Biomedical Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Ethics of Allowing Anyone to Have Kids

Words: 1523 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76179453

Biomedical Ethics

The author of this report was given the choice of one of two assignments when it comes to the Johnna Fisher textbook offering on medical ethics. The author of this report has decided to seize upon one of the articles littered throughout the book and make a thesis argument and report about the same. The Fisher text is full of articles and ethical quandaries that are ripe for the picking. However, the author of this report has chosen to focus on the idea of sterilizing the "feeble-minded" as explained and argued by Grekul, Krahn and Odynak. The question of whether people could or should have full rights to procreate despite the social problems it can create or aggravate is a burning question for many people. hile choosing who can procreate and who should not are very Nazi-esque to some, the idea of controlling who can have kids and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Akerlof, George. "An Analysis of Out-Of-Wedlock Births in The United States." The Brookings Institution. N.p., 1996. Web. 30 Mar. 2016.Fisher, J. (2009). Biomedical ethics. Don Mills, Ont.: Oxford University Press.

PBS. "American Experience -- The Pill -- People & Events." PBS.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 30 Mar. 2016.
View Full Essay

Statement of Purpose for Applying for Msc of Bioengineering

Words: 452 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98519629

passion for the Biomedical Engineering field and wish to pursue it as my career. What separates my interest of Biomedical Engineering apart from the rest of the engineering field is its focus on medicine, and therefore, people. The ever changing medical field allows for the constant challenge that I thrive for in a work environment.

I originally became interested in the Biomedical Engineering field when participating in a project in my junior high school health class. Before that moment, I was unaware of the possibilities I might have for such a field. After initially learning about the field, I studiously read books and magazines about what advancements had been made in Biomedical Engineering until I was finally able to be accepted for and complete my internship with an MRI division of a hospital.

I am recent graduate from the LIST YOUR PROGRAM at LIST YOUR UNIVERSITY, where I was able…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

SOP Option 1 Envision Yourself Near the

Words: 691 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56430797

SOP

Option 1: Envision yourself near the end of a fulfilling, lifelong career and you just published your autobiography.

Title of Autobiography: Seeing Differently: The Life and Times of (YOUR NAME)

For the vast majority of us, sight is something we take for granted. The sky is blue, and we do not need to know the physics of light particles to appreciate that because every day we look up and gaze at its deep cerulean grandeur. Our eyes, the lenses of our soul, get lost in the infinite wonder of sky and the motion of the clouds. In so doing, we have failed to remember that for millions of people worldwide, darkness is the norm. Yet now, people who are born, or who became blind later, can envelop themselves in the glory of the blue sky. We can all walk through the Louvre together, gazing upon the mysterious visage of…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Biomedicine Healthcare System in USA the Health

Words: 1098 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17484960

Biomedicine

Healthcare system in USA

The health care system in the United States of America is a well established and structured system that aims at offering services to American citizens for the treatment and prevention of diseases, further more the system also seeks to promote mental and physical well being of its citizens. On a broader perspective the health care system in the U.S.A. can be defined as system concerned with where and how medical services are offered to America's citizens, secondly the system is concerned with medical expense and who pays for this and thirdly who offers these medical care services, for example, nurses, specialist physicians or primary care physicians.

Importance of knowing how to prepare healthcare system in the U.S.A.

The preparation of the healthcare system in the U.S.A. is a critical issue in the country because it is this system that's responsible for improving the overall health…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Strategic Planning in Healthcare -

Words: 759 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92718143

Toward that same end, the new strategic plan must also include provisions for a comprehensive centralized governance system.

The second most important reason that MUSC requires a new strategic plan relates to the impact of managed care, HMO insurance, and the healthcare crisis that accounts for many uninsured patients.. Evolving legislation delineating the respective funding responsibilities of federal and state government programs may place additional financial burden on healthcare institutions, particularly those that are engaged in providing education services, those that maintain research programs, and those that furnish medical services to a large proportion of patients who cannot afford to pay for their share of those services. Therefore, a comprehensive plan must allow for subsequent change within its formulation, because MUSC maintains educational programs and research programs, in addition to serving a large needy and/or uninsured constituency.

Finally, the new plan must address the formulation and integration of comprehensive communications…… [Read More]

As South Carolina's only comprehensive academic, research and point-of-service health center, the Medical University of South Carolina provides a full range of programs and services in the biomedical sciences that would otherwise be unavailable to many South

Carolinians. The Medical University of South Carolina is dedicated to serving the community by ensuring that all patients get the treatment they need irrespective of their ability to pay. Located on more than 50 acres in the city of Charleston, the MUSC campus serves more than 2000 healthcare students from six colleges and MUSC programs provide essential residency training for more than 500 post graduate healthcare professionals. The MUSC program faculty includes a teaching staff of approximately

850 full-time and 1600 part-time faculty members. Our dedicated staff and faculty are committed to providing the best and most up-to-date programs and to continually adapting to changes in both the science and the need for our services to enable us to achieve the ultimate goal of modern medicine: patient care, health, happiness, and well- being.
View Full Essay

Legal Environment in Healthcare and Administrative Responsibility

Words: 1118 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2327677

Healthcare -- Administration and Legal

Many vectors -- science, research funding, social acceptance or rejection -- influence how and whether medical technology is eventually adopted into medical praxis (Hogle, et al., 2012). Undergirding the choices and changes is a shared body of ethical standards and law, the establishment of which is often not consensual or efficacious. Any emerging technology can encounter unanticipated social resistance and ethical concerns that can change the course of how medical science research progresses (Hogle, et al., 2012). Medical technology often poses questions about access to expensive innovations and considerations about race, gender, and social justice that are inseparable from the socio-economic levels of patients (Hogle, et al., 2012). In contemporary society, there are the inevitable considerations about patent issues, clinical practice, and the commercialization of medical innovations (Hogle, et al., 2012). The recent court decision finding in favor of Myriad Genetics, Inc. provides a good…… [Read More]

References

Cho, M. (2010, November 1). Patently unpatentable: implications of the Myriad court decision on genetic diagnostics. Trends in Biotechnology, 28(11), 548-551. Retrieved http://www.cell.com/trends/biotechnology//retrieve / pii/S0167779910001411?_returnURL= http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0167779910001411?showall=true 

Hogle, L., Tobin, S., Gaba, D. And Yock, P. (2012). Web-Based Research Integrity Training for Biomedical Engineers and Medical Device Researchers (Public Health Service). Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford School of Medicine. Retreived http://bioethics.stanford.edu/research / programs/science_and_society.html

Morrison, E. (2011). Ethics in health administration: A practical approach for decision makers. (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

Stempel, J., Steenhuysen, J., Wallace, J., Grebler, D. And Orr, B. (2012, August 16). Myriad wins gene patent ruling from U.S. appeals court. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved http://www.reuters.com/assets/
View Full Essay

Invention and Summarize the Significance of the

Words: 1156 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42977589

Invention and Summarize the Significance of the Underlying Technology Innovation

The device titled the Thornton Adjustable Positioner or TAP is an oral/dental device worn in the patient's mouth during sleep to move the lower jaw slightly forward to create an open airway for proper breathing while sleeping. The device or some like them have been previously tried on minor sleep disturbances such as snoring, yet, their efficacy has been unknown for more serious problems such as mild to severe sleep apnea. Sleep apnea, a disorder that creates oxygen deprivation during sleep and can moderately to severely affect the health of the individual first by depriving the individual of restful sleep and in more severe cases by creating oxygen deprivation that can lead to other chronic diseases or even acute death from asphyxia.

Up to this point the most commonly prescribed device for sleep apnea is a device that forces oxygen…… [Read More]

Resources

University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (2009, February 4). Small Device Helps Sleep Apnea Sufferers In A Big Way. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090203140147.htm
View Full Essay

Higher Education at the University

Words: 839 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98252122

Nonspecific staining in both the control and experimental groups rendered any possible findings virtually invisible, but ultimately the opportunity to participate in the research process from hypothesis through to data presentation was a tremendous opportunity for me, and I highly value the experience.

My taste for research had only just been awoken by my experiences in my third year as an undergraduate, and after completing my degree I signed on with the lab as a full-time research technician rather than immediately moving on to graduate school. Over the course of my employment, I became involved in the study of modifier genes related to coagulation factors, primarily using zebra fish and occasionally mice as animal models for similar (often identical) human processes. This is the research that ultimately led to my creation of a scientific abstract and a presentation made to a pediatrics symposium, providing enormous learning opportunities and research leadership…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Sexual Disorders According to Croucher 2003 There

Words: 1080 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48523824

Sexual Disorders

According to Croucher (2003), there are five layers in the erotic life of human beings. The first of these is sexual identity. This is the physical differentiation between male and female, which is fixed by the end of the first trimester in the development of the foetus. Transsexuals feel that they have the "wrong sex" and therefore the wrong core identity. The second layer is sexual orientation, which refers to hetero- or homosexuality. This is also almost impossible to change, since a genetic component plays a role here. The third layer, which is sexual preferences, refers to the elements of sexual stimulation. For men, for example, this would generally be female body parts, while women are aroused by factors such as intimacy, character, and other more subtle factors. The fourth layer is sex roles, where roles are assigned accordign to gender. This demarcation is strongest in young children.…… [Read More]

References

Berman, J.R. (2005). Physiology of female sexual function and dysfunction. International Journal of Impotence Research, Vol. 17. Retrieved from:  http://www.nature.com/ijir/journal/v17/n1s/full/3901428a.html 

Croucher, R. (2003, Jan 4). What you Can Change and What you Can't. John Mark Ministeries. Retrieved from: http://jmm.aaa.net.au/articles/2136.htm

Hucker, S.J. (2005). Paraphilias. Forensic Psychiatry.ca. Retrieved from: http://www.forensicpsychiatry.ca/paraphilia/overview.htm

Magnus Hirschfield Archive for Sexology. (2011). The Role of Hormones. Retrieved from: http://www2.hu-berlin.de/sexology/ATLAS_EN/html/the_role_of_hormones.html
View Full Essay

Ethics Is Knowing the Difference Between What

Words: 1355 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6120237

Ethics is knowing the difference between what you have a right to do and what is right to do" (1). Ethics and its subsequent practice have been a very contentious issue in American society of late. Our current economic resulted almost entirely of excessive greed and unethical actions of key financial institutions. As a result of their lack of integrity, the entire world economy has subsequently suffered in a very severe manner. Many have lost their homes; even more have lost their retirement savings, while still others have lost their livelihoods. Such is the power of ethics and how its practice can have both positive and negative consequences on society as a whole. With all the attention placed on the financial community and in particular, Wall Street, many are often neglecting the unethical practices of the health care industry. I believe a very ubiquitous and widespread issue apparent within the…… [Read More]

References

1) "Ethics Quotes - BrainyQuote." Famous Quotes at BrainyQuote. Web. 04 Aug. 2011. .

2) "VM -- Refusal of Emergency Care and Patient Dumping, Jan 09 ... Virtual Mentor." Virtual Mentor:: American Medical Association Journal of Ethics | Virtualmentor.org. Web. 04 Aug. 2011. .

3) "EMTALA - Primary Law." EMTALA.COM - Resources and Information. Web. 04 Aug. 2011. .

4) Public Citizen." Public Citizen Home Page. Web. 04 Aug. 2011. .
View Full Essay

Race and Class as the

Words: 598 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60479406

Although there are potential social costs associated with linking race or ethnic background with genetics, we believe that these potential costs are outweighed by the benefits in terms of diagnosis and research. Ignoring racial and ethnic differences in medicine and biomedical research will not make them disappear. ather than ignoring these differences, scientists should continue to use them as starting points for further research. Only by focusing attention on these issues can we hope to understand better the variations among racial and ethnic groups in the prevalence and severity of diseases and in responses to treatment (1174)

The second is that race is often used as a proxy for class.

And, the third category is what Kawachi, Daniels and obinson argue is the most defensible, that race and class are two separate issues, and should be treated as such.

However, as Daniels and Schulz bring to light, research documentation examining…… [Read More]

References

Cooper, R., Kauffman, J., & Ward, R. "Race and Genomics" New England Journal of Medicine vol (issue) 30 Mar 2003: 1166-1175.

Daniels, J. & Shulz, a. "Constructing Whiteness in Health Disparities Research." In Title of Book. Eds. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date.

Kawachi, I. & Daniels, N., Robinson, D. "Race Disparities by Race and Class: Why Both Matter." Health Affairs vol (issue) Mar/Apr 2003: 342-351.
View Full Essay

Argument Against the Proposition That Sales of Organs Should Not Be Compensated

Words: 1300 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37869287

elling Human Organs: The Ethical Issue

elling body transplants is one of the latest ventures that entrepreneurs have devised. ome see it as servicing a public good, whilst others perceive it as one more example of capitalism at its worst.

Barry Jacobs is an example of an international broker for bodily parts whose business involves matching up kidney "donors" with patients needing kidney transplants. The donor receives a magnanimous paycheck; the recipient receives a healthy kidney, and Jacobs, himself, profits by business in worse ways (Chapman, 1984). Jacobs and other advocates of organ-selling see this business as filling a necessary void. Approximately, 100,000 organ transplants are needed per annum, and only an annual 10,000 are performed due to the deficiency of matching organs. Biomedical breakthroughs have increased the success of these operations, but the procedures cannot always be accomplished due to depletion of stocks. People are simply not willing to…… [Read More]

Sources

Annas, GJ (1984) Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Organ Sales, Hastings Center Report, 14, 22-23.

Chapman, FS (1984) The Life and Death Questions of an Organ Market, Fortune 108-118.

Borna, S (1987) Morality and Marketing Human Organs, Journal of Business Ethics, 6, 37-44.
View Full Essay

Issues of Public Health

Words: 1257 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22049723

Public Health Emergencies

When it comes to public health, there are two main issues: basic control of general public health concerns, and what takes place during an emergency. The United States and other countries have recently made some changes in how public health emergencies are handled, mostly in response to disasters that have been seen on their home soil or in other areas of the world. A public health emergency can come from a natural disaster, a terrorist act, or in other ways, but being prepared for it is important. It can also be difficult, because it is unpredictable and cannot be accurately planned for in many cases.

esponse to Japan Disasters

Japan has experienced its share of public health emergencies in recent years. The tsunami created a massive issue for a significant number of people (CDC, 2011). Additionally, the nuclear radiation that began leaking added fuel to the fire,…… [Read More]

References

Brandt, A.M., & Gardner, M. (2000). Antagonism and accommodation: Interpreting the relationship between public health and medicine in the United States during the 20th century. American Journal of Public Health, 90(5): 707 -- 715.

CDC responds to earthquake, tsunami and radiation release in Japan (2011). Retrieved November 18, 2012 from:  http://blogs.cdc.gov/publichealthmatters/2011/03/cdc-responds-to-earthquake-tsunami-and-radiation-release-in-japan/ 

Christodouleas, J.P., Forrest, R.D., Ainsley, C.G., Tochner, Z., Hahn, S.M.,and Glatste, E. (2011). Short-term and long-term health risks of nuclear-power-plant accidents. New England Journal of Medicine, 10(10), 56. Retrieved November 18, 2012 from: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra1103676

DeLia, D., & Wood, E. (2008). The dwindling supply of empty beds: Implications for hospital surge capacity. Health Affairs, 27(6), 1688-94. Retrieved from: ProQuest.
View Full Essay

Terry Schiavo Before Terry Schiavo

Words: 1370 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62661313

Brophy Case Study

The unfortunate case of Paul Brophy should immediately remind people of the very similar case of Terry Schiavo and how that case ended up. Indeed, Mr. Brophy is in a persistent vegetative state due to an artery bursting in his brain. His life can technically be maintained through a feeding tube and other medical equipment but he is not "terminal" in the usually used sense of the word in that he is not near death so long as he is fed. However, his chances of every regaining normal brain function, which he has lost, are zero according to medical professionals. As such, the family wanted to let him go but the medical professionals resisted. While this decision may seem like an easy one to make, it is not remotely easy and for a number of reasons.

Analysis

One important piece of information regarding this case is that…… [Read More]

References

Baker, D. (2013, April 25). Right to die or wrong to kill?. Christian Today. Retrieved October 9, 2014, from http://www.christiantoday.com/article/right.to.die.or.wrong

.to.kill/32248.htm

Beauchamp, T.L., & Childress, J.F. (2013). Principles of biomedical ethics (7th ed.).

New York: Oxford University Press.
View Full Essay

Companion Diagnostics Translational Medicines

Words: 4711 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9971327

Translational medicine is a new discipline, which covers studies on basic science, on human investigations, non-human investigations, and translational research (Mankoff et al. 2004). asic science studies address the biological effects of medicines on human beings. Studies on humans discover the biology of disease and serve as foundation for developing therapies. Non-human or non-clinical studies advance therapies for clinical use or use in human disease. And translational research refers to appropriate product development for clinical use. Translational research looks into the identity, purity and potency of a drug product during early clinical trial (Mankoff et al.). Translating the knowledge derived from basic sciences into clinical research and treatments is the task of translational medicine (Nagappa 2006). There is a groaning need for this type of research on account of voluminous information in the information age. Using this information is the challenge encountered by scientists and healthcare providers everywhere in the…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Hersh, William. A Stimulus to Define Informatics and Health Information Technology.

Vol 9 BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making: BioMed Central Ltd., 2009.

Retrieved on November 24, 2010 from  http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6947/24 

Mankoff, Stacey P. et al. Lost in Translation: Obstacles to Translational Medicine Vol 2
View Full Essay

Biomedicine Explain How Sociological and Lay Ideas

Words: 1640 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41193251

Biomedicine

Explain how sociological and lay ideas about illness differ from those of biomedicine

Individuals and societies have over the years engaged in identifying the causal factors which can be attributed with an ailment. Illness and its related explanation has been a focal point of health professionals. It is also important to note that the attribution of illness with a specific cause may not be the same in terms of biomedicine and sociological or lay ideas. Sociological ideas tend to lay emphasis on the norms, values and subjective experiences of the individuals as the core elements which formulate their perception about an illness (Blaxter 2010). The layman is more likely to base the explanation of an ailment on social causes rather than exploring the dimensions of the illness through medical explanation. On the other hand, medical professionals (biomedicine) seek causal factors which are linked with the physiological and anatomical aspects…… [Read More]

References:

Barker, KK 2010, 'The social construction of illness: medicalization and contested illness' in Bird, CE, Conrad, P, Fremon, AM & Timmermans, M (ed.) Handbook of medical sociology. Vanderbilt University Press, USA.

Blaxter, M 2010, Health, 2nd edn, Polity Press, USA.

Bury, M 2005, Health and Illness, Polity Press, USA.Nettleton, S 2006, The Sociology of Health & Illness, 2nd edn, Polity Press, USA.

Naidoo J & Wills, J 2008, Health Studies: An Introduction, Palgrave Macmillan, USA.
View Full Essay

Trends Issues in Provision of Health Information Resources Services

Words: 1930 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90814371

Health Information esources/Services

Libraries have traditionally been safeguarded the fulfillment of goals of continuing education in their respective fields. It is felt to accord enhanced priority to the health science librarians while the continuing education experts enhance their knowledge of the learning process and the various elements that make the scope of the continuing education effective. eally, the role of health sciences libraries is enormous particularly in the sphere of the lifelong learning and Continuing Education. The concept of Continuing Education has been conveniently been divided by Gruppen as formal CE that concentrates on conventional programs concerning specific topics and aimed at particular audiences; and the informal CE that emphasizes on the learning that involves the anxiety of practitioners anxious of resolving the problems in their routine practice. (Messerle, 1990)

The role of health science libraries has been realized to be significant in both the categories of continuing education and…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Block, Karla J. (Summer, 1997) "Problem-based learning in medical education: Issues for health sciences libraries and librarians" Katharine Sharp Review. Graduate School of Library and Information Science, Dominican University/College of St. Catherine. No. 5. pp: 25-28

Braude, Robert. M; Wood, Samuel. J. (January, 1997) "On the origin of a species: evolution of health sciences librarianship" Bull Medical Library Association. Vol: 85; No: 1; pp: 116-121

Kronenfeld, Michael R. (January, 2005) "Trends in academic health sciences libraries and their emergence as the "knowledge nexus" for their academic health centers" Journal of Medical Library Association. Vol: 93; No: 1; pp: 32 -- 39.

Messerle, J. (April, 1990) "The changing continuing education role of health sciences libraries" Bull Medical Library Association. Vol: 78; No: 2; pp: 180 -- 187.
View Full Essay

Electronics Aiding Humanity Technology and

Words: 2750 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6252345



The truth that electronics aid humanity may be a subject for debate. However, it must be noted that nothing else may beat your doubt on electronics but the fact that we can derive from others' experiences that the technological advances in electronics really assist man in sustaining his life and surviving from the weaknesses of our physical body. More so, we may derive such information from our relatives and friends who may have experienced recovering from diseases with the aid of advanced biomedic machines. or, you can also ask this question to yourself to provide a view on how effective do you really believe can technology that is applied in electronics help, assist, and aid humanity -- "Would you rather go for the old method and practices of medicine than how medicine is practice these days?"

Technology in Electronics - Aiding Other Defects of Humanity

If the advances in electronics…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Electronics and Biomedical Engineering. http://www.city.ac.uk/sems/undergraduate/elecbiomed/

Taylor, John. "Serving Blind Readers in Digital Age."

American Libraries, 35.11 (2005): 49-51.

Jarvis, Jessica. "Opening Doors to Learning."
View Full Essay

Personal Statement as a Person Who Is

Words: 898 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31788539

Personal Statement

As a person who is concerned with the environment and has a background in information technology, applying for admission to a Masters of Science program at XXX University is one in a series of logical steps and choices in my personal and professional lives. As a student in MSEM program, I will utilize my professional knowledge and skills acquired from both my experience as a biomedical engineering student and my family business to contribute to this community. My interests and skills coincide, expand, and deepen at the prospect of entrance to a Masters of Science program in the area of Biomedical Engineering.

My parents both own companies in China that focus on international trading business. I grew up in an environment full of business people and I enjoy it. I found doing business is compelling and thrilling. As the companies grow, they opened their companies divisions in XXXX…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Role Boundaries in Care Work Role Boundaries

Words: 1264 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14684637

Role Boundaries in Care ork

Role boundaries are a critical component in a health care setting. Much of this is a response to how the system is organized. The health care industry is composed of many different roles that specialize in different areas and expertise. Therefore, the individuals in the system must honor their role boundaries to ensure that the collective efforts of the individuals in the system can work together to provide high levels of patient care. The care experienced by Anwar Malik in hospital was defined by the collective effort that each individual gave to Anwar. Each team member has a range of tasks that can be organized with various role boundaries. If any of the members violate their roles, then this can lead to the team's effort not being effective and could also compromise the level of care provided to the patient.

Diabetic Anwar Malik was admitted…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Caplan, A., McCartney, D., & Sisti, D. (2004). Health, Disease, and Illness. Georgetown: Georgetown University Press.

Hewa, S., & Hetherington, R. (1995). Specalist without Spirit. Theoretical Medicine, 129-139.

Medi Lexicon. (N.d.). Definition: 'Biomedical Model'. Retrieved from Medi Lexicon:  http://www.medilexicon.com/medicaldictionary.php?t=55643 

The Open University. (n.d.). K101 Block 1. Faculty of Health & Social Care.
View Full Essay

Organizational Psychology

Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1525809

Health Care

In my area, drug use isn't really a spike, it's been pretty high for a while (no pun intended). There are a number of factors to which this is attributed, but suffice to say that it is a complex issue. A lot of it is just experimentation. Nobody cares about weed, so it's really when things progress to harder drug, and more addictive drugs, that it becomes a real social problem. I feel like a lot of people just want to experiment, and they do not really know the risks. There is a lot of sense that they are invincible. And, arguably, there is a lot of supply, too. If it was just weed, again, no big deal, but there's a lot worse things than that, and those other drugs are basically easy to get. So when you have people who are interested to try things, are not…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Iran bioethics and biotechnology issues

Words: 2576 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43708520

Executive summary

Contemporary Biotechnology has produced considerable contribution to the global farming and health sector. Advancement of several medicines, numerous pharmaceuticals, vaccines making use of recombinant DNA technology has made biotechnology a multibillion dollar global industry. Additionally, PCR centered diagnostics has additionally materialized as a crucial element of the health industry. Because vast majority of the Islamic nations have their economies centered on farming, biotechnology has therefore enormous potential to improve efficiency. The need of meals in Islamic nations over the last 2 decades is predicted to improve by nearly half. That boost is going to have to come via changes in agricultural efficiency in marginal, fertile, salt affected as well as rainfed areas. There will probably be much less workforce, arable land and water offered to the agriculture sector. This particular scenario is actually a consequence of reduced rural populace, poor management of water reserves and supplies, environmental degradation…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Health Exploring the Tuskegee Syphilis

Words: 2669 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38901908



The Tuskegee Syphilis Study still remains as one of the most outrageous examples of disregard of basic ethical principles of conduct not to mention violation of standards for ethical research. The suspicion and fear produced by the Tuskegee Syphilis Study are still evident today. Community workers often report mistrust of public health institutions within the African-American community. ecently Alpha Thomas of the Dallas Urban League testified before the National Commission on AIDS saying that many African-American people do not trust hospitals or any of the other community health care service providers because of that Tuskegee Experiment (esearch Ethics: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 2010).

In 1990, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), which is one of the country's major civil rights organizations, conducted a survey among 1056 African-American Church members in five cities. They found that 34% of the respondents believed that AIDS was an artificial virus, 35% believed that AIDS…… [Read More]

References

Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study. (2009). Retrieved March 9, 2010, from University of Virginia Health System Web site:

http://www.hsl.virginia.edu/historical/medical_history/bad_blood/

Boskey, Elizabeth. (2007). What Is the Tuskegee Syphilis Study? Retrieved March 10, 2010,

from About.com Web site: http://std.about.com/od/stdsinthemedia/f/tuskegeefaq.htm
View Full Essay

Abbott Laboratories This Company Report

Words: 2791 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24746753

pag). Some business will continue as usual, of course: Abbott's nutrition division, based in Columbus, Ohio and employing approximately 2,000 people, announced that the nutrition unit will "fall under the umbrella of a new medical products company that will retain the Abbott name in a split announced ednesday" (Rouan n.pag). In addition, the announcement has apparently met with international investor approval: "At the news, Abbott's shares went up 7.3% in premarket trading on ednesday" (M2 Pharma n.pag).

The split is expected to occur in 2012 and will result in the currently-unnamed pharmaceutical company and the diversified medical products company, retaining the name "Abbott" (Abbott Laboratories n.pag).

(a). Pharmaceutical Company:

The pharmaceutical company is projected to have annual sales of approximately $18 Billion, a portfolio including Abbott's high-profile drugs such as Humira and Lupron, and a pipeline of "promising new specialty medicines and formulations" (Abbott Laboratories n.pag). According to Abbott's press…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abbott Laboratories. A Tradition of Innovation. n.d. Web. 22 October 2011.

-- . Abbott Reports Strong Ongoing Third Quarter Results; Confirms Double-Digit Ongoing Earnings Growth Outlook for 2011. 19 October 2011. Web. 21 October 2011.

-- . Abbott to Separate into Two Leading Companies in Diversified Medical Products and Research-Based Pharmaceuticals. 19 October 2011. Web. 21 October 2011.

-- . Abbott Worldwide. n.d. 2011. Web. 21 October 2011.
View Full Essay

Management Styles Fool-Proofing a Service Operation In

Words: 4150 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92882379

Management Styles

Fool-proofing a service operation.

In the banking industry, a significant service industry in any country, optimized operations are essential to ensure that the public has maximum confidence in the operators of this industry. ank of America and its operations have been selected for discussion in this study. The bank has grown tremendously in the past few years. CEO, Ken Lewis realized that the bank could gain a wider market share and customer base if it was able to streamline its operations and the level of service. Incorporating concepts of process management was considered essential to the improvement process. (Cox and ossert, 2005) Some of the tools such as six-sigma were used to ensure that a high level of quality was maintained in the service that the provided to the customer.

ank of America recognized that customer satisfaction was paramount in ensuring that the customer was loyal and would…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anonymous. "Starbucks - Taking on the World." Strategic Direction 20.7 (2004): 13-15.

Coffeeresearch.org. Starbucks and Transfair USA Enter into Breakthrough Alliance to Promote Fair Trade Certified Coffee. 2000. August 5, 2005.

Cohen, Don. "Managing Knowledge in the New Economy." Conference on organizational Learning. Chicago: The Conference Board, LLC, 1998.

Cox, Daniel, and James Bossert. "Driving Organic Growth at Bank of America." Quality Progress 38.2 (2005): 23-28.
View Full Essay

Polymer Gels History of the

Words: 2920 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68155382

Advancement of nanotechnology has gained significant attention in the self -- assembling characteristic of a variety of molecules, which is a vital requirement for the growing bottom -- up design of nanoscale structures. hen these molecules go through molecular self -- congregation, the consequential structural elements, for instance nanotubes or vesicles, can be further transformed to give specific charactistics to the components. Like nanotubes can be covered with metals or partially -- conducting substances to fabricate nanowires.

Smart polymeric gels are classified on various structural properties. Superporous hydrogels (SPHs) are utilized to augment the responsiveness of hydrogels. In this case, the augmented responsiveness to stimuli is accomplished by manufacturing interconnected absorbent networks. Superporous hydrogels (SPHs) correspond to a rapid -- swelling group of hydrogels with pore dimensions much bigger than the usual network of a normal hydrogel. These were firstly created as modern gastric retention devices to augment the duration…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Annaka, Masahiko and Tanaka, Toyoichi, Multiple phases of polymer gels, Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, 2005, pp. 430-432

Darmawan, Adi; Smart, Simon; Julbe, Anne; Diniz da Costa, Joao Carlos, Iron Oxide Silica Derived from Sol-Gel Synthesis, Materials, ISSN, Volume 4, Issue 2, 2011, pp. 448-456

Heitfeld, Kevin a, Smart membranes: Hydroxypropyl cellulose for flavor delivery, ISBN 9780549027560, 2007, 15.

Hu, Jinlian, Adaptive and Functional Polymers, Textiles and Their Applications, ISBN 1848164750, 2011, p. 416
View Full Essay

Sociology Social Influences on Health

Words: 2570 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77807695

In terms of the plainness of gendered inequalities in the health and longevity of women, compared with men, the majority world demands our notice. The world-wide toll in terms of women's raised levels of mortality and morbidity corroborates that limited or negligible access to political power, land-ownership, education, sexual self-determination and earning ability has detrimental bodily effects (Bradby, 2009).

While sociologists have long studied the aspect of illness, it has only been recently that they have turned their attention to the development of sociology of health. Sociologists' interest in health emerged in part in reaction to the biomedical mode, which focused primarily on disease. A more holistic approach to health and healing, sociologists argued, must also encompass the idea of positive health and well-being. The concept of health itself needs to be explored, and such exploration must take lay perspectives into account. A holistic, or socio-environmental, model of health also…… [Read More]

References

Albrecht, Gary L., Fitzpatrick, Ray and Scrimshaw, Susan. 2003. "Handbook of Social Studies

in Health and Medicine." Sage Publications: California.

Bradby, Hannah. 2009. "Virtual Special Issue on feminism and the sociology of gender, health and illness." Sociology of Health and Wellness. Available at:

http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/shil_enhanced/virtual2_full.asp
View Full Essay

Ethical Guidelines in Do Ethical

Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84060425

Complicating matters further is the fact raised by Eriksson et al. (2008) that when doctors, psychiatrists, and other health care workers operate as a team the guidelines established by their individual professional organizations may clash.

Thus, greater multiplicity is not the solution. Greater clarity and specificity trump multiplicity in terms of what the biomedical industries need in order to ensure ethical behaviors within their organizations. If the primary goal of ethical guidelines is to inform ethical behavior, then that goal must in fact be clearly stated at the onset of the guidelines. Likewise, if ethical guidelines form the foundation for legislation, then the law must also point to the philosophical or ideological foundations upon which the regulations are founded.

A barrier between personal and professional values also threatens to undermine the usefulness of ethical guidelines within the biomedical industry. What the authors fail to mention is the fact that nurses…… [Read More]

Reference

Eriksson, S., Hoglund, a.T., & Helgesson, G. (2008). Do ethical guidelines give guidance? A critical examination of eight ethics regulations. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 17(15-29).
View Full Essay

The Aviator Howard Hughes OCD and Bipolar

Words: 1673 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38951893

Hughes would be diagnosed with bi-polar disorder, with differential diagnoses consisting of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and agoraphobia. As DSM-V (2013) states, the diagnostic criteria for Bipolar 1 Disorder are as stated, "For a diagnosis of bipolar 1 disorder, it is necessary to meet the following criteria for a manic episode. The manic episode may have been preceded by and may be followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes" (p. 123). This diagnosis may very well apply to Howard Hughes, as throughout the film The Aviator, he demonstrates an impulsive personality and is not adverse to taking enormous risks, in which his entire fortune and even life are on the line. He alternates between manic-depressive moments, where he shuts himself away for months, and moments where he emerges as a king-of-the-world type of figure (as in the court room scene towards the end of the film, when he defends himself). These…… [Read More]

References

Campbell, G. (2001, May). The anxious client reconsidered: Getting beyond the symptoms to deeper change. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy1.ncu.edu/docview/233312959?accountid=281

Chouinard, V. (2012). Mapping bipolar worlds: Lived geographies of 'madness' in autobiographical accounts. Health & Place, 18(2): 144-151.

Connolly, K., Thase, M. (2011). The clinical management of bipolar disorder: A review of evidence-based guidelines. Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders, 13(4): 1-4.

Steketee, G. (2003). Clinical update: Obsessive compulsive disorder
View Full Essay

Gluten Affect Autism Fact or

Words: 7524 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46952110

When processed by a transglutaminase enzyme, it can interact with immunological cells and produce cytotoxic inflammation. In autism, it is believed that peptides from gluten and casein cross the intestinal microvillus barrier and enter the blood stream. They also cross the blood-brain barrier. In the brain, certain amino acid sequences of these peptides compete with natural peptides, which bind to opioid receptors. These receptors are G-protein receptors in cell membrane surfaces of neurons. inding to these receptors disturbs the neuronal function and ultimately leads to or contributes to autism (Department of Pediatrics Staff).

Limited Reliable Scientific Evidence

UK researchers investigated more than 30 scientific articles on the effectiveness of the gluten-free, casein-free diet on autistic children (astian, 2004). They found one, which provided reliable scientific evidence that the diet works. The particular study, however, was conducted on only 20 children aged 5-10 who had high levels of protein in their…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Atwood, K.C. (2003). Naturopathy: a critical appraisal. 5 (4) Medscape General

Medicine. Retrieved on June 23, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/465994

Bastian, H. (2010). Can a diet avoiding gluten and milk proteins reduce autism?

Medicine News Today: MediLexicon International Ltd. Retrieved on June 23,
View Full Essay

Healthcare Intro of the Representative

Words: 940 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34588361

In addition, Senator Collins led the fight to restore critical f funding to Medicare for home health care so that elderly citizens and disabled can receive needed care in their own homes ("Biography")."

Obviously the senator encourages the funding of both Medicaid and Medicare as she has fought to ensure that both are funded correctly. Collins was also a supporter of the stimulus package that improves healthcare information technology.

As it pertains to abortions Susan Collins is also pro-choice and believes in stem cell research. She is adamant about the right of a woman to choose just as Senator Kennedy. She also voted no on prohibiting HHS grants to organization who perform abortions. She has also been a proponent of expanding stem cell research.

In both the present and the past Collins has worked to ensure that healthcare coverage is affordable. From the bill that she coauthored with Senator Kennedy…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Biography. Official Website of Senator Susan Collins. Retrieved June 20, 2009 from; http://collins.senate.gov/public/continue.cfm?FuseAction=AboutSenatorCollins.Biography&CFID=1388899&CFTOKEN=51070689

Fritze, J. Moderates in Congress feel health care push. Retrieved June 20, 2009 from; http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/story?id=7789528&page=1

Funding for Biomedical Research at Maine Medical Center. Retrieved June 20, 2009 from;  http://senatorcollins.blogspot.com/2009/06/funding-for-biomedial-research-at-maine.html 

Healthcare. Official Website of Edward Kennedy. Retrieved June 20, 2009 from; http://kennedy.senate.gov/issues_and_agenda/issue.cfm?id=dad5db98-20db-4e85-9b73-7a16c4eac15f
View Full Essay

Bioethical Research One of the

Words: 1693 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59899446

Also, there has been pressure in the different professions for every research design to follow these general procedures (Chadwick, Bahr, & Albrecht, 1984, pp. 19-20).

The researcher needs protection as well as the subject does. An important protection of confidentiality is testimonial privilege. This protection is not absolute and must yield to other concerns in some cases such as state's requirement that certain diseases (infectious diseases) or injuries (child abuse or neglect, gun shot wounds) be reported to prevent further injury. Written, informed consent to release information is the best defense against an allegation of a breach of confidentiality (Brent, 1997, p. 258).

Bioethics and informed consent extend beyond the area of research into that of medical practice, calling for medical personnel to inform patients of what treatment are being given and what options the patient may have. Such efforts are seen as both ethical and as empowering for patients,…… [Read More]

References

Bower, R.T. & de Gasparis, P. (1978). Ethics in social research: Protecting the interests of human subjects. New York: Praeger.

Brent, N.J. (1997). The home healthcare nurse and confidentiality and privacy. Home Healthcare Nurse, 15(4), 256-258.

Chadwick, B.A., Bahr, H.M., & Albrecht, S.L. (1984). Social science research methods. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall.

Heinrich, Bernd. "What Is Natural?" Discover (June 1994), 40-42.
View Full Essay

Aetiology and Management of Cancer

Words: 4918 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77784533

This is related to bronchitis, asthma and long-term conditions such as lung cancer and bladder cancer (obinson, 2009).

It is estimated that the chances of getting bladder cancer is high for ex-smokers and passive smokers even after thirty years later. This brings us to the question of management of bladder cancer for current and ex-smokers as well as passive smokers.

The management of bladder cancer is a three-pronged approach that involves reducing the progression of the disease, protecting the bladder and increasing the chances of survival. The course of treatment depends to a large extent on the stage of the cancer. During the earlier stages, surgery, trans urethral resection, intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy are used to contain the disease and prevent it from progressing further. The malignant areas are treated with one of the above procedures to remove the tumor. In the case of a more advanced stage, radical cystectomy…… [Read More]

References

Cancer Research UK. (2011). Cancer in the UK: April 2011. Retrieved from http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/mortality/

Friedman, Howard. (1990). Personality and Disease. Publisher: New York, John Wiley & Sons.

Abrahamson; Seligman; Teasdale. (1978). Learned Helplessness in Humans: Critique and Reformulation. Abnormal Psychology. Vol 87. pp 49-74.

McAllister, Robert. (May 1974). Viral Etiology of Cancer: Two Hypotheses with relevance to chemical exposure. Pediatrics. Vol 53 (5). pp826.
View Full Essay

Video Crossing the Line the

Words: 1599 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96395088

In some countries, bed numbers began to drop before the introduction of the drugs. In others, bed numbers actually increased despite this introduction. The drugs also have been used on a variety of populations that were not deemed to be mentally ill (such as people with learning difficulties and older people). The drugs were only relevant in giving psychiatric staff more confidence in dealing with community-based patients; they do not explain the policy of deinstitutionalization. At the end of the twentieth century deinstitutionalization has become a dominant mental health policy goal in most Western democracies (Sax, 1984).

Conclusion

However, this formal goal has become clouded by evidence that the gradual reduction of large institutions has been replaced by a scattering of smaller ones 'in the community' (Roe, 1976). Also, most countries still have legal statutes to coercively remove madness from community set- tings. The extent of this continued coercive control…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Gale, F. 2007 A changing Aboriginal population. In F. Gale and G. Lawton (eds), Settlement and Encounter: Geographical studies presented to Sir Grenfell Price, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 65-88.

Smith, L. 2006 The Aboriginal Population, The Australian National University Press, Canberra.

CDHHS 2004, The National Aboriginal Health Strategy: an evaluation, Commonwealth Department of Health and Human Services, Canberra.

Roe, M 1976, 'The establishment of the Australian Department of Health: its background and significance', Australian Historical Studies 17(67):176-92.
View Full Essay

Elites in Engineering in the

Words: 11890 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80333793

Enginees should focus on the impovement of the pefomance of the economy. This elates to the tansfomation of the theoies of contolling the wold and adopting new famewoks in the opeating in conjunction with the planet. New enginees need to adopt and implement new theoies of focusing on the economic, social, and political concepts in elation to both technical and nontechnical disciplines (Cameon 2010 p.40).

Leades in Bitish Engineeing

Accoding to Lewis (1998, p.88), the technology style of the 19th centuy stetches fom the peak of one long wave to the peak of the next. The concened style would have made its fist appeaance in 1870s and would have held geat influence in the late Victoian peiod. It was maked though the diffusion of cheap bulk steel that emeged in the mid-Victoian peiods, advances in science-based industies such as engineeing and chemicals, spead of electic powe and the adoption of…… [Read More]

references of the current population without compromising the needs of the future population. This relates to the achievement of sustainable development thus improving living conditions of the citizens. Global warming is a problem affecting growth and development of the economy. This is through increasing the sea water level because of the high temperatures thus melting of ice caps. In order to minimize the effects of global warming, it is ideal to focus on the transformation of the engineering systems in the United Kingdom (Nuvolari et al. 2009 p.700).

Possible predictions about the future of British engineering

In order to address challenges affecting the current and future populations, it is essential to train engineers with the ability to make intelligent decisions in relation to maximum protection and quality life on the planet than endangering forms of life. Engineers will have to make decisions with reference to professional environment in relation to interactions between technical and nontechnical disciplines. The modern system should focus on the preparation of the engineers to become valuable facilitators of sustainable development and implementers of appropriate technology. This aims at addressing social and economic challenges facing the current engineers because of the modern systems and mindset of engineers in the context of the United Kingdom. This is essential in becoming an effective and efficient body of engineers with the aim of providing leadership to the world engineering body (Burgess 1972 p.10).

Future development in relation to the engineering systems and subsystems in the United Kingdom should focus on adequate implementation of technology in addressing essential needs of the future population. Technological developments should also focus on the improvement of conditions such as sufficient water, protection of the environment, and adequate infrastructure. This is vital in the achievement of the millennium development goals and objectives as outlined by the United Nations under the influence of its General Assembly. Future engineering should focus in the achievement of sustainable development thus addressing current and future needs of the world's population. It is vital to note future engineering should integrate numerous aspects in addressing social, economic, and political effects on the planet.

Reference List
View Full Essay

Electrocardiogram Currently There Are Different Types of

Words: 1560 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49149247

Electrocardiogram

Currently there are different types of tests to study the behavior of the heart and monitor it. These tests are extremely important, because let us know in time if the heart is failing or has a problem. And because of that, today we submit to treatment or surgery to correct them when they are still small and manageable, before our life is at risk. The electrocardiogram, ECG or EKG, is one of those tests.

The electrocardiogram (ECG / EKG) is the graph obtained with the electrocardiograph to measure the heart's electrical activity as a continuous graphic tape. It also helps to know the duration of the cardiac cycle. It is the main instrument for cardiac electrophysiology and has a significant role in screening and diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders and predisposition to sudden cardiac death (Daja, eljin, eljin, 2001). The ECG has the advantage of being a medical…… [Read More]

References

Alwan M., Dalal S., Mack D.' Kell S.W., Turner B., Leachtenauer J. And Felder R. (2006) 'Impact of Monitoring Technology in Assisted Living: Outcome Pilot', IEEE Trans on Info Tech in Biomed, Vol. 10, No.1,192-198

Daja, N., Reljin, I. And Reljin, B., (2001). Tele-monitoring in cardiology -- ECG transmission by mobile phone, Annals of the Academy of Studenica 4:63-66.

Forkner-Dunn J. (2003) 'Internet-based Patient Self-care: The Next Generation of Health Care Delivery', J Med Internet Res., Vol.5, No. 2:e8

Madias J. (2008). Manual-based Vs Automation-based measurements of the amplitude of QRS complexes and T. wave in patients with edematous states -- clinical implications. J. Of Electrocardiography; 41(1):13-8.
View Full Essay

Frustration and Dissonance Risk

Words: 883 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23626183

Frustration and Dissonance/Risk

Frustration and Dissonance / Risk

Frustration and Cognitive Dissonance

Cognitive dissonance has been extensively studied in social psychology as the effects of dissonance would cause dramatic changes in one's life. Cognitive dissonance is defined as an uncomfortable feeling caused by holding conflicting ideas simultaneously. The result of dissonance may be anxiety, blaming, and denying. Although, the latter may also occur as the result of frustration, frustration is a conflict which occurs when something happens against one's will. The ways of reducing dissonance and frustration are justifying, blaming, and denying. People's experiences can contradict with expectations. For example, my old car was a manual transmission car, very reliable, fuel efficient; however, I wanted to buy an automatic transmission car with built in GPS and more room. However, my new car is not meeting my expectations. I have given three speed tickets because I was used to drive manual…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

extreme measures film and bioethics

Words: 723 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44442552

Starring Hugh Grant, Gene Hackman, and Sarah Jessica Parker, the 1996 film Extreme Measures addresses classic bioethics principles. The most significant ethical principle the film presents is related to testing on human subjects. However, this subject is presented in the film as being linked to another significant biomedical ethical issue, and that is patient informed consent. Within these two issues are embedded a series of other issues, such as the social value principle as it applies to the medical research.

Dr. Myrick (Gene Hackman) operates under the social value principle exclusively, to the point where he systematically ignores almost every other bioethical principle. He violates patient rights by not acquiring the informed consent of the individuals by disclosing that they might die from his treatments, and he also treats the homeless people like their lives do not matter, as if they are disposable. Patient autonomy is violated and social justice…… [Read More]

References

Apted, M. (1996). Extreme Measures. [Feature Film].

Emanuel, E., Abdoler, E. & Stunkel, L. (n.d.). Research ethics. NIH. Retrieved online:  https://bioethics.nih.gov/education/FNIH_BioethicsBrochure_WEB.PDF