communities increasing in abundance or prevalence relative to less successful communities." (Dethlefsen, McFall-Ngai and Relman, 2007)

II. COMMUNITY-ASED CO-EVOLUTION FACTORS

Dethlefsen, McFall-Ngai and Relman (2007) identify…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Jones, Richard H. (2000) Reductionism: Analysis and the Fullness of Reality. Bucknell University Press. Online available at http://books.google.com/books?id=sUgnio874NUC&dq=human+coevolution

Wheelis, Mark, et al. (1998) Manual for Assessing Ecological and Human Health Effects of Genetically Engineered Organisms. Scientists Working Group on Biosafety. Online available at http://www.edmonds-institute.org/manp1os.pdf

Akhter, Yusuf, et al. (2007) the Co-Evolved Helicobacter Pylori and Gastric Cancer: Trinity of Bacterial Virulence, Host Susceptibility and Lifestyle. Infectious agents and Cancer, 29 Nov 2007. 2:2 Online available at http://www.infectagentscancer.com/content/2/1/2

Dethlesfsen, Les; McFall-Ngai, Margaret, and Relman, David a. (2007) an Ecological and Evolutionary Perspective on Human-Microbe Mutualism and Disease. Nature 449 18 Oct 2007. Online available at http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v449/n7164/full/nature06245.html
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Homeland Security Terrorist Attacks Involving

Words: 727 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27845500

They have also provided intelligent analysis to state, federal and local law enforcers promoting competency and improved support missions in and out of the United States. Navy and marine corps have participated in multi- service working groups to ensure to update and produce multi- service CRNE defense.

CRNE is also incorporated into air command, where the training is incorporated into courses; the instruction in the course includes instructions addressing the use of airlift and aerial re-fuelling assets in CRNE contaminated environments. General accounting has also responded to CRNE readiness and training assessment; where the secretary for defense recommended that current CRNE medical services should be reviewed. The review will promote tri- service CRNE training program which shall meet the standards of CRNE. Tri- service standards of procedure includes; recognition, detection, decontamination, forces protection and incident response.

Homeland department focuses on deterring and defeating direct attacks in the U.S., supporting civil…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Department of Defense Chemical Biological Defense Program Annual Report. Atlanta: DIANE, 2005.

Punaro, a. Commission on the National Guard Reserves. Atlanta: DIANE, 2008.

The Need for a Policy Framework to Develop Disaster Resilient Regions. Journal of Homeland Security Emergency Management 2005.

Department of Defense Chemical Biological Defense Program Annual Report (Atlanta: DIANE, 2005).
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Genetically Engineered Food Over the Last Ten

Words: 2308 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6757825

Genetically Engineered Food

Over the last ten to fifteen years, the presence of genetically modified foods in grocery stores and homes has increased exponentially. This emergence of genetically modified foods has impacted many different details of human life, including in the areas of farming, research, fertility, the environment, and pharmaceuticals, just to name a few. However, there remains strong opposition to the use of this technology in foods that will be consumed by humans, because long-term affects are unknown and the introduction of a genetically modified organism into the environment could have widespread and unforeseen consequences. Perhaps most dangerous of all, however, is the amount of disinformation and fear which surrounds the issue of genetically modified food, because this prevents the public from assessing the dangers accurately and effectively. hen the risks are assessed from an objective, reasonable perspective, having cut through the excited public chatter concerning genetically modified foods,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Goldman, Karen A. "Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods: Legal and Scientific Issues."

Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 12.3 (2000): 717-60.

Jefferson, Valeria. "The Ethical Dilemma of Genetically Modified Food." Journal of environmental health 69.1 (2006): 33-4.

Laros, Fleur J.M., and Jan-Benedict E.M. Steenkamp. "Importance of Fear in the Case of Genetically Modified Food." Psychology & Marketing 21.11 (2004): 889-908.
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Gene Tinkering in Agriculture

Words: 863 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81543511

genetically modified or altered (GM) crops. Specifically, it will discuss information on GM crops, the risks, the benefits, and how GM crops differ from traditional plant breeding. Genetically modified crops are not new, they have been in existence for many years, but they are extremely controversial - in part because some people do not comprehend their makeup, and in part because they are innovative, and there are still many questions that need to be answered about their affect on people, the environment, and overall health. Basically, GM crops are crops that have been genetically altered through science. Essentially, their DNA, or specific genes, are transferred between one plant and another to create different qualities, such as hardiness, etc. Some people call this "genetic engineering." It takes the best qualities of one plant and mates them with another to create a new sub-species or even species (Editors). These plants are generally…… [Read More]

References

Author not Available. "GM Food." University of California, Berkeley. 2005. 18 July 2005. http://scope.educ.washington.edu/gmfood/

Editors. "Genetically Modified Foods." World Health Organization. 2005. 18 July 2005. http://www.who.int/foodsafety/biotech/en/

Pickrell, John. "GM Organisms: Instant Expert." NewScientist.com. 13 Dec. 2004. 18 July 2005. http://www.newscientist.com/popuparticle.ns?id=in35

Teitel, Martin. "Unsafe at Any Seed?" Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy 15.3 (2000): 40.
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Stem Cell Differentiation the Need to Restore

Words: 3613 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42462808

Stem Cell Differentiation

The need to restore the lives of the individuals calls for more of transplantation than that which is available. There are fewer organs, which can help in the transplantation process, which means that overdependence on the process makes it to be reliable. Further, the process may also end up endangering the life of the donator. Transplantation is the only available process that can for the individuals having kidney and lung problems. However, the numbers of individuals who are suffering from kidney and lung failure are always more than those who are ready to supply the needed organs. This calls for an alternative way, which can help in compensating the loss that the individuals face. One of the major alternatives for the process of translation is stem cell differentiation that may occur in any body cell. The stem cells differentiation offer the possibility of a renewable source of…… [Read More]

Reference

Wang, J., Collins, J. et al., (2012). Functional analysis of transcription factor binding sites in human promoters. Genome Biology, doi:10.1186/gb-2012-13-9-r50

Guillot PV, Cui W, Fisk NM, Polak DJ. (2007). Stem cell differentiation and expansion for clinical applications of tissue engineering. J Cell Mol Med. 11:935-944.

Gerrard L, Rodgers L, Cui W. (2005). Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells to Neural

Lineages in Adherent Culture by Blocking Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling. Stem Cells 23: 1234-1241.
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Bioinformatics Machine Learning Snp Mutation

Words: 1659 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52608325

Machine Learning Method in Bioinformatics

Bioinformatics involves an integrated approach involving the use of information technology, computer science to biology and medicine as professional and knowledge fields. It encompasses the knowledge associated with information systems, artificial intelligence, databases, and algorithms, soft computing, software engineering, image processing, modeling and simulation, data mining, signal processing, computation theory and information, system an d control theory, discrete mathematics, statistics and circuit theory. On the other hand, machine learning entails a sub-division of artificial intelligence and operates with technical skills to permit computers to adapt to certain responses and initiate actions (Zhang et al., 2009). Machine learning entails a range technical knowledge that looks at the scientific application of search engines, natural language processing, bioinformatics, medical diagnosis and cheminformatics, analysis of the stock market, game playing and computer vision.

The development of machine learning has been as a matter of necessity given the fact that,…… [Read More]

References

1. Pavlov, Y.L. (2000). Random forests. Utrecht: VSP.

2. Maindonald, J.H., & Braun, J. (2010). Data analysis and graphics using R: An example-based approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

3. Gurney, K. (2003). An introduction to neural networks. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

4. Zhang, Y., & Rajapakse, J.C. (2009). Machine learning in bioinformatics. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
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Groundwater and Hydrology

Words: 4470 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53233682

Groundwater & Hydrology

Water is the most cast off natural material in the earth. Irrespective of variations in its supply with the pace of time and location its aggregate quantity remains constant. The transformation of the water takes place through a continuation process referred to as hydrological cycle deriving its momentum through the solar energy and gravity. Down pouring of rain consequent upon condensation of clouds are extracted by the roots of plants, flooded over the surface joining the streams and rivers and to some extent absorbed by the earth to form the reservoir of underwater. Vaporization of water from water reservoirs, and transpiration of plants makes the water back to atmosphere.

The invisible underwater, which is the result of the continuous process of hydrological cycle, constitutes the key source of the water. This is also considered as the primary reservoir of pure water in a nation. Presently, the assessments…… [Read More]

References

Barringer, T.A; Dunn, D; Battaglin, W; Vowinkel, E.F. (1990) "Problems and Methods involved in Relating Land Use to Ground-Water Quality" Water-Resources Bulletin. Volume: 26; No: 1; pp: 1-9.

Cesare, Dosi. (2001) "Agricultural Use of Groundwater: Towards Integration between Agricultural Policy and Water Resources Management" Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht

Freeze, R. A; Cherry, J.A. (1979) "Groundwater" Prentice Hall, Inc.

Hubbert, M.K. (1956) "Darcy's Law and the Field Equations of the Flow of Underground Fluids" AIME Transact. Volume: 207. pp: 222-239
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Arctic Technology Okanagan Specialty Fruits Is a

Words: 646 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23568042

Arctic technology

Okanagan Specialty Fruits is a small company that has invented a new technology which has enabled them to genetically engineer apples in such a way that they do not turn into a brown color when cut or sliced. Okanagan is trying to bring this product in the market given the fact that they believe the non-browning apple will be accepted by food companies and consumers. It will also help increase the number of apple sales since retailers can now sell sliced apples. However, the company has received different receptions regarding bringing the genetically engineered apples in the market. There are those who oppose the Arctic Apple as Okanagan named it, while there are those willing to give them a chance to sell the product in the market. Despite the fact that American family has been consuming genetically engineered foods, Arctic Apple will be the first version of genetically…… [Read More]

Reference

Andrew, P. (2012, July 12). That Fresh Look, Genetically Buffed. The New York Times.

Retrieved from  http://www.nytimes.com /2012/07/13/business/growers-fret-over-a-new-apple-that-wont-turn-brown.html?pagewanted=all
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Homeland Security

Words: 688 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1411057

Terrorism as defined by the FBI is the illegal use of force against people or property with the intention of intimidating or coercing a government. It is always done to further political or social objectives. Further, according to FMA, there are three elements that constitute terrorism:

(1) Terrorist activities are illegal and involve the use of force. (2) The actions are intended to intimidate or coerce. (3) The actions are committed in support of political or social objectives. (FMA-SS) www.mema.domestic-preparedness.net/glossary.html

Many consider the cultural differences between law enforcement and the fire service to be based in training and training philosophy. According to Dan Jones, editor of Rescue Magazine, "Police officers are taught to function primarily on their own, but firefighters are taught to act as part of a team. It's a little like comparing tennis players to basketball players." Further, the philosophy of fire service personnel is basically one of…… [Read More]

ESF #3 -- Public Works and Engineering

ESF #4 -- Firefighting

ESF #5 -- Information and Planning Energyhttp://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/frp/frpesf.htm FEMA
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Culture Gender and Social Status on Career

Words: 1348 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1326282

Culture, Gender, and Social Status on Career Choices

Complete a peer-reviewed literature search aging adulthood. The search include

Career patterns of individuals are directly and indirectly influenced by several factors. Culture, gender and social status are but a few of these factors. Culture and beliefs affect the career choices of individuals and there is a huge disparity between the career choices of men and women which arise from the participation of women being below parity as compared to that of men. There is a need to increase the awareness and understanding of individuals on the barriers to the achievement of greater opportunities and this is why it is important to understand the impact of culture, gender and social status on career choices.

Culture

esearch has shown that there is a strong relation between culture and career choices. The aspects of culture that have been examined are attitude towards religion and…… [Read More]

References

Auyeung, P.A.K., & Sands, J. (1997). Factors influencing accounting students' career choice: a cross-cultural validation study. Accounting Education, 6(1), 13-23. doi: 10.1080/096392897331596

Blustein, D.L., Walbridge, M.M., Friedlander, M.L., & Palladino, D.E. (1991). Contributional of psychological separation and parental attachment to the career development process. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 38, 39-50.

Eccles, J.S., & Wigfield, A. (1995). In the mind of the achiever: The structure of adolescents academic achievement -- related beliefs and self-perceptions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 215-225.

Lopez, F.G., & Andrews, S. (1987). Career indecision: A family systems perspective. Journal of Counselling and Development 71, 560-569.
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Speech Strategy

Words: 1291 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93489279

21st century worker: Keeping employees motivated in a global economy

Employee motivation is critical in today's hyper-competitive, global business world; as such it is an appropriate topic for the speech to be presented to Hongkong Electric Holdings. Please find following the brief for this presentation. In this brief you will find the many factors that were taken into consideration, in its preparation. These include the best approach for this specific audience, how the topic had to be developed and limited to again fit with this specific audience's needs, what cultural adaptations were made for this presentation, and what aspects of the speech will connect with the company.

The 21st century worker: Keeping employees motivated in a global economy

Introduction:

Employee motivation is critical in today's hyper-competitive, global business world; as such it is an appropriate topic for the speech to be presented to Hongkong Electric Holdings. Please find following the…… [Read More]

References

Doyle, T. (1997). Analyzing your audience. Retrieved June 1, 2004, at http://www.abacon.com/pubspeak/analyze/analyze.html.

Earle, H.A. (Dec. 2003). Building a workplace of choice: Using the work environment to attract and retain top talent. Journal of Facilities Management, 2(3). Retrieved June 1, 2004, from Business Source Premier database.

Recruitment. (No date). Retrieved June 1, 2004, at http://www.heh.com/recruit/index.htm.

Simons, J.A., Irwin, D.B., & Drinnien, B.A. "Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs." Psychology - The Search for Understanding. (1987). Retrieved June 1, 2004, at http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/maslow.htm. http://www.abacon.com/pubspeak/analyze/analyze.html
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Ethics and Technology

Words: 1821 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14324895

Ethics and Computing in Computer Science

EMPOWERMENT AND RESPONSIILITY

Errors and Hazards and Their Consequences

Despite the best of care and talent, computation is subject to uncertainties, which experts call "errors (Landau, 2008)." Some of these errors are man-made and some are produced by the computer itself. The four classes of errors are blunders or bad theory, random errors, approximation or algorithm errors, and round-off errors. lunders are typographical errors or errors caused by running or using the wrong program or similar errors. Random errors are results of occurrences like fluctuations in electronics or cosmic rays running through the computer. Algorithm or approximation errors include the substitution of finite by infinite figures or variable inputs by constants. And round-off errors are inaccuracies as the finite number of digits for storing floating numbers (Landau). Peter Neumann at the SRI International identified more than 400 incidents of these errors, hazards and other…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Jacky, J. (1989). Safety-critical computing, hazards, practices, standards and regulation.

Vol. 29, # 5, "Programmed for Disaster: Software Errors that Imperil Lives."

Department of Radiation: University of Washington. Retrieved on March 22, 2014

from  http://staff.washington.edu/jon/pubs/safety-critical.html
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Preventing Mitigating Impacts of Sea Level Increase

Words: 691 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70498204

Case Study: Climate Change and Dealing with Sea Level Increase

Rising sea levels have emerged as one of the major concerns in today’s world because of the increased devastating impacts of climate change or global warming. While increase in sea levels is expected to affect the whole world, some regions will be affected more than others. One of the regions that will be significantly affected by sea level increase in China based on a recent report from Climate Central. China is among one of the major Asian countries that has experienced tremendous economic growth over the past few years. The country is characterized by faster-growing coastal megacities and a population of more than 145 million people. Actually, these coastal cities account for approximately 70% of China’s big cities and 41% of her population (Chen, p.925). These coastal areas play a critical role in the country’s GDP and national industrial output…… [Read More]

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Geneaology Having Never Asked My

Words: 680 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21056903



I see the effects of the past on the present in both my personal life and in the life of my community. For example, the discovery of oil in my country has completely changed the demographics and lifestyle. Those who were lucky enough to reap rewards from the lucrative industry can live lavish lifestyles, travel abroad, and even move, live, and work in estern countries while maintaining a home in Kuwait. The most significant thing I have learned is that while we are masters of our destiny, the past still molds and shapes who we are. The American Dream tells us that we can become whatever we want, as long as we are willing to work for it. However, I do not believe that. e can come whatever we want to a certain extent. The past shapes our beliefs, values, goals, and ideals.

hen I asked my parents about their…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Platt, Lyman D. "The Importance of Oral Histories." Genealogy.com. Retrieved online: http://www.genealogy.com/2_oralhs.html
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IT Professional Must Become the 'Renaissance Person'

Words: 1485 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55348617

IT professional must become the 'Renaissance Person' of the 21st century workplace: a brief essay describing how each of the 16 reference disciplines provides support for and inform IS/IT practice

Once upon a time, Informational Science and Informational Technology were thought of as enclosed, rarified disciplines. These disciplines were thought to be the provenance only of the technically astute. Thus, IS and IT personnel were usually relegated to their own, specific areas of most organizational hierarchies. Specialists in IS/IT practice were sometimes known as mere 'techie geeks,' with necessary and specific skills, but ones with little application outside the field. Thus was partly because the educations of IS/IT personnel, fairly or unfairly, were assumed to consist of matters specific only to the discipline of technology, rather than comprising any aspect of the humanities, social and natural sciences, or even the more theoretical aspects of technology such as Artificial Intelligence.

However,…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Smith, Mark. (11 Jul 2001) "The Learning Organization and Knowledge Economy." The Learning Organization. Last updated 11 May 2004. Retrieved 21 Jan 2005 at http://www.infed.org/biblio/learning organization.htm#_The_knowledge_economy

Thacker, S.M. (2000) "Customer Relationship Management." Retrieved 21 Jan 2005 at http://www.smthacker.co.uk/customer_relationship_management_CRM.htm
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Pathogens and Diseases Pathogens Are Common Characteristics

Words: 1909 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65625701

Pathogens and Diseases:

Pathogens are common characteristics of everyday environment as soil contains huge number of bacteria per cubic centimeter while air contains fungal spores. The existence of pathogens in everyday environment emanates from the fact that microorganisms are deposited through touching of various surfaces like tables. Pathogens can be described as disease-causing agents such as infectious microbes, and parasites. While the infectious microbes include viruses and bacteria, parasites include protozoa and fungi. Notably, microbes are only considered as pathogens if they cause harm or diseases since not all microbes are harmful (Koo, 2009). There are opportunistic pathogens, which are organisms that are normally part of the natural flora of the body. These organisms become harmful or pathogens after an invasion like the occurrence of an accidental injury or surgery.

Spread of Pathogens:

Since pathogens are common disease-causing agents, they spread in various ways to cause harm or illnesses. Some…… [Read More]

References:

ABPI -- Bringing Medicines to Life (n.d.), How Pathogens Cause Disease, The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, viewed 17 April 2012,

ABPI -- Bringing Medicines to Life (n.d.), Pathogens Cause Disease, The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, viewed 17 April 2012,

Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance (2007), Infection Prevention and Control Best

Practices, Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance, viewed 17 April 2012,
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Emerging Biotechnologies Censoring Science

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26452729

Censoring Science & Ethics

Here are my answers to the questions on the Values Exchange. I assume censoring is bad. I tried to answer the questions in a way like the others did. Then I changed the essay to make it sound why the issue should be considered in a better way. The questions are provided and then the answers are in RED. I guess, if you have to post them, you can use this as a guide. The essay can then be cut and pasted into another file and used that way. Hope this is what you want.

Emerging Biotechnologies: Censoring Science

I disagree with censoring science.

REACTIONS:

Why does this matter?

Because the issue is about whether science works the way it should.

IDEAL: What ideal most important?

Giving scientists and the way science is done the chance to work properly.

How confident? Just a little.

Why ideal…… [Read More]

My belief is that censoring science is never a good thing. In using the Values Exchange, people have the chance to offer their opinions and suggestions. However, in most instances the amount of information that is offered is limited and seems very similar to others. It appears that it would be better if people were free to look more deeply into the topic. I looked through a number of articles and found a lot of additional information that leads me to believe that it is important for science and scientists to be ethical and open about what they are doing.

THE ISSUES ARE BROADER: Some of the issues that I noticed that are not well reflected in the Values Exchange have to do with how broad this topic can be. The ethical issues in the biological and health sciences of the past are not the same as those we face now. The issue of whether there should be a release of detailed technical information in adapting the H5N1 virus into a mutant strain seems troubling but somewhat distant from most people's real-life concerns (Conner, 2012; Walsh, 2011). Only a few hundred people have been hurt (or killed) from the transmission of the H5N1 virus, and most of those have been in rather isolated locations.

But how about how science is being used for other reasons? It might seem extreme but synthetic biology is a realistic consideration of how the fields of engineering, medicine and even computer technology can be brought together to literally create new kinds and types of life (Guttmann,
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Water and Plastic Bottle Burden

Words: 1800 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79110006

With this information, people can make informed decisions regarding the water they consume. Which additives are healthful? Which are not? These are examples of only some of the questions responsible consumers should have when choosing their water. Regarding the use of plastics, the solution is simple. By simply changing their habits from plastic water bottles to stainless steel or any of the other alternatives, not only is the consumer choosing something that supports of the well-being of the planet, but also supports the well-being of themselves.

This is merely one solution of many meant to work towards a more sustainable lifestyle across the globe. That the consumption of water increased so quickly, all over the world, signifies the impact of advertising on consumer choices. This can be a reason for hope, since just as quickly the use of stainless steel water bottles and clean water can be brought into individual…… [Read More]

7. Fluoride Action Network, Health Effects, (http://www.fluoridealert.org/health...)

8. Fluoridation/Flouride, Toxic Chemicals in Your Water, ( http://www.holisticmed.com/fluoride/ )

9. Worth Health Organization, Water Related Diseases, (http://www.who.int/water_sanitation...)
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Born to Be Big Childhood

Words: 2102 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85178688

People can exercise their free choice at the grocery store by choosing organic foods, although because of generally higher costs of organic products, this will not be a solution for everyone. People in lower socioeconomic groups often get food at discount chains or even food pantries where organics are not even a choice at all.

There is no incentive for makers of agricultural chemicals to modify their products in response to charges about obesogens. As the documentary films the Future of Food and King Corn pointed out, the use of pesticides is very big business. Though detrimental effects of pesticides and genetically-modified seeds and food have been shown, further research is needed to prove the link between pesticides and genetic modifications that lead to obesity in infants and children. When and if that link is proven, the public will have to demand that the government take action. Consumer advocate organizations…… [Read More]

References

Adler, N.E., & Stewart, J. (2009). Reducing obesity: motivating action while not blaming the victim. Milbank Quarterly 87 (1), pp. 49-70. Retrieved from Academic Search

Premier database December 29, 2010.

Baillie-Hamilton, P.F. (2002). Chemical toxins: a hypothesis to explain the global obesity epidemic. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 8 (2), pp. 185-192.

DOI: 10.1089/107555302317371479. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database December 29, 2010.
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Water Geography Part One Terms

Words: 2762 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16776764

But after local wastewater plants were "...upgraded and farms' management practices were improved, the amount of phosphorus declined and the copper sulfate was no long considered necessary" (Royte, 2007). The Times' story reports that to prevent the dumping of partially treated sewage water into the waterways, septic tanks need to be upgraded and "cleaning the water in sewage treatments plants even more thoroughly before it is discharged into the watershed..." is necessary. That will be quite a job, because "more than two dozen of the roughly 100 wastewater treatment plants that discharge into the city's watershed use a suboptimal cleaning process."

TO: The flooding problem. hy has it become a more serious problem in recent years? Taking New York City as an example of the problem and its roots, the New York Times article alluded to in the previous section points out that recently, as developers began clearing more and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Clausen, Jan. (2000). Northwest Tribes Fight Against Formidable Odds to Save Endangered

Salmon. Nation. 270(3), 22-24.

Gelt, Joe. (2005). Managing the Interconnecting Waters: The Groundwater-Surface Water

Dilemma. University of Arizona. Retrieved Oct. 16, 2007, at http://cals.arizona.edu/axwater/arroyo/081con.html.
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Charles Horton Cooley Is Considered

Words: 1921 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27950483

Men, who also have tendencies to act in certain ways, come into contact with situations which stimulate some of their activities and repress others. Those who are stimulated have their growth increased'.

Cooley has discussed the possible sources for these changes in conception of differentiated unities, wholes, or realms encompassing and encompassed in human social life and its situation. Cooley is of the opinion that the human social life and its perspective can be desolated, but at the same it is connected and dependent upon the organic domain in which the situation occurs. According to him, the social life can initiate social changes; however, the social life itself is to be categorized into sub-systems based on cultural divisions.

Cooley has termed that the real cause behind any specific change or growth is based on the dynamic and convincing tendencies of the members' personalities. This is the reflection of the Cooley's…… [Read More]

References

Walter B. Bodenhafer. "Cooley's Theories of Competition and Conflict." Publications of the American Sociological Association, Vol. 25. 1930.18-24.

Coser. The Primary Group. Publications of the American Sociological Association. 1977. 307-310.

Charles Horton Cooley. "Now and Then." Journal of Applied Sociology 8 (1924): 259-262.

Charles Horton Cooley. Social Process. Southern Illinois University Press. Carbondale, IL. 1966. 24.
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Substance Abuse in Modern Society Substance Abuse

Words: 889 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19796171

Substance Abuse

In modern society, substance abuse refers to a maladaptive pattern of using a substance that is unnecessary for health. It is not limited to mood-altering or psycho-active drugs (marijuana, alcohol, etc.), but is defined as any substance that is habitual, interferes with one's life, and causes a large range of dependencies within human culture. It is a public health cost and issue, and comes under a number of categories (Lowinson, 2005). In the Healthy People 2020 initiative, one of the goals is to "reduce substance abuse to protect the health, safety and quality of life for all, especially children." For this review, we will use Tobacco Addiction as a model.

Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of disease, death, or disability in the United States. More deaths are caused yearly from tobacco use than any other substance abuse, motor vehicle injury, HIV, or murder combined (Anti-Smoking,…… [Read More]

Cited in:

http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/13/suppl_2/ii1.
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Zeolite Membranes Catalyst Is a

Words: 1142 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16135022



Promotes better plant growth by improving the value of fertilizer. Helps prevent plant burning from over use of fertilizers by trapping and slowly releasing valuable nutrients when and as the plants need them.

Improves the cation exchange capacity of soil resulting in less fertilizer requirements.

Natural zeolites make an excellent soil amendment, and are environmentally friendly for landfill dump sites (with the exception of zeolite that has been used as a molecular sieve or filter medium for the removal of radioactive waste or the removal of heavy chemical toxins deemed hazardous by government regulations.)

educes nutrient and fertilizer loss through heavy rains, leaching and irrigation, resulting in less environmental damage through water runoff.

The water retention capability of zeolites allows less irrigation applications.

Zeolite is used to reduce offensive odors, especially ammonia from sewage, animal manure and waste water situations.

This retained valuable nitrogen improves the quality of the resulting…… [Read More]

References

Bowman, Robert. "Properties of Zeolites - Robert S. Bowman, New Mexico Tech Earth&

Environmental Science." New Mexico Tech. 2003. New Mexico Tech. 3 May 2005 http://www.ees.nmt.edu/bowman/research/SMZ/ZeoProp.html.

Falconer, John and Richard Noble. "Zeolite Membrane Research." Colorado.edu. Colorado.edu.3

May 2005 http://www.colorado.edu/che/FalcGrp/research/zeolite.html.
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Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds as Indoor Air Pollutants

Words: 4019 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24251196

Air pollution pertains to substances and gases in the air that threaten health and life. Among these are pollutants and irritants, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide; particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), toxic substances and some natural substances, like pollen. ut most of the pollution comes from the by-products of industrialization - fossil fuel combustion, transportation, transportation, power plant emissions and those from other industrial processes. The burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity alone is the greatest source of air pollution in the U.S.A. These outdoor pollutants can undermine health and cause environmental disturbances, such as acid rain, and are toxic.

Studies show that we now spend more than 90% of our lives inside buildings and other constructed environments. ecause of this, such structures - including homes and office buildings - are constructed with energy efficiency and comfort foremost in mind. The installation of central heating,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Alpha nutrition Programs. Indoor Air-More Contaminated Than Outdoor Air?

Medical Information

2. Ammann, Harriet M. Is Indoor Mold Contamination a Threat to Health?

Office of Environmental Health Assessments, Washington State Department of Health
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Inadequacy of Forensic Hair Analysis

Words: 6513 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4071943

Hair is also in contact with chemicals in shampoos, and any dyes, gels, sprays or other cosmetics that may be placed on the hair (11).

Since there is no standardized method for cleaning these external contaminants off of the hair prior to analysis, the potential for inaccurate results from external contamination is widespread. There is no way to tell in the laboratory if a chemical is contained within the hair, and therefore came from with in the body, or if it is on the surface of the hair and did not come from within the body (12). An enormous amount of scientific research studies have indicated that hair analysis is unreliable as a diagnostic tool in crime solving. For example, in one study, the researchers took hair from the head of a single individual and sent portions of the sample to six laboratories; the results varied widely from laboratory to…… [Read More]

43. Lee, H. 2004. Advances in Forensics Provide Creative Tools for Solving Crimes. Bulletin of the Council of Science and Engineering, 19(2).

44. Lee, H. 2004. Advances in Forensics Provide Creative Tools for Solving Crimes. Bulletin of the Council of Science and Engineering, 19(2).

45. Lee, H. 2004. Advances in Forensics Provide Creative Tools for Solving Crimes. Bulletin of the Council of Science and Engineering, 19(2).
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Ethical Argument

Words: 3188 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36427916

Ethical Argument

Proclaimed by scientists, the thriving cloning of an adult sheep and the prospect to clone a human being is one of the most striking and latest instances of a scientific innovation turning out to be a major argumentative issue. A variety of critics, physicians and legal specialists, scientists and theologians, talk-radio hosts, as well as editorial column writers, for the period of the preceding few months, have been effectively reacting to the news, a number of them bringing up fears and apprehensions on the ethical and moral side of the subject, of the viewpoint of cloning a human being.

The National ioethics Advisory Commission (NAC), at the appeal of the President, held inquiries, as well as organized a report on the ethical, religious, as well as lawful subjects contiguous to human cloning. The Commission suggested a suspension on attempts to clone human beings, at the same time as…… [Read More]

Bibliography

National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Cloning Human Beings. Report and Recommendations. June 9, 2001.

James Q. Wilson. The Paradox of Cloning. Weekly Standard. May 26, 2001.

Jean Bethke Elshtain. Ewegenics. New Republic. March 31, 2001.

R.C. Lewontin. The Confusion over Cloning. New York Review of Books. October 23, 2001.