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Statement of Purpose -- Biomedical
The potential for using advanced technologies to treat the most problematic, persistent diseases humans face shows great potential in improving the quality of life globally. This is especially true in nations that have high birth rates and not enough medical facilities for the entire population, as is the case in many nations in Asia. The rapid growth of biomedical engineering and its many facets from clinical engineering, genetic engineering, medical devices, neural engineering and medical imaging taken together contribute to a 57% growth rate in patent development annually in the United States alone and nearly a $75B industry annually, growing at 27% a year (Pretorius, Winzker, 2011). In addition these technologies are contributing to higher levels of accuracy in diagnosing and treating diseases.
Interest in Engineering and Telecommunications
My innate skills are in biology, math and science, and throughout my undergraduate studies I became…
Anderson, G.F., & Russe, C.M. (1987). Biomedical research and technology development. Health Affairs, 6(2), 85-92.
Boehm, T. (2005). How can we explain the american dominance in biomedical research and development? Journal of Medical Marketing, 5(2), 158-166,107-108.
Gwynne, P. (2008). MIT recruiting engineers for biomedical research. Research Technology Management, 51(4), 5-6.
Olesen, D.E. (1999). Navigating the technology jungle: Applications of emerging biomedical technologies. Vital Speeches of the Day, 65(21), 665-669.
From the other end, the medical community is aiming to perfect their current bioinformatics computational tools. In other words, the search for the best formats to organize medical information as passed through the World Wide Web is also underway. "With the assistance of high-performance parallel computer to enhance the network connections and interactive user interface, the scaleable parallel computer architectures provide the biomedical researchers with massive amount of accurate data for long searches or computations in record time." (Lei 1998). Generally, protocols are in development to make the patient, doctor, electronic transactions as smooth, effortless, and flawless as possible. Not only that, but such a network could possibly alert various medical organizations around the country as to specific locations and occurrences of future epidemics -- which could be very useful to stopping the spread. Such an efficient plan "requires careful management to bring people and technology together in creative and…
Jennings, Ken and Kurt Miller and Sharyn Materna. (1997). Changing Health Care. Santa Monica: Anderson Consulting.
Lei, Polin P. "Harnessing Biomedical Resources for Cooperation and Collaboration: Cases in Bioinformatics and Nutritional Sciences." (1998). Special Libraries Association. Tuscan: University of Arizona Publications.
The Case of Scott Starson
In 1999, Scott Starson was involuntarily committed to a psychiatric hospital in Ontario after he had been found not criminally responsible for two counts of uttering death threats. Starson had a history of psychiatric disorders, and had recently been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Starson recognized his disorder and voluntarily underwent psychotherapy, but he refused any medication for the condition. Starson, a gifted theoretical physicist, believed the medications would destroy his ability to pursue his research, which in his opinion was the only thing that gave his life meaning. Physicians and officials believed Mr. Starson was unable to genuinely appreciate the value of treatment, so they petitioned to have his treatment decisions transferred to a surrogate. The petition was granted, but Mr. Starson appealed in a case that made its way up to the Supreme Court of Canada, which overturned the decision and asserted…
Brean, J. (2013, February 4). Professor Starson's landmark case established legal right to refuse medication, but he's still fighting his own battle. Retrieved from National Post: http://news.nationalpost.com/2013/02/04/professor-starsons-landmark-case-established-legal-right-to-refuse-medication-but-hes-still-fighting-his-own-battle/
Center for Cognitive Liberty & Ethics. (2000, August 24). The Neuroethics Project. Retrieved from Center for Cognitive Liberty & Ethics: http://www.cognitiveliberty.org/neuro/Starson.html
Makin, K. (2003, June 6). Scott Starson. Retrieved from Injusticebuster: http://injusticebusters.org/2003/Starson_Scott.htm
O'Neil, J. (2005, May 18). Mentally ill genius who took case to top court was starving himself. Retrieved from Psych Links: http://forum.psychlinks.ca/forensic-psychology-and-criminal-justice/2137-the-starson-case.html
Biomedical Ethics: Euthanasia
Mercy killing continues to elicit debates on the moral and ethical aspects involved in conducting the act. Mercy killing, which is also called euthanasia, is a practice that medical professionals consider to assist the terminally ill patients (Huxtable 21). Terminal illnesses do not have a cure, or such conditions that have terminal consequence are irreversible. For instance, the case of Paul Mills, who was terminally ill due to cancer of the esophagus, is an illustration of euthanasia. The doctor involved, Dr. Nancy Morrison arrived at the conclusion after the patient agreed to have the practice performed on him. Euthanasia is currently a discussion subject in the legal context as governments and medical organizations seek to establish legal regulations and definitions of the practice. However, the moral and social ethical values are the focus of many who have diverse views of the impacts of euthanasia.
Arguments against euthanasia…
Diaconescu, Amelia Mihaela. "Euthanasia." Contemporary Readings in Law and Social
Justice 4.2 (2012): 474-83. ProQuest.Web. 30 Sep. 2013.
Huxtable, Richard. Euthanasia, Ethics, and the Law: From Conflict to Compromise-Abingdon,
Oxon: Routledge-Cavendish, 2007. Print.
Biomedical issues of HIV / AIDS
Efforts and initiatives directed toward the prevention of HIV / AIDS are of the utmost importance and a top priority for researchers and practitioners within the healthcare field. Although education initiatives directed specifically toward segments of the population who are particularly high risk of contracting the disease have been the most widely used prevention strategies, research has more recently demonstrated the potential effectiveness of pharmacological agents administered as preventative measures against HIV / AIDS. The following discussion outlines a project aimed at the development of an effective implementation program for preexposure prophylaxis that would encourage and support adherence and effective prevention of HIV / AIDS.
Goals and Objectives
Previous research has provided evidence for the effectiveness of certain medications in the prevention of HIV / AIDS. In particular, recent attention has been paid by researchers toward the effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis for the prevention…
Abdool, K.Q., Abdool, K.S., Frohlich, J.A., Grobler, A.C., Baxter, C., Mansoor, L.,E., Kharsany, A.B., Sibeko, S., Mlisana, K.P., Omar, Z., Gengiah, T.N., Maarschalk, S., Arulappan, N., Morris, L., Taylor, D. (2010). Effectiveness and safety of tenofovir gel, an antiretroviral microbicide, for the prevention of HIV infection in women. Science, 329(5996), 1168-74.
Heneine, W., Kashuba, A. (2012). HIV prevention by oral preexposure prophylaxis. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine. 2(3)
Krakower, D., Mayer, K.H. (2011). Promising prevention approaches: tenofovir gel and prophylactic use of antiretroviral medications. Current HIV / AIDS Reports, 8(4), 241-8.
Myers, G.M., Mayer, K.H. (2011). Oral perexposure anti-HIV prophylaxis for high-risk U.S. populations: current considerations in light of new findings. AIDS: Patient Car and STDs, 25(2), 63-71.
Biomedical Ethics -- eflection of "I Am Sam"
The treatment of vulnerable population in situations of legal rights is an ever-growing dilemma. In the movie "I Am Sam," Sam is a mentally disabled father seen as unfit to care for his daughter. Because of social workers observations, the courts removed the daughter from his care. Individuals with mental disabilities, like Sam, suffer daily with basic right infringements. People are quick to pass judgment on individuals like Sam, even to the point of placing stress on their basic liberties of justice and the pursuit of happiness. The question stands however, what are the ethical principles involved in the treatment of vulnerable individuals and what potential legal challenges could arise? Using Benedictine values as the underlining influence, a discussion the treatment of vulnerable populations and legal challenges will ensue.
Applying ethical principles to the basic needs of the disabled is a common…
Munson, R. (1979). Intervention and reflection: Basic issues in medical ethics. The Wadsworth series in social philosophy. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth Pub. Co.
Nelson, J. (Director). (2002). "I Am Sam" [Film]. Los Angeles: New Line Cinemas, Warner Brothers.
The case of Dr. Nancy Morrison and Mr. Mills is an important one, as it forces the legal system to tackle the question of Euthanasia and end of life care. The important questions raised by this case are what is the extent of a doctor's responsibilities towards a patient that is in pain and dying, can a doctor make a judgment call and end a patient's life prematurely; can a patient make that decision on their own? Is it ethical to let a patient die in agonizing pain for hours? Also, is it ethical to make that decision as a healthcare provider? The paper will examine the specifics of the case, the extent of the suffering Mr. Mills underwent, and the ethical and moral issues associated with Dr. Morrison's actions.
The specifics of the case are as follows, Mr. Mills was admitted to the Moncton General Hospital in…
Collier, Carol, and Rachel Frances Christine Haliburton. Bioethics in Canada: a concise philosophical introduction. Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press Inc., 2011. Print.
Reynolds, Sharon, Andrew B. Cooper, and Martin McKneally. "Withdrawing Life-Sustaining Treatment: Ethical Considerations." Surgical Clinics of North America 87.4 (2007): 469-480. Print.
Sneiderman, Barney, and Raymond Deutscher. "Dr. Nancy Morrison and her dying patient: a case of medical necessity." Health Law Journal 10 (2002): 1-30. Print.
To make sure that the prisoner's viewpoint is observed, review boards must consist of at least one inmate or inmate representative when examining such research (Kluge, 2010).
In researches dealing with kids, government laws require that guardians or parents to give authorization. In most cases, the child may assent whenever possible. Parent's authorization is one factor of the "special protections" provided to this vulnerable segment. The need to obtain assent provides regard for the autonomy of kids and teenagers.
Cognitively Impaired Subjects
Issues concerning research among cognitively impaired subjects, such as individuals with a mental sickness or dementia, center on their potential to give consent. Currently, government laws do not specifically address research actions, including adults who lack decision-making potential. The Common law allows researchers to obtain consent from a subject's "legally approved representative." However, whether an unskilled individual's proxy has the right to approve research participation remains to…
Chin, R.Y., & Lee, B.Y. (2008). Principles and practice of clinical trial medicine. London: Academic.
Kluge, E.-H. W. (2010). Readings in biomedical ethics: A Canadian focus. Scarborough, Ont: Prentice Hall Toronto.
Leino-Kilpi, H. (2010). Patient's autonomy, privacy and informed consent. Amsterdam [u.a: IOS Press [u.a..
Marshall, P.L. (2007). Ethical challenges in study design and informed consent for health research in resource-poor settings. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
At a first glance, the main assumption of utilitarianism that preaches the greatest good for the greatest number seems the right decision. According to Maguire (cited in Gula, 1991), however, physical life is not the greatest or absolute value and death is not the absolute evil. There are other values that transcend physical life, such as personal integrity, human dignity, and the freedom to determine the direction of one's life according to one's convictions. Therefore, the persons in cause have the right to decide for themselves when their life should end. When a person considers that personality is extinguished there is no reason to preserve biological life, since integrity, human dignity and freedom require and suggest the right to make a decision concerning life and death. Such choice proves a relief to relatives and family and makes possible a reallocation of medical resources.
In conclusion, the paper reflected on the…
Gula R. (1991) Moral Perspectives on Euthanasia. Studies in Christian Ethics; 4; 22, retrieved at http://sce.sagepub.com
biomedical ethics research, internet searching articles, specific topic-based book Ethical Issues in Modern Medicine, Bonnie Steinbock, John D. Arras, Alex J. London 7th ed. The General topic: Part 2 Allocation, Social Justice, health Policy.
Organ donation: Ethics of gift vs. market exchanges
The dramatic difference between the philosophy of deontological, or Kantian ethics and consequential or situational, utilitarian ethics would seem to be crystallized in the issues that arise over the ethics of paid organ donations. From a utilitarian viewpoint, the more people who donate organs, the better. Increased organ donation to preserve more human lives would seem to be a universal 'good.' The more people who donate organs, the more people will live. The ethics of how increased donations arise, barring the untimely termination of the donor's life is of less consequence than the fact that they do arise. Thus allowing individuals to donate organs in exchange for money…
Rutecki, Gregory W. "Commodities Trading or Gift Exchange: Where will tomorrow's organ donors come from?" The Center for Bioethics and Human Dignity. December 1, 2010.
Child Limit Laws
The debate regarding the right of having children against the importance of national family planning has raged for years. In the late 1960s, many strongly believed that a decline in fertility rates would slow population growth, especially in developing countries and thus reduce poverty. This was the popular view at the time but in the 1980s, there emerged a fresh thinking about the right to bear children. The proponents of this alternative view based their argument on the thought that demographic characteristics had no role in reduction of poverty Huang, Mincy and Garfinkel 1216()
New evidence has emerged that support the first view and showed that trends in the population are important in reducing poverty. However, the challenge for this is that there is progress in ensuring economic and social empowerment of the population including their right to bear children. By presenting the case for…
Apel, Robert, et al. "Using State Child Labor Laws to Identify the Causal Effect of Youth Employment on Deviant Behavior and Academic Achievement." Journal of Quantitative Criminology 24.4 (2008): 337-62. Print.
Edmonds, Eric V. "Does Child Labor Decline with Improving Economic Status?" The Journal of Human Resources 40.1 (2005): 77-99. Print.
Genicot, Garance. "Malnutrition and Child Labor." The Scandinavian Journal of Economics 107.1 (2005): 83-102. Print.
Gordon, Rachel A., and Robin S. Hognas. "The Best Laid Plans: Expectations, Preferences, and Stability of Child-Care Arrangements." Journal of Marriage and Family 68.2 (2006): 373-93. Print.
USPTO website and pick a patent related to medical device or drug
Review the patent and write brief summary of the finding
Patent #7,828,438 Method and apparatus for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's using non-invasive eye tomography by Terahertz, provides a proposed method of detection and possible diagnosis for early stage Alzheimer's Disease (AD) through a noninvasive scan of the eye to compare the amyloidal plaque in the eye to a control. The findings of the patent is that the method may prove a viable method of detecting plaque deposits in eyes which have been shown in other research to simultaneously deposit on the lenses of the eyes as well as the key areas of the brain which are affected by Alzheimer's
Review the "claims" and present the details of what the patent claims
The system is novel in that it does not use laser light, but instead claims to use…
Ethical Principles in Biomedical esearch
Biomedical research is a field of medical research which is used to assist and support the body of knowledge that is available in the field of medicine. It is divided into two major categories. The first is the evaluation of new treatments for both their efficacy and safety in what are known as clinical trials. This kind of research contributes in the development of new forms of treatment. The second category is the preclinical research which is conducted to specifically elaborate on the knowledge available in order to develop new therapeutic strategies.
ole and impact of government regulatory agencies
Biomedical research is a highly regulated field. This is because it can directly or indirectly because of several reasons. The first is that it uses human subjects. Second is that it can cause serious harm, directly and indirectly, to the human subjects under test. National regulatory…
Bosk, C.L., & Vries, R.G. d. (2004). Bureaucracies of Mass Deception: Institutional Review Boards and the Ethics of Ethnographic Research. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 595, 249-263.
DuBois, J.M. (2009). The Biomedical Ethics Ontology Proposal: Excellent Aims, Questionable Methods. Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: An International Journal, 4(1), 59-62.
Emanuel, E.J., Wendler, D., Killen, J., & Grady, C. (2004). What Makes Clinical Research in Developing Countries Ethical? The Benchmarks of Ethical Research. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 189(5), 930-937.
Fadare, J.O., & Porteri, C. (2010). Informed Consent in Human Subject Research: A Comparison of Current International and Nigerian Guidelines. Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: An International Journal, 5(1), 67-74.
The suggestion that lies behind this study is that healthcare professionals must look into the details of everyday life and seek to understand how the aspirations of diverse groups affect their choices and goals.
On deeper cultural levels, African-Americans also face unique problems that relate to health and well-being. The African-American family appears almost endangered in modern day America, and African-Americans face thereby a real problem when it comes to finding the necessary familial and community support when faced by major health crises. In area after area, Blacks do not receive the same kind of aggressive treatment as received by Whites. In a study of 53,000 African-American heart attack victims, it was found that Whites received much more aggressive treatment and care, while only forty-seven percent of impoverished African-Americans received treatment in intensive care units as compared to seventy percent of Whites in similar economic circumstances (Jewell, 2003, p. 196).…
Casper, L.M., & King, R.B. (2004). 4 Changing Families, Shifting Economic Fortunes, and Meeting Basic Needs. In Work-Family Challenges for Low-Income Parents and Their Children, Crouter, a.C. & Booth, a. (Eds.) (pp. 55-78). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Copeland, V.C. (2005). African-Americans: Disparities in Health Care Access and Utilization. Health and Social Work, 30(3), 265+.
Miniature Antennas for Biomedical Applications
Most of the studies on microwave antennas for medical applications have concentrated on generating hyperthermia for medical treatments and monitoring several physiological parameters. The types of antenna implanted depend of the location. Besides the medical therapy and diagnosis the telecommunications are considered as significant functions for implantable medical devices those needs to transmit diagnosis information. The design of the antennas catering to MEMS and NANO technology therefore should be smaller enough with cost effective, low power consumption etc.
esearch is going on since long in the field of development of wireless interfaces for environmental and biomedical sensor devices. CMOS and F MEMS circuits, miniature antennas and sensor networking are now being explored. Complete process involving such elements is developed and is being experimented. Wireless interfaces are now being devised for neural probes, cochlear implants and for development of other biomedical devices like arterial stent monitors…
A Miniature / Randome Antenna Array. Retrieved from http://www.silcom.com/~pelican2/MINI_INTRO.html Accessed 23, August, 2005
Application of MEMS Technology for High Speed Gel Electrophoresis. Retrieved from http://www.inrf.uci.edu/research/posters/Application_of_MEMS_Technology_for_High_Speed_Gel_Electrophoresis_Prof_Mark_Bachman_UCI_949-824-6421_Kuosheng_Ma.pdf Accessed 22, August, 2005
Best, Steven. R. Optimizing the Performance of Electrically Small Antennas. Retrieved from http://www.ieeeaps.org/lecturers.html Accessed 21 August, 2005
Creatative ideas and exciting applications with challenging scientific breakthroughs. Retrieved from http://biomems.uwaterloo.ca/research.html Accessed 21 August, 2005
clinical, ethical and legal aspects of biomedical decision-making ( with an example of case related to healthcare clinical, ethical and legal issue involved and as an admistrator what is my standpoint?
Biomedicine involves various facets. To be a successful practitioner in this filed one needs to know not only the distinctions between each but also possess a basic knowledge of the principles of each. The three categories of biomedical decision making re the following:
The clinical field-
This involves the practical aspects of the field where the practitioner is actually involved in the business of biomedicine in a doctor / nurse -- patient capacity. Clinical work ranges from practitioners who engage themselves in understanding and working with molecular interactions to the study of the consequences of these molecular interactions at the in vivo level. Clinical practicum integrates biology and medicine and uses this research by devising new strategies for diagnosis…
Biomedicine - Legal and Ethical Issues
Biomedical Sciences: Job Options, Duties and Requirements
Translating iomedical Innovation / Mental Health and well being
Managing Ideas: Commercialization Strategies for iotechnology
This article by Joshua and Scott Focuses on the commercialization aspect of biotechnology and stresses how important it is for innovators in the new and fast developing field of biotechnology to effectively forge collaboration with existing pharmaceutical market leaders in order to successfully create a new and strong value proposition for the healthcare sector. iotech firms have not been able to challenge traditional pharmaceutical companies as they were expected to. The market control of powerful pharmaceutical giants, the risk of expropriation of innovations and the poor integration strategies are responsible for why many biotech firms struggle for their survival. Already faced with huge costs of innovation, biotech firms also have to deal with more hurdles in the form of product development, regulatory issues, marketing and distribution challenges. These challenges explain why biotech innovators have not…
1) Albert Somit & Steven Peterson, 'Human Nature and Public Policy: An evolutionary approach," Palgrave Macmillan, 2003
emotional issues in the field of biomedical ethics is the issue of patient assisted suicide. Proponents on both sides of the issue believe strongly in their arguments and the discussions surrounding the issue often become quite acrimonious. Yet, it is an issue that demands some measure of agreement but remains unresolved and caught in the middle are the patients who are actually suffering from conditions that initiate the discussions (Faber, 2000).
A variety of terms have been used to describe the process of when a terminally ill uses lethal medications for the purpose of ending his or her life but for purposes of this paper it will be simply identified as patient assisted suicide. Implicit in the use of the word suicide is the understanding of a premature death that is being generated out of despair. This is an extremely sensitive point in the discussion of patient assisted suicide and…
American Public Health Association. (2008, October 28). Patients' Rights to Self-Determination at the End of Life. Retrieved October 26, 2011, from American Public Health Association: http://www.apha.org/advocacy/policy/policysearch/default.htm?id=1372
Faber, K. (2000). Should Assisted Suicide be Only Physician Assisted. Medicine and Public Issues, 482-487.
Quill, T. & Arnold, R.M. (2008). Evaluating requests for hastened death. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 1151-1152.
Snyder, L. (2000). Assisted Suicide: Finding Common Ground. Medicine and Public Issues, 468-469.
Consent of Subjects Included in Biomedical esearch
Informed Consent is the basis of the transfer of information to a subject who is a candidate to participate in a clinical trial. The process of obtaining informed consent is a moral and ethical component of clinical trials conducted under Good Clinical Practices (GCPs). A subject is informed of all aspects of a clinical trial that are determined relevant to their decision to participate including risks, trial purpose, and safety documentation so that the subject can make a decision and confirm their willingness to participate. Informed consent precedes enrollment in a clinical trial and is documented by means or a written, signed and dated consent form.
Purpose of Informed Consent
Except in a few narrow instances such as life threatening situations, all research involving any drug including biological products, food additives, medical devices, or color additives must take place with legally effective informed…
Protection of Human Subjects, 21 C.F.R. § 50 U.S. FDA (1998)
E6 Good Clinical Practice: Consolidated Guidance for Industry U.S. FDA (1996)
As the narrow policy discussions regarding Physician-Assisted Suicide continue, we ought to encourage all presently existing and legal methods of reducing the painful sufferings during the last phase of life.
Drickamer, Margaret, a; Lee, Melinda. a; Ganzini, Linda. (1997, Jan 15) "Practical Issues in Physician-Assisted Suicide" Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 126, no. 2, pp: 146-151.
Emauel, Ezekiel. (1997, Mar) "Whose right to die?" The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 17, no. 2, pp:
Hayden, Laurel a. (1999, Apr) "Ethical Issues: Helping Patients with End-of-Life Decisions"
The American Journal of Nursing, vol. 99, no. 4, pp: 2401-2403.
Kaplan, Kalman. J; Harrow, Martin; Schneiderhan, Mark. E. (2002, Spring) "Suicide, physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in men vs. women around the world: The degree of physician control" Ethics and Medicine, vol. 21, no. 1, pp: 14-20.
Quill, Timothy E; Meier, Diane. E; Block, Susan. D; Billings, Andrew. J. (1998, Apr) "The
Debate over Physician-Assisted…
Drickamer, Margaret, a; Lee, Melinda. a; Ganzini, Linda. (1997, Jan 15) "Practical Issues in Physician-Assisted Suicide" Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 126, no. 2, pp: 146-151.
Emauel, Ezekiel. (1997, Mar) "Whose right to die?" The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 17, no. 2, pp:
Hayden, Laurel a. (1999, Apr) "Ethical Issues: Helping Patients with End-of-Life Decisions"
The American Journal of Nursing, vol. 99, no. 4, pp: 2401-2403.
ith the emergence of new technologies and procedures
has occurred the emergence of new experts. According to Rose, "around these
experts of the soma cluster a whole variety of new pastoral experts-genetic
counselors are perhaps the best exemplars-whose role is to advise and guide
to care and support, individuals and families as they negotiate their way
through the personal, medical and ethical dilemmas that they face. And,
perhaps, most remarkable has been the rise of a novel expertise of
'bioethics.'" (Rose, 6)
This is the subject which commands perhaps the greatest importance in
Rose's text, striking relevance into every other aspect of the debate by
suggesting that this essentially subjective lens has come to dominate a
field traditionally ruled by empiricism. To this point, optimization has
been distinctly impacted by this false or self-proclaimed sense of somatic
Indeed, in his dealing throughout the text with this issue of
Rose, N.S. (2006). The Politics of Life Itself. Princeton University
ethics of abortion. The writer takes one case of a requested abortion and explores its ethical possibilities. The writer uses several cases to argue that this case is ethically sound for the performance of an abortion. There was one source used to complete this paper.
Abortion has always been a very sensitive issue. Most of the nation is divided into two camps, pro-choice, and pro-life. Those who are in the pro-choice camp believe that abortion is the choice of the woman because it is her body and her life that will be forever altered by having a baby. Those that are pro-life believe it is the killing of a child and should never be done. Abortion has held its position as one of the most heated and emotional topics in the country for many years. For pro-choice and pro-life advocates most cases are clearly cut and dry as to their…
DOE v. BOLTON, 410 U.S. 179 (1973)
410 U.S. 179
The author of this report was given the choice of one of two assignments when it comes to the Johnna Fisher textbook offering on medical ethics. The author of this report has decided to seize upon one of the articles littered throughout the book and make a thesis argument and report about the same. The Fisher text is full of articles and ethical quandaries that are ripe for the picking. However, the author of this report has chosen to focus on the idea of sterilizing the "feeble-minded" as explained and argued by Grekul, Krahn and Odynak. The question of whether people could or should have full rights to procreate despite the social problems it can create or aggravate is a burning question for many people. hile choosing who can procreate and who should not are very Nazi-esque to some, the idea of controlling who can have kids and…
Akerlof, George. "An Analysis of Out-Of-Wedlock Births in The United States." The Brookings Institution. N.p., 1996. Web. 30 Mar. 2016.Fisher, J. (2009). Biomedical ethics. Don Mills, Ont.: Oxford University Press.
PBS. "American Experience -- The Pill -- People & Events." PBS.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 30 Mar. 2016.
passion for the Biomedical Engineering field and wish to pursue it as my career. What separates my interest of Biomedical Engineering apart from the rest of the engineering field is its focus on medicine, and therefore, people. The ever changing medical field allows for the constant challenge that I thrive for in a work environment.
I originally became interested in the Biomedical Engineering field when participating in a project in my junior high school health class. Before that moment, I was unaware of the possibilities I might have for such a field. After initially learning about the field, I studiously read books and magazines about what advancements had been made in Biomedical Engineering until I was finally able to be accepted for and complete my internship with an MRI division of a hospital.
I am recent graduate from the LIST YOUR PROGRAM at LIST YOUR UNIVERSITY, where I was able…
Option 1: Envision yourself near the end of a fulfilling, lifelong career and you just published your autobiography.
Title of Autobiography: Seeing Differently: The Life and Times of (YOUR NAME)
For the vast majority of us, sight is something we take for granted. The sky is blue, and we do not need to know the physics of light particles to appreciate that because every day we look up and gaze at its deep cerulean grandeur. Our eyes, the lenses of our soul, get lost in the infinite wonder of sky and the motion of the clouds. In so doing, we have failed to remember that for millions of people worldwide, darkness is the norm. Yet now, people who are born, or who became blind later, can envelop themselves in the glory of the blue sky. We can all walk through the Louvre together, gazing upon the mysterious visage of…
Healthcare system in USA
The health care system in the United States of America is a well established and structured system that aims at offering services to American citizens for the treatment and prevention of diseases, further more the system also seeks to promote mental and physical well being of its citizens. On a broader perspective the health care system in the U.S.A. can be defined as system concerned with where and how medical services are offered to America's citizens, secondly the system is concerned with medical expense and who pays for this and thirdly who offers these medical care services, for example, nurses, specialist physicians or primary care physicians.
Importance of knowing how to prepare healthcare system in the U.S.A.
The preparation of the healthcare system in the U.S.A. is a critical issue in the country because it is this system that's responsible for improving the overall health…
Toward that same end, the new strategic plan must also include provisions for a comprehensive centralized governance system.
The second most important reason that MUSC requires a new strategic plan relates to the impact of managed care, HMO insurance, and the healthcare crisis that accounts for many uninsured patients.. Evolving legislation delineating the respective funding responsibilities of federal and state government programs may place additional financial burden on healthcare institutions, particularly those that are engaged in providing education services, those that maintain research programs, and those that furnish medical services to a large proportion of patients who cannot afford to pay for their share of those services. Therefore, a comprehensive plan must allow for subsequent change within its formulation, because MUSC maintains educational programs and research programs, in addition to serving a large needy and/or uninsured constituency.
Finally, the new plan must address the formulation and integration of comprehensive communications…
As South Carolina's only comprehensive academic, research and point-of-service health center, the Medical University of South Carolina provides a full range of programs and services in the biomedical sciences that would otherwise be unavailable to many South
Carolinians. The Medical University of South Carolina is dedicated to serving the community by ensuring that all patients get the treatment they need irrespective of their ability to pay. Located on more than 50 acres in the city of Charleston, the MUSC campus serves more than 2000 healthcare students from six colleges and MUSC programs provide essential residency training for more than 500 post graduate healthcare professionals. The MUSC program faculty includes a teaching staff of approximately
850 full-time and 1600 part-time faculty members. Our dedicated staff and faculty are committed to providing the best and most up-to-date programs and to continually adapting to changes in both the science and the need for our services to enable us to achieve the ultimate goal of modern medicine: patient care, health, happiness, and well- being.
Healthcare -- Administration and Legal
Many vectors -- science, research funding, social acceptance or rejection -- influence how and whether medical technology is eventually adopted into medical praxis (Hogle, et al., 2012). Undergirding the choices and changes is a shared body of ethical standards and law, the establishment of which is often not consensual or efficacious. Any emerging technology can encounter unanticipated social resistance and ethical concerns that can change the course of how medical science research progresses (Hogle, et al., 2012). Medical technology often poses questions about access to expensive innovations and considerations about race, gender, and social justice that are inseparable from the socio-economic levels of patients (Hogle, et al., 2012). In contemporary society, there are the inevitable considerations about patent issues, clinical practice, and the commercialization of medical innovations (Hogle, et al., 2012). The recent court decision finding in favor of Myriad Genetics, Inc. provides a good…
Cho, M. (2010, November 1). Patently unpatentable: implications of the Myriad court decision on genetic diagnostics. Trends in Biotechnology, 28(11), 548-551. Retrieved http://www.cell.com/trends/biotechnology//retrieve / pii/S0167779910001411?_returnURL= http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0167779910001411?showall=true
Hogle, L., Tobin, S., Gaba, D. And Yock, P. (2012). Web-Based Research Integrity Training for Biomedical Engineers and Medical Device Researchers (Public Health Service). Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford School of Medicine. Retreived http://bioethics.stanford.edu/research / programs/science_and_society.html
Morrison, E. (2011). Ethics in health administration: A practical approach for decision makers. (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Stempel, J., Steenhuysen, J., Wallace, J., Grebler, D. And Orr, B. (2012, August 16). Myriad wins gene patent ruling from U.S. appeals court. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved http://www.reuters.com/assets/
Invention and Summarize the Significance of the Underlying Technology Innovation
The device titled the Thornton Adjustable Positioner or TAP is an oral/dental device worn in the patient's mouth during sleep to move the lower jaw slightly forward to create an open airway for proper breathing while sleeping. The device or some like them have been previously tried on minor sleep disturbances such as snoring, yet, their efficacy has been unknown for more serious problems such as mild to severe sleep apnea. Sleep apnea, a disorder that creates oxygen deprivation during sleep and can moderately to severely affect the health of the individual first by depriving the individual of restful sleep and in more severe cases by creating oxygen deprivation that can lead to other chronic diseases or even acute death from asphyxia.
Up to this point the most commonly prescribed device for sleep apnea is a device that forces oxygen…
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (2009, February 4). Small Device Helps Sleep Apnea Sufferers In A Big Way. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090203140147.htm
Nonspecific staining in both the control and experimental groups rendered any possible findings virtually invisible, but ultimately the opportunity to participate in the research process from hypothesis through to data presentation was a tremendous opportunity for me, and I highly value the experience.
My taste for research had only just been awoken by my experiences in my third year as an undergraduate, and after completing my degree I signed on with the lab as a full-time research technician rather than immediately moving on to graduate school. Over the course of my employment, I became involved in the study of modifier genes related to coagulation factors, primarily using zebra fish and occasionally mice as animal models for similar (often identical) human processes. This is the research that ultimately led to my creation of a scientific abstract and a presentation made to a pediatrics symposium, providing enormous learning opportunities and research leadership…
According to Croucher (2003), there are five layers in the erotic life of human beings. The first of these is sexual identity. This is the physical differentiation between male and female, which is fixed by the end of the first trimester in the development of the foetus. Transsexuals feel that they have the "wrong sex" and therefore the wrong core identity. The second layer is sexual orientation, which refers to hetero- or homosexuality. This is also almost impossible to change, since a genetic component plays a role here. The third layer, which is sexual preferences, refers to the elements of sexual stimulation. For men, for example, this would generally be female body parts, while women are aroused by factors such as intimacy, character, and other more subtle factors. The fourth layer is sex roles, where roles are assigned accordign to gender. This demarcation is strongest in young children.…
Berman, J.R. (2005). Physiology of female sexual function and dysfunction. International Journal of Impotence Research, Vol. 17. Retrieved from: http://www.nature.com/ijir/journal/v17/n1s/full/3901428a.html
Croucher, R. (2003, Jan 4). What you Can Change and What you Can't. John Mark Ministeries. Retrieved from: http://jmm.aaa.net.au/articles/2136.htm
Hucker, S.J. (2005). Paraphilias. Forensic Psychiatry.ca. Retrieved from: http://www.forensicpsychiatry.ca/paraphilia/overview.htm
Magnus Hirschfield Archive for Sexology. (2011). The Role of Hormones. Retrieved from: http://www2.hu-berlin.de/sexology/ATLAS_EN/html/the_role_of_hormones.html
Ethics is knowing the difference between what you have a right to do and what is right to do" (1). Ethics and its subsequent practice have been a very contentious issue in American society of late. Our current economic resulted almost entirely of excessive greed and unethical actions of key financial institutions. As a result of their lack of integrity, the entire world economy has subsequently suffered in a very severe manner. Many have lost their homes; even more have lost their retirement savings, while still others have lost their livelihoods. Such is the power of ethics and how its practice can have both positive and negative consequences on society as a whole. With all the attention placed on the financial community and in particular, Wall Street, many are often neglecting the unethical practices of the health care industry. I believe a very ubiquitous and widespread issue apparent within the…
1) "Ethics Quotes - BrainyQuote." Famous Quotes at BrainyQuote. Web. 04 Aug. 2011. .
2) "VM -- Refusal of Emergency Care and Patient Dumping, Jan 09 ... Virtual Mentor." Virtual Mentor:: American Medical Association Journal of Ethics | Virtualmentor.org. Web. 04 Aug. 2011. .
3) "EMTALA - Primary Law." EMTALA.COM - Resources and Information. Web. 04 Aug. 2011. .
4) Public Citizen." Public Citizen Home Page. Web. 04 Aug. 2011. .
Although there are potential social costs associated with linking race or ethnic background with genetics, we believe that these potential costs are outweighed by the benefits in terms of diagnosis and research. Ignoring racial and ethnic differences in medicine and biomedical research will not make them disappear. ather than ignoring these differences, scientists should continue to use them as starting points for further research. Only by focusing attention on these issues can we hope to understand better the variations among racial and ethnic groups in the prevalence and severity of diseases and in responses to treatment (1174)
The second is that race is often used as a proxy for class.
And, the third category is what Kawachi, Daniels and obinson argue is the most defensible, that race and class are two separate issues, and should be treated as such.
However, as Daniels and Schulz bring to light, research documentation examining…
Cooper, R., Kauffman, J., & Ward, R. "Race and Genomics" New England Journal of Medicine vol (issue) 30 Mar 2003: 1166-1175.
Daniels, J. & Shulz, a. "Constructing Whiteness in Health Disparities Research." In Title of Book. Eds. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date.
Kawachi, I. & Daniels, N., Robinson, D. "Race Disparities by Race and Class: Why Both Matter." Health Affairs vol (issue) Mar/Apr 2003: 342-351.
elling Human Organs: The Ethical Issue
elling body transplants is one of the latest ventures that entrepreneurs have devised. ome see it as servicing a public good, whilst others perceive it as one more example of capitalism at its worst.
Barry Jacobs is an example of an international broker for bodily parts whose business involves matching up kidney "donors" with patients needing kidney transplants. The donor receives a magnanimous paycheck; the recipient receives a healthy kidney, and Jacobs, himself, profits by business in worse ways (Chapman, 1984). Jacobs and other advocates of organ-selling see this business as filling a necessary void. Approximately, 100,000 organ transplants are needed per annum, and only an annual 10,000 are performed due to the deficiency of matching organs. Biomedical breakthroughs have increased the success of these operations, but the procedures cannot always be accomplished due to depletion of stocks. People are simply not willing to…
Annas, GJ (1984) Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Organ Sales, Hastings Center Report, 14, 22-23.
Chapman, FS (1984) The Life and Death Questions of an Organ Market, Fortune 108-118.
Borna, S (1987) Morality and Marketing Human Organs, Journal of Business Ethics, 6, 37-44.
Public Health Emergencies
When it comes to public health, there are two main issues: basic control of general public health concerns, and what takes place during an emergency. The United States and other countries have recently made some changes in how public health emergencies are handled, mostly in response to disasters that have been seen on their home soil or in other areas of the world. A public health emergency can come from a natural disaster, a terrorist act, or in other ways, but being prepared for it is important. It can also be difficult, because it is unpredictable and cannot be accurately planned for in many cases.
esponse to Japan Disasters
Japan has experienced its share of public health emergencies in recent years. The tsunami created a massive issue for a significant number of people (CDC, 2011). Additionally, the nuclear radiation that began leaking added fuel to the fire,…
Brandt, A.M., & Gardner, M. (2000). Antagonism and accommodation: Interpreting the relationship between public health and medicine in the United States during the 20th century. American Journal of Public Health, 90(5): 707 -- 715.
CDC responds to earthquake, tsunami and radiation release in Japan (2011). Retrieved November 18, 2012 from: http://blogs.cdc.gov/publichealthmatters/2011/03/cdc-responds-to-earthquake-tsunami-and-radiation-release-in-japan/
Christodouleas, J.P., Forrest, R.D., Ainsley, C.G., Tochner, Z., Hahn, S.M.,and Glatste, E. (2011). Short-term and long-term health risks of nuclear-power-plant accidents. New England Journal of Medicine, 10(10), 56. Retrieved November 18, 2012 from: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra1103676
DeLia, D., & Wood, E. (2008). The dwindling supply of empty beds: Implications for hospital surge capacity. Health Affairs, 27(6), 1688-94. Retrieved from: ProQuest.
Brophy Case Study
The unfortunate case of Paul Brophy should immediately remind people of the very similar case of Terry Schiavo and how that case ended up. Indeed, Mr. Brophy is in a persistent vegetative state due to an artery bursting in his brain. His life can technically be maintained through a feeding tube and other medical equipment but he is not "terminal" in the usually used sense of the word in that he is not near death so long as he is fed. However, his chances of every regaining normal brain function, which he has lost, are zero according to medical professionals. As such, the family wanted to let him go but the medical professionals resisted. While this decision may seem like an easy one to make, it is not remotely easy and for a number of reasons.
One important piece of information regarding this case is that…
Baker, D. (2013, April 25). Right to die or wrong to kill?. Christian Today. Retrieved October 9, 2014, from http://www.christiantoday.com/article/right.to.die.or.wrong
Beauchamp, T.L., & Childress, J.F. (2013). Principles of biomedical ethics (7th ed.).
New York: Oxford University Press.
Translational medicine is a new discipline, which covers studies on basic science, on human investigations, non-human investigations, and translational research (Mankoff et al. 2004). asic science studies address the biological effects of medicines on human beings. Studies on humans discover the biology of disease and serve as foundation for developing therapies. Non-human or non-clinical studies advance therapies for clinical use or use in human disease. And translational research refers to appropriate product development for clinical use. Translational research looks into the identity, purity and potency of a drug product during early clinical trial (Mankoff et al.). Translating the knowledge derived from basic sciences into clinical research and treatments is the task of translational medicine (Nagappa 2006). There is a groaning need for this type of research on account of voluminous information in the information age. Using this information is the challenge encountered by scientists and healthcare providers everywhere in the…
Hersh, William. A Stimulus to Define Informatics and Health Information Technology.
Vol 9 BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making: BioMed Central Ltd., 2009.
Retrieved on November 24, 2010 from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6947/24
Mankoff, Stacey P. et al. Lost in Translation: Obstacles to Translational Medicine Vol 2
Explain how sociological and lay ideas about illness differ from those of biomedicine
Individuals and societies have over the years engaged in identifying the causal factors which can be attributed with an ailment. Illness and its related explanation has been a focal point of health professionals. It is also important to note that the attribution of illness with a specific cause may not be the same in terms of biomedicine and sociological or lay ideas. Sociological ideas tend to lay emphasis on the norms, values and subjective experiences of the individuals as the core elements which formulate their perception about an illness (Blaxter 2010). The layman is more likely to base the explanation of an ailment on social causes rather than exploring the dimensions of the illness through medical explanation. On the other hand, medical professionals (biomedicine) seek causal factors which are linked with the physiological and anatomical aspects…
Barker, KK 2010, 'The social construction of illness: medicalization and contested illness' in Bird, CE, Conrad, P, Fremon, AM & Timmermans, M (ed.) Handbook of medical sociology. Vanderbilt University Press, USA.
Blaxter, M 2010, Health, 2nd edn, Polity Press, USA.
Bury, M 2005, Health and Illness, Polity Press, USA.Nettleton, S 2006, The Sociology of Health & Illness, 2nd edn, Polity Press, USA.
Naidoo J & Wills, J 2008, Health Studies: An Introduction, Palgrave Macmillan, USA.
Health Information esources/Services
Libraries have traditionally been safeguarded the fulfillment of goals of continuing education in their respective fields. It is felt to accord enhanced priority to the health science librarians while the continuing education experts enhance their knowledge of the learning process and the various elements that make the scope of the continuing education effective. eally, the role of health sciences libraries is enormous particularly in the sphere of the lifelong learning and Continuing Education. The concept of Continuing Education has been conveniently been divided by Gruppen as formal CE that concentrates on conventional programs concerning specific topics and aimed at particular audiences; and the informal CE that emphasizes on the learning that involves the anxiety of practitioners anxious of resolving the problems in their routine practice. (Messerle, 1990)
The role of health science libraries has been realized to be significant in both the categories of continuing education and…
Block, Karla J. (Summer, 1997) "Problem-based learning in medical education: Issues for health sciences libraries and librarians" Katharine Sharp Review. Graduate School of Library and Information Science, Dominican University/College of St. Catherine. No. 5. pp: 25-28
Braude, Robert. M; Wood, Samuel. J. (January, 1997) "On the origin of a species: evolution of health sciences librarianship" Bull Medical Library Association. Vol: 85; No: 1; pp: 116-121
Kronenfeld, Michael R. (January, 2005) "Trends in academic health sciences libraries and their emergence as the "knowledge nexus" for their academic health centers" Journal of Medical Library Association. Vol: 93; No: 1; pp: 32 -- 39.
Messerle, J. (April, 1990) "The changing continuing education role of health sciences libraries" Bull Medical Library Association. Vol: 78; No: 2; pp: 180 -- 187.
The truth that electronics aid humanity may be a subject for debate. However, it must be noted that nothing else may beat your doubt on electronics but the fact that we can derive from others' experiences that the technological advances in electronics really assist man in sustaining his life and surviving from the weaknesses of our physical body. More so, we may derive such information from our relatives and friends who may have experienced recovering from diseases with the aid of advanced biomedic machines. or, you can also ask this question to yourself to provide a view on how effective do you really believe can technology that is applied in electronics help, assist, and aid humanity -- "Would you rather go for the old method and practices of medicine than how medicine is practice these days?"
Technology in Electronics - Aiding Other Defects of Humanity
If the advances in electronics…
Electronics and Biomedical Engineering. http://www.city.ac.uk/sems/undergraduate/elecbiomed/
Taylor, John. "Serving Blind Readers in Digital Age."
American Libraries, 35.11 (2005): 49-51.
Jarvis, Jessica. "Opening Doors to Learning."
Essay 2: In what collegiate extracurriculars did you engage? (400 characters)
As Vice President of Phi Kappa Sigma, I co-managed the annual $30k budget, participated in 100+ hours of community service, volunteered for the Rutgers Dance Marathon, raised funds for the Embrace the Kids Foundation, and organized the annual Phi-Esta fundraiser for the Eric Legrand’s Foundation with several other fraternities. I also volunteered for the Leukemia Lymphoma Society.
Essay 3: Did you work for compensation during college during the year or the summer? (300 Word limit)
Yes, every summer I worked full-time. During the summers of my undergraduate career, I worked at Selco Associates, a distribution and warehousing company. There I coordinated with management personnel to provide high quality customer service. I also managed apparel and footwear inventory for major companies and assisted in opening new accounts. This experience helped me to develop communication, organization, and problem-solving skills that I…
As a person who is concerned with the environment and has a background in information technology, applying for admission to a Masters of Science program at XXX University is one in a series of logical steps and choices in my personal and professional lives. As a student in MSEM program, I will utilize my professional knowledge and skills acquired from both my experience as a biomedical engineering student and my family business to contribute to this community. My interests and skills coincide, expand, and deepen at the prospect of entrance to a Masters of Science program in the area of Biomedical Engineering.
My parents both own companies in China that focus on international trading business. I grew up in an environment full of business people and I enjoy it. I found doing business is compelling and thrilling. As the companies grow, they opened their companies divisions in XXXX…
Role Boundaries in Care ork
Role boundaries are a critical component in a health care setting. Much of this is a response to how the system is organized. The health care industry is composed of many different roles that specialize in different areas and expertise. Therefore, the individuals in the system must honor their role boundaries to ensure that the collective efforts of the individuals in the system can work together to provide high levels of patient care. The care experienced by Anwar Malik in hospital was defined by the collective effort that each individual gave to Anwar. Each team member has a range of tasks that can be organized with various role boundaries. If any of the members violate their roles, then this can lead to the team's effort not being effective and could also compromise the level of care provided to the patient.
Diabetic Anwar Malik was admitted…
Caplan, A., McCartney, D., & Sisti, D. (2004). Health, Disease, and Illness. Georgetown: Georgetown University Press.
Hewa, S., & Hetherington, R. (1995). Specalist without Spirit. Theoretical Medicine, 129-139.
Medi Lexicon. (N.d.). Definition: 'Biomedical Model'. Retrieved from Medi Lexicon: http://www.medilexicon.com/medicaldictionary.php?t=55643
The Open University. (n.d.). K101 Block 1. Faculty of Health & Social Care.
In my area, drug use isn't really a spike, it's been pretty high for a while (no pun intended). There are a number of factors to which this is attributed, but suffice to say that it is a complex issue. A lot of it is just experimentation. Nobody cares about weed, so it's really when things progress to harder drug, and more addictive drugs, that it becomes a real social problem. I feel like a lot of people just want to experiment, and they do not really know the risks. There is a lot of sense that they are invincible. And, arguably, there is a lot of supply, too. If it was just weed, again, no big deal, but there's a lot worse things than that, and those other drugs are basically easy to get. So when you have people who are interested to try things, are not…
Contemporary Biotechnology has produced considerable contribution to the global farming and health sector. Advancement of several medicines, numerous pharmaceuticals, vaccines making use of recombinant DNA technology has made biotechnology a multibillion dollar global industry. Additionally, PCR centered diagnostics has additionally materialized as a crucial element of the health industry. Because vast majority of the Islamic nations have their economies centered on farming, biotechnology has therefore enormous potential to improve efficiency. The need of meals in Islamic nations over the last 2 decades is predicted to improve by nearly half. That boost is going to have to come via changes in agricultural efficiency in marginal, fertile, salt affected as well as rainfed areas. There will probably be much less workforce, arable land and water offered to the agriculture sector. This particular scenario is actually a consequence of reduced rural populace, poor management of water reserves and supplies, environmental degradation…
The Tuskegee Syphilis Study still remains as one of the most outrageous examples of disregard of basic ethical principles of conduct not to mention violation of standards for ethical research. The suspicion and fear produced by the Tuskegee Syphilis Study are still evident today. Community workers often report mistrust of public health institutions within the African-American community. ecently Alpha Thomas of the Dallas Urban League testified before the National Commission on AIDS saying that many African-American people do not trust hospitals or any of the other community health care service providers because of that Tuskegee Experiment (esearch Ethics: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 2010).
In 1990, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), which is one of the country's major civil rights organizations, conducted a survey among 1056 African-American Church members in five cities. They found that 34% of the respondents believed that AIDS was an artificial virus, 35% believed that AIDS…
Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study. (2009). Retrieved March 9, 2010, from University of Virginia Health System Web site:
Boskey, Elizabeth. (2007). What Is the Tuskegee Syphilis Study? Retrieved March 10, 2010,
from About.com Web site: http://std.about.com/od/stdsinthemedia/f/tuskegeefaq.htm
pag). Some business will continue as usual, of course: Abbott's nutrition division, based in Columbus, Ohio and employing approximately 2,000 people, announced that the nutrition unit will "fall under the umbrella of a new medical products company that will retain the Abbott name in a split announced ednesday" (Rouan n.pag). In addition, the announcement has apparently met with international investor approval: "At the news, Abbott's shares went up 7.3% in premarket trading on ednesday" (M2 Pharma n.pag).
The split is expected to occur in 2012 and will result in the currently-unnamed pharmaceutical company and the diversified medical products company, retaining the name "Abbott" (Abbott Laboratories n.pag).
(a). Pharmaceutical Company:
The pharmaceutical company is projected to have annual sales of approximately $18 Billion, a portfolio including Abbott's high-profile drugs such as Humira and Lupron, and a pipeline of "promising new specialty medicines and formulations" (Abbott Laboratories n.pag). According to Abbott's press…
Abbott Laboratories. A Tradition of Innovation. n.d. Web. 22 October 2011.
-- . Abbott Reports Strong Ongoing Third Quarter Results; Confirms Double-Digit Ongoing Earnings Growth Outlook for 2011. 19 October 2011. Web. 21 October 2011.
-- . Abbott to Separate into Two Leading Companies in Diversified Medical Products and Research-Based Pharmaceuticals. 19 October 2011. Web. 21 October 2011.
-- . Abbott Worldwide. n.d. 2011. Web. 21 October 2011.
Fool-proofing a service operation.
In the banking industry, a significant service industry in any country, optimized operations are essential to ensure that the public has maximum confidence in the operators of this industry. ank of America and its operations have been selected for discussion in this study. The bank has grown tremendously in the past few years. CEO, Ken Lewis realized that the bank could gain a wider market share and customer base if it was able to streamline its operations and the level of service. Incorporating concepts of process management was considered essential to the improvement process. (Cox and ossert, 2005) Some of the tools such as six-sigma were used to ensure that a high level of quality was maintained in the service that the provided to the customer.
ank of America recognized that customer satisfaction was paramount in ensuring that the customer was loyal and would…
Anonymous. "Starbucks - Taking on the World." Strategic Direction 20.7 (2004): 13-15.
Coffeeresearch.org. Starbucks and Transfair USA Enter into Breakthrough Alliance to Promote Fair Trade Certified Coffee. 2000. August 5, 2005.
Cohen, Don. "Managing Knowledge in the New Economy." Conference on organizational Learning. Chicago: The Conference Board, LLC, 1998.
Cox, Daniel, and James Bossert. "Driving Organic Growth at Bank of America." Quality Progress 38.2 (2005): 23-28.
Advancement of nanotechnology has gained significant attention in the self -- assembling characteristic of a variety of molecules, which is a vital requirement for the growing bottom -- up design of nanoscale structures. hen these molecules go through molecular self -- congregation, the consequential structural elements, for instance nanotubes or vesicles, can be further transformed to give specific charactistics to the components. Like nanotubes can be covered with metals or partially -- conducting substances to fabricate nanowires.
Smart polymeric gels are classified on various structural properties. Superporous hydrogels (SPHs) are utilized to augment the responsiveness of hydrogels. In this case, the augmented responsiveness to stimuli is accomplished by manufacturing interconnected absorbent networks. Superporous hydrogels (SPHs) correspond to a rapid -- swelling group of hydrogels with pore dimensions much bigger than the usual network of a normal hydrogel. These were firstly created as modern gastric retention devices to augment the duration…
Annaka, Masahiko and Tanaka, Toyoichi, Multiple phases of polymer gels, Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, 2005, pp. 430-432
Darmawan, Adi; Smart, Simon; Julbe, Anne; Diniz da Costa, Joao Carlos, Iron Oxide Silica Derived from Sol-Gel Synthesis, Materials, ISSN, Volume 4, Issue 2, 2011, pp. 448-456
Heitfeld, Kevin a, Smart membranes: Hydroxypropyl cellulose for flavor delivery, ISBN 9780549027560, 2007, 15.
Hu, Jinlian, Adaptive and Functional Polymers, Textiles and Their Applications, ISBN 1848164750, 2011, p. 416
In terms of the plainness of gendered inequalities in the health and longevity of women, compared with men, the majority world demands our notice. The world-wide toll in terms of women's raised levels of mortality and morbidity corroborates that limited or negligible access to political power, land-ownership, education, sexual self-determination and earning ability has detrimental bodily effects (Bradby, 2009).
While sociologists have long studied the aspect of illness, it has only been recently that they have turned their attention to the development of sociology of health. Sociologists' interest in health emerged in part in reaction to the biomedical mode, which focused primarily on disease. A more holistic approach to health and healing, sociologists argued, must also encompass the idea of positive health and well-being. The concept of health itself needs to be explored, and such exploration must take lay perspectives into account. A holistic, or socio-environmental, model of health also…
Albrecht, Gary L., Fitzpatrick, Ray and Scrimshaw, Susan. 2003. "Handbook of Social Studies
in Health and Medicine." Sage Publications: California.
Bradby, Hannah. 2009. "Virtual Special Issue on feminism and the sociology of gender, health and illness." Sociology of Health and Wellness. Available at:
Complicating matters further is the fact raised by Eriksson et al. (2008) that when doctors, psychiatrists, and other health care workers operate as a team the guidelines established by their individual professional organizations may clash.
Thus, greater multiplicity is not the solution. Greater clarity and specificity trump multiplicity in terms of what the biomedical industries need in order to ensure ethical behaviors within their organizations. If the primary goal of ethical guidelines is to inform ethical behavior, then that goal must in fact be clearly stated at the onset of the guidelines. Likewise, if ethical guidelines form the foundation for legislation, then the law must also point to the philosophical or ideological foundations upon which the regulations are founded.
A barrier between personal and professional values also threatens to undermine the usefulness of ethical guidelines within the biomedical industry. What the authors fail to mention is the fact that nurses…
Eriksson, S., Hoglund, a.T., & Helgesson, G. (2008). Do ethical guidelines give guidance? A critical examination of eight ethics regulations. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 17(15-29).
Hughes would be diagnosed with bi-polar disorder, with differential diagnoses consisting of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and agoraphobia. As DSM-V (2013) states, the diagnostic criteria for Bipolar 1 Disorder are as stated, "For a diagnosis of bipolar 1 disorder, it is necessary to meet the following criteria for a manic episode. The manic episode may have been preceded by and may be followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes" (p. 123). This diagnosis may very well apply to Howard Hughes, as throughout the film The Aviator, he demonstrates an impulsive personality and is not adverse to taking enormous risks, in which his entire fortune and even life are on the line. He alternates between manic-depressive moments, where he shuts himself away for months, and moments where he emerges as a king-of-the-world type of figure (as in the court room scene towards the end of the film, when he defends himself). These…
Campbell, G. (2001, May). The anxious client reconsidered: Getting beyond the symptoms to deeper change. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy1.ncu.edu/docview/233312959?accountid=281
Chouinard, V. (2012). Mapping bipolar worlds: Lived geographies of 'madness' in autobiographical accounts. Health & Place, 18(2): 144-151.
Connolly, K., Thase, M. (2011). The clinical management of bipolar disorder: A review of evidence-based guidelines. Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders, 13(4): 1-4.
Steketee, G. (2003). Clinical update: Obsessive compulsive disorder
When processed by a transglutaminase enzyme, it can interact with immunological cells and produce cytotoxic inflammation. In autism, it is believed that peptides from gluten and casein cross the intestinal microvillus barrier and enter the blood stream. They also cross the blood-brain barrier. In the brain, certain amino acid sequences of these peptides compete with natural peptides, which bind to opioid receptors. These receptors are G-protein receptors in cell membrane surfaces of neurons. inding to these receptors disturbs the neuronal function and ultimately leads to or contributes to autism (Department of Pediatrics Staff).
Limited Reliable Scientific Evidence
UK researchers investigated more than 30 scientific articles on the effectiveness of the gluten-free, casein-free diet on autistic children (astian, 2004). They found one, which provided reliable scientific evidence that the diet works. The particular study, however, was conducted on only 20 children aged 5-10 who had high levels of protein in their…
Atwood, K.C. (2003). Naturopathy: a critical appraisal. 5 (4) Medscape General
Medicine. Retrieved on June 23, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/465994
Bastian, H. (2010). Can a diet avoiding gluten and milk proteins reduce autism?
Medicine News Today: MediLexicon International Ltd. Retrieved on June 23,
In addition, Senator Collins led the fight to restore critical f funding to Medicare for home health care so that elderly citizens and disabled can receive needed care in their own homes ("Biography")."
Obviously the senator encourages the funding of both Medicaid and Medicare as she has fought to ensure that both are funded correctly. Collins was also a supporter of the stimulus package that improves healthcare information technology.
As it pertains to abortions Susan Collins is also pro-choice and believes in stem cell research. She is adamant about the right of a woman to choose just as Senator Kennedy. She also voted no on prohibiting HHS grants to organization who perform abortions. She has also been a proponent of expanding stem cell research.
In both the present and the past Collins has worked to ensure that healthcare coverage is affordable. From the bill that she coauthored with Senator Kennedy…
Biography. Official Website of Senator Susan Collins. Retrieved June 20, 2009 from; http://collins.senate.gov/public/continue.cfm?FuseAction=AboutSenatorCollins.Biography&CFID=1388899&CFTOKEN=51070689
Fritze, J. Moderates in Congress feel health care push. Retrieved June 20, 2009 from; http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/story?id=7789528&page=1
Funding for Biomedical Research at Maine Medical Center. Retrieved June 20, 2009 from; http://senatorcollins.blogspot.com/2009/06/funding-for-biomedial-research-at-maine.html
Healthcare. Official Website of Edward Kennedy. Retrieved June 20, 2009 from; http://kennedy.senate.gov/issues_and_agenda/issue.cfm?id=dad5db98-20db-4e85-9b73-7a16c4eac15f
Also, there has been pressure in the different professions for every research design to follow these general procedures (Chadwick, Bahr, & Albrecht, 1984, pp. 19-20).
The researcher needs protection as well as the subject does. An important protection of confidentiality is testimonial privilege. This protection is not absolute and must yield to other concerns in some cases such as state's requirement that certain diseases (infectious diseases) or injuries (child abuse or neglect, gun shot wounds) be reported to prevent further injury. Written, informed consent to release information is the best defense against an allegation of a breach of confidentiality (Brent, 1997, p. 258).
Bioethics and informed consent extend beyond the area of research into that of medical practice, calling for medical personnel to inform patients of what treatment are being given and what options the patient may have. Such efforts are seen as both ethical and as empowering for patients,…
Bower, R.T. & de Gasparis, P. (1978). Ethics in social research: Protecting the interests of human subjects. New York: Praeger.
Brent, N.J. (1997). The home healthcare nurse and confidentiality and privacy. Home Healthcare Nurse, 15(4), 256-258.
Chadwick, B.A., Bahr, H.M., & Albrecht, S.L. (1984). Social science research methods. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall.
Heinrich, Bernd. "What Is Natural?" Discover (June 1994), 40-42.
This is related to bronchitis, asthma and long-term conditions such as lung cancer and bladder cancer (obinson, 2009).
It is estimated that the chances of getting bladder cancer is high for ex-smokers and passive smokers even after thirty years later. This brings us to the question of management of bladder cancer for current and ex-smokers as well as passive smokers.
The management of bladder cancer is a three-pronged approach that involves reducing the progression of the disease, protecting the bladder and increasing the chances of survival. The course of treatment depends to a large extent on the stage of the cancer. During the earlier stages, surgery, trans urethral resection, intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy are used to contain the disease and prevent it from progressing further. The malignant areas are treated with one of the above procedures to remove the tumor. In the case of a more advanced stage, radical cystectomy…
Cancer Research UK. (2011). Cancer in the UK: April 2011. Retrieved from http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/mortality/
Friedman, Howard. (1990). Personality and Disease. Publisher: New York, John Wiley & Sons.
Abrahamson; Seligman; Teasdale. (1978). Learned Helplessness in Humans: Critique and Reformulation. Abnormal Psychology. Vol 87. pp 49-74.
McAllister, Robert. (May 1974). Viral Etiology of Cancer: Two Hypotheses with relevance to chemical exposure. Pediatrics. Vol 53 (5). pp826.
In some countries, bed numbers began to drop before the introduction of the drugs. In others, bed numbers actually increased despite this introduction. The drugs also have been used on a variety of populations that were not deemed to be mentally ill (such as people with learning difficulties and older people). The drugs were only relevant in giving psychiatric staff more confidence in dealing with community-based patients; they do not explain the policy of deinstitutionalization. At the end of the twentieth century deinstitutionalization has become a dominant mental health policy goal in most Western democracies (Sax, 1984).
However, this formal goal has become clouded by evidence that the gradual reduction of large institutions has been replaced by a scattering of smaller ones 'in the community' (Roe, 1976). Also, most countries still have legal statutes to coercively remove madness from community set- tings. The extent of this continued coercive control…
Gale, F. 2007 A changing Aboriginal population. In F. Gale and G. Lawton (eds), Settlement and Encounter: Geographical studies presented to Sir Grenfell Price, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 65-88.
Smith, L. 2006 The Aboriginal Population, The Australian National University Press, Canberra.
CDHHS 2004, The National Aboriginal Health Strategy: an evaluation, Commonwealth Department of Health and Human Services, Canberra.
Roe, M 1976, 'The establishment of the Australian Department of Health: its background and significance', Australian Historical Studies 17(67):176-92.
Enginees should focus on the impovement of the pefomance of the economy. This elates to the tansfomation of the theoies of contolling the wold and adopting new famewoks in the opeating in conjunction with the planet. New enginees need to adopt and implement new theoies of focusing on the economic, social, and political concepts in elation to both technical and nontechnical disciplines (Cameon 2010 p.40).
Leades in Bitish Engineeing
Accoding to Lewis (1998, p.88), the technology style of the 19th centuy stetches fom the peak of one long wave to the peak of the next. The concened style would have made its fist appeaance in 1870s and would have held geat influence in the late Victoian peiod. It was maked though the diffusion of cheap bulk steel that emeged in the mid-Victoian peiods, advances in science-based industies such as engineeing and chemicals, spead of electic powe and the adoption of…
references of the current population without compromising the needs of the future population. This relates to the achievement of sustainable development thus improving living conditions of the citizens. Global warming is a problem affecting growth and development of the economy. This is through increasing the sea water level because of the high temperatures thus melting of ice caps. In order to minimize the effects of global warming, it is ideal to focus on the transformation of the engineering systems in the United Kingdom (Nuvolari et al. 2009 p.700).
Possible predictions about the future of British engineering
In order to address challenges affecting the current and future populations, it is essential to train engineers with the ability to make intelligent decisions in relation to maximum protection and quality life on the planet than endangering forms of life. Engineers will have to make decisions with reference to professional environment in relation to interactions between technical and nontechnical disciplines. The modern system should focus on the preparation of the engineers to become valuable facilitators of sustainable development and implementers of appropriate technology. This aims at addressing social and economic challenges facing the current engineers because of the modern systems and mindset of engineers in the context of the United Kingdom. This is essential in becoming an effective and efficient body of engineers with the aim of providing leadership to the world engineering body (Burgess 1972 p.10).
Future development in relation to the engineering systems and subsystems in the United Kingdom should focus on adequate implementation of technology in addressing essential needs of the future population. Technological developments should also focus on the improvement of conditions such as sufficient water, protection of the environment, and adequate infrastructure. This is vital in the achievement of the millennium development goals and objectives as outlined by the United Nations under the influence of its General Assembly. Future engineering should focus in the achievement of sustainable development thus addressing current and future needs of the world's population. It is vital to note future engineering should integrate numerous aspects in addressing social, economic, and political effects on the planet.
Currently there are different types of tests to study the behavior of the heart and monitor it. These tests are extremely important, because let us know in time if the heart is failing or has a problem. And because of that, today we submit to treatment or surgery to correct them when they are still small and manageable, before our life is at risk. The electrocardiogram, ECG or EKG, is one of those tests.
The electrocardiogram (ECG / EKG) is the graph obtained with the electrocardiograph to measure the heart's electrical activity as a continuous graphic tape. It also helps to know the duration of the cardiac cycle. It is the main instrument for cardiac electrophysiology and has a significant role in screening and diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders and predisposition to sudden cardiac death (Daja, eljin, eljin, 2001). The ECG has the advantage of being a medical…
Alwan M., Dalal S., Mack D.' Kell S.W., Turner B., Leachtenauer J. And Felder R. (2006) 'Impact of Monitoring Technology in Assisted Living: Outcome Pilot', IEEE Trans on Info Tech in Biomed, Vol. 10, No.1,192-198
Daja, N., Reljin, I. And Reljin, B., (2001). Tele-monitoring in cardiology -- ECG transmission by mobile phone, Annals of the Academy of Studenica 4:63-66.
Forkner-Dunn J. (2003) 'Internet-based Patient Self-care: The Next Generation of Health Care Delivery', J Med Internet Res., Vol.5, No. 2:e8
Madias J. (2008). Manual-based Vs Automation-based measurements of the amplitude of QRS complexes and T. wave in patients with edematous states -- clinical implications. J. Of Electrocardiography; 41(1):13-8.
Frustration and Dissonance/Risk
Frustration and Dissonance / Risk
Frustration and Cognitive Dissonance
Cognitive dissonance has been extensively studied in social psychology as the effects of dissonance would cause dramatic changes in one's life. Cognitive dissonance is defined as an uncomfortable feeling caused by holding conflicting ideas simultaneously. The result of dissonance may be anxiety, blaming, and denying. Although, the latter may also occur as the result of frustration, frustration is a conflict which occurs when something happens against one's will. The ways of reducing dissonance and frustration are justifying, blaming, and denying. People's experiences can contradict with expectations. For example, my old car was a manual transmission car, very reliable, fuel efficient; however, I wanted to buy an automatic transmission car with built in GPS and more room. However, my new car is not meeting my expectations. I have given three speed tickets because I was used to drive manual…