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Biomedical Ethics Essays (Examples)

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Ethics and Technology
Words: 1821 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14324895
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Ethics and Computing in Computer Science

EMPOWERMENT AND RESPONSIILITY

Errors and Hazards and Their Consequences

Despite the best of care and talent, computation is subject to uncertainties, which experts call "errors (Landau, 2008)." Some of these errors are man-made and some are produced by the computer itself. The four classes of errors are blunders or bad theory, random errors, approximation or algorithm errors, and round-off errors. lunders are typographical errors or errors caused by running or using the wrong program or similar errors. Random errors are results of occurrences like fluctuations in electronics or cosmic rays running through the computer. Algorithm or approximation errors include the substitution of finite by infinite figures or variable inputs by constants. And round-off errors are inaccuracies as the finite number of digits for storing floating numbers (Landau). Peter Neumann at the SRI International identified more than 400 incidents of these errors, hazards and other…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Jacky, J. (1989). Safety-critical computing, hazards, practices, standards and regulation.

Vol. 29, # 5, "Programmed for Disaster: Software Errors that Imperil Lives."

Department of Radiation: University of Washington. Retrieved on March 22, 2014

from  http://staff.washington.edu/jon/pubs/safety-critical.html

Ethics Behind Stem Cell Research
Words: 1818 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74121630
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Do patients understand what it means to donate tissue to science? Not only that, but use of EG cells confuses stem cell research with the debate over abortion, bring up the risk of biasing emotions (McDonald 7).

So, while stem cell research is an exciting new field that holds much promise, ethical problems arise to delay research, discovery of benefits or dangers, and involve many who have no knowledge of the complexities of the field. Though controversies usually accompany new discoveries in science, this biotechnological process involves manipulating the basis of life itself in embryonic stem cells. But the field is rapidly changing. hat is true today may be outmoded tomorrow. A neutral substitute for stem cells may be discovered that will prove to be the answer to these ethical questions.

orks Cited

Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. "Financial incentives in recruitment of oocyte donors." Fertil…

Works Cited

Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. "Financial incentives in recruitment of oocyte donors." Fertil Steril 2004; 82:Suppl 1:S240-S244.

Hwang, W.S., Roh, S.I., Lee, B.C., et al. -- Patient-specific embryonic stem cells derived from human SNCT blastocysts." Science 2005;308.

Magnus, David and Cho, Mildred K. "Issues in oocyte donation for stem cell research." Science Express Magazine, Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics and Department of Pediatrics, Vol. 308. no. 5729, June 2005.  http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/308/5729/1747 .

McDonald, Chris. "Stem cells: a pluripotent challenge." BioScan Vol. 13, Iss. 4, (Toronto Biotechnology Initiative.) Fall 2001.

Ethics in Nanomedicine the Term
Words: 10726 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76858278
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All these charters that have clearly defined the boundaries of what both the positive i.e. natural rights and negative i.e. The unjust exploitative rights of the people are and how no institution or research domains have the right or power to violate them (Dierkes, Hoffmann and Marz, 1996).

Based on the above fact, we have to consider all the concerns related towards security of an individual as well as his rights, societal principles and considerations, national strategies, the financial system and market of the country as well as the social-educational-traditional structure that might be put in jeopardy due to a scientific research of nanomedicine. Hence we have to carefully consider that the researchers who are investing their time and effort in to the nano-medical research are treated with value while still securing the human rights of the society i.e. awareness of and protection against the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on…

References

Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. (2001). Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.

Brennan, M. et al. (2002). Communication, Cultural and Media Studies. Routledge. London.

Chambers, T. (1996). From the ethicist's point-of-view: The literary nature of ethical inquiry. Hastings Center Report 26(1): 25-32.

Chang K. (2005). Tiny is beautiful: translating 'nano' into practical. New York Times; p. A1.

Ethics of Allowing Anyone to Have Kids
Words: 1523 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76179453
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Biomedical Ethics

The author of this report was given the choice of one of two assignments when it comes to the Johnna Fisher textbook offering on medical ethics. The author of this report has decided to seize upon one of the articles littered throughout the book and make a thesis argument and report about the same. The Fisher text is full of articles and ethical quandaries that are ripe for the picking. However, the author of this report has chosen to focus on the idea of sterilizing the "feeble-minded" as explained and argued by Grekul, Krahn and Odynak. The question of whether people could or should have full rights to procreate despite the social problems it can create or aggravate is a burning question for many people. hile choosing who can procreate and who should not are very Nazi-esque to some, the idea of controlling who can have kids and…

Works Cited

Akerlof, George. "An Analysis of Out-Of-Wedlock Births in The United States." The Brookings Institution. N.p., 1996. Web. 30 Mar. 2016.Fisher, J. (2009). Biomedical ethics. Don Mills, Ont.: Oxford University Press.

PBS. "American Experience -- The Pill -- People & Events." PBS.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 30 Mar. 2016.

Ethics Reproductive Technologies - There
Words: 768 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62174015
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The next objection of IVF separating the procreation and marital aspects of marriage and in the end damaging the marital relationship was totally untrue in this case. This couple had a very strong relationship and going through the process of gestational surrogacy strengthen their martial relationship as opposed to damaging it. The last objection of adoption is a better answer to the trouble of childlessness may very well be true for a lot of people. One cannot argue the fact that there are a lot of children out there that need to have good homes and there are many couples that could benefit tremendously from this avenue. But in the case of the couple in this article the idea of having a biological child was something that was very strong from them, thus making the path that they took the best one for them.

IVF, just like many other things…

References

Kuczynski, Alex. 2008. "Her Body, My Baby." Web. 5 July 2011. <

 http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/30/magazine/30Surrogate-t.html?_r=2&pagewanted=1 >

Singer, Peter. IVF: The Simple Case. Biomedical Ethics. By Degrazia, David, Mappes,

Thomas A. And Brand-Ballard, Jeffrey. 2010. 7th ed. Columbus: McGraw-Hill. 2010.

Ethics Is Knowing the Difference Between What
Words: 1355 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6120237
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Ethics is knowing the difference between what you have a right to do and what is right to do" (1). Ethics and its subsequent practice have been a very contentious issue in American society of late. Our current economic resulted almost entirely of excessive greed and unethical actions of key financial institutions. As a result of their lack of integrity, the entire world economy has subsequently suffered in a very severe manner. Many have lost their homes; even more have lost their retirement savings, while still others have lost their livelihoods. Such is the power of ethics and how its practice can have both positive and negative consequences on society as a whole. With all the attention placed on the financial community and in particular, Wall Street, many are often neglecting the unethical practices of the health care industry. I believe a very ubiquitous and widespread issue apparent within the…

References

1) "Ethics Quotes - BrainyQuote." Famous Quotes at BrainyQuote. Web. 04 Aug. 2011. .

2) "VM -- Refusal of Emergency Care and Patient Dumping, Jan 09 ... Virtual Mentor." Virtual Mentor:: American Medical Association Journal of Ethics | Virtualmentor.org. Web. 04 Aug. 2011. .

3) "EMTALA - Primary Law." EMTALA.COM - Resources and Information. Web. 04 Aug. 2011. .

4) Public Citizen." Public Citizen Home Page. Web. 04 Aug. 2011. .

Ethics Form Consent Form I
Words: 5968 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 76717513
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Any kind of other personal information that is collected will be securely stored and monitored by the Chief Investigator. ("Information Privacy Principals," 2010)

5.2 Give details of the arrangements that have been made for the safe storage of the data and also the measures, which will be adopted to protect confidential records about research participants?

(a) During the study. All data will be securely stored under lock and key.

(b) After the study. All data will be stored under lock and key. The Chief Investigator will be the only person who is allowed access to the information.

5.3 How will confidential records be destroyed after the study is complete?

NA.

5.4 Will anyone else, apart from the Chief Investigators, have access to confidential records or human tissue samples?

Yes [ ] No [x]

5.5 May any party, other than investigators claim ownership of the materials or results derived from the…

Bibliography

The Economic Impact of the Achievement Gap. (2009). McKinesy & Company. Retrieved from  http://www.mckinsey.com/app_media/images/page_images/offices/socialsector/pdf/achievement_gap_report.pdf 

Information Privacy Principals. (2010). Office of Victorian Privacy Commissioner. Retrieved from:  http://www.privacy.vic.gov.au/privacy/web.nsf/content/information+privacy+principles 

MP Ignores the Job Needs of the Less Educated. (2010, July). Sydney Mourning Herald. Retrieved from  http://www.smh.com.au/opinion/politics/mps-ignore-job-needs-of-the-less-educated-20100719-10hr1.html 

National Agenda for a Multicultural Australia. (2010). Department of Immigration and Citizenship. Retrieved from http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/multicultural/agenda/agenda89/australi.htm

School Counseling Ethics Has Been
Words: 7187 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39967424
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othe values

Moal chaacte, that is, having couage, being pesistent, dismissing distactions and so on in pusuit of the goal.

These ae attempts to define ethics by descibing actions, and faily specific constellations of actions at that. Fedeich Paulson, a 19th centuy philosophe of ethics, defined ethics as a science of moal duty (1899).

Almost 100 yeas late, Swenson also used the concept of study in defining ethics, saying that it included the systematic study of concepts such as ight and wong. Othe eseaches note that the idea of systematic study is common in dictionay definitions of ethics, with the Ameican Heitage Dictionay focusing on thee elements: " the study of moal philosophy, the ules of a pofession (o moe boadly the chaacte of a community), and moal self-examination (Soukhanov, 1992).

Hill (2004) offes a 'definition' that is mainly pactical but also incopoates some theoetical content. They believe that ethical…

references for confidentiality of records. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 34, 62-67.

Welfel, E.R. (1992). Psychologist as ethics educator: Successes, failures, and unanswered questions. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23, 182-189.

Welfel, E.R. (1998). Ethics in counseling and psychotherapy: Standards, research, and emerging issues. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Welfel, E.R. (2002). Ethics in counseling and psychotherapy: Standards, research, and emerging issues (2nd ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Carol Gilligan Ethics of Care
Words: 1170 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77866940
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Carol Gilligan - Ethics of Care

The central theme to Carol Gilligan's argument is that while women more often focus on care, men focus more on justice. The "care orientation," according to Gilligan, focuses on emotional relationships of attachment. Gilligan suggests that "humans who think in terms of the care orientation define themselves in terms of a system of relationships, connections, loyalties and circles of concern." (University of Reading Website)

The author also argues that psychology has "persistently and systematically misunderstood women - their motives, their moral commitments, the course of their psychological growth, and their special view of what is important in life." (Harvard).) A point she challenges is that if male development is largely a matter of increasing separation from others to achieve autonomy and independence, does that mean that women have failed to grow into mature adults if their development involves a continuing and unresolved struggle to…

Bibliography

In a Different Voice. Psychological Theory and Women's Development. Retrieved January 29, 2004, from Harvard University Press Website:  http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/GILDIF.html 

Feminist Ethics / The Ethics of Care. Retrieved January 29, 2004, from the University of Reading Website:  http://www.rdg.ac.uk/AcaDepts/ld/Philos/Feminist_Ethics.htm 

Gilligan's In a Different Voice. Retrieved 29 January, 2004, from St. Olaf College Website:  http://www.stolaf.edu/people/huff/classes/Intro/Gilligan.html 

Velasquez, M. Business Ethics, Concepts and Cases. Fifth Edition. pp. 27-32.

Ethics Project
Words: 4363 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 61479708
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Life and Death: The Life Support Dilemma by Kenneth E. Schemmer M.D

Kenneth Schemmer in his thorough, thought provoking book brings to life the controversial subject of the life support issue. For years, many all over the country have pondered, "What if a person were in some kind of an accident and the physicians told them that they were not going to make it?" And all that he or she could do is just lie there in extreme pain waiting for their life to the end. Or even worse case scenario what if they happened to end up completely brain dead? These debated questions are taken on by Dr. Schemmer in making his point that life support decisions may not necessarily be the decision of the family, the doctor or the patient but by a higher being that gives life and takes life. Schemmer uses these controversial questions in his…

References:

Court backs right to die | terminally ill have right to refuse medical life support. (1984, Dec 28). The San Diego Union, pp. A.1-1.

Ackerman, T. (2005, Mar 27). Life support battle shifts / A decade ago, patients families had to press for 'right to die. Houston Chronicle, pp. 1-B.1.

Allen, P. (2000, Oct 07). Right to die upheld despite new euro law, doctors can end life support rules judge. Daily Mail, pp. 33-33.

Dolan, M. (2001, Aug 10). Justices deal setback to right-to-die movement; health: State court bans removal of life support from conscious patients whose wishes are not clear. Los Angeles Times, pp. A.1-A.1.

Conflict Between Research and Ethics
Words: 1633 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 17287078
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I think that I would have to personally review any experiments conducted by that person, to assure myself that they did not contain the same types of ethical flaws. Furthermore, I would report the person to their appropriate governing body, so that they would at least be aware of the potential ethical problems that could be created by the researcher. If I were to enter into management and discover that one of the studies under me was being conducted in a manner like the Tuskegee study, I would not immediately end the study.

Instead, I would order that all study subjects be given effective medication to treat their disease and then end the study. One ethical question that I cannot answer is whether I would inform the patients that they had been subjected to years of useless treatments and then try to convince them that I was going to give…

References

Brunner, B. (2008). The Tuskegee syphilis experiment. Retrieved November 5, 2008 from Tuskegee University

Web site:  http://www.tuskegee.edu/Global/Story.asp?s=1207586 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008). U.S. Public Health Service syphilis study at Tuskegee: Home. Retrieved November 5, 2008, from Centers for Disease Control

Web site:  http://www.cdc.gov/tuskegee/index.html

Ethical Issues Raised by Biomedical
Words: 1736 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62814486
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As the narrow policy discussions regarding Physician-Assisted Suicide continue, we ought to encourage all presently existing and legal methods of reducing the painful sufferings during the last phase of life.

eferences

Drickamer, Margaret, a; Lee, Melinda. a; Ganzini, Linda. (1997, Jan 15) "Practical Issues in Physician-Assisted Suicide" Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 126, no. 2, pp: 146-151.

Emauel, Ezekiel. (1997, Mar) "Whose right to die?" The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 17, no. 2, pp:

Hayden, Laurel a. (1999, Apr) "Ethical Issues: Helping Patients with End-of-Life Decisions"

The American Journal of Nursing, vol. 99, no. 4, pp: 2401-2403.

Kaplan, Kalman. J; Harrow, Martin; Schneiderhan, Mark. E. (2002, Spring) "Suicide, physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in men vs. women around the world: The degree of physician control" Ethics and Medicine, vol. 21, no. 1, pp: 14-20.

Quill, Timothy E; Meier, Diane. E; Block, Susan. D; Billings, Andrew. J. (1998, Apr) "The

Debate over Physician-Assisted…

References

Drickamer, Margaret, a; Lee, Melinda. a; Ganzini, Linda. (1997, Jan 15) "Practical Issues in Physician-Assisted Suicide" Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 126, no. 2, pp: 146-151.

Emauel, Ezekiel. (1997, Mar) "Whose right to die?" The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 17, no. 2, pp:

Hayden, Laurel a. (1999, Apr) "Ethical Issues: Helping Patients with End-of-Life Decisions"

The American Journal of Nursing, vol. 99, no. 4, pp: 2401-2403.

Jewish Ethics
Words: 2214 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 55107923
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The Scope of Jewish Ethics

When one thinks of the ethics of any religion, behavior of the individual often comes to mind initially. However, the behavior of the micro informs the macro, as the creators of the code of Jewish ethics are well aware. This paper will examine the scope of Jewish ethics as they pertain to the economic and health spheres, two arenas where there needs to be strong connections to ethical codes. The scope of Jewish ethics pertains to all arenas and subjects where the safety, wellness, happiness and potential of the individual and collective are concerned.

Dorff and Mackler discuss that the Jewish tradition acknowledges that there is a collective duty to care for one another; this duty only pertains to what is reasonably within human power (321). However, as the authors suggest, this naturally brings up the notion as to how much medical care do people…

Health Care Ethics the Ethical
Words: 662 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 30215427
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Many of the chapters relate to medical research as well as medical procedures, with the informed consent issue in particular affecting both human beings involved in medical research and those facing a medical crisis and wanting to now what their treatment will entail.

Throughout, the authors present ways of thinking about these ethical issues and also encourage medical personnel to consider these matters and to have a means for making decisions in mind at all times and to follow certain procedures in analyzing a situation and making a determination as to what behavior is acceptable and what is not. Some of the issues discussed are more controversial than others, with abortion being perhaps the most controversial and so the most in need of an ethical structure to decide between competing interests. The death and dying issue is another with two clear positions polarizing the argument and with a range of…

Works Cited

Garrett, Thomas M., Harold W. Baillie, and Rosellen M. Garrett.

Health Care Ethics: Principles and Problems. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 2001.

Looking Into the Patients Autonomy
Words: 677 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77877053
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Ethics in Healthcare Settings

Thinking as health care practitioners, in your opinion should Mr. Speaker's autonomy as a person had taken precedence over the CDC's desire to enforce public health law? Explain you answer.

It has not been prioritized over the desire of the CDC to implement public health law. There exist other good reasons for valuing the autonomy of patients. Patients that are aware of their condition and have an understanding of the reasons for a course of treatment are more probable of sticking to prescriptions. Even when a doctor ought to communicate information of a depressing prognosis, sincerely notifying the patients provides them with a chance of putting their issues in order, to think of their lives as a whole, and to adopt the spiritual or practical measures, which they may know to be essential. Furthermore, if doctors develop a practice of holding back bad news from patients,…

References

Struhkamp, R. M. (2005). Patient autonomy: A view from the kitchen. Medicine Health Care and Philosophy. doi:10.1007/s11019-004-1134-2

Traphagan, J. W. (2013). Rethinking autonomy: A critique of principlism in biomedical ethics. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Patient Access to Experimental Drugs Experimental Drugs
Words: 1002 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10313424
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Patient Access to Experimental Drugs

Experimental drugs are being used in treating cancer and other life-threatening diseases in the hopes that effective cures and treatments can be identified. There are however, ethical questions relating to the use of experimental drugs and this work seeks to answer the question that asks whether patients should have access to experimental drugs and to answer why or why they should not have this access.

Experimental Drugs

Experimental drugs have carved inroads to treating cancer patients and most recently; this has been reported in the form of a drug that serves to "neutralize two mechanisms cancers need to survive." (Coghlan, 2012) The new drug is Cabozantinib. This drug is reported by one individual interviewed in this study to have been used by a family member who died while taking the drug for non-small cell carcinoma in the form of lung cancer. When asked the question…

Bibliography

Beauchamp, TL and Childress, JF (2001) Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford University Press. 15 Feb 2001. Retrieved from:  http://books.google.com/books?id=_14H7MOw1o4C&source=gbs_navlinks_s 

Coghlan, A.K (2012) New Cancer Drug Sabotages Tumor's Escape Route. 24 Feb 2012. New Scientist. Retrieved from:  http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn21516-new-cancer-drug-sabotages-tumours-escape-route.html 

Beauchamp, TL and Childress, JF (2001) Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford University Press. 15 Feb 2001. Retrieved from:

Personhood Debate vs IVF in
Words: 2253 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 71572460
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Additionally, the utilitarian position presents the advantage of objectively quantifying the interests of everyone affected by the decision, for the sole purpose of promoting common welfare. Thus, harvesting, fertilizing, genetically screening, implanting and researching human embryos at the risk of damaging or destroying them - is entirely justified from this perspective, and any progressive endeavor is encouraged.

Nevertheless, this approach might involuntarily discourage many IVF clients as it appears to be too rigid and provides them with little autonomy in making decisions regarding their own embryos. Interestingly, a utilitarian might not even support IVF treatment, due to the risks involved in the whole process - namely a large financial loss if the process should fail -, an therefore it is uncertain whether or not this infertility treatment would meet the Utilitarian requirements of avoiding pain and creating the most amount of happiness; there might be a lot of future un-happiness…

References

Balasubramanian, J. And Narayanan, N. "Assisted Reproductive Technology: life cycle of reproduction." Discovery Life Journal, Vol. 3 No. 9, March 2013:13-16.

Beauchamp T.L. And Childress, J.F. Principles of Biomedical Ethics (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Botkin, J.R. "Ethical Issues and Practical Problems in Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis." In Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 16 (1998): 17-28.

Kolata, G. "Robert G. Edwards Dies at 87; Changed Rules of Conception With First 'Test Tube Baby'." The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 10 Apr. 2013. Web. 4 June 2013. Available:  http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/11/us/robert-g-edwards-nobel-winner-for-in-vitro-fertilization-dies-at-87.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 .

Employee's Rights to Health and Safety in
Words: 1870 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21555220
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Employee's Rights to Health and Safety in the Workplace

The objective of this study is to analyze the rights of employees to health and safety in the workplace in regards to the scenario as follows:

DoRight has recently been hired as the President of the "Universal Human Care Hospital," where he oversees all departments with over 5,000 employees and over 20,000 patients at the medical facility. He has been provided with a broad set of duties and oversight of numerous departments, including business development, customer services, human resources, legal, patient advocacy, to name a few. He has managers in each department that he supervises and who work with him to address the needs of the various internal and external stakeholders of the hospital. Dr. DoRight discovers that some patients within the hospital have been dying as a result of a variety of illegal procedures by doctors and nurses, and negligent…

Bibliography

Grush, Rick (nd) Introduction to some basic ethical orientations. Biomedical Ethics Readings. Retrieved from:  http://mind.ucsd.edu/syllabi/03-04/1-Summer/readings/biomed-readings.pdf 

Mossman, Douglas (2012) Physician Impairment: When Should You Report? Malpractice RX. Retrieved from: http://www.currentpsychiatry.com/pdf/1009/1009CP_Malpractice.pdf

Rabinowitz, Phil (2012) Identifying and Analyzing Stakeholders and Their Interests. Community Toolbox. Retrieved from:  http://ctb.ku.edu/en/tablecontents/chapter7_section8_main.aspx 

Alpers, Ann (2001) Key Legal Principles for Hospitalists. Retrieved from:  http://hospitalmedicine.ucsf.edu/improve/literature/discharge_committee_literature/handoff_communication_and_discharge/key_legal_principles_for_hospitalists_alpers_am_j_med.pdf

Community Relate to the Problem
Words: 667 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5382921
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The ethical principles involved are the autonomy of the individual, beneficence, non-malfeasance, and justice. More specifically, autonomy refers to the right of the individual to make decisions affecting only his life. Beneficence refers to the motivation of legal regulation and would prohibit laws that prevent a person in pain from escaping that pain through suicide if that was his desire. Non-malfeasance would prohibit assisting anybody commit suicide for personal gain or animosity or for any other similar reason. Justice would require balancing all of the issues and concerns for the purpose of doing what is right for the individual and for society (Beauchamp & Childress, 2009).

Personal Opinion

In my opinion, any competent person has the moral right to end his life, especially to escape pain and discomfort that cannot be assuaged through medical intervention. At the same time, society should provide mental health counseling to prevent suicide among people…

References

Beauchamp, T.L. And Childress, J.F. Principles of Biomedical Ethics, (6th Edition).

Oxford University Press: New York. 2009.

Dershowitz, a.M. Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. Touchstone:

New York. 2002.

Concept of Justice
Words: 1024 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46608346
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Justice is a concept that has attracted the use of various terms by several philosophers in efforts to explain it. Based on the accounts of various philosophers, justice is a term that means equitable, fair, and suitable treatment depending on what is owed or due to individuals. Justice is an important concept in the criminal justice system and the modern society because it is applied in cases where people are owed burdens or benefits since their respective conditions are harmed by another individual's acts. The concept of justice has also been explained by various theories, which contain principles that are used in the application of justice.

Explanation of the Theory of Justice

The theory of justice is a concept that is centered on the enforcement of two essential principles of justice that would contribute to a just and morally upright society. John awls introduced the theory of justice as fairness…

References

Beauchamp, T.L. & Childress, J.F. (2001). Justice. In Principles of Biomedical Ethics (5th ed., Chapter 6, 225-239) Oxford University Press. Retrieved from  http://compbio.ucdenver.edu/hunter/cpbs7605/Beauchamp-Childress.pdf 

Garrett, J. (2005, August 24). Rawls' Mature Theory of Social Justice. Retrieved from Western

Kentucky University website:  http://people.wku.edu/jan.garrett/ethics/matrawls.htm 

Harborne, B. & Sage, C. (2010, March). Security and Justice Overview. Retrieved September 25,

Terry Schiavo Before Terry Schiavo
Words: 1370 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 62661313
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Brophy Case Study

The unfortunate case of Paul Brophy should immediately remind people of the very similar case of Terry Schiavo and how that case ended up. Indeed, Mr. Brophy is in a persistent vegetative state due to an artery bursting in his brain. His life can technically be maintained through a feeding tube and other medical equipment but he is not "terminal" in the usually used sense of the word in that he is not near death so long as he is fed. However, his chances of every regaining normal brain function, which he has lost, are zero according to medical professionals. As such, the family wanted to let him go but the medical professionals resisted. While this decision may seem like an easy one to make, it is not remotely easy and for a number of reasons.

Analysis

One important piece of information regarding this case is that…

References

Baker, D. (2013, April 25). Right to die or wrong to kill?. Christian Today. Retrieved October 9, 2014, from  http://www.christiantoday.com/article/right.to.die.or.wrong 

.to.kill/32248.htm

Beauchamp, T.L., & Childress, J.F. (2013). Principles of biomedical ethics (7th ed.).

New York: Oxford University Press.

Nurses Providing Health Access
Words: 2791 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98569485
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Ethical Issues in Healthcare

Healthcare Access and Healthcare ationing

Universal Healthcare Coverage

Issues with Unequal Access

Forms of ationing

Alternative Solutions to Providing Access

Nursing, and healthcare in general, often gets negative publicity when the idea of rationing healthcare is presented. However, healthcare is a finite resource that must be distributed by some means and a different levels. Decisions about health care are made at multiple levels within the system: (a) the macro level where policy is established by governments, health authorities, insurance plans, etc.; (b) the meso level where organizational budgets are established by organizational administrators; and (c) the micro level where care is delivered by clinician providers (Jones, 2015). On a national level, the politics and the economy of a nation often dictate the healthcare system. While nearly all developed countries offer some form of universal coverage, the United States is only slowly progressing towards a more inclusive…

References

Beauchamp, T., & Childress, J. (2001). Principles of Biomedical Ethics. NY: Oxford University Press.

Best, M. (2006). Ethics in Health Services Management. Quality Management in Healthcare, 311.

Evans, D., Hsu, J., & Boerma, T. (2013). Universal health coverage and universal access. Retrieved from WHO:  http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/91/8/13-125450/en/ 

Jones, T. (2015). A Descriptive Analysis of Implicit Rationing of Nursing Care: Frequency and Patterns in Texas. Nursing Economics, 144-154.

Legal Environment in Healthcare and Administrative Responsibility
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Healthcare -- Administration and Legal

Many vectors -- science, research funding, social acceptance or rejection -- influence how and whether medical technology is eventually adopted into medical praxis (Hogle, et al., 2012). Undergirding the choices and changes is a shared body of ethical standards and law, the establishment of which is often not consensual or efficacious. Any emerging technology can encounter unanticipated social resistance and ethical concerns that can change the course of how medical science research progresses (Hogle, et al., 2012). Medical technology often poses questions about access to expensive innovations and considerations about race, gender, and social justice that are inseparable from the socio-economic levels of patients (Hogle, et al., 2012). In contemporary society, there are the inevitable considerations about patent issues, clinical practice, and the commercialization of medical innovations (Hogle, et al., 2012). The recent court decision finding in favor of Myriad Genetics, Inc. provides a good…

References

Cho, M. (2010, November 1). Patently unpatentable: implications of the Myriad court decision on genetic diagnostics. Trends in Biotechnology, 28(11), 548-551. Retrieved http://www.cell.com/trends/biotechnology//retrieve / pii/S0167779910001411?_returnURL= http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0167779910001411?showall=true 

Hogle, L., Tobin, S., Gaba, D. And Yock, P. (2012). Web-Based Research Integrity Training for Biomedical Engineers and Medical Device Researchers (Public Health Service). Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford School of Medicine. Retreived  http://bioethics.stanford.edu/research  / programs/science_and_society.html

Morrison, E. (2011). Ethics in health administration: A practical approach for decision makers. (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

Stempel, J., Steenhuysen, J., Wallace, J., Grebler, D. And Orr, B. (2012, August 16). Myriad wins gene patent ruling from U.S. appeals court. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved  http://www.reuters.com/assets/

Counselors in Group Homes Analysis
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Thereby it is important that the professionals in the field must ask for additional advice.

Patient rights also include a freedom towards observing their lives in the clinics in accordance to their cultures and ethnic backgrounds. It has been mentioned that racial disparity is one of the main issues in the clinic so the freedom being given to the already mentally vulnerable patients is lesser that is having a negative impact on their well-being (Lloyd, King, and Deane, 2008, p. 38).

3. Strategies to Ensure Confidentiality

One of the main facts that need to be highlighted here is that the mental healthcare professionals should be aware of the rights of the mentally ill people. One of the main responsibilities that the mental healthcare professionals should have is to make improvements in the mental health of the patients. Patient recovery is the main aim in these cases.

In the mental clinic,…

References

Almeder, F.R. (2002). Mental illness and public health care, Biomedical ethics reviews. Humana Press.

Backlar, P., and Cutler, L.D. (2002). Ethics in community mental health care: commonplace concerns. Springer.

Barker, P. (2011). Mental Health Ethics: The Human Context. Taylor & Francis.

Bhugra, D., and Malik, A. (2010). Professionalism in Mental Healthcare: Experts, Expertise and Expectations, Cambridge medicine. Cambridge University Press.

Health Care Right or Privilege Health Care
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Health Care ight or Privilege

Health Care ight Privilege

Whether health care is a right or a privilege is one of the most intensely debated social questions of the modern era, but phrasing it in this binary way of one or the other masks a deeper problem that is far more complex. The specific issue at hand is the rationing of scarce medical resources. If there were unlimited resources where everyone could achieve the maximum health all the time, we would not have to ask the question, but this is clearly not the case. Glannon argues this requires a theory of "distributive justice" (2005, p. 144), and outlines the four main theories that have emerged from the modern discussion, which are Utilitarian / consequentialist, Libertarian, Communitarian and Egalitarian.

Utilitarian, consequentialist theory is often invoked toward a solution of who deserves health care when there is not enough for everyone, and…

References

Brownstein, B. (1980). Pareto optimality, external benefits and public goods: a subjectivist approach. The Journal of Libertarian Studies, IV (1), 93-106. Retrieved from mises.org/journals/jls/4_1/4_1_6.pdf

Gensler, H. (1998). Ethics: a contemporary introduction. New York: Routledge.

Glannon, W. (2005). Biomedical ethics. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hare, R. (1963). Freedom and reason. London: Oxford University Press.

Ethical Situations What Does the Patient Have
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Ethical Situations

What does the patient have the right to know?

What the patient has the right to know (regarding genetic tests) is: a complicated matter and many people, including experts, have varying opinions. The information patients receive from genetic testing can have significant consequences, especially if it leads a pregnant woman to have an abortion. The ethical principles that arise in situations like this are varied and are often in conflict with each other. The ethical decisions in genetic counseling would be fairly cut and dry if the principle of autonomy was the only one that was considered. However, by doing this a counselor may be ignoring the other ethical concerns like: what is best for society and being fair to other people (regarding who the patient's decisions are affecting).

Who should have decision making power in our society on issues of genetic / medical testing?

Regarding the "Dwarfism…

Bibliography

Biesecker, Barbara. "Future Directions in Genetic Counseling: Practical and Ethical Considerations." Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8.2 (1998). 145-160. Web.

Flackelman, Kathy. "Beyond the genome: the ethics of DNA testing." Science News. 5 Nov. 1994: 66-70. Print.

Flackelman, Kathy. "DNA dilemmas: readers and 'experts' weigh in on biomedical ethics." Science News. 5 Nov. 1994: 64-66. Print.

Staff Development the Situation Described Is Entirely
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Staff Development

The situation described is entirely unacceptable. Hospital-acquired infections are already a tremendous problem in contemporary clinical care facilities and are responsible for as many as 100,000 patient deaths annually, in addition to adding billions of dollars to the national cost of healthcare unnecessarily (eid, 2009). In this situation, all health care providers have an obligation to intervene and to do whatever is necessary to protect patients from harm caused by the negligence of health care workers. The ethical obligation to intervene effectively in this scenario arises as a function of the fundamental obligation of health care workers to protect the health and safety of patients and derives from concepts of patients' rights, and more broadly, from altruism and respect for the basic obligations of health care workers to patients and to their employing organizations (Beauchamp & Childress, 2009).

From a staff-development problem, this scenario actually represents more of…

References

Beauchamp, T.L. And Childress, J.F. (2009). Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 6th

Edition. Oxford University Press: New York

Reid, T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health Care. Penguin Group: New York.

Tong, R. (2007). New Perspectives in Health Care Ethics: An Interdisciplinary and Cultural Approach. Pearson: Princeton.

Case Against Abortion
Words: 2343 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3328900
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Abortion & Democracy

The author of this report is going to tackle the subject of abortion primarily through the lens of democracy and doing what is right for a republic of people and groups that at are supposedly free and able to do the right thing. The author will use two sources to whittle away at the subject. Namely, the Pojman and Beckwith treatise as well as a sample from Mary Anne Warren will also be employed. While abortion should not be left solely to an up and down vote, the bullying and hard-handed events of extremely thin Supreme Court precedent as well as the antics of some anti-abortion groups should be met in response and with full force of democracy and the true voice of the moral majority of the United States.

Democracy Not Yet At Work

When it comes to the Warren work, a few things come to…

References

Mappes, T., & DeGrazia, D. (1996). Biomedical ethics. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Pojman, L., & Beckwith, F. (1998). The abortion controversy. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Setting the Stage for the Group Psychological
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Setting the stage for the group

Psychological intervention might be most efficient when females start modification by leaving the abuser and get in a shelter. Shelters are an essential resource for victims because they offer females and kids security and link them with social, legal, and financial resources (Dutton, 1992). Furthermore, battered females in shelters have a greater threat for PTSD than those who do not look for shelter (Jones et al., 2001). Provided the problems connected with PTSD, these signs might disrupt victims' capability to successfully utilize resources made to enhance their security once they leave the shelter (Foa, Cascardi, Zollner, & Feeny, 2000).

Unlike various other PTSD victims, damaged ladies in shelters deal with continuous security issues. Numerous of their viewed dangers are genuine (Foa et al., 2000). For that reason, conventional PTSD therapies that include exposure are contraindicated, as habituation to feared stimulations might enhance their danger…

References

Baer, R.A. (Ed.). (2006). Mindfulness-based treatment approaches: Clinician's guide to evidence base and applications. New York: Academic Press.

Bagshaw, D., Chung, D., Couch, M., Lilburn, S. And Wadham, B. (2000), Reshaping Responses to Domestic Violence: Final Report, University of South Australia.

Beauchamp, T.L., & Childress, J.F. (2001). Principles of biomedical ethics (5th ed.). New York: Oxford.

Betan, E.J., & Stanton, A.L. (1999). Fostering ethical willingness: Integrating emotional and contextual awareness with rational analysis. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 30, 295-301.

Santa Clara County Research CC
Words: 1975 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37276780
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(Walker & Staton, 2000, p. 449)

Walker & Staton also stress that all of the aspects of cultural competency that are understood, should be applied through systems that are sensitive to such needs.

As a quality of empathy, cultural sensitivity is not testable as content, but it can be an expectation of practice in the same sense that integrity or justice can be. The desirable posture for the social worker is one of cultural agnosticism -- not trusting in any particular cultural mold (the social worker's or the client's) to determine what is right, wrong, or ultimately meaningful (Sue, 1998). (Walker & Staton, 2000, p. 449)

As Green would likely attest the definitions of need, appropriate and empathetic are likely to be variant across individual situations and of course across cultures. The idea of teaching multiculturalism as an aspect of social work training then must be significantly sensitive to the…

References

Galambos, C.M. (2003). Moving Cultural Diversity toward Cultural Competence in Health Care. Health and Social Work, 28(1), 3.

Green, J. (1999) Cultural Awareness in Human Services: A Multi-Ethnic Approach. 3rd Ed. Boston. MA: Allyn and Bacon.

National Association of Social Workers. (2001). NASW standards for cultural competence in social work practice. Washington, DC: Author. Synopsis available at  http://www.socialworkers.org/sections/credentials/cultural_comp.asp 

Nybell, L.M., & Gray, S.S. (2004). Race, Place, Space: Meanings of Cultural Competence in Three Child Welfare Agencies. Social Work, 49(1), 17.

Distributing Resources in an Ethical Manner
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Ethical Distribution of Access to Health Care esources

ight to Health Care esources

ole of Nurses

ight to Health Care esources

While the concept of 'right to health' is applicable in many of the socialist countries, most of the modern societies lay emphasis on the concept of 'right to health care." This is the concept that has been evolving over the years with the aim of providing equal health care resources to keep every individual healthy and to promote "quality of life" for their citizens.

However the concerns are about what the governments and the authorities related to health care can do what considerations, especially the ethical ones, which need to be considered while preparing a policy for equitable distribution of health care for the citizens (Flak & Chong, 2008).. These attempts of ethical policy formation help to open access to proper health care for people who had been previously…

References

Beauchamp, T., & Childress, J. (2001). Principles of biomedical ethics, 5th ed. NY: Oxford University Press.

Best, M. (2006). Ethics in Health Services Management. Quality Management In Health Care, 15(4), 311. doi:10.1097/00019514-200610000-00016

Flak, N., & Chong, E. (2008). Beyond the Bedside: Nurses, a Critical Force in the Macroallocation of Resources. Nursingworld.org. Retrieved 30 August 2015, from  http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/vol132008/No2May08/ArticlePreviousTopic/MacroallocationofResources.html 

Tschudin, V. (2003). Approaches to ethics. Edinburgh: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Nursing Finance
Words: 6762 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48790188
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Healthcare Practices in Nursing Today

Over the last 50 years, health care systems all over the world have experienced rapid and significant changes. Some of these changes have been the result of innovative developments in medical science and technology that have greatly benefited patients, prolonging and saving the lives of millions. Some of these changes, however, have had the unfortunate result of limiting patient access to prescribed treatment and diminishing the overall quality of care.

Significant challenges are being faced in health care as systems restructure and reinvent themselves in a difficult and often painful effort to make more efficient use of their available resources (ICN, 2001). Since health care is such a labor-intensive industry, the stresses on these systems inexorably trickle down to affect those employed by the system. Nurses, who are the most highly trained caregivers who have ongoing, regular patient contact, stand at the very heart of…

References

Abramson, S. (1980). Adverse Occurrences in Intensive Care Units. Journal of the American Medical Association 244 (14): 1582-1584.

Ahmadi, M. (1989). Traditional vs. Nontraditional Work Schedules. Industrial Management 31(2), 20-23.

Bennett, M. & Hylton, J. (1990). Modular Nursing: Partners in Professional Practice. Nursing Management 21(3), 20-24.

Beauchamp, T.L. & Childress, J.F. (1994). Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press.

Geriatric Right to Die the
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One solution of this issue can be that the closest most guardians is given the permission and right to take the decision about the life of the patient who is not able to communicate or express his wish. The guardian who should be responsible to take this decision should be the one who will be having direct impact of the death of the patient.

Community & Health Care esolution

Different communities have varied opinions in regard to right to die for geriatric. Although few of the countries have legalized this matter and have given the right to patient to decide whether he wanted to live more or not, but still there are campaigns in those countries that do not support the way patients should be given death and is also considered another way of committing suicide. Communities think if the right is legalized it will give doctors the right do…

Reference

Gastmans C. & Lemiengre. J. (2007). Development and communication of written ethics policies on euthanasia in Catholic hospitals and nursing homes in Belgium (Flanders), Centre for Biomedical Ethics and Law, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium. Vol 63, Issue 1. pp 188 to 195, retrieved March 16, 2011 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=06716113-81ca-4db0-a772-51ae3b6dd9ca%40sessionmgr15&vid=1&hid=19&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=rzh&an=2009306329

Kenny, R.W. (2007). An effect of communication on medical decision making: answerability, and the medically induced death of Paul Mills., Department of Public Relations, Mount Saint Vincent University. Vol 22, issue 1, pp. 69 -- 78, retrieved March 16, 2011 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=c57afac0-3522-4bc8-8c8e-a0a7732261ee%40sessionmgr15&vid=1&hid=19&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=rzh&an=2009640106

Lemiengre K. (2008). How do hospitals deal with euthanasia requests in Flanders (Belgium)? A content analysis of policy documents. Health Promotion/Education, retrieved March 16, 2011 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=37d04412-5a09-4727-92f0-398ccb54533a%40sessionmgr13&vid=1&hid=19&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=rzh&an=2009908744

Levett, C. (2011). Dying with dignity -- the case for end of life choices, Australian Nursing Journal, vol. 18, issue 8, pp. 48, retrieved March 16, 2011 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=078d26de-de1f-4206-80ba-d37b9a51f264%40sessionmgr14&vid=1&hid=19&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=rzh&an=2010954963

Personal Philosophy of Life Applied
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Currently, there are approximately five to six special interest group lobbyists working on behalf of the private health insurance industry for every single publicly elected representative in Washington, D.C. (eid, 2009). The breakdown of political support for legislation and policies that benefit the industry reveals a remarkably close association between political contributions from that industry and the voting and statement records of political representatives (Kennedy, 2006; Tong, 2007). It is no surprise that the major source of opposition to some of the most potentially beneficial elements of healthcare reform at issue today comes from the representatives who have received the largest campaign contributions from the private health insurance industry and representatives from states where the largest corporate parents of private sector health insurance companies (eid, 2009).

Preventative Medicine and eimbursement Based on Beneficial esults

Sufficient information already exists from other nations that very strongly suggests that any efficient, affordable, and…

References

Beauchamp, T., and Childress, J. (2009). Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford Kennedy, E. (2006). America: Back on Track. Viking: New York.

Reid, T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penguin Group.

Tong, R. (2007). New Perspectives in Health Care Ethics: An Interdisciplinary and Cultural Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Statistics Healthcare and Human Resources Leadership
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Healthcare/Statistics/Human esources Leadership

Unit 3-Assignment Details: Statistic

Empirical probability of an occurrence is essentially an estimate that this occurrence will take place on the basis of how frequent the occurrence takes place subsequent to the collection of data or conducting an experiment. Empirical probability is grounded distinctively on direct observations or experiences. On the other hand, theoretical probability of an occurrence is the number of ways that the occurrence can take place divided by the total number of outcomes. In other words, it is trying to find the probability of occurrences that emanate from a sample space of known equally probable outcomes (Anastas, 1999). The law of large numbers is considered to be one of the main theories of probability and asserts that the sample mean converges to the distribution mean as the sample size rises. The law of large numbers offers a clarification on the manner in which empirical…

References

Anastas, J. W. (1999). Research Design for Social Work and the Human Services. New York: Columbia University Press.

Asch, D. (1996). The role of clinical care nurses in euthanasia and assisted suicide. New England Journal of Medicine, 334 (21); 1374 -1379.

Boudreau, J. D., Somerville, M. A. (2014). Euthanasia and assisted suicide: a physician's and ethicist's perspectives. Medicolegal and Bioethics 2014, 4:13-14

Hatch, M. J. (1993). The dynamics of organizational culture. Academy of Management Review, 18(4), 657-693.

The Counselor Client Relationship at Work
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Discussion Essay Questions
1
An employer is required to provide reasonable accommodations for a disabled worker so long as it does not put undue hardship upon the employer. Reasonable accommodations refer to changes that are implemented either to the workplace environment or to the position occupied by the disabled worker. So long as the disabled worker is still qualified to do the job, the employer, under the ADA, has to accommodate the worker’s disability—so long, of course, as it does not cause the employer undue hardship (Repa, 2018).
In some cases, this has made it easier for individuals with disabilities to go to work. For example, an elderly manager who had difficulty walking and standing could not use a cart to get around in, paid for by the company—and since there were handicap access ramps and doors in the facility already this was not an undue hardship on the employer.…

Dying With Dignity
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Dying with dignity is a controversy argued in two perspectives by death scholars. Some scholars argue that dying with dignity is expiring without unnecessary physical pain while others argue that it is dying in the socially accepted ways. eaching these arguments was in light of changing health care demands and diverse customary practices. This controversy dated back to the ancient civilizations when many Greeks believed that taking one's life was better than experiencing endless suffering. This made physicians give poison to the terminally ill patients. However, with the advent of Christianity, the Hippocratic School that was against giving deadly drugs to patients acquired considerable acceptance. Therefore, euthanasia, as called in the fifteenth century was suicide and thus immoral. As time passed, reintroduction of the use of euthanasia continued, and it has even been largely accepted in various medical institutions.

In the perspective of dying with dignity as dying without any…

References

Beauchamp, T.L., & Childress, J.F. (2009). Principles of biomedical ethics (6th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.

Gentzler, J. (2003). What is a death with dignity? The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 28(4), 461 -- 487.

Poroch, N.C. (2012). Kurunpa: Keeping spirit on country. Health Sociology Review, 2i (4), 383-395.

Ending Life Who Should Decide
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If hospital officials refuse to stop treatment, do family members have the moral right to take matters into their own hands, as Rudolfo Linares did?

I would argue that they do. The only motivation of the parents would be to spare their child from an existence that would either be devoid of any meaningful quality of life or, even worse, an existence of constant discomfort, pain, and confusion. The objective test would be whether or not the prognosis of the patient is either persistent vegetative state or consistent with conditions that reasonable, competent people typically specify they would want to avoid. If competent adults typically choose to direct their loved ones not to continue treatment or to resort to artificial means to maintain biological life, it is perfectly moral for benevolently-motivated parents to want to spare their child that type of existence. The actions of the father were not legal…

Sources Consulted

Beauchamp, T.L. And Childress, J.F. Principles of Biomedical Ethics, (6th Edition).

Oxford University Press: New York. 2009.

Levine, C. Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. McGraw Hill: Dubuque.

Older Adults Mental Health Approaches and Treatment Methods
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Mental Health Treatment Approaches for Older AdultsOverview of mental health issues in the elderlyOld age is a natural occurrence for every human being, a stage in growth accompanied by several changes, which can be negative and identified as problems. Some of these problems are a rise in morbidity, mortality, hospitalization, and functional status loss. A large number of evidence associates these problems with common mental disorders to which the elderly are prone. A combination of depression and anxiety is a very common occurrence in the elderly, being so prevalent, one-half of elderly patients report significant anxiety or depressive symptoms (Parkar, 2015). The changing nature of current society has redefined the social role of the elderly within the family and community, eliminating the traditional life-sustaining and fostering influences the elderly contributed. As a result of these, the elderly are socially isolated. Many are committed to a nursing home or an institution…

ReferencesAlzheimers Association. (2012).Alzheimers Disease Facts and Figures, Alzheimers & Dementia, 131168.Craft, S., Baker, L. D., Montine, T. J., Minoshima, S., Watson, G. S., Claxton, A., ... & Gerton, B. (2012). Intranasal insulin therapy for Alzheimer disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a pilot clinical trial.Archives of neurology,69(1), 29-38.Hickey, D. (2019). The impact of a national public awareness campaign on dementia knowledge and help-seeking intention in Ireland.Dublin: Health Service Executive.Hughes, J., & Common, J. (2015). Ethical issues in caring for patients with dementia.Nursing Standard (2014+),29(49), 42.Johnson, R. A., & Karlawish, J. (2015). A review of ethical issues in dementia.International psychogeriatrics,27(10), 1635.Livingston, G., Huntley, J., Sommerlad, A., Ames, D., Ballard, C., Banerjee, S., ... & Mukadam, N. (2020). Dementia prevention, intervention, and care: 2020 report of the Lancet Commission.The Lancet,396(10248), 413-446.Loewenstein, D. A., Acevedo, A., Czaja, S. J., & Duara, R. (2004). Cognitive rehabilitation of mildly impaired Alzheimer disease patients on cholinesterase inhibitors.The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry,12(4), 395-402.Montgomery, E. B. (2020). Practice Parameter: Evaluation and treatment of depression, psychosis, and dementia in PD. American Academy of Neurology.Morris, J. C., Aisen, P. S., Bateman, R. J., Benzinger, T. L., Cairns, N. J., Fagan, A. M., ... & Buckles, V. D. (2012). Developing an international network for Alzheimer research: the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network.Clinical investigation,2(10), 975.Musiek, E. S., & Schindler, S. E. (2013). Alzheimer disease: current concepts & future directions.Missouri medicine,110(5), 395.Panegyres, P. K., Berry, R., & Burchell, J. (2016). Early Dementia Screening.Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland),6(1), 6. Parkar, S. R. (2015). Elderly mental health: needs.Mens sana monographs,13(1), 91.Perel, V. D. (1998). Psychosocial impact of Alzheimers disease.JAMA,279(13), 1038-1039.Shi, L., Chen, S. J., Ma, M. Y., Bao, Y. P., Han, Y., Wang, Y. M., ... & Lu, L. (2018). Sleep disturbances increase the risk of dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Sleep medicine reviews,40, 4-16.Thomason, C. (2012). Benefits of cognitive stimulation for people with dementia.Nursing times,108(45), 23.Vossel, K. A., Tartaglia, M. C., Nygaard, H. B., Zeman, A. Z., & Miller, B. L. (2017). Epileptic activity in Alzheimers disease: causes and clinical relevance.The Lancet Neurology,16(4), 311-322.WHO, (2017, Dec. 12). Mental health of older adults. Retrieved from  https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/mental-health-of-older-adults WHO, (2020, Sept. 21). Dementia. Retrieved from  https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/dementia Woods, B., Aguirre, E., Spector, A. E., & Orrell, M. (2012). Cognitive stimulation to improve cognitive functioning in people with dementia.Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (2).

extreme measures film and bioethics
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Starring Hugh Grant, Gene Hackman, and Sarah Jessica Parker, the 1996 film Extreme Measures addresses classic bioethics principles. The most significant ethical principle the film presents is related to testing on human subjects. However, this subject is presented in the film as being linked to another significant biomedical ethical issue, and that is patient informed consent. Within these two issues are embedded a series of other issues, such as the social value principle as it applies to the medical research.

Dr. Myrick (Gene Hackman) operates under the social value principle exclusively, to the point where he systematically ignores almost every other bioethical principle. He violates patient rights by not acquiring the informed consent of the individuals by disclosing that they might die from his treatments, and he also treats the homeless people like their lives do not matter, as if they are disposable. Patient autonomy is violated and social justice…

References

Apted, M. (1996). Extreme Measures. [Feature Film].

Emanuel, E., Abdoler, E. & Stunkel, L. (n.d.). Research ethics. NIH. Retrieved online:  https://bioethics.nih.gov/education/FNIH_BioethicsBrochure_WEB.PDF

Bioethical Research One of the
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Also, there has been pressure in the different professions for every research design to follow these general procedures (Chadwick, Bahr, & Albrecht, 1984, pp. 19-20).

The researcher needs protection as well as the subject does. An important protection of confidentiality is testimonial privilege. This protection is not absolute and must yield to other concerns in some cases such as state's requirement that certain diseases (infectious diseases) or injuries (child abuse or neglect, gun shot wounds) be reported to prevent further injury. Written, informed consent to release information is the best defense against an allegation of a breach of confidentiality (Brent, 1997, p. 258).

Bioethics and informed consent extend beyond the area of research into that of medical practice, calling for medical personnel to inform patients of what treatment are being given and what options the patient may have. Such efforts are seen as both ethical and as empowering for patients,…

References

Bower, R.T. & de Gasparis, P. (1978). Ethics in social research: Protecting the interests of human subjects. New York: Praeger.

Brent, N.J. (1997). The home healthcare nurse and confidentiality and privacy. Home Healthcare Nurse, 15(4), 256-258.

Chadwick, B.A., Bahr, H.M., & Albrecht, S.L. (1984). Social science research methods. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall.

Heinrich, Bernd. "What Is Natural?" Discover (June 1994), 40-42.

Psychological Testing Ethical and Legal Use of
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Psychological Testing

Ethical and legal use of psychological testing has a significant impact on the standards and practices of psychological testing to demonstrate intervention for those being tested. The purpose of the ethical boundaries of psychological testing is to ensure that clinicians are utilizing the best test possible and then applying the results ethically to demonstrate assistance with diagnosis and intervention modes in a way that best meets the needs of the subject. This work will discuss the ethical application and utilization of psychological testing instruments to demonstrate the best possible outcomes and interventions for subjects in a way that recognizes tests strengths and limitations and ultimately leads to the appropriate and essential answers needed to aid people with diagnosis and treatment objectives. There are a significant number of psychological tests at the disposal of clinicians and they are in a constant state of revision by the entities that develop…

References

Emanuel, E.J., & Menikoff, J. (2011). Reforming the regulations governing research with human subjects. The New England Journal Of Medicine, 365(12), 1145-1150. doi:10.1056/NEJMsb1106942

Green, B., Li, L., Morris, J., Gluzman, R., Davis, J.L., Wang, M., & Katz, R.V. (2011). Detailed knowledge of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study: Who knows what? A framework for health promotion strategies. Health Education & Behavior, 38(6), 629-636. doi:10.1177/1090198110391529

Hogan, T.P. (2007). Psychological testing: A practical introduction (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Nagy, T.F. (2011). Ethics in psychological assessment. In T.F. Nagy (Ed.), Essential ethics for psychologists: A primer for understanding and mastering core issues (pp. 171-183). Washington, DC U.S.: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/12345-009

Ethical Treatment of Human Subjects History
Words: 692 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72685387
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ethical concerns when it comes to conducting human research. This paper presents those concerns and reviews the regulatory protocols that the United States employs in order to meet high ethical and legal standards.

How research involving human subjects works in the U.S.

In the Journal of Clinical Pathology author M.B. Kapp explains that the issue of ethics vis-a-vis human subjects in research isn't just a concern of clinicians and scientists; rather, these issues also have importance to lawyers, philosophers, and policy makers. And there definite legal provisions that are applied regarding "…participant safety, informed consent, and confidentiality" (Kapp, 2006). Of great interest when it comes to pathologists is how human tissue specimens are handled -- whether the tissues are to be used in the present or at some point in the future.

Kapp references what the writer calls "the most salient ethical values" that come into play when research involving…

Works Cited

Davidson, S. (2001). Protecting Research Participants -- A Time for Change. Ethical and Policy Issues in Research Involving Human Participants. National Bioethics Advisory

Commission. Retrieved March 7, 2015, from  https://bioethicsarchive.georgetown.edu .

Department of Health and Human Services. (1979). The Belmont Report. Retrieved March 8, 2015, from  http://www.hhs.gov .

Kapp, M.B. (2006). Ethical and legal issues in research involving human subjects: do you want a piece of me? Journal of Clinical Pathology, 59(4), 335-339.

Epicurus's View on Death Death
Words: 2062 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73751186
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It was argued by Epicurus that the souls and body could only interact if the souls are material.

Bibliography

Amicus, C. Ante Oculos - Epicurus and the Evidence-Based Life. Cassius Amicus, 2010.

Amicus, C. Lion of Epicurus - Lucian and His Epicurean Passages. Cassius Amicus, 2010.

Amicus, C. A Life Worthy of the Gods - the Life and Work of Epicurus. Cassius Amicus, 2011.

Amicus, C. The octrines of Epicurus -- Annotated. Cassius Amicus, 2011.

Benatar, . Life, eath, & Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions. 2nd Edition. Rowman & Littlefield, 2009.

Fish, J., and Sanders, K.R. Epicurus and the Epicurean Tradition, Epicurus and the Epicurean Tradition, Epicurus and the Epicurean Tradition. Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Greer, H.T., and Lewis, G. A Brief History of the Western World. 9th Edition. Cengage Learning, 2004.

Hindson, E., and Caner, E. The Popular Encyclopedia of Apologetics: Surveying the Evidence for the…

David Benatar. Life, Death, & Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions. 2nd Edition. Rowman & Littlefield, 2009, p. 23.

Thomas H. Greer, Gavin Lewis. A Brief History of the Western World. 9th Edition. Cengage Learning, 2004, p. 45.

Ed Hindson, Ergun Caner. The Popular Encyclopedia of Apologetics: Surveying the Evidence for the Truth of Christianity. Harvest House Publishers, 2008, p. 52.

asian bioethics and towards reconciliation
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Bioethics has been dominated by a European model, with European worldviews and philosophies dominating the discourse. This is true in academia as well as in public policy.

The need for global bioethics discourse is pressing, because the life sciences are no longer regional or provincial in scope.

For example, there has been a lot of speculation as to the progress made in East Asian cloning laboratories, particularly in China and South Korea.

Claims that scientists have successfully cloned human beings are unsubstantiated.

However, the speculation does give rise to an important need to discuss bioethics from an East Asian perspective, using East Asian ethical frameworks like Confucianism.

Recent Progress

In 2006, the International Association for Bioethics' (IAB) held its world congress in Beijing, a sure sign that the global bioethics community is becoming less Euro-centric in its approach.

Bioethics is starting to integrate non-European ethical and philosophical traditions.

It is…

Buy and Sell Organs for Transplants The
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Buy and Sell Organs for Transplants:

The consideration of the possible negative socio-ethical repercussions of allowing people to buy and sell their non-vital body organs for transplant fortifies the argument of all opponents to the proposition. As stated in the U.S. Constitution, human beings are created equal and given the un-separable rights to life, freedom, and the pursuit of happiness. While in the pursuit of these rights, the American society has learnt that the end does not always justify the means and as such, necessary legislation has been instituted to help protect minorities from majorities, the poor from the wealthy, and the weak from the strong. A society in which people could buy and sell organs for transplant would further ruin the pursuit for equality and frustrate the liberty of generosity needed for living a happy life.

Opposing the proposition does not mean that one believes society bears no duty…

References:

Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (n.d.). Kidneys for Sale. Retrieved from Santa Clara University -- The Jesuit University in Silicon Valley website:  http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v1n2/kidneys.html 

Mayes, G. (2003.) Buying and Selling Organs for Transplantation in the U.S.: National Organ Transplant Act of 1984 (NOTA) Bans Buying and Selling. Medscape Education, 4(2). Retrieved from  http://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/465200_2 

"Statistics." (n.d.). Donate Life America. Retrieved January 31, 2012, from  http://donatelife.net/understanding-donation/statistics/

Health Exploring the Tuskegee Syphilis
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The Tuskegee Syphilis Study still remains as one of the most outrageous examples of disregard of basic ethical principles of conduct not to mention violation of standards for ethical research. The suspicion and fear produced by the Tuskegee Syphilis Study are still evident today. Community workers often report mistrust of public health institutions within the African-American community. ecently Alpha Thomas of the Dallas Urban League testified before the National Commission on AIDS saying that many African-American people do not trust hospitals or any of the other community health care service providers because of that Tuskegee Experiment (esearch Ethics: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 2010).

In 1990, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), which is one of the country's major civil rights organizations, conducted a survey among 1056 African-American Church members in five cities. They found that 34% of the respondents believed that AIDS was an artificial virus, 35% believed that AIDS…

References

Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study. (2009). Retrieved March 9, 2010, from University of Virginia Health System Web site:

 http://www.hsl.virginia.edu/historical/medical_history/bad_blood/ 

Boskey, Elizabeth. (2007). What Is the Tuskegee Syphilis Study? Retrieved March 10, 2010,

from About.com Web site:  http://std.about.com/od/stdsinthemedia/f/tuskegeefaq.htm

Foundationally Promising Research Discoveries of
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For some the issue then arises when the pluripotent cells are removed from the blastocyst, as this very act negates the ability for the cell group to develop into a human being. "Note that the process of changing from totipotent to pluripotent to multipotent cells is not reversible -- that is, pluripotent stem cells do not produce totipotent stem cells, and multipotent stem cells do not produce pluripotent stem cells."

Borror, O'Rourke and Skirboll 54) Additionally, the proponents of stem cell work cite the pluripotent as incapable of producing a human being therefore not a destruction of life, hence leading to the Bush decision to ban the creation of new lines of stem cells, as it would require the destruction of further human totipotent cells.

Multipotent. The pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into multipotent stem cells, which are committed to giving rise to cells that have a particular function.…

Works Cited

 

Communication The Goodness of Existence Exterminating a
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Communication: The "Goodness of Existence"

Exterminating a fetus simply because the life may have birth defects, according to Kass, is to obliterate the notion that life in and of itself is good. Existence is good, despite its nature according to Kass. There are currently no standards which dictate how such situations might be handled. These ideas are explored in greater detail below. Kass is very much opposed to the notion of interfering with nature, as well as producing a separate standard of existence for children who are artificially or "naturally" born with defects. Kass would argue that to punish the mother in one circumstance but not another "is blatantly anti-life, making it an offense to keep the baby alive and bring it to birth" (168).

Kass would definitely support the notion that even a "modest prolongation of life" would be satisfying. There is no virtue in the death of a…

Reference:

May, William E. "Leon Kass and the Challenge of Bioethics." {Online} Available:  http://www.christendom-awake.org/pages/may/leonk.htm

Human Stem Cell Medical -
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This bill was sent to the U.S. Senate and set for vote mirroring a bill previously passed by the House during the Summer of 2003 which failed to pass the Senate because of vehement disagreement that was even "within the parties over the prohibition of therapeutic cloning.(National Legislation Concerning Human and Reproductive Cloning, 2004; paraphrased) As of the date of the report on legislation eight U.S. states had passed laws that explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning using human embryos and another five U.S. states have placed a prohibition on cloning for any purpose whatsoever with 22 other U.S. states introducing bills outlawing the reproductive cloning of humans. (Ibid; paraphrased) Patenting laws for genetics allow inventors to patent genetics but only specific genetic factors may be patented and inventors are required to:

1) Identify novel genetic sequences;

2) Specify the sequence's product, 3) Specify how the product functions in nature --i.e. its…

Bibliography

O'Connor, Sean M. (nd) Intellectual Property Rights and Stem Cell Research: Who Owns the Medical Breakthroughs?

Kadereit, Suzanne & Hines, Pamela J. (nd) Overview of Stem Cell Research New England Law Journal 2005 Mar 28. Online available at  http://www.nesl.edu/lawrev/vol39/3/13%20Kadereit%20Final.pdf .

Chadwick, Ruth et al. (2004)HUGO Ethics Committee Statement of Stem Cells (2004) November

Legal Protection of Digital Information (2006) Chapter 5: Software-Based Inventions Online available at:.  http://digital-law-online.info/lpdi1.0/treatise63.html

Justice and Healthcare
Words: 345 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59268308
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access to quality healthcare in the contemporary United States is a tremendous social, moral, and ethical problem. Despite being one of the wealthiest and most developed nations in the history of human civilization, the U.S. is currently a country in which basic healthcare is unavailable to almost half of the population (Kennedy, 2006; Parks & Wike, 2010). As many as 40,000 Americans die prematurely every year from diseases and conditions that are readily treatable with access to modern healthcare. Virtually every major ethical perspective supports the proposition that healthcare access should not be determined by the same for-profit marketplace principles as those that govern other industries (Kennedy, 2006; Parks & Wike, 2010; eid, 2009).

In principle, utilitarianism supports this proposition because wide and equal access to healthcare is beneficial to the entire human community. Consequentialism supports this proposition because lack of access to healthcare results in a tremendous amount of…

References

Kennedy, E. (2006). America: Back on Track. Viking: New York.

Parks, J.A. And Wike, V.S. (2010). Bioethics in a Changing World. Upper Saddle River,

NJ: Prentice Hall.

Reid, T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penguin Group.

Argument Against the Proposition That Sales of Organs Should Not Be Compensated
Words: 1300 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37869287
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elling Human Organs: The Ethical Issue

elling body transplants is one of the latest ventures that entrepreneurs have devised. ome see it as servicing a public good, whilst others perceive it as one more example of capitalism at its worst.

Barry Jacobs is an example of an international broker for bodily parts whose business involves matching up kidney "donors" with patients needing kidney transplants. The donor receives a magnanimous paycheck; the recipient receives a healthy kidney, and Jacobs, himself, profits by business in worse ways (Chapman, 1984). Jacobs and other advocates of organ-selling see this business as filling a necessary void. Approximately, 100,000 organ transplants are needed per annum, and only an annual 10,000 are performed due to the deficiency of matching organs. Biomedical breakthroughs have increased the success of these operations, but the procedures cannot always be accomplished due to depletion of stocks. People are simply not willing to…

Sources

Annas, GJ (1984) Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Organ Sales, Hastings Center Report, 14, 22-23.

Chapman, FS (1984) The Life and Death Questions of an Organ Market, Fortune 108-118.

Borna, S (1987) Morality and Marketing Human Organs, Journal of Business Ethics, 6, 37-44.

Theoretical Foundations of Nursing Nursing Can Be
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Theoretical Foundations of Nursing:

Nursing can be described as a science and practice that enlarges adaptive capabilities and improves the transformation of an individual and the environment. This profession focuses on promoting health, improving the quality of life, and facilitating dying with dignity. The nursing profession has certain theoretical foundations that govern the nurses in promoting adaptation for individuals and groups. These theoretical foundations include theories, theory integration, reflection, research and practice, and assimilation.

Grand Nursing Theory:

There are several grand nursing theories that were developed by various theorists including the Science of Unitary Human Beings by Martha ogers, Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model, and Systems Model by Betty Neuman. Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model is based on the consideration of the human being as an open system. She argues that the system reacts to environmental stimuli via cognator and regulator coping techniques for individuals. On the other hand, the…

References:

American Sentinel (2012). 5 Steps for Nurses to Stay Updated with Health Care Changes.

Retrieved September 4, 2013, from  http://www.nursetogether.com/5-steps-for-nurses-to-stay-updated-with-health-care-changes 

Andershed, B. & Olsson, K. (2009). Review of Research Related to Kristen Swanson's Middle-range Theory of Caring. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23, 598-610.

"Application of Theory in Nursing Process." (2012, January 28). Nursing Theories: A

Criminal Justice Career How Will This New
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Criminal Justice Career

How will this new terminology and knowledge apply to a career in criminal justice?

Criminal justice is seen as the practices, system and the concerned government institutions that are focused on implementing social control, participating in crime mitigation and sanctioning the law violator by imposing penalties and rehabilitation programs. It covers the private sector, the pubic sector, NGOs, state and the local governments as well (Oregon Laws, 2007). To handle effectively such a wide spectrum of departments with professionals without a chance foe making the wrong interpretation of the law once needs to be well equipped with the legal terms.

How can not knowing the proper terminology affect you as you conduct criminal justice research?

When one lacks the proper terminology in the criminal justice, this can be a fundamental barrier in the execution of duty and definition of the offences committed as well as interpretation of…

References

Cambridge Dictionary Online (2011). Research: Definition. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from  http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/research_1 

CDC (2011). Differences Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from  http://www.orau.gov/cdcynergy/demo/Content/phase05/phase05_step03_deeper_qualitative_and_quantitative.htm 

Chris Williams, (2009). Scientific Research and Quantitative Research. Retrieved May 21, 2011

from  http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/2479012/scientific_research_and_quantitative.html?cat=17

Unethical Experimentation Issues and Concerns
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(Freyhofer 104)

Globalizing clinical research has reportedly proven to be one solution for America's pharmaceutical paradox. Doctors prescribe more than 10 prescriptions for the average American each year. Only one person in 350, however, will submit themselves to be a participant in experimental drug testing. On the other side of the globe, however a profusion of under-treated, poor, physician-trusting patients who live in Latin America, Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia provide the rapid, positive results needed for new drugs to receive quick approval. One review noted that 99% of controlled trials published in China netted positive results upon the drug/treatment being investigated. (Shah 23) In Nigeria during 2002, thirty Nigerian families filed a class-action suit against Pfizer, who allegedly violated the Nuremberg Code in 1996 as they presided over an experiment on Nigerian children suffering with meningitis. esearchers reportedly forced a risky, unapproved, experiment on unsuspecting subjects who, as a…

References www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002068015

Bagley, Margo A. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+.

Chapter 14: The Federal Policy for Human Subject Protections (The Common Rule)." Retrieved 28 November 2006 at http://www. the.doe.gov/ohre/roadmap/achre/chap14_2.html.

Embryonic stem cell research fails in many ways to reader," The Times Leader, October 27, 2006.

Fence Post." Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL) 27 Aug. 2005: 16.

Consent Embodies the Idea That as a
Words: 1124 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33338392
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consent embodies the idea that as a matter of ethics and law patients are entitled to be exposed to all of the relevant information that would influence and guide their decision making concerning what treatment that they should follow. However, should clinicians provide medical information to terminally ill patients when they suspect that such information could potentially be used to facilitate their suicide? The issues surrounding full disclosure, beneficence, and therapeutic privilege as they relate to patients and their families are discussed and recommendations regarding how such cases should be conceptualized are discussed.

Should clinicians provide medical information to terminally ill patients when they know or suspect that such information will be used to facilitate their suicide? This dilemma affects patients, their families, physicians, other medical professionals. The notion of "informed consent" as a guiding principle in medicine is at the center of modern professional medical ethics. Informed consent embodies…

References

Monagle, J.F. (1998). Health care ethics: Critical issues for the 21st century. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publications.

Paterick, T.J., Carson, G.V., Allen, M.C., & Paterick, T.E. (2008). Medical informed consent: General considerations for physicians. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 83(3), 313-319.

Russell, B.J. & Ward, A.M. (2011). Deciding what information is necessary: Do patients with advanced cancer want to know all the details? Cancer Management and Research, 23, 191-199

Shatz, D. (1986). Autonomy, beneficence and informed consent: Rethinking the connections. I. Cancer Investigation, 4, 257-269.

Cloned Livestock Produce in EU
Words: 1114 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24475039
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In his aticle, Deek Buke posits that "consumes' biggest concen is about isk, especially in light of the bovine spongifom encephalopathy epidemic: scientists, and the egulatoy pocesses, ae no longe tusted" (1998). This distust in the system, both on a scientific and govenmental level, is deep-ooted, in that food is pat of the human expeience which is pesonal and even intimate. People want to be able to tust thei food povides. Theefoe thee is fea that just because cloned beef appeas as edible as non-cloned beef does not guaantee that an animal with defects hamful fo human consumption might be cloned (and that clone cloned, and so on), unleashing geate ham ove a wide aay of people than even the BSE o Foot and Mouth epidemics impacted.

The aguments against cloning have a lot to do with ou collective fea not of the meat itself, but also the implications of…

Human Progress Is the Ultimate
Words: 1620 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50546769
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On the other hand however, it gives rise to an exclusive attitude and a multiple layer style of development and economic evolution because there will always be countries that fail to keep up with innovative technology, high tech research and revolutionary concepts which stand at the basis of today's creative industries. This is why the population in least developed countries does not consider globalization as being benefic for the improvement in their standard of living.

All in all, it can be said that the success and nature of a process is totally dependent of the perspective which is under analysis. Concerning stem cell research, arguments coming from the medical point-of-view favor the continuing of the research while those embracing the religious and ethical perspective strongly disagree. Similarly, depending on the point-of-view, globalization can be seen as both an inclusive and an exclusive process.

ibliography

Holland, Suzanne, Karen Lebacqz, and Laurie…

Bibliography

Holland, Suzanne, Karen Lebacqz, and Laurie Zoloth (Editor). The Human Embryonic Stem Cell Debate: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy (Basic Bioethics). Cambridge: MIT Press, 2001.

IMF. Globalization: Threat or Opportunity? 2000. 17 September 2006.  http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/ib/2000/041200.htm#II 

National Academy of Sciences. Potential U.S. Patient Populations for Stem Cell-Based Therapies. 2000. 17 September 2006.  http://www4.nationalacademies.org/onpi/webextra.nsf/44bf87db309563a0852566f2006d63bb/e5d8fdf14955556185256ac3000711c6?OpenDocument 

Reaves, Jessica. "The Great Debate over Stem Cell Research." July 11, 2001. TIME. 2001. 17 September 2006.  http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,167245,00.html

Tuskegee Syphilis Study Genocide in
Words: 1608 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43865958
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They should be informed in advance and as thoroughly as possible what the study would be about and how their participation would be used. That consent must be constant from the start to finish of the experiment, study or survey. These studies have their worth to society. They are intended to save lives and promote optimum health. There are risks taken in exchange for the ideal, but the involved parties should be fully aware of them and willing to take the said risks. At any stage of the experiment, the participants should be free to back out if they wanted.

Institutions and committees sponsoring or evaluating medical studies using live human subjects should clearly make a choice between the fundamental rights of these subjects to information and the future benefits to be derived by society from the researches. They should refrain from using live human subjects unless absolutely willing to…

Bibliography

Christian Century. AIDS Crisis Among Blacks Tire to Mistrust of Doctors. 2 pages. Christian Century Foundation: Gale Group, 2000

Claudio, Luz. The Turkegee Legacy Project. 2 pages. Environmental Health Perspectives: National Institute of Environmental Health Services, March 2007

Hammer, Ben. Federal Government Awards $14 Million to Turkegee Bioethics Center. 2 pages. Black Issues on Higher Education: Cox, Matthews & Associates, November 20, 2003

Washington, Mary Dejevsky. Clinton Meets Tuskegee Victims. 2 pages. The (London) Independence: Newspaper Publishing PLC, May 17, 1997