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Biometrics are those easily measurable physiological, behavioral or anatomical characteristics, which can be used in identifying an individual. A common biometric modality is fingerprints, but there are others like DNA, voice patterns, irises, facial patterns, and palm prints. Biometrics have been quite beneficial in the last couple of years for law enforcement and intelligence (investigative) purposes, mostly to the FBI and its associates. in the intelligence and law enforcement communities they not only help to validate the identity of an individual, but most importantly, to a person's identity (through a fingerprint left on a bomb or murder weapon, for instance), usually by carrying out a scan of the database to see if the fingerprints match that of anyone already under observation (The FBI).
Biometrics in national security
There is a rising interest in biometric usage for providing small-scale security for buildings and IT facilities and for access/I.D. card…
Adkins, Lauren D. Biometrics: Weighing Convenience and National Security against Your Privacy, 13 Mich. Telecomm. & Tech. L. Rev. 541 (2007). Web. 27 April 2016
Berger, Vic. Biometrics Security Technology: The Future Now. Security Magazine. (October 1, 2007). Web. 27 April 2016
Jain A.K. Ross A. & Pankanti S. Biometrics: A Tool for Information Security, IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, Vol. 1, No.2, (June 2006). Web. 27 April 2016
Kumar, A. Wong, D. Shen, H. & Jain, A. Personal verification using palmprint and hand geometry biometric. Audio -- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication, 1060-1060, 2003. Web. 27 April 2016
" (2008) Williams finally state that dynamic computing can enable innovation through enabling it departments to shift "from a 'light on' operation to a proactive, forward-looking approach." (2008)
The work of Edward M. Rizzo and Leslie a. Worsley entitled; "Emerging Technologies and the Internet Enable Today's E-Workforce" states that with the changes occurring in today's workforce "management requires a new way of thinking. The tools driving organizational effectiveness shave changed drastically in recent years in order to meet the needs of an ever-evolving workforce." (2001) a larger percent of the workforce is comprised of professional employees whom are "more mobile, and there is a growing dependence on temporary or contract employees to ensure adequate staffing levels." (Rizzo and Worsley, 2001) Rizzo and Worsley state that to this end more and more employers are depending on emergent technologies in facing staffing challenges including the Internet. While "traditional businesses have…
Alter, Allan E. (2005) Innovation Makes Emerging Technologies Pay Off. CIO Insight. 5 June 2005. Online available at http://www.cioinsight.com/article2/0,1397,1826516,00.asp
Alter, Allan E. (2005) Innovation Makes Emerging Technologies Pay Off. 5 June 2005. CIO Insight. Research online available at
Security Technology in Next Five Years
Globally security concerns have placed great pressure on the survival of human life and had threatened the daily life, confidence and dignity of societies at large. To resolve the security concerns and overcome with this disastrous obstacles, security technological advancements have been made in many facets. Human life is playing its vital role in moving the world to a secure place where families, businesses, trade, educational system, media, governance, art and science thus all fields of life is affected by the security concerns (Sen, 2002). Now the big question here is how technological development can contribute towards the security concerns especially in the areas of biometrics, forensics and physical security.
Although, there has been intensive increase in human security as the consequences of technological development, the historical background of technology has not rooted much confidence in the societies that further technological development will reduce…
Magarinos, C. (2001) Human Security and Science and Technology. Inauguration Statement of the UNIDO Director-General, 10 October, 2001. United Nations Industrial Development Organization.
McGinn, R (1991) Science, Technology and Society. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Paris, R. (2001). Human security: paradigm shift or hot air?,International Security, retrieved July 21, 2011 from http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1162/016228801753191141
Sen, K. (2002). Basic Education and Human Security. Report of the Kolkata Meeting in Commission on Human Security Bangkok, Thailand. Compiled by Center for Social Development Studies, Faculty of Political Science, Chulalongkorn University. Retreived on July 21, 2011 from http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/human_secu/sympo0007_s.html
The scanner's ability to translate typewriter characters into bit-mapped image into ASCII text depends on a number of factors, including the sensitivity of the device itself and the legibility and method of preparation of the original document; however, improvements are being made all of the time and even formerly graphic-based scanning systems such as Adobe's notoriously slow PDF applications have incorporated character recognition systems that allow for textual scanning. Some of these character recognition systems incorporate features that provide output options to convert the text into a format used by common word-processing programs such as TF, Word and so forth. According to Dry and Lawler, the term "scanning" is frequently used today to describe the process of creating digitized images; in this approach, a graphic picture of the page, rather than an actual transcription of the text itself, is stored in the computer. "While this provides an effective means of…
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Bar Coding Basics. (2005). System ID Warehouse Bar Code Learning Center. Available: http://www.systemid.com/education/index.asp.
Bildirici, I.O. (2004). Building and Road Generalization with the CHANGE Generalization Software Using Turkish Topographic Base Map Data. Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 31(1), 43.
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These breath-testers use a range of technologies including electrochemical fuel cells, infrared absorption, metallic oxide semiconductors and disposable color-change testers.
The disposable breath-testers are cheap to purchase and very useful in detecting alcohol in a person's system. When the test is positive, to check for other drugs in his system, the person is required to give a blood sample for confirmation by a laboratory. In addition his urine sample is also taken to test for the presence of other drugs in his system.
Breath testers have been in use in the United States since the 1940s. Then the machines used to detect alcohol were not as accurate as the ones used today. Nowadays mostly infrared absorption devices are used. They have a sample chamber from where the breath passes. This comes in contact with the infrared light, which counts the ions of alcohol thus measuring the alcohol level.
1. Jerry W. Kilgore - "DNA Samples Prove to Be Effective in Solving Crimes." Magazine Title: Corrections Today. Volume: 65. Issue: 4. July 2003. 28.
2. "DNA Money." Newspaper Title: The Washington Times. March 12, 2003. A06.
3. Richard S. Julie - "High-Tech Surveillance Tools and the Fourth Amendment: Reasonable Expectations of Privacy in the Technological Age." Journal Title: American Criminal Law Review. Volume: 37. Issue: 1. Publication Year: 2000. Page Number: 127
4. News Story: Camera detects concealed weapons in real-time. [ http://news.thomasnet.com/fullstory/463051 ] Accessed Aug 21, 2005
Technology and Criminal Justice System
The American prisons are known to be hosting some of the highest number of prisoners in relation to the entire population. The criminal justice system has over the years proven to be punitive and offenders have often found themselves incarcerated upon presentation of evidence. With the improvement of technology, there have been even more people getting convictions, increasing the number of people behind the prison walls. The overcrowding at the prisons has severally prompted the use of alternative means of correction rather than sending people to the prisons. This has seen increased paroles and offenders being put under probations as a means to decrease the congestion in the prisons.
The challenges that the criminal justice system has faced over the years have prompted the initiative towards inculcating the culture of more technology use within the criminal justice system. The use of technology in the criminal…
FBI, (2015). Next Generation Identification (NGI). Retrieved April 20, 2015 from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/fingerprints_biometrics/ngi
Lazer D., (2015). DNA and the Criminal Justice System. Retrieved April 20, 2015 from http://www.davidlazer.com/sites/default/files/29%20DNA%20and%20the%20CJS%20chapt%201.pdf
Maureen Brown, (2000). Criminal Justice Discovers Information Technology. Retrieved April 20, 2015 from https://www.ncjrs.gov/criminal_justice2000/vol_1/02e.pdf
National Institute of Technology, (2012). Criminal Justice Interview Room Recording System Selection and Application Guide. Retrieved April 20, 2015 from https://www.justnet.org/pdf/IRRS-SAG-January-2013.pdf
Technology in Use in 1910 and the Technology in Use Today
Technology during 1910 and its rapid evolution to the present era:
The 19th century witnessed major upheavals in science and technology ushering a gamut of changes and widespread ripple effect on the society. The dawning of science in industry brought about by the Industrial evolution was a watershed in global technology that continued to shape the future of mankind. It was in that era when development of large scale metal working techniques popularised steam power. ailroads appeared and facilitated in mass migration of populations. Urbanizations started, commerce flourished, fortunes were made and a new class of affluent appeared. Major scientific inventions like electromagnetism by Clerk Maxwell and greater sophistication of electricity brought about technological changes and improved quality of life with telegraph, electric light and radio transforming the world for the better. (Jeff, 2002)
Development in natural science spearheaded…
Chandrinos, K.V; Trahanias, P.E. (n. d.) "Beyond HTML: Web-based Information Systems"
Institute of Computer Science, Retrieved 15 March 2012 from http://www.ercim.eu/publication/ws-proceedings/DELOS6/chandrinos.pdf
Davenport, Thomas H; Short, James E. (1990) "The new industrial engineering information technology and business process redesign" Center for Information Systems Research. CISR WP No. 213, Sloan WP No. 3190-90.
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Technology changed Security and Terrorism?
Terrorists have evolved in their warfare and now they exploit modern technologies to facilitate every stage of their operation such as recruitment, training, planning and attack. Counter terrorism efforts therefore require more effort, continued research and high tech solutions to prevent, protect and to safeguard innocent citizens. The key to victory is not just the volume of information at our disposal but more importantly how effectively the information is analyzed and disseminated among anti-terror vigilance networks in different nations. Only a coordinated approach to counter terrorism would yield fruit, and for this, standardization of security measures across the international checkpoints is indispensible. There is no one solution to solve the problem of terrorism but with the development of newer technological solutions such as iometric identification, iosensors and terahertz imaging systems and other software solutions we can look forward to achieving the objective of a safer…
1) Bruce W. Don, David R. Frelinger & Scott Gerwehr et.al, 'Network technologies for Networked Terrorists: Assessing the Value of Information and Communication technologies to Modern Terrorists Organizations', Dept of Homeland Security, 2007, Accessed Mar 14th 2011, available online at, http://www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/2007/RAND_TR454.pdf
2) Paul Cornish, 'Technology, Strategy and Counter Terrorism', International Affairs, Vol 86, Issue 4, Accessed March 14th 2011, available at, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-2346.2010.00917.x/pdf
3) Emily Turrettini, 'Handsets' Deadly Use: Detonators', (Aug 27, 2005), accessed Mar 14th 2011, available online at, http://www.textually.org/textually/archives/cat_cell_phones_used_by_terrorists.htm?p=2
4) Emily Wax, 'Gunmen Used Technology as a Tactical Tool', The Washington Post, Dec 3, 2008, Accessed Mar 15th 2011, Available at, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/12/02/AR2008120203519.html
Homeland Security and Information Technology
Security and Technology
Geospatial Information System
The 9/11 bombing of the World Trade Center raised the awareness of the American public relative to the need for increased national security. The agency that is in the forefront of providing this security is the Department of Homeland Security. This agency is responsible for a broad range of security issues and, as a result, is confronted with a wide range of technological needs. The agency is forced to confront individuals and organizations who have availability to the latest technological innovations available on the market and the Department of Homeland Security must not only be prepared to confront the latest technology it must also anticipate future innovations.
Security and Technology
In today's world dominated by technology possessing information is even more important than it once was. The old adage is that information is power and the adage…
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (n.d.). Cybercrime. Retrieved March 3, 2011, from The FBI: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/cyber/cyber
Goodchild, M.F. (2010). Twenty years of progress: GI Science in 2010. Journal of Spatial Information Science, 3-20.
John D. Woodward, N.M. (2002). Biometrics: Identity Assurance in the Information Age. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill Osborne Media.
Jussi, P. (2007). Digital Contagions: A Media Archaeology of Computer Viruses. New York: Peter Lang.
They also found that there has been no adequate study on the effects of ageing and facial recognition. Despite these concerns, the report did acknowledge that biometric facial scanning was suitable for use when verifying photo documents, given that the preconditions, such as controlled ambient lighting, are met (cf. An investigation into the performance of facial recognition systems relative to their planned use in photo identification documents - BioP I, 2004).
III. Viability for Use in Large-Scale Venues
The success of facial recognition technology for wide-scale security augmentation is hindered by the inherent limitations of current technology, as well as environmental and physiological factors. Given that venues for major sporting events traditionally have security measures already in place, such as video surveillance and gated access, facial recognition technology might be useful in augmenting other, more traditional forms of security. For facial recognition to be successfully implemented, it is necessary to…
An investigation into the performance of facial recognition systems relative to their planned use in photo identification documents - BioP I. (2004). Retrieved April 9, 2007. from www.bsi.de/english/publications/studies/BioPfinalreport.pdf.
John D. Woodward, J., Horn, C., Gatune, J., & Thomas, a. (2003). Biometrics: A Look at Facial Recognition. Arlington, VA: RAND.
Summary of NIST Standards for Biometric Accuracy, Tamper Resistance, and Interoperability. (2002). Retrieved April 9, 2007. from www.itl.nist.gov/iad/894.03/NISTAPP_Nov02.pdf.
Communications Technologies: ICMT
ICMT: Communications Technologies
Simplicity vs. Complexity
The term ICMT refers to the various tools used by organizations in the creation and dissemination of print, sound, still photos, and lives forms of media. The most commonly-used ICMT tools in the organizational setting today are email, instant messaging services, and social-networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter. These technologies increase the diversity of the devices and services that users have to deal with, resulting in an enormous burden of complexity. This complexity creates obstacles to acceptance and effective exploitation of such technologies. To prevent this, organizations need to come up with strategies for simplifying the use of ICMT. This they could do by developing a series of techniques and tools that enable users to customize and use devices with minimal effort (Salina & Salina, 2008).
For instance, a user may be interested in obtaining sales information from the sales'…
Salina, J. & Salina, P. (2008). Next Generation Networks: Perspectives and Potentials. Chichester, Engalnd: John Wiley & Sons.
Waber, B. (2013). People Analytics: How Sensing Technology will Transform Business and What it Tells us about the Future of Work. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.
The author of this report has been presented with a hypothetical situation as ZXY Corporation where a new building has been procured. This building will be the site of the new information technology (IT) and other infrastructures. However, the current setup is very raw and unfinished and this obviously needs to change. The facets of the information technology setup that will be addressed in this report will include a plan to provide secure access for all users, a viable password policy in terms of complexity and other important factors, a cryptography method to ensure that vital data is encrypted, a remote access plan to ensure that remote access to the network is done in a viable, functional and secure way and a thorough plan to protect the network from malware and various other types of malicious attacks such as phishing, social engineering and so forth. While the overall facets…
Harrison, K. (2016). 5 steps to a (nearly) paperless office. Forbes.com. Retrieved 24 June 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/kateharrison/2013/04/19/5-steps-to-a-nearly-paperless-office/#7e1a915b1cda
Nolo. (2016). Vicarious Liability -- Nolo's Free Dictionary of Law Terms and Legal Definitions. Nolo.com. Retrieved 24 June 2016, from https://www.nolo.com/dictionary/vicarious-liability-term.html
Ou, G. (2007). TJX's failure to secure Wi-Fi could cost $1B -- ZDNet. ZDNet. Retrieved 24 June 2016, from http://www.zdnet.com/article/tjxs-failure-to-secure-wi-fi-could-cost-1b/
Rosoff, M. (2016). Netflix and YouTube are America's biggest bandwidth hogs. Business Insider. Retrieved 24 June 2016, from http://www.businessinsider.com/which-services-use-the-most-bandwidth-2015-12
Sareen (2014) describes biometrics as the technology or the science that determines and assesses biological data. Biometrics is measurable behavioral and physiological characteristics applicable in the verification process of people’s identity (Sareen, 2014). In layman terms biometrics may be understood as a science that involves measuring behavioral and physical characteristics unique to an individual (Xiao, 2007). Biometrics verifies that any person is who they claim to be. The term biometrics refers to life measurements although the terms have been associated with the unique physiological qualities used in identifying a person. Biometric applications are often associated with security. However, the identification of the unique human characteristics scientifically has broader meaning and relevance bearing in mind that computer interface has become increasingly natural (Sareen, 2014).
Jaiswal (2011) describes biometric as any robust, measurable, physical, and distinctive personal traits or characteristic of individuals usable in their identification or verification of their claimed…
On one hand, this may alter the consumers' trust in the company's products which are perceived as intangible compared with those goods that can be purchased from the shelves of specialized stores. On the other hand, resorting to intermediaries implies paying a certain commission which results in higher prices for the respective products. Moreover, the success of selling through indirect channels depends, to a great extent, on the distributors' efforts and knowledge. Although they receive tuition from the producer's technical staff, there may be several interests leading to a prominent discordance between the distributors' behavior and the company's expectations towards it.
Threats primary problem that ADEL could encounter is the Australians' lack of information on biometrics secondly, Australians have a favorable attitude towards traditional security methods based on patrolmen or alarm systems the Australians' misconception about prices (most of them think that the price of an effective security system exceeds…
Brown, C., 2000. Australians' attitude to security, [Online], Available:
http://www.infolink.com.au/articles/A4/0C0026A4.aspx [2007, January 24].
Brabender, T., 2004. I Can't Afford a Publicity/Public Relations Campaign - Can I? [Online], Available:
http://www.mplans.com/dpm/article.cfm/135 [2007, January 24].
According to the same source, the Australian market proves to be very fertile for the U.S. companies which already account for the greatest import share (over 50% in 2004). Such data are outlined by the following table:
Total market (million of dollars)
Total imports (million of dollars)
Imports from U.S. (million of dollars)
2002 2004%Change 2002-2004%Change 2002-2004%Change Australia 950-1400 47% 380-560 47% 185-285 54% 51% Source: http://www.buyusainfo.net/docs/x_4239321.pdf.
The U.S. home security market is another outlet offering promising perspectives. According to Frost & Sullivan's report (http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reportinfo.asp?report_id=365296),one of the levers responsible for increased demand is the emergence of new homes as a result of the low interest rate. The U.S. Census ureau studies showed that, in 2002, 1.7 million new houses were built in comparison with 2001 when 1.6 million new constructions were made. Moreover, the number was expected to grow in the near future.
Other reasons for a…
Brown, C., (2000). Australians' attitude to security. On the Internet at: www.infolink.com.au/articles/A4/0C0026A4.aspx.Retrieved February 20.
Best Export Markets for U.S. Security and Safety Equipment (2005). On the Internet at: www.buyusainfo.net/docs/x_4239321.pdf.Retrieved February 20
Environmental Scan of the Security Industry (2006). On the Internet at http://www.asial.com.au/default.asp?page=/media%20centre/research+and+articles/environmental+scan+of+the+security+industry .Retrieved' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
wireless Web is truly' the next major wave of Internet computing
A its potential for bringing people together and expanding commerce is even greater than that of the wired Internet."
Edward Kozel, board member and former CTO of Cisco systems (AlterEgo, 2000, p. 12)
The integration of the Internet into our modern culture as a driving force behind business, convenience, services and merchandise acquisition has created a new set of desires for modern consumers. The trend started with the ease and availability of services and products being offer4ed through radio and television advertising, and then infomercials and shopping channels. The internet brought the availability to purchase products, goods, and information from our desks and kitchens. Now trough wireless hotspots and wireless devices, society is following their desires toward a marketing distribution channel which motivates them to pay for internet access, and mobile commerce (m-commerce) anytime, anywhere, and instantly. These sets…
AlterEgo (2000). Building the intelligent internet: Making the case for adaptive network services. [www.alterego.com].
Albright, B. (2000). Mobilize this!. Frontline Solutions, May, 28-32.
Bansal, P. (1.1.2001) Smart cards come of age. The Banker.
Barnett, N., Hodges, S. & Wilshire, M. (2000). M-commerce: An operator's manual. McKinsey Quarterly, 3,162-171.
Physical Security Controls
To document the importance of physical security controls as it relates to the massive pervasiveness of online theft and cyber crime
Background information on the identification and authentication of people.
With the advent of the internet it is often very difficult to properly identify the individual in which business is conducted with. With the extreme ease of the internet comes the secrecy of potential criminal lurking through the shadows. Identification and authentication therefore have profound impacts on how to better protect assets from criminals.
The importance of information systems security and how it relates to globalization
Information systems, particularly those that store personal information, often are very senstivie to criminal activity. Therefore physical store techniques mandate that sensitivity information be locked away and under intense surveillance. Aspects such as disposable drives, printers and workstations should also be considered.
C. Brief overview of the paper.
i. The remainder…
1. Backhouse, J., Hsu, C., & McDonnell, A. (2003). Toward public-key infrastructure interoperability. Communications of the ACM, 46(6), 98-100. Retrieved April 25, 2009, from ACM.
2. Bala, D. (2008). Biometrics and information security. Proceedings of the 5th annual conference on Information security curriculum development, 64-66. Retrieved March 31, 2009, from ACM.
3. Boatwright, M. & Lou, X. (2007). What do we know about biometrics authentication? Proceedings of the 4th annual conference on Information security curriculum development, 31, Retrieved March 31, 2009, from ACM.
4. Chan, A.T. (2003). Integrating smart card access to web-based medical information systems. Proceedings of the 2003 ACM symposium on Applied computing, 246-250.Retrieved February 13, 2009, from ACM.
Today, even the local gas station and supermarket use computer technology and applications that are much more advanced in their capability than the computer systems used to launch and recover the first generation of spacecraft (Evans, 2004; Kaku, 1997).
Modern computer applications perform calculations and allow analyses of very high volumes of information that far exceed the capacity of direct monitoring by human operators (Larsen, 2007; Nocera, 2009). That is not necessarily inherently problematic; in fact, it is incredibly beneficial in too many ways to count. Today, international manufacturers and shippers can pinpoint the location of goods thousands of miles away in real time; supply chain managers in one office can monitor stock throughout hundreds of retail and wholesale outlets electronically and automatically adjust output and shipping schedules to match their rates of sale at the local level (Evans, 2004; Larsen, 2007). However, the interdependence of modern life in general…
Baker, W., Hylender, C., Valentine, J. (2008). Verizon Business Data Breach
Investigation Report. Retrieved October 22, 2008, from:
Ballezza, RA. "The Social Security Card Application Process: Identity and Credit Card Fraud Issues." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin; Vol. 76, No.5.
An Eigenface representation (Carts-Power, pg. 127, 2005) created using primary "components" (Carts-Power, pg. 127, 2005) of the covariance matrix of a training set of facial images (Carts-Power, pg. 127, 2005). his method converts the facial data into eigenvectors projected into Eigenspace (a subspace), (Carts-Power, pg. 127, 2005) allowing copious "data compression because surprisingly few Eigenvector terms are needed to give a fair likeness of most faces. he method of catches the imagination because the vectors form images that look like strange, bland human faces. he projections into Eigenspace are compared and the nearest neighbors are assumed to be matches." (Carts-Power, pg. 127, 2005)
he differences in the algorithms are reflective in the output of the resulting match or non-match of real facial features against the biometric database or artificial intelligence generated via algorithm. he variances generated by either the Eigenspace or the PCA will vary according to the…
Thus, finding a principal subspace where the data exist reduces the noise. Besides, when the number of parameters is larger, as compared to the number of data pints, the estimation of those parameters becomes very difficult and often leads to over-learning. Over learning ICA typically produces estimates of the independent components that have a single spike or bump and are practically zero everywhere else
. This is because in the space of source signals of unit variance, nongaussianity is more or less maximized by such spike/bump signals." (Acharya, Panda, 2008)
The use of differing algorithms can provide
This source is relevant to the project because of the implications of IT development and civil rights, most notably, the Fourth Amendment protections against unwarranted search and seizure.
Burnett, E. "Crime Analysis Reporting and Mapping for Small Agencies: A
Low-Cost and Simplified Approach." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin
Vol. 76, No.
This source is highly credible because it is a professional law enforcement journal published by the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI). This article details the manner in which evolving IT technology and IT systems have generated new crime-mapping systems such as the first such system pioneered in New York City by Howard Safir in 2000 during his tenure as New York City Police (NYP) Commissioner. Since the introduction of this method of tracking crime statistics by neighborhood and police precinct or service area, other police agencies have implemented similar systems with equally promising results. The article explains how…
Dornan, A. "Biometrics Becomes a Commodity." IT Architect Vol. 21, No. 2.
This source is highly credible because it is a professional IT technology journal. The article outlines the growing use of biometric technology and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems in business applications. Specifically, it details the extent to which large wholesale organizations such as Walmart and Target have already incorporated biometric systems into their supply chain management functions. Small computer chips attached
The Distinction Between ISR and IAA
The intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance have capabilities that are aimed at improving the informational and situation awareness to the department of homeland security. The capabilities of ISR have increased in demand since the incident of Hurricane Katrina. The same capabilities of ISR are the ones that are termed Incident Awareness and Assessment (IAA). The Incident Awareness and Assessment (IAA) capabilities have been leveraged to respond to various kinds of threats such as hurricanes, wildfires or even ocean oil spill.
The ISR has the capability to provide invaluable situational awareness from various intelligence disciplines. The intelligence can be in the form of signals or imagery to the military commanders. Improved ISR provides the military commanders with the big picture, enables them to have a clear understanding of the issues as well as allow them to apply the available resources in an efficient manner.
There are those who cite the failure of the Department of Homeland Security since the attack of September 11, 2011 however, the successes of Homeland Security are clearly noted in the work of others. This study will review the successes of the Department of Homeland Security.
The Government Accountability Office in its 226-page report states that the Homeland Security Information Network, which is the core of the Department's mission is a "secure portal for security alerts, advisories and information on homeland security technologies, and is used by a large network of federal, state, local, and private sector organizations, from emergency management to law enforcement and critical infrastructure providers." (Hoover, 2011) Included in the portal are "document libraries, instant messaging, incident reporting, discussion boards, and numerous other features." (Hoover, 2011)
Another success for the Department of Homeland Security is the 'Trusted Internet Connections and Einstein' and it…
Avlon, John (2011) Forty-Five Foiled Terror Plots Since 9/11. U.S. News. Daily Beast. 8 Sept 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2011/09/08/9-11-anniversary-45-terror-plots-foiled-in-last-10-years.html
A Decade After 9/11, DHS Matures Lieberman, Collins Commend Department's Development, Press for Continued Progress. (2011) U.S. Senate on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. 7 Sept 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.hsgac.senate.gov/media/a-decade-after-9/11-dhs-matures-lieberman-collins-commend-departments-development-press-for-continued-progress
Statement of Gene L. Dodaro (2011) Progress Made and Work Remaining in Implementing Homeland Security Missions 10 Years after 9/11. Testimony Before the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate. Department of Homeland Security. 7 Sept. 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d11919t.pdf
Hoover, J. Nicholas (2011) 7 Key Homeland Security IT Developments Since 9/11. Information Week Government. 8 Sept 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.informationweek.com/news/government/security/231601054
eal World company (Experian) on the Internet. It has 4 (APA) sources.
Experian is a global organization that provides financial reporting services to its subscribers. The organization helps its users in making informed decisions in the field of marketing, advertising, decision-making and consumer related services (such as CM). Further, Experian also provides outsourcing services to businesses. (Experian Web Site, 2003)
Experian is the biggest consumer and business information provider in the world. The wide network of consumers and businesses subscribed with the organization compliments the status of the company within the industry. The company has maintained a consistent focus on integration with its consumers/businesses. This is significant reason for the magnitude of operations of the organization. (Experian Web Site, 2003)
Experian and the Internet
One of the plots of the high-scale integration of the company includes provision of online services to the consumers/businesses subscribed to the organization. The…
Experian Web Site. (2003) "About Experian: Corporate information." Accessed December 3, 2003. http://www.experian.com/corporate/index.html
Lash, A. (1997). "Credit Reports Taken off Net." August 15, 1997. http://www.pacificnet.net/jue/humor/docs/970815d.html
O'Harrow, R. Jr., Chandrasekaran, R. (1997) "Credit Reports Made Available Online Experian's Move Draws Criticism From Privacy Advocates" The Washington Post, August 15, 1997; Page D01. http://www.pacificnet.net/jue/humor/docs/970815c.html
Saunders, C. (2002). "Experian Offers Credit Card E-mail Service." August 23, 2002. http://www.internetnews.com/IAR/article.php/1451591
These certificates are issued by the certification authorities (CAs) and they contain the name, expiration dates as well as serial numbers of the certificates.
Operating system hardening is the process of addressing the various security issues and vulnerabilities in a given operating system via the implementation of the latest Operating system patches, updates, hotfixes as well procedures and policies that are necessary for reducing the number of attacks as well as system downtime.
Application hardening is the process of addressing the various security issues and vulnerabilities in a given operating system via the implementation of the latest application patches, updates, hotfixes as well procedures and policies that are necessary for reducing the number of attacks as well as system downtime.
Transmission / emote access protection protocols
The transmission protocols that are necessary for the information assurance include the used of https as well as FTP. Https…
Secured real time protocol (STP) is also being identified to enhance the security parameter of WAN and LAN network elements. "STP provides protection with encryption keys for wired and wireless networks including bandwidth limited channels." (Guillen and Chacon 2009 P. 690). There is also a growing use of IP secure to protect organization from the interception of data over the LAN and WAN environment.
To enhance network security, Chen, Horng, & Yang (2008) postulate the use of public key cryptography. While there is a growing use of public key cryptography, there is still a shortcoming identified with the use of public key cryptography in the LAN and WAN environment. Since the public key is being kept in a public file, it is possible for an active intruder to forge the contents of the public key and use it to get access onto the data kept within the network system. To…
Chen, T. Horng, G. & Yang, C. (2008).Public Key Authentication Schemes for Local Area. Informaticia.19 (1):3-16.
Fetterolf, P.C. & Anandalinga, G. (1992). Optimal design of LAN-WAN internetworks:
an approach using simulated annealing. Annals of Operations Research. 36: 275-298.
Guillen, P.E. & Chacon, D. A (2009). VoIP Networks Performance Analysis with Encryption Systems. World Academy of Science, Engineering & Technology. 58: 688-695.
In addition electronic purses can be reloaded using ATM machines or traditional tellers (if the card is connected to a banking account).
Additionally, electronic purses are usually based on smart card technology and necessitate a card reader to fulfill a transaction. Equipment including point of sale (POS) terminals, ATMs, and smart card kiosks can be outfitted with card readers (Misra et al., 2004). Every time the user utilizes the card reader to complete a transaction; the card reader will debit or credit the transaction value from or to the card.
The author further asserts that Smart cards can be utilized for various purposes.
In most cases they are used as stored value cards (Misra et al., 2004). Stored value cards can be utilized at the time of purchase and are preloaded with a certain amount of money. These cards can be discarded after they have been used; however, most stored…
AL-KAYALI a. (2004) Elliptic Curve Cryptography and Smart Cards GIAC Security Essentials Certification (GSEC). Retrieved October 8 at http://www.sans.org/reading_room/whitepapers/vpns/1378.php
ECC. Retrieved October 8 at http://planetmath.org/encyclopedia/EllipticCurveCryptography.html
Frauenfelder M. (2005) Make: Technology on Your Time. Oreily Misra, S.K., Javalgi, R. (., & Scherer, R.F. (2004). Global Electronic Money and Related Issues. Review of Business, 25(2), 15+.
Mitrou N. (2004) Networking 2004: Networking Technologies, Services, and Protocols. Springer Murphy S., Piper F. (2002) Cryptography: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press: Oxford, England.
National security cards also have the ability to provide useful information and insight to policymakers on which areas of a given country will most likely be the least secure and which pose potential security threats (Ortmeier, 2009). This will also force nations to into strategic identity management systems and taxonomies of how they classify threats to their populations. The use of analytics and big data or exceptionally large and complex data sets, will become commonplace in five years or less as a result of the adoption of national security cards across more nations in the world (Ortmeier, 2009). National security cards will also be increasingly used for managing healthcare, human services and social programs, as the United Kingdom has successfully done for example. The broader implications to the future of security from the use of national identity cards are evident in how advanced forms of security authentication continue to flourish…
Krull, a.R. (1995). Controls in the next millennium: Anticipating the it-enabled future. Computers & Security, 14(6), 491-491.
Ortmeier, P.J. (2009). Introduction to security: Operations and management. (4th ed.). New York: Pearson Education Inc.
SP's Special. (2012, India's slybird MAV maturing fast. SP's Aviation,
Sproule, C.M. (2002). The effect of the U.S.A. patriot act on workplace privacy. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 43(5), 65-73.
The relevance of physical security cannot be overstated when it comes to the prevention or minimization of instances of unauthorized access, loss, or even theft. In this text, I concern myself with physical security and the relevance of several of its components. The components I will address in this discussion are building security, grounds security, access control systems, perimeter security, and information systems and technology security.
Physical Security: Brief Overview
In the assessment of security vulnerabilities, physical security is generally regarded a critical issue. This is particularly the case given that it is the said physical security that presents the most serious obstacle to an attacker seeking to execute a break-in. In that regard therefore, the various components of physical security, some of which are discussed in significant detail in this text, should seek to secure people and organizational assets from intruders. For this reason, physical security could…
Dempsey, J.S. (2010). Introduction to Private Security (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Fennelly, L.J. (2012). Effective Physical Security (4th ed.). Waltham, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Purpura, P.P. (2007). Security and Loss Prevention: An Introduction (5th ed.). Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Smith, C. & Brooks, D.J. (2012). Security Science: The Theory and Practice of Security. Waltham, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
When the Employer Sanctions provision of the Immigration Reform and Control ct of 1985 was passed by Congress, there followed widespread discrimination against foreign-looking merican workers, especially sians and Hispanics. Failure to carry a national I.D. card would likely come to be viewed as cause for search, detention or arrest of minorities. The stigma and humiliation of constantly having to prove that they are mericans or legal immigrants would weigh heavily on such groups.
On the other hand Bolton (2010) reports Senate Democratic Whip Dick Durbin (Ill.), calculates mericans have become more comfortable with the idea of a national identification card. "The biometric identification card is a critical element here," Durbin said. "For a long time it was resisted by many groups, but now we live in a world where we take off our shoes at the airport and pull out our identification. People understand that in this vulnerable world,…
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). 2003. 5 problems with national id cards. ACLU, 8, September, http://www.aclu.org/technology-and-liberty-/5-problems-national-id-cards (accessed August 4, 2010)
Alexander Bolton. 2010. Dems spark alarm with call for national ID card. The Hill, 30, April, http://thehill.com/homenews/senate/95235-democrats-spark-alarm-with-call-for-national-id-card (accessed August 4, 2010)
Alexander Bolton. 2010. Dems spark alarm with call for national ID card. The Hill, 30, April,
Physical Security Controls
Using attached Annotated outline provide a 5-page paper Physical Security Controls. I attached Annotated Outline Physical Security Controls. You references I Annotated Outline.
The advancement in technology has given rise to numerous computer security threats. It has become quite difficult to identify people online because many people use the internet with fake identities. This has made it easy for people to conduct criminal activities online. Online security of computer systems should be combined with physical security to ensure that no unauthorized person gain access to the systems. A physical security control can be termed as any obstacle used to delay serious attackers, and frustrate trivial attackers. This way a company or organization can be assured of the security if its information and computer systems. Majority of organizations use computer systems to store sensitive company information and employee data. This data needs to be properly secured to ensure…
Backhouse, J., Hsu, C., & McDonnell, A. (2003). Toward public-key infrastructure interoperability. Communications of the ACM, 46(6), 98-100.
Boatwright, M., & Luo, X. (2007). What do we know about biometrics authentication? Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 4th annual conference on Information security curriculum development, Kennesaw, Georgia.
Shelfer, K.M., & Procaccino, J.D. (2002). Smart card evolution. Communications of the ACM, 45(7), 83-88.
Criminal Identification Procedures
The dawn of the twenty-first century has become the era of George Orwell's "1984." Technology that was found only in science fiction a few decades ago, is part of today's standards and procedures.
The world today is filled with cameras that can film an individual wherever he goes, his cell phone signal can pinpoint his location, and even one glance can reveal his true identity (Shenk 2003). Iris-recognition technology, soon to be common in places such as airports, offices, and banks, will simply scan an individual's eyes to reveal his idenity (Shenk 2003). Many feel that in this post-9/11 landscape, there is a serious need for these high-tech tools to help detect money laundering, encrypted e-mails, bio-weapons, and suitcase nukes (Shenk 2003).
Poseidon, a new electronic surveillance system, is a network of cameras that feeds a computer programmed to use a set of complex mathematical algorithms to…
Shenk, David. "Watching you the world of high-tech surveillance."
National Geographic. 11/1/2003.
Udall, Morris K. "Criminal Justice New Technologies and the Constitution:
Chapter 2 Investigation, Identification, Apprehension." U.S. History. 9/1/1990.
The self-encrypting hard drives technology enables the automatic encryption of every data written to the disk while restricting access to people without the correct password immediately the computer starts up. Furthermore, since the encryption is built in to the hard drive, it automatically encrypts and decrypts with no performance delay.
Pros and Cons of Using Security Technologies:
The use of these emerging technologies in protecting information and sensitive data within an organization has both advantages and disadvantages. One of the major advantages of these technologies they help in protecting an organization in addition to being an important element of the general security puzzle. Secondly, along with others, the three emerging technologies make the jobs of employees and administrators easier since they don't have to spend a lot of time trying to figure how to protect information and sensitive data.
The major disadvantages of using these technologies is that they don't…
Greengard, S. (n.d.). 5 Emerging Security Technologies to Watch. Retrieved May 16, 2011, from http://www.microsoft.com/midsizebusiness/security/technologies.mspx
"Protect Sensitive Computer Files With New Security Technology." (2009, May 25). Jakarta
Globe: Great Stories, Global News. Retrieved May 16, 2011, from http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/lifeandtimes/protect-sensitive-computer-files-with-new-security-technology/277082
law comm. tech
Innovations in Database Communication Technologies for Law Enforcement
The proliferation of computer, digital and web technology have all had a significant impact on how civil and public administration functions are performed. The ability to engage in real-time communication through an array of media, the opportunity to access enormous databases of information from the field and the capacity to capture sound, video, photo and other data all have enhanced productivity, efficiency and sophistication in many fields of great sociological importance. Certainly, few functions of public administration are more important than law enforcement and the administration of justice. Here, we consider some of the technological innovations in computer databasing that have had a direct impact on the way that police officers perform their job responsibilities with a specific focus on the enhanced communication opportunities emerging in the field.
Mobile Data Terminals and Facial Recognition:
Both Mobile Data Terminals and…
Cedres, D. (1997). Mobile data terminals and random license plate checks: the need for uniform guidelines and a reasonable suspicion requirement. All Business.
Hess, E. (2010). Facial Recognition: A Valuable Tool for Law Enforcement. Forensic Magazine.
Monopoli, D.M. (1996). Mobile Data Terminals: Past, Present and Future. National Criminal Justice Reference System.
Wallace, H., & Roberson, C. (2009). Written and interpersonal communication: Methods for law enforcement (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Frustration and Dissonance/Risk
Frustration and Dissonance / Risk
Frustration and Cognitive Dissonance
Cognitive dissonance has been extensively studied in social psychology as the effects of dissonance would cause dramatic changes in one's life. Cognitive dissonance is defined as an uncomfortable feeling caused by holding conflicting ideas simultaneously. The result of dissonance may be anxiety, blaming, and denying. Although, the latter may also occur as the result of frustration, frustration is a conflict which occurs when something happens against one's will. The ways of reducing dissonance and frustration are justifying, blaming, and denying. People's experiences can contradict with expectations. For example, my old car was a manual transmission car, very reliable, fuel efficient; however, I wanted to buy an automatic transmission car with built in GPS and more room. However, my new car is not meeting my expectations. I have given three speed tickets because I was used to drive manual…
For instance, in the eyes of the courts, an offense's level could be equated to the guideline for the seriousness of a crime. The next aspect of the scorecard was the offender's personal or associative criminal history. Prior offenses dictated a level of conviction frequencies and social offenses. Therefore the personal criminal history of an individual ends up playing a major role in the sentencing guidelines. A person's propensity to repeat offences entails longer sentences. The person that had a history of repeat offenses offered a greater threat and therefore was often thought to be more dangerous to society. but, how does the justice system maintain a culprit's history without an ability to utilize integrated processes?
This is a prime example of where justice information systems integration could have far reaching implications. In regard to sentencing, first time offenders in one community may not have been labeled as serial offenders…
Avolio, Frederick M. (2000, March 20). Best Practices in Network Security -- as the Networking Landscape Changes, So Must the Policies That Govern Its Use. Don't Be Afraid of Imperfection When it Comes to Developing Those for Your Group. Network Computing.
Capital Punishment in U.S. Hit 30-Year Low in 2003. Ed. All American Patriots. (March 1, 2005). Retrieved on April 21, 2005, from All American Patriots at http://www.allamericanpatriots.com/m-news+article+storyid-6869-PHPSESSID-c7528df1df14be6397da4e89e25a7374.html.
Dekker, Marcel. (n.d.). Security of the Internet. Retrieved on April 21, 2005, at http://www.cert.org/encyc_article/tocencyc.html#Overview
Holmes, Amir., Webster, Lawrence P., & Sullivan, Teri (2004). JIEM Reference Model. SEARCH, the National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics. Retrieved on April 21, 2005, at http://www.search.org/integration/JRM1.0.1.pdf
According to Liao (2006), "The companies have entered into significant, long-term agreements that give Lenovo customers preferred access to IBM's world-class customer service organization and global financing offerings. This will enable Lenovo to take advantage of IBM's powerful worldwide distribution and sales network. Lenovo's customers are able to count on the entire IBM team - including sales, services and financing - for access to IBM's legendary end-to-end it solutions" (p. 3). In addition, pursuant to IBM's five-year contractual commitment, it will also provide Lenovo with warranty services and provide Lenovo customers with leasing and financing arrangements. According to Liao, "Through this long-term relationship, customers will receive the best products with the lowest total-cost-of-ownership" (2006 p. 3). Among the company's initiatives in this final phase of the change management process were additional efforts to further support their new dual business model. To this end, Lenovo upgraded its technology to work with…
About Lenovo. 2007. Lenovo: United States. [Online]. Available: http://www.lenovo.com/lenovo/us/en/ .
Bass, Bernard M. 1997. "Does the Transactional -- Transformational Leadership Paradigm Transcend Organizational and National Boundaries?" American Psychologist, 52(2), 130.
De Angelis, a.P. 2006, Spring. Don't 'dis' Chinese science. Issues in Science and Technology, 22(3), 31.
Dessler, Gary. 2006. "Expanding into China? What Foreign Employers Should Know about Human Resource Management in China Today." SAM Advanced Management Journal, 71(4), 11.
The first question is what the definition of haptic feedback and why it is needed. The second is to define the various types of human memory and the impact of the same on the human/computer interface. The third is to describe the potential outcomes of not using consistency in the human/computer interface. The fourth question is to summarize the steps of the user-centric design process. Finally, the role of human motion in the design of the human/computer interface shall be articulated. All of the questions above will be answered using no less than four scholarly resources.
Haptic feedback is when a computer or system provides feedback that is something other than visual in nature when something occurs. One of the more pervasive examples of this in motion in a modern context is the slight vibration that a smartphone gives when a button on the phone is…
Gorman, M. (2012, May 21). Leap Motion reveals super-accurate motion control tech, $70 device to change the UI game. Engadget. Retrieved March 10, 2014, from http://www.engadget.com/2012/05/21/leap-motion-3d-motion-and-gesture-control/
MobileBurn. (2014, March 10). What is "haptic feedback"?. MobileBurn. Retrieved March 10, 2014, from http://www.mobileburn.com/definition.jsp?term=haptic+feedback
USAToday. (2013, January 6). Editorial: 'Black boxes' are in 96% of new cars. USA
Today. Retrieved March 10, 2014, from http://www.usatoday.com/story/opinion/2013/01/06/black-boxes-cars -
Parents who are predisposed to limit children's exposure to violence will do so as a matter of course. Parents who don't feel that way, will not. Therefore, if parents can't be relied upon to police their children, then society must- because what social order wants to have violence-overloaded children heaving their criminal behavior upon it?
In the mid-1950's a Senate sub-committee began to investigate the "sources of the moral rot at the core of an otherwise flourishing postwar America," (Knox, 4). This committee looked at the comic book industry, movies, and particularly at television. While these efforts did little to nothing to curb interest in subjects considered to be anti-American, or "immoral," it does show the depth of time and effort that has been spent on this issue - at every level. However, over the course of time, television has become more liberal rather than less. So, in response, the…
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2007). Children and TV Violence. Online. Internet. Avail:
http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_and_tv_violence.Acc : 12 Oct, 2007.
Duncan, P. (2006). Attractions to Violence and the Limits of Education. The Journal of Aesthetic Education. 40:4; 21-38.
Hornaday, a. (Aug 6, 2006) Parents Fret About Children's Entertainment. The Washington Post. Sunday Arts, N01.
Protection of Digital Health Information
With increase health information technology store access patient information, likelihood security breaches risen. In fact, Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ): In United States, a whopping 97% increase number health records breached 2010-2011
Ensuring that patient information is protected at all times is vital for any health care institution. Patient information records contain sensitive information that can be used for malicious purposes like identity theft, credit card fraud, and leaking of information for malicious intent. The advancement and use of technology has made it easier for patient information to be accessed within the health care facility Shoniregun, Dube, & Mtenzi, 2010.
This increases the speed of service delivery to the patient and improves the care given to the patient. Technology has allowed for the use of portable electronic devices by the healthcare practitioners in entering and accessing patient records and information. Portable electronic devices are small…
Green, M.A., & Bowie, M.J. (2005). ESSENTIALS OF HEALTH INFORMATION Management: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES: Principles and Practices. Independence, KY: Thomson/Delmar Learning.
Harman, L.B., & Association, A.H.I.M. (2006). Ethical Challenges in the Management of Health Information. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Laurinda B. Harman, C.A.F., and Kesa Bond. (2012). Electronic Health Records: Privacy, Confidentiality, and Security. American Medical Association Journal of Ethics, 14(9), 712-719.
Shoniregun, C.A., Dube, K., & Mtenzi, F. (2010). Electronic Healthcare Information Security. New York / Heidelberg: Springer.
Aircraft Flight Disturbance
Lessons Learned From September 26th O'Hare International Airport Incident
ecommendations to Avert Widespread Flight Disturbances
On September 26th, 2014, both O'Hare and Midway airports experienced a day-long disruption of operations that led to over 2,000 flights being cancelled and the entire nation affected by the disruption of operations. An employee with psychological problems intent on killing himself started a fire in the basement telecommunications room of the Aurora, Illinois control center, then attempted to slit his throat. After posting his suicide note on Facebook, relatives called 911 and both his life and the control center were saved. The fire damaged the most critical areas of the IT infrastructure for air traffic control for both the O'Hare and Midway airports, forcing air traffic control locations in adjacent states to take on one of the busiest areas of the country for air travel. The lack…
Cavusoglu, H., Mishra, B., & Raghunathan, S. (2005). The value of intrusion detection systems in information technology security architecture. Information Systems Research, 16(1), 28-46.
Crockett, B. (1988). People, not systems, key to network security. Network World, 5(12), 17.
Deane, F., Barrelle, K., Henderson, R., & Mahar, D. (1995). Perceived acceptability of biometric security systems. Computers & Security, 14(3), 225.
Lynch, D.M. (2006). Securing Against Insider Attacks. EDPACS, 34(1), 10-20.
Computing networks are certainly changing. There are a couple of different factors driving these changes, which generally include issues of security, privacy, regulatory concerns, and technological advancements. For the most part, these drivers are resulting in positive changes for computer networks.
One of the fundamental ways in which computer networks are changing is that they are incorporating Virtual Private Networks (VPNs). VPNs provide an additional computing network inside of an external network (Monga 343). As such, they are able to buttress security while adding a layer of privacy (Rao and Kavitha 4). There are a number of intruders and hackers who are invading networks without authority. One of the basic ways to meet this broadening challenge is to stifle hackers with the use of a VPN.
Another way that networks are changing is by becoming much more complex. Specifically, the architecture involved with them is taking on additional complexities that…
In a physical security system, there are a number of different ways to identify employees for the purpose of granting them different levels of access to parts of a facility. In many instances, a combination of methods will be used for maximum effectiveness. Passcards are usually one of the lowest levels of identification. They are easy to create and implement, but they have a key weakness in that they are transferrable. As such, a passcard offers only the lowest level of security.
Because of this, security professionals look at things that are unique to an individual, but are not transferable. This typically involves some form of biometrics -- retina scans, iris texture scans, fingerprints, facial recognition, voice recognition or even the shape of your ear (Moren, 2014). Things like body shape and gait recognition have also been explored, as a means of identifying a person based on what…
Boulgouris, N., Hatzinakos, D. & Plataniotis, K. (2005). Gait recognition: A challening signal processing technology for biometric identification. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine. Retrieved April 12, 2016 from http://www.comm.toronto.edu/~kostas/Publications2008/pub/60.pdf
DeChant, T. (2013). The boring and exciting world of biometrics. Nova Next. Retrieved April 12, 2016 from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/next/tech/biometrics-and-the-future-of-identification/
Moren, D. (2014). 7 surprising biometric identification methods. Popular Science. Retrieved April 12, 2016 from http://www.popsci.com/seven-surprising-biometric-identification-methods
Zhu, Y., Tan, T. & Wang, Y. (2000). Biometric personal identification based on handwriting. National Laboratory of Pattern Recognition. Retrieved April 12, 2016 from http://www.cbsr.ia.ac.cn/publications/yzhu/Biometric%20Personal%20Identification%20Based%20on%20Handwriting.pdf
ethical issues, challenges, and dilemmas that have arisen due to technological advances of law enforcement on personal privacy. Addressed are the major pro and con viewpoints of economically, politically, individually, and socially.
Eight sources. APA.
Privacy and Technology
Big Brother is definitely here. Just the other day the news reported that the average American is photographed nine to twelve times per day. Cameras are everywhere. People are photographed while they are driving to and from work, while they are parking their cars, entering their place of employment, and if the company is any size other than a mom and pop shop, they are watched at work. hether one is making a deposit at the bank, buying groceries at the local grocery chain, gas at the 7-11 store, or browsing books at the library, they are being not only watched, but photographed. From the smallest market to the largest mall, every…
Branom, Mike. "Orlando Gets New Air Security Devices." AP Online. March 5, 2002.
Digital Big Brother." St. Louis Post-Dispatch. February 05, 2001.
EU/U.S.: EURO-MPS 'CONFIRM' ECHELON SPY NETWORK." European Report.
Hamilton, Tyler. "Surveillance technologies nibble at offline privacy." The Toronto Star.
This marketing plan details Itcorp's business model. It addresses the company's mission, policies, strategies and objectives to achieve profitability. Itcorp's integrated software and hardware solutions for healthcare providers are described at length, as well as objectives for the long-term.
Itcorp plans to begin operations starting in January 2006. One thing that is unique about Itcorp is how it got its start. In 1988, two partners, Max Renfield and C.L. Rotwang, decided to start Jetson's, a business offering IT solutions to companies in the small to medium size range; in those days, the market was segmented mainly according to size. In the early 1990s, many of the companies Jetson's had been serving had grown to the point that the company's IT solutions were no longer adequate and so the company had to expand its product line to continue to serve these customers (and prevent them from switching…
Infoplease (2005). United States - Largest Cities. Retrieved April 24, 2005 from the Infoplease Website: http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0108121.html .
# 16 The Department of Homeland Security, properly supported by the Congress, should complete, as quickly as possible, a biometric entry-exit screening system, including a single system for speeding qualified travelers. It should be integrated with the system that provides benefits to foreigners seeking to stay in the United States.
This particular recommendation has failed miserably since the time of its suggestion by the 9/11 commission. Immigration into the United States goes largely unchecked, much less checked by any type of biometric screening system. Although this appears to be a failure of massive proportion, it does not seem to be too impactful as history has proven us.
While the borders of the United States are too wide and expansive too have any real deterrent to keep people out, a biometric entry system would not have much good if these entry points were monitored. The development of big data,…
M6A1 Group Project Form.
The National Counterterrorism Center (nd). Viewed 6 April 2014. Retrieved from http://www.nctc.gov/whatwedo.html
Marketing Plan Knuedge/Knuverse
The mission of Knuedge is to lead vital and necessary changes, and deliver next-generation technologies that will transform the manner in which humans interact with machines, varying from strong voice recognition and substantiation to machine learning (Knuege Website, 2016).
KnuEdge has created an endearing range of cutting-edge businesses that, it designed, to bring neural technologies to enterprise products for the enterprise and consumer market. One of these businesses is Knuverse. In particular, Knuverse has resolved and unraveled two significant issues that are in existence in voice-interface technologies up until the present, these being noise and security. This will transform the interaction between technology and humans. In turn, different industries such as tech, banking, hospitality and entertainment industries, amidst others, have the capacity to innovate new products and services at an incredible rate (Knuedge, 2016).
The product/service offerings of Knuverse include Background, DNA, Active and Audiopin.…
BioID Website. (2016). About. Retrieved from: https://www.bioid.com/
KnuEdge Website. (2016). About Us. Retrieved 13 August 2016 from: https://www.knuedge.com/about-us/
KnuEdge. (2016). Companies. Retrieved 13 August 2016 from: https://www.knuedge.com/companies/
KnuVerse. (2016). Products. Retrieved 13 August 2016 from: https://www.knuverse.com/products/Kotler , P., Keller, K. L., Brandy, M., Goodman, M. & Hansen, T. (2009). Marketing Management, 1st edition, New York: Pearson Education.
(Grossman, 2003, Academic Search Elite)
It is hoped that a greater understanding of the human brain's ability to recognize faces in a specific sequence, group of patterns, density and also in whole or part will further assist the purveyors of new technology to train machines to do the same. "The most serious threats to our freedom often advance in small steps. Face recognition systems may one day provide significant benefits in military applications...." (Taslitz, 2002)
Though the different systems still have problems and kinks, specific to each type the promises of face recognition technology being used in this manner is a highly developing theory with a great deal of research to back it. "...the Pentagon is funding a fifty-million dollar initiative to use face-recognition technology a s a means for combating terrorism." (Taslitz, 2002)
The collective information available to the researcher is substantial with regard to the issue of…
Bower, B (7/6/2002) "The Eyes Have it," Science News, 162(1) Database: Academic
Ferber, D. (2/14/2004) "Autism Impairs Face Recognition," Science Now, Database:
Academic Search Elite Psychinfo at EbscoHost.com.
Technical Security Recommendations for ABC Healthcare IT Infrastructures
ABC Healthcare has been facing a multitude of challenges ranging from the security of the IT infrastructures to the compliance of regulatory policies. In the United States, the lawmakers are increasing putting more restrictive in the regulatory environment because there have been more attacks in the healthcare environment, damaging the organizational information systems and using worms and virus to gain access to non-authorized sensitive data. The issues are making the stakeholders of ABC Healthcare demand for more flexible access to their information systems. Moreover, increasing regulatory pressures within the healthcare environment with regards to the management of the information systems has made ABC Healthcare to decide to implement more prudent information systems security. The goal of ABC Healthcare is to implement good information systems to abide by regulatory policies of HIPPA and SOX (Sarbanes-Oxley). Typically, both SOX and HIPAA mandate healthcare organizations…
Kizza, J.M. (2015). Guide to Computer Network Security. Springer.
Krogh, P. (2009). The DAM Book: Digital Asset Management for Photographers, 2nd Edition, p. 207. O'Reilly Media.
Mell, P. & Grance, T. (2011). The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing (NIST SP 800-145). National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
A Comparison of Methods for Toxin Exposure Measurement: Personal Exposure v Colorimetric Tubes
Several incidents in the past decade have created an increased attention to the issue of toxin exposure level measurements in both the public sphere and amongst security and emergency response agencies. The need to accurately measure the presence of a variety of air-borne and other toxic substances in specific environments in an incredibly rapid manner can be an issue of truly vital importance in emergency situations, and the measuring of exposure levels for certain individuals -- especially first responders and other emergency response personnel -- is also key to an effective yet careful management of events involving the release of toxic substances. This has led to increasing research in the area of toxicity measurements, and an investigation of the best practices for rapidly and accurately measuring exposure.
This paper will present a brief overview of…
Dodson, R., Perovich, L., Nishioka, M., Spengler, J., Vallarino, J. & Rudel, R. (2011). Long-term Integrated Sampling of Semivolatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air: Measurement of Emerging Compounds Using Novel Active and Passive Sampling Methods. Epidemiology 22(1): 160-78.
Feng, L., Musto, C., Kemling, J. Lim, S. & Suslick, K. (2010). A colorimetric sensor array for identification of toxic gases below permissible exposure limits. Chemical Communication 46: 2037-9.
Hewitt, D. & Gandy, J. (2009). Characterization of a fatal methyl bromide exposure by analysis of the water cooler. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 52(7): 579-86.
Hughes, S., Blake, B., Woods, S. & Lehmann, C. (2007). False-positive results on colorimetric carbon dioxide analysis in neonatal resuscitation: potential for serious patient harm: False-positive results on colorimetric carbon dioxide analysis. Journal of Perinatology 27: 800-1.
E-commerce revolution has immensely affected all the industries, including the real estate industry. By using websites the real estate agents can transmit the information about the properties to a wide range of people. In addition to that, it can also enable the real estate agents to set up information communication channels directly between the real estate agencies, investors and developers. By mass media advertisements, the retailers can target a huge audience, including a number of potential buyers. In this technique the agencies usually use a simplex, one way communication channel, to communicate with the audience. A single advertisement is generated for the entire market, therefore, it is cost efficient. (Jianliang et al., 2013)
E-commerce enables the real estate agents to have personal contact with their clients. By having an interaction with the clients, the agents can better understand their requirements and can provide them…
Basu, A. And Muylle, S. (2007). How to Plan E-Business Initiatives in Established Companies. MIT Sloan Management Review.49 pp.27-36 Retrieved from: http://www.business.ulst.ac.uk/intlbusiness/courses/bmg814m1/BasuEBusiness.pdf [Accessed: 7 Jun 2013].
Beal, V. (2010). 4 E-commerce Regulations Need to Know. E-Commerce Guide. Retrieved from http://www.e-commerce-guide.com/solutions/building/article.php/3910211/4-E-commerce-Regulations-to-Need-to-Know.htm [Accessed: 7 Jun 2013].
Coburn, R. (2012). The Essential Elements of Computer Network Security. Retrieved from: http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Essential-Elements-of-Computer-Network-Security&id=7039466 [Accessed: 7 Jun 2013].
FBI (2011). Internet Social Networking Risks. Retrieved from: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/counterintelligence/internet-social-networking-risks [Accessed: 5 Jun 2013].
Improving the United States Custom and Border Protection Agency
Alden, E. W. (2012). Immigration and Border Control. Cato Journal, 32(1), 37-46
Like Polner, in Coordinated Border Management: From Theory to Practice, the author of this particular article identifies the need to ensure that border security benefits the economy of the country. In so doing, he seeks ways of making "border security compatible with a sensible immigration system that strengthens the U.S. economy rather than weakens it." Unlike the other authors listed in tis text, Winter also gives a brief history of U.S. border patrol. This article will come in handy as I seek to highlight the consequences of the border security enforcement approaches in place currently. The article also outlines the various strategies that could be utilized in seeking to further enhance the flexibility as well as effectiveness of border security in the future. Its relevance cannot, therefore, be overstated.…
Mobile surveillance is when officials are monitoring the cell phone communication of a suspect. A good example of this; is when federal agents are listening in on the cell phone conversations of suspected terrorist leaders. (rookes, 2001)
Camera surveillance is when video cameras are used to monitor what is occurring at a particular location. A good example would be when; surveillance cameras are used to monitor public infrastructure such as: the subway system for suspicious activity. (rookes, 2001)
Social networking analysis is when you are monitoring the overall activities of someone on the different social networking sites. During the course of a terrorist operation, this would be used to establish the overall personality of the suspect; and determine how they are connecting with the rest of the organization. (rookes, 2001)
iometric analysis is when you are using biological features to identify suspects, such as: finger prints or facial…
Multijurisdictional Drug Law Enforcement Strategies. (1993). Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing.
Brookes, P. (2001). Electronic Surveillance Devices. Woodburn, MA: Reid Educational and Publishing.
Dempsey, J. (2009). An Introduction to Policing. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar.
Schmid, a. (2006). Political Terrorism. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
intelligence unit that is secure and maintained at all times is an absolute necessity for operational reasons. Explain in detail why this is so important.
Security is probably the single most important factor that prevents the intelligence unit from applying information technology more effectively. Security is essential for intelligence unit. When it comes to IT, approach is not "risk management," but "risk exclusion."
There are some very specialized electronic security threats that could apply, so it may be that a secure PDA needs to be developed and provided. In intelligence unit the presence of sensitive but unclassified information could cause serious concern over information bypassing safeguards on tiny solid state disk equivalents, which can fit into pens. This problem can be addressed by requiring the devices to store information in encrypted form, and using biometric identification.
An intelligence unit can be secured, but the security both has to be built-in,…
Heye, Steve, and Lancman, Steve n.d. Vendors As Allies: How to Evaluate Viability, Service, and Commitment. Retrieved Oct 9, 2011 from http://www.idealware.org/articles/vendors-allies-how-evaluate-viability-service-and-commitment .
Kendall, Kenneth, and Julia Kendall (2005). Systems Analysis and Design. 6th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
McLeod, Raymond, Jr., and George Schell Sumner (2004). Management Information Systems. 9th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Valacich, Joseph, Joey George, and Jeffrey Hoffer (2004). Essentials of Systems Analysis and Design. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Homeland Security and Preparedness, esponse, Activities and Programs in Disaster esponse or Disaster ecovery
The focus of this study is the homeland security issue as it relates to the preparedness of the U.S.A. government and citizens in response to the emergencies that may emerge.
The research question in this study is one that asks in light of the past disasters experienced by the United States such as the events of September 11, 2001, and Hurricane Katrina among others, are the emergency response agencies and the law enforcement agencies in a better position to handle disasters from preparation to response and ultimately recovery effectively in the event of disasters or terrorist attacks?
The significance of the research in this study is that the effectiveness of the preparedness of Homeland Security initiatives should be addressed as it is not possible to know where and when disaster will next strike and the…
Bowman, M.E. (2007) Law Enforcement Technology Intelligence, and the War on Terror. JFQ. Issue 46, 3rd Quarter 2007. Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=9dfc7c9b-537f-44b9-a461-ed45b8fa1a76%40sessionmgr12&vid=1&hid=11
Central Intelligence Agency, (2011). About CIA. Retrieved June 30, 2012 from Cowper, TJ and Buerger, ME (nd) Improving Our View of the World: Police and Augmented Reality Technology. Retrieved from: http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/police-augmented-reality-technology-pdf
Edwards, John B. (2012) Intelligence Led Policing Connecting Urban and Rural Operations. Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=1afefbff-3d5c-4282-bcda-00e357218031%40sessionmgr11&vid=1&hid=12
SOPA & PIPA Legislation
File sharing involving copyright infringement began as peer-to-peer operations, sometimes with the involvement of a central server that acts as a search engine. Recently there has been a rise in file sharing where the infringing content is actually stored on the central server, such as the now-defunct megaupload.com. Consequently, there is a conflict between the rights of content owners and the rights of ordinary users of the internet. The conflict here is that efforts to eliminate sites that enable online infringing may also eliminate legitimate internet activity. In the fall of 2011 the SOPA (Stop Online Piracy Act) and PIPA (Protect Intellectual Property Act) proposals were introduced into the U.S. Congress. Almost certainly, the SOPA and PIPA proposals to go after file sharers go too far in the other direction in violating the free speech rights of individual users and handing the web even more over…
Corey, G. et al. Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions, 8th Edition. Cengage Learning, 3011.
Howard, Alexander. "What You Need to Know About the Stop Online Piracy Act in 2012." The Huffington Post, December 23, 2011.
Ranney, Karen. "Digital Thieves Are Stealing from Me." The Hill, December 13, 2011.
Spatial tracking systems that make banks' floor plans and product positioning more effective;
5. Intelligent interactive displays that reflect the interests of the watcher;
6. Use of wireless tablet personal computers (PCs) for client interviewing; and,
7. Videoconference virtual experts for collaborative selling (56).
The same features that characterize high performance banks in their brick-and-mortar operations appear to relate to the use of technology as well, with the best performing banks having identified the optimum mix of services for the markets they serve. For instance, Grasing reports that, "Banks are taking a variety of approaches in implementing technology to make improvements in retail delivery. The methods differ, depending on the bank management's mindset toward the purpose of the software and its valued place in the new business or service delivery processes" (3). The main point in this area is that high performance banks apply technology in ways that help minimize…
Bielski, Lauren. (2007). "Today's Elements Tomorrow's Branch: The Branch Was Supposed to Phase out. It Hasn't and May Never. What Will the Branch of the Future Feature? Self
Service and Collaboration." ABA Banking Journal 99(6): 55-57.
DePrince, Albert E., William F. Ford and Thomas H. Strickland. (1999). "The New High
Performers Stretch Their Lead." ABA Banking Journal 91(11): 36.
Workplace is not safe from numerous types of crimes. These crimes can range anywhere from burglary to homicides and from discrimination on the basis of sex to even rape for that matter. But these crimes are physical crimes and it is easy to avoid them or keep them at bay by making use of physical barriers, security cameras and a few sensible risk/security management tactics. For instance, if only 3 or 4 people work at night-time, it is easy to target anyone of them but if a considerable amount of people work together and have no hostility towards each other, these types of situations can be avoided. Use of security systems is a pre-requisite for the protection of material wealth and belongings. These types of systems can help avoid theft and burglary but if somehow these do occur, it will inform the managers of the incident at the earliest…
McCollonel '(2000). Cybercrime And Punishment. Page 8-9. www.mcconnellinternational.com.
Balkin J. M (2007)Cybercrime: digital cops in a networked environment. NYU PRESS. New York. USA.
Perline I.H. & Goldschmidt J. (2004). The psychology and law of workplace violence:a handbook for mental health professionals and employers. Charles C. Thomas Publisher. USA
Keats J. (2010) Virtual Words: Language on the Edge of Science and Technology. Oxford University Press. USA.
Improving the Science of Fingerprinting: A Literature Review
Fingerprints are one of the most commonly employed tools that we have in investigating crime. This powerful forensics methodology has contributed to the solving of countless criminal cases and has been used as convicting evidence in courts of law. However, as this literature review shows, even the use of fingerprints is in a state of evolution as we gain ever greater and more accurate tools in the struggle to investigate and solve crimes.
At the outset of the discussion, the text by Neumann (2012) helps to dismantle the notion that fingerprints are infallible as a way of drawing identity. According to the research provided by Neumann, fingerprints achieve a certain statistical probability that makes identity matches likely but not certain beyond a doubt. This finding helps to underscore the critical imperative of continuing forensics research, such that we may come in…
Hess, E. (2010). Facial Recognition: A Valuable Tool for Law Enforcement. Forensic Magazine.
Hildebrandt, M.; Kiltzm, S. & Dittmann, J. (2013). Printed fingerprints at crime scenes: a faster detection of malicious traces using scans of confocal microscopes. Media Watermarking, Security, and Forensics, 8665.
Merkel, R.; Breuhan, A.; Hildebrandt, M.; Vielhauer, C. & Brautigam, A. (2012). Environmental impact to multimedia systems on the example of fingerprint aging behavior at crime scenes. Media Watermarking, Security, and Forensics, 8436.
Neumann, C. (2012). Fingerprints at the crime-scene: Statistically certain, or probable? Significance, 9(1), 21-25.
Tesco's Marketing Environment and Performance
Today, there are a number of retail grocery and general merchandise corporations competing at the global level, including Walmart, Carrefour and Tesco. Although Walmart remains the largest retailer in the world today, Tesco in particular is fast acquiring its market share in several regions, especially China. Moreover, the company's innovation in providing efficient products and services to its customers has provided it with a distinct competitive advantage in its core United Kingdom domestic market, where it remains the largest grocery retailer in the country today. In fact, one of the main themes to quickly emerge from the research that follows is just how important Tesco is to its customers, with most simply taking the company's presence for granted. To determine how Tesco achieved this impressive level of performance, this study examines the company's proven track record of superior performance in a highly competitive industry to…
Benady, D 2010, The Tesco Test,' Marketing, 26.
'Brand Health Check: Tesco' 2008, December 3, Marketing, 18.
Child, PN 2002, Summer, 'Taking Tesco Global: David Reid, Deputy Chairman of the United
Kingdom's Largest Grocer, Explains the Company's International Strategy,' The
electronic money, and a description into the various types of electronic money.
Computers and telecommunications devices may come in place of paper currency and checks - during a course of time. Also, electronic ways of transaction of money have turned out widely prevalent. Anyhow, in the recent past debate about "electronic money" has witnessed a dramatic change, narrowing down to the level to which new ways of electronic money will in course of time turn central banks out of date, making them fragile that they cannot manipulate inflation. (Stevens, 72) Electronic money can be considered in terms of electronic substitute for coins and banknotes, which is saved on an electronic gadget such as a chip card or computer memory and which overall is meant for the reason of influencing electronic payments of restricted loans. (Directive 2000/46/Ec of the European Parliament and of the Council, 2)
Electronic money is not…
Bank of International settlements, (BIS). Security of Digital Money. Basel, 1996, 1-11
Board of Governors (BoG) of the Federal Reserve System. The Federal Reserve System: Purpose & Functions. Washington, D.C.: Federal Reserve System. 1994, 1-18.
Bonorris, Steven. Institute for Technology Assessment (ITA) (ed.): Digital Money: Industry and Public Policy Issues. Washington: ITA, October 1997, 44
Directive 2000/46/Ec of the European Parliament and of the Council, 2000, Official Journal of the European Communities, 27 October, 2000, 1-10