Bioterrorism Essays (Examples)

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Soon After 911 Terrorist Attack

Words: 2862 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70819230

Therefore the consequences of such restrictions and regulations have further complicated the case, the research activities have been either shunned or go unreported to avoid any confrontation with the investigation agencies, 'the climate of fear created by the Butler case is even threatening the ability of the United States government to detect bioterrorist activity, the labs in one state are no longer reporting routine incidents of animals poisoned with ICIN, a deadly toxin found in castor beans, for fear of federal investigation'. Stanley Falkow, a respected researcher at Stanford University in California, in his letter to the former attorney-general of the United States revealed that, 'Trying to meet the unwarranted burden of what the government considers 'bio-safety' is simply not coincident with the practice of sound, creative scientific research'. The government introduced a policy which highlighted the need for tight control over the biologists 'with access to dangerous pathogens', in…… [Read More]

References

Robyn L. Pangi, Arnold M. Howitt. Countering Terrorism: Dimensions of Preparedness. 2003. MIT Press. pp. 341

Anthony Kubaik. Stages of Terror: terrorism, Ideology, and Coercion as theatre History. 2000. Pp. 154.

Jamie Lewis Keith. Regulation of Biological Materials under Export Controls and Bioterrorism Laws. University of Florida Press. 2003.

Debora MacKenzie. U.S. crackdown on Bio-Terror is backfiring. New Scientist Publication. November 2003.
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Deficiencies in the State of

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14221411

This is particularly ironic in light of the 2001 ashington anthrax attacks ("Communicating in the," 2007).

For this reason, the training of the APN/CPL as first responders is critical, particularly in the areas of teamwork and communication in a crisis zone. The APN/CPL professional knows this from firsthand experience in working in triage or emergency situations as first responders. In 2003 in an article in the journal Public Health Nursing a bulwark in the preparedness for a bioterrorism attack (Mondy, Cardenas & Avila, 2003, 424). hile this journal article urges the expansion of training of first responders, we have noted the declining funding levels. e have also noted the importance of making use of other funding and training in the areas of disease prevention and that funding programs in other sectors can do double duty in the preparation for a bioterrorism emergency. Referring back to the Public Health Nursing article,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Communicating in the first hours bioterrorism agents. (2007, May 14). Retrieved from http://www.bt.cdc.gov/firsthours/bioterrorism.asp.

Texas scored seven out of ten key indicators for emergency health preparedness in new report. (2011). Retrieved from  http://healthyamericans.org/reports/bioterror10/release.php?stateid=TX .
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Pathogen Detection Methods Scientists Across the Globe

Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67380808

Pathogen Detection Methods:

Scientists across the globe have been able to string total microbial genomes effectively and rapidly due to advances in the DNA sequencing technology. This is largely because the access to the DNA sequences of whole microbial genomes provides new opportunities to evaluate and understand micro-organism at the molecular level. Consequently, many scientists have been able to discover pathogens within biological tissues and examine variations in gene expression in reaction to the invasion of pathogens.

esearch Activities in Pathogen Detection:

Pathogen detection methods have been utilized as important parts of research in various fields like food safety, biodefense, pathology, clinical research, drug discovery, forensics, animal health care, and diagnostics. As terrorism has grown to become a major global threat, bioweapons or biological weapons, which are pathogenic organisms and their toxic substances, have become a pernicious threat. These products can be released into the air and water systems or…… [Read More]

References:

Gluodenis, T. & Harrison, S. (2004, February). Homeland Security and Bioterrorism Applications: Detection of Bioweapon Pathogens by Microfluidic-based Electrophoretic DNA Analysis. Retrieved February 14, 2012, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3230/is_2_36/ai_n6065931/

Lazcka, O., Del Campo, F.J. & Munoz, F.X. (2006, August 28). Pathogen Detection: A Perspective of Traditional Methods and Biosensors. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 22(2007), 1205-17. Retrieved from  http://cau.ac.kr/~jjang14/BioMEMS/Lazcka_BSBE_Pathogen_Detection_Review_2006.pdf
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2001 There Was an Anthrax Attack Which

Words: 2227 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62041439

2001 there was an Anthrax attack which created an alert of how bioterrorism had an impact on the public health emergencies. These types of emergencies can not only spread illnesses but also cause several deaths. The can also affect government operations which include the economic growth, creating fear which can cause International crisis. There has been an alert on illnesses that have previously been curbed reappearing with most of them resisting the drugs in the market. There has also been an alert of the food supplies in the market due to the terrorists because they can be used to spread infections.

The public health system is highly responsible for detecting any bioterrorist attacks enabling the government to prepare for any attacks. This means that the government should enhance all infrastructure connected to health systems in order to integrate any threats related to biological or chemical terror attacks (Hamburg 2003).This is…… [Read More]

References

Chomel, B., & Sun, B. (2010). Bioterrorism and invasive species. Revue Scientifique Et Technique (International Office Of Epizootics), 29(2), 193-199

Hamburg, M.A. (2003).Testimony to the Government Reform Committee, U.S. House of Representatives.

Heinrich, J. September (2003).Testimony to the Subcommitteeon Emergency Preparedness and Response, Select Committeeon Homeland Security, U.S.House of Representatives

Institute of Medicine. (2003). Microbial Threats to Health: Emergence, Detection, and Response. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
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Science Fi Films

Words: 1628 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54551188

Director Danny Boyle's 2003 movie, 28 Days Later, is an insightful reflection of societal fears of bioterrorism, terrorism and catastrophic warfare. In the movie, Boyle uses a variety of techniques, including plot, cinematography, theme, and characters in order to reveal society's uneasiness.

In recent years, the world has been rocked by the growth of fears over a diverse set of growing threats to global political and economic stability and world health. The tragedy of September 11th brought the world into a new era of fear over terrorist acts. Since then, public uneasiness has only been heightened by the train bombings in Madrid, the Bali bombings, and continued governmental appeals for constant vigilance against terrorism. The fear of bioterrorism has also grown in recent years, with the release of sarin nerve gas on a Tokyo subway, and the presence of anthrax in the U.S. mail. Adding to this climate of fear…… [Read More]

Works Cited

28 Days Later. 2003. Director: Danny Boyle. Starring: Cillian Murphy, Naomie Harris, Noah Huntley, Brendan Gleeson, Megan Burns, Christopher Eccleston. Cinematography: Anthony Dod Mantle. Music: John Murphy. Fox Searchlight.

BBC News. U.S. warns against travel to Israel. Last Updated: Thursday, 29 April, 2004, 01:12 GMT 02:12 UK.

29 April 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/3668565.stm

CBC News. More than 100 dead in Thai violence. Last Updated Wed, 29 Apr 2004 20:14:48. 28 April 2004. http://www.cbc.ca/stories/2004/04/28/world/thailand040428
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Difficult Step in Responding to

Words: 1020 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38529934

Due to the apparently low level of contagion, the need for public awareness is not urgent, but it is still necessary. Warnings to stay away from the convention area and to report to a local hospital if symptoms developed after being in the area or in contact with someone who had been at the convention should be issued (CDC 2009).

The known details of the attack, however, should not be released, as it is likely to create panic and bolster the terrorists' optimism. Federal assistance should be immediately sought, not necessarily for control of the spread of the disease but for the investigation and apprehension of suspects. All available resources should be called in as soon as possible in order to counter the attack. As far as treatment of the attack goes, mass prophylaxis of all convention attendees and those who have come into contact with infected individuals should be…… [Read More]

References

Bravata DM, Sundaram V, McDonald KM, Smith WM, Szeto H, Schleinitz MD, et al. (2004). "Detection and diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism response." Emerging infectious diseases. Accessed 25 April 2009.  http://www.cdc.gov/ ncidod/EID/vol10no1/03-0243.htm

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). "Emergency preparedness and response." Accessed 25 April 2009. http://www.bt.cdc.gov/

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). "Anthrax." Accessed 25 April 2009. http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/anthrax/

Gerberding JL, Hughes J, Koplan J. (2002). "Bioterrorism preparedness and response." Journal of the American medical association. Accessed 25 April 2009. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/287/7/898
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2009 TFAH Report Ready or

Words: 947 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54647254

The obesity crisis is, I believe, even more important than problems surrounding food safety-borne epidemics. Despite the recent attention given to obesity in the popular media, obesity is in some ways more difficult to treat than food safety issues. People's consciousness may be raised by a fear if becoming sick through food poisoning and throw out the offending, recalled products on their shelves if they contain salmonella or e.coli, but they seem less willing and/or able to change food habits that have been ingrained within them since childhood.

The diabetes epidemic, along with other illnesses related to obesity (like heart disease, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and osteoarthritis) will increase unless more active preventative healthcare measures are undertaken on a wide scale. Limiting the number of fast food restaurants that can be present in a specific area and near schools, along with promoting the spread of grocery stores and farmer's…… [Read More]

Changing lifestyles is a vital aspect of making the community healthier -- as well as the world. Sanitary and healthy cooking conditions are, of course, extremely important to observe and to know about, on an individual basis. Increasing the ease of reporting suspected unsafe conditions is also vitally important. But the relative safety of day-in, day-out food choices -- food choices that are often taken for granted -- also cannot be dismissed.

Reference

Engber, Daniel (2009). Does poverty make people poor? Slate. Retrieved November 2, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2229523/
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Global Warming Indicator 9 Legal

Words: 661 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14498239

The Emergency Volunteer Action Network (EVAN) has been a longtime advocate a Good Samaritan Entity Liability Protection for all public and private healthcare agencies as well as a Uniform Emergency Volunteer Health Practitioners Act (UEVHPA) which would allow out-of-state medical professionals to cross state lines in declared emergencies (EVAN, 2010, UNC). However, these laws tend only to provide for coverage at the immediate scene of the emergency, rather than for the type of sustained medical care demanded during major disasters.

On a gut level, it is hard to imagine me, personally, refusing to provide aid to individuals in dire need, regardless of what the law said. However, for organizations that must make immediate decisions about getting involved in helping victims of a disaster, being legally liable could have serious repercussions for the entity's future, especially if it may be called upon to give aid to large numbers of people for…… [Read More]

References

Emergency Volunteer Action Network (EVAN). (2010). UNC: Gillings School of Global Public

Health. Retrieved http://nciph.sph.unc.edu/law/evan/index.htm

Ready or not? Protecting the public's health from diseases, disasters and bioterrorism. (2009).

TFAH. Retrieved
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Disasters the Environment and Public

Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73900839

Answering the posed question depends on one's understanding of "substantially different." On the one hand, there is the basic commonality of a recognition of the threat that natural hazards and man made activities pose upon environmental safety. Also, there is the common element of intensified efforts made in the direction of attaining environmental sustainability. What differs however is the extent to which researchers, lawmakers, organizations and individuals will go to protect the environment. Additionally, differences are obvious in terms of the emergence of new threats, such as bioterrorism. So yes, even if they refer to environmental threats and protection, the issues throughout this course will be substantially different from those forwarded in 1996.

eferences:

Charlesworth, a., 29 September 2009, Cost-Cutting Takes Precedence Over Environmental Concersn, Computing, http://www.computing.co.uk/computing/news/2250303/cost-cutting-takes-precedence last accessed on October 2, 2009

Logue, J.N., 1996, Disasters, the Environment, and Public Health: Improving Our esponse, American Journal of Public Health,…… [Read More]

References:

Charlesworth, a., 29 September 2009, Cost-Cutting Takes Precedence Over Environmental Concersn, Computing, http://www.computing.co.uk/computing/news/2250303/cost-cutting-takes-precedence last accessed on October 2, 2009

Logue, J.N., 1996, Disasters, the Environment, and Public Health: Improving Our Response, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 86, No. 9

Revkin, a.C., January 22, 2009, Environmental Issues Slide in Poll of Public's Concerns, New York Times

2009, Fuel Economy Website, http://www.fueleconomy.gov last accessed on October 2, 2009
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Fear Management and Panic

Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74578709

Fear Management: Public Trust, Perceived Vulnerability and Psychology of Rumor and Panic

From the readings this week, it was easy to see that there are a number of ways people start to panic, often over issues that are really not threats to them. Helping people understand what the true risks are, versus them coming up with a lot of risks that are not really accurate, can make a big difference in whether people panic or whether they remain calm and consider all the parts of the issue before they decide whether they are going to panic. Concerns like bioterrorism are very important to the public, because it can difficult to predict whether the masses would panic, or whether they would simply hold their ground because they have been taught how to handle the issue. Without the knowledge of how to handle things, though, there is little opportunity to do anything…… [Read More]

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Community Health Oklahoma Modern Healthcare

Words: 3003 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68725313

The subject is now part of a national political task force, with the goal of eliminating the problem within one generation (Ferran, 2010).

Formally, teen pregnancy is based on a woman who will not reach her 20th birthday by the expected birth of her first child. This definition does not assume marriage, nor if the woman is legally an adult (depending on the country). The idea of marriage and birthing age has, of course, changed based on societal and cultural issues. At one time, when the lifespan was 40, it made sense for a girl to begin her childbearing years as soon as she was able, usually around 12-13. In contemporary U.S. culture, however, the amount of information and professional data that is needed to become a well-rounded citizen is so high that we usually gauge 18 as the very minimum age to begin to have the resources and/or acumen…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Key Health Data About Oklahoma. (2011). Trust for America's Health. Retrieved from:

 http://healthyamericans.org/states/?stateid=OK 

Linking Teen Pregnancy Prevention to Other Critical Social Issues. (2010, March). Retrieved from the Namtional Campaign: http://www.thenationalcampaign.org/why-it-matters/pdf/introduction.pdf

Oklahoma at a Glance. (2011). Oklahoma Department of Commerce. Retrieved from:
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Justification It Is Only by Conducting Additional

Words: 972 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68855865

Justification

"It is only by conducting additional evaluations that not only cover these issues, but also involve all stakeholders and address limitations of existing data sources, that policymakers will have the information they need to identify and quantify needs and develop more effective case management programs for future disasters," pointed out the U.S. Government Accountability Office (USGAO) in its 2009 report to Congress after the federal management of hurricanes ita and Katrina (2009a, p. 35). Nonetheless while the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) concurred with the USGAO's recommendations, and despite what appears to be some progress at the time of publication (USGAO, 2009a, p. 35), the overall recommendations appear as yet unaddressed, according at least to an undated USGAO Office of Public Affairs Web site describing the findings (USGAO 2009b). The 2009 report lists a variety of areas where performance could be improved, indicating future evaluation may continue to deliver…… [Read More]

References

Pelofsky, J. And Palmer, K. (2012). Five arrested in alleged Cleveland plot to blow up bridge.

Reuters U.S. Edition 1 May 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/05/01/us-usa-security-cleveland-idUSBRE8400UY20120501

United States Environmental Protection Agency (2006). A water security handbook: Planning for and responding to drinking water contamination threats and incidents. EPA Publication No. 817-B-06-001. Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water. Washington, D.C.: U.S. EPA. Retrieved from: www.epa.gov/watersecurity

United States Government Accountability Office (2009a). Disaster assistance: Greater
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Chemical & Biological Warfare the

Words: 3953 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65855836

The larger the region covered by the chemical agent, the more likely it will be to cause the widespread destruction for which the person or group is looking (Brophy & Fisher, 1959). Toxicity matters, of course, but the earliest uses were not about the level of toxicity the chemical agent possessed. They were more focused on how the toxic was absorbed. If the chemical agent could be absorbed through the clothing and skin, a gas mask would be useless against it and it would be more likely to work on a larger number of people (Burck & Flowerree, 1991).

July of 1917 saw the use of mustard gas begin (Brophy & Fisher, 1959). The Germans, once again, were the first to use this chemical. It easily passes through fabric and leather, and causes very painful burns to appear on the skin. There are two categories into which chemical agents like…… [Read More]

References

Alibek, K. And S. Handelman. (2000). Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World -- Told from Inside by the Man Who Ran it. Delta.

Appel, J.M. (2009). Is all fair in biological warfare? The controversy over genetically engineered biological weapons, Journal of Medical Ethics, Volume 35, pp. 429 -- 432.

Brophy, L.P. & George J.B. Fisher (1959). The Chemical Warfare Service: Organizing for War Office of the Chief of Military History.

Burck, Gordon M. And Charles C. Flowerree. (1991). International Handbook on Chemical Weapons Proliferation.
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Healthcare Education for Community Members

Words: 1474 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11971286

Community Teaching Plan

Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal

Directions: Develop an educational series proposal for your community using one of the following four topics which was chosen within your CLC group:

Bioterrorism/Disaster

Environmental Issues

Primary Prevention/Health Promotion

Secondary Prevention/Screenings for a Vulnerable Population

Planning Before Teaching:

Estimated Time Teaching Will Last:

Three 2-hour sessions

Location of Teaching:

Athens Community Health Department

Supplies, Material, Equipment Needed:

Laptop; digital projector; screen

Estimated Cost:

Community and Target Aggregate:

Athens Community Health Department, Athens, Georgia

Secondary Prevention/Screenings for a Vulnerable Population

Session I: Sources of Vulnerability

Session II:Implications for Healthcare Providers

Session III: Innovative Practice; Gordon's Functional Health Patterns Assessment

Epidemiological ationale for Topic (statistics related to topic):

The literature on vulnerable people clearly indicates that the special needs of these populations and the ubiquitous barriers to quality care access lead to traceable disparities in the provision of healthcare and in their health outcomes…… [Read More]

References

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). National healthcare disparities report 2008. Chapter 3, Access to healthcare. Washington: AHRQ; 2008. Retrieved http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr08/Chap3.htm

Edelman, C.L. And Mandle, C.L. (2006). In D. Como, L. Thomas (Eds.), Health Promotion Throughout the Lifespan. St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby.

[Type text]
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Biodefense in America

Words: 2368 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85179413

Bioagent Attacks

Biodefense in America

Bioterrorism specifically refers to the use of biological agents such as bacteria, germs, or viruses to cause sickness or death in a population. A bioterrorist can contaminate the food, air, or water supply with infectious agents designed to cause illness. Bioterrorism presents difficulties in tracing the source of the terrorist act because symptoms may not appear for days. It is difficult to know when, where, and how a person was infected. Anyone can be at risk for bioterrorism at any time. Bioterrorism does not only affect combatants or enemy military personnel, it affects innocent people in the general population. Biodefense refers to measures taken to help eliminate or reduce the possibility of a bioterrorist attack on the population. Biodefense in the United States became an important issue in the public eye after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Towers. This research will…… [Read More]

References

Dennis, T., Wang, K., & Suppes, L. (n.d.) "A History of Bioterrorism." Retrieved from  http://people.uwec.edu/piercech/Bio/Examples.htm 

Valdes, J. (2005). "Biological Agents: Threat. Preparedness, and Myths." Security Studies

Program Seminar. December 7, 2005. Retrieved from  http://web.mit.edu/ssp/seminars/wed_archives05fall/valdes.htm 

Wyatt-Lorenz. (2009). "Bioterrorism Defense and Immediate Warning System." Wyatt-Lorenz,
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Counterterrorism Activities

Words: 2703 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56756956

Combatting Future Terrorism

Fighting future terrorism

Over the years, the U.S.A. government and the entire world has been battling with the issue of terrorism. This is because the act of terrorism has diverse faces, from the rebel terrorists, the insurgents, bioterrorism to the religious sect terrorism. The U.S.A. has in particular been busy figuring out the various ways to not only stop the terrorism act before it happens, but more significantly to hinder the development of the terror groups from developing into fully fledged organizations. The U.S. is not alone in this and many nations have invested heavily in the same and some of the internationally known counterterrorism forces are S.A.S. (Special Air Service), the GSG-9, The Navy SEAL Team 6, SFOD-D (Delta Force), and CIA Special Activities Division (SAD). The SAS belongs to the British Military and the GSG-9 Germany. The Navy SEAL, Delta Force, and SAD are United…… [Read More]

References

Adam Szpiro et.al., (2007). Health Surveillance and Diagnosis for Mitigatinga Bio-terror Attack.

Lincoln Laboratory Journal. Vol.17 No.1. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from  http://www.ll.mit.edu/publications/journal/pdf/vol17_no1/17_1_5Szpiro.pdf 

Counter Terrorism, (2011). Community Preparedness. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from http://www.counterterrorismtraining.gov/comm/index.html

Daniel J. Dire, (2011). Biological Warfare. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from  http://www.emedicinehealth.com/biological_warfare/article_em.htm
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Rand Report Critique as Discussed

Words: 2581 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27729493

26 Yet public health continued to mean, even more than in the Clinton administration, a technological approach to national defense. In the Bush administration, pharmaceutical protection became the centerpiece of biodefense policy. On December 13, 2002, convinced of the Dark Winter-type threat of smallpox, President Bush announced his nationwide smallpox inoculation program. Publicity about Iraq's potential biological arsenal, especially in the lead-up to the 2003 invasion, and the threat of bioterrorism had convinced many in the public to participate. The states and the CDC were ready to handle the logistics. In addition, civilian participation was voluntary, which reduced legal liability for those who administered the vaccine and for the government.

As might have been predicted, this smallpox vaccination campaign found it difficult to circumvent the well-known fears of vaccination as a source of bodily pollution and the mistrust engendered when vaccines appear a worse health risk than the forecast epidemic.…… [Read More]

References

Fauci, Anthony S.M.D., Bioterrorism Preparedness: NIH Smallpox Research Efforts, available at http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/t011102b.htm Accessed on October 22, 2011.

Frist, William. The Political Perspective of the Bioterrorism Threat, in Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities, 29 (Stacy L. Knobler & Adel A.F. Mahmoud & Leslie A. Pray eds., National Academy Press 2002).

Neergaard, Lauran. Postmaster: Anthrax Threatens Mail, The Washington Post, Oct. 24, 2001, available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/aponline/20011024 / aponline090115_002.html Accessed on October 21, 2011.

Tanielian, Terri. Ricci, Karen. Stoto, Michael A. David Dausey, J. Lois M. Davis, Myers, Sarah. Olmsted, Stuart. Willis, Henry H. (2005) Exemplary Practices in Public Health Preparedness. RAND Corporation.  http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/technical_reports/2005/RAND_TR239.pdf  Accessed on October 21, 2011.
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The Impact of the Anthrax Mail Attacks in 2001

Words: 2970 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56252691

Anthrax as a Weapon of Mass Destruction

In 2001, a handful of anthrax letters wreaked havoc. What impact might a sackful have? -- Donald Donahue, 2011

Just one week following the deadly terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, three dozen envelopes were mailed through the U.S. Postal Service, including one to Senate majority leader Tom Daschle's office and others to news media containing anthrax that killed five people and injured more than a dozen others. These events, falling hard on the heels of the most destructive domestic terrorist attack in U.S. history, had many already-nervous Americans wondering if their own mailboxes would also come under attack. Since that time, though, concerns over new anthrax attacks have diminished but some observers caution that the threat remains as serious as in the past. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the relevant literature to determine the impacts of anthrax when used as…… [Read More]

References

Ake, D. C. (2011, September). Technology only a small part of detecting bioterrorist threats. National Defense, 96(694), 38-41.

Allison, G. (2012, September 8). Living in the era of megaterror. International Herald Tribune, 8.

Amerithrax. (2015). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved from https://www.fbi.gov/about-us/history/famous-cases/anthrax-amerithrax.

Anthrax-CDC review. (2003, October). Journal of Environmental Health, 66(3), 42.
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Biological Weapons How Real Is

Words: 4788 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67241031

Having known the mounting dangers, many public health and bio-terrorism experts, members of Congress and some well-positioned ush administration officials convey increasing discomfort about what they think are flaws in the country's bio-defenses. Over the earlier years, awareness steps have been made, mainly in the large cities. ut most of necessary equipments are not available.

The federal government's standard answer to the anthrax assaults of 2001 and the warning of upcoming bio-terror attacks has been to accumulate huge amounts of drugs and vaccines to take care of or vaccinate sufferers or possible sufferers. However, these medicines are ineffective if there is no dependable system in place to quickly distribute and give out them to the disturbed populations early enough for the drugs to be successful. Regrettably, as of now, we do not have this strong, competent system in position in the United States. At the close of 2003, only two…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Analysis: U.S. Unprepared for Bio-Attack. NewsMax Wires. Retrieved from: http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/11/10/114328.shtml. Accessed on 28 November, 2004

Biological Threat to U.S. Homeland is Very Real. 2004. Retrieved at http://www.aviationnow.com/content/ncof/view_19.htm. Accessed on 28 November, 2004

Biological Weapons and Threat Detection. Osborn Scientific Group BADD white paper. April, 2002. Retrieved at http://osborn-scientific.com/PDF/osg_wp_bw_041802.pdf. Accessed on 28 November, 2004

Brennan, Phil. Bio-terrorism Threat to U.S. is Real & Deadly. October 4, 2001. Retrieved at http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2001/10/3/142304.shtml. Accessed on 28 November, 2004
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Management Project in the Health Care Organization

Words: 2486 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81735449

Management Project in the Health Care Organization Setting

This study describes the implementation of a syndromic surveillance system. The syndromic surveillance system collects and analyzes prediagnostic and nonclinical disease indicators, drawing on preexisting electronic data that can be found in systems such as electronic health records, school absenteeism records and pharmacy systems. The systems are utilized to identify specific symptoms within a population that may indicate a public health event or emergency such as signaling an outbreak of an infectious disease. school absenteeism records and pharmacy systems. The systems are utilized to identify specific symptoms within a population that may indicate a public health event or emergency such as signaling an outbreak of an infectious disease.

Informatics Management Project In The Health Care Organization Setting

Part One - Introduction

The objective of this study is to describe the implementation of a syndromic surveillance system. Syndromic surveillance systems collect and analyze…… [Read More]

References

Buckeridge, DL, et al. (2005) An Evaluation Model for Syndromic Surveillance: Assessing the Performance of Temporal Algorithm. Vol. 54 MMWR Supplement.

Chen, H, Zeng, D, Ping, Y and Ping Y (2010) Infectious Disease Informatics; Syndromic Surveillance for Public Health and Biodefense. Springer Medical 2010. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=5BdCfSxtNJMC&dq=syndromic+surveillance+system:+state+of+the+art&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Hurt-Mullen, K and Coberly, J. (2005) Syndromic Surveillance on the Epidemiologist's Desktop: Making Sense of Much Data. MMWR Supplement 26 Aug 2005. Retrieved from:  http://www.cdc.gov/ MMWR/preview/mmwrhtml/su5401a22.htm" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Biological Warfare Dramatic Technological Advances

Words: 2144 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60918020

These efforts include: expansion of international efforts to prevent terrorist acquisition of biological agents, initiated Bioatch program to detect initial releases of biological weapons within the environment, launched food programs to carefully inspect foods for potential bioagents (with greater focus on foreign foods), expanded bioterrorism research (including Project Bioshield, a program to develop medical ripostes to biological agents), and increased medical stockpiles and training for dealing with bioterrorism attacks (Cordesman; Lindler, Lebeda, & Korch; Petsko; Fidler & Gostin). These efforts will help to both prevent the initial release of any biological agents within the general populace or environment, as well as effectively treat afflicted individuals and slow spread through appropriate treatments.

Once biological agents are released into the general population, the extent of disease spread and number of individuals afflicted will be significantly affected by the role and effectiveness of the government through quarantine and treatment (Cordesman; Lindler, Lebeda, &…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cole, Leonard A. The Eleventh Plague. Macmillan, 2002. Print.

Cordesman, Anthony H. The challenge of biological terrorism. CSIS, 2005. Print.

Fidler, David P., and Lawrence O. Gostin. Biosecurity in the global age. Stanford University Press, 2008. Print.

Kortepeter, MG, and GW Parker. "Potential biological weapons threats." Emerging Infectious Diseases 5.4 (1999): 523-527. Print.
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Political Science Homeland Security and

Words: 689 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58308721



The Homeland Security Appropriations Act supplies a total of four billion for state and local assistance agendas. State-based formula grants are financed at one and half billion, including four hundred million for law enforcement, with necessities directing the utilization of the per capita formula. The all hazards Emergency Management Performance Grant program is financed at one hundred and eighty million. Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grants are also made available. The bill provides a total of three hundred and fifteen million in transportation security grants. Firefighter assistance grants are financed at seven hundred and fifteen million, including sixty five million for hiring (Fact Sheet: Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2005, 2004). All of these regulations have placed increased burden on both state and local governments to carry out the tasks that have been placed on them by the approval of these acts.

eferences

Fact Sheet: Department of Homeland…… [Read More]

References

Fact Sheet: Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2005. (2004). Retrieved

from http://www.dhs.gov/xnews/releases/press_release_0541.shtm

Homeland Security and Law Enforcement. (2011). Retrieved from  http://www.policeemployment.com/resources/articles/homeland-security-law 

Moss, Mitchell, Schellhamer, Charles and Berman, David A. (2009). The Stafford Act and Priorities for Reform. Retrieved from http://www.nyu.edu/ccpr/pubs/Moss_03.09.09.pdf
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Epidemiological Considerations Anthracis Originates in Soil in

Words: 2390 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43392196

Epidemiological considerations anthracis originates in soil in a lot of regions of this world in which we live. Environmental aspects (for example plentiful precipitation subsequent to a phase of water dearth) might improve spore mass in soil, even though the precise impact of such features remains badly understood (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002).

The organism by and large subsists in the endospore shape in environment; germination of spores exterior to an animal congregation might take place when the subsequent situations are encountered (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002):

elative humidity >95%

Presence of sufficient nutrients

Temperature amid 8°C and 45°C

PH amid 5 and 9 (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002)

Endospores are opposed to heat, drying, gamma radiation, ultraviolet light, and various antiseptics. Spores can continue in soil for decades, as exemplified by organic combat researches all through World War II on the Scottish island of Gruinard. All through 1943, as well as 1944,…… [Read More]

References

Bell, D.M., Kozarsky, P.E., Stephens, D.S. (2002). Clinical issues in the Prophylaxis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Anthrax. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(2), 222-225.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2001). Anthrax Disease Information

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Considerations for Distinguishing Influenza-Like Illness from Inhalational Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(44), 984-6.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Update: Interim Recommendations for Ant microbial Prophylaxis for Children and Breastfeeding Mothers and Treatment of Children with Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(45), 1014-6.
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Biological Weapons Bioweapons Are Weaponry

Words: 1504 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9318820

" Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 22 Apr. 2009 .

Goldman, D. "The Generals and the Germs." Journal of Military History 73(2). Apr 2009: p. 531-569. Academic Search Complete. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .

Guillemin, J. "Germ arfare Under the Microscope." Futurist 42(3) May/Jun 2008: p. 31. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .

Kelle, A. "Strengthening the Effectiveness of the BT Control Regime -- Feasibility and Options." Contemporary Security Policy 24(2) Aug 2003: p. 95-132. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .

Kellman, B. "Bioviolence: A Growing Threat." Futurist 42(3) May/Jun 2008: p. 25-30. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .

Littlewood, J. "Biological eapons: Much Ado and Little Action." Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning & Policy 45(2) Apr 2007: p. 191-203. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Biological Weapon." Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 22 Apr. 2009 .

Goldman, D. "The Generals and the Germs." Journal of Military History 73(2). Apr 2009: p. 531-569. Academic Search Complete. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .

Guillemin, J. "Germ Warfare Under the Microscope." Futurist 42(3) May/Jun 2008: p. 31. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .

Kelle, A. "Strengthening the Effectiveness of the BTW Control Regime -- Feasibility and Options." Contemporary Security Policy 24(2) Aug 2003: p. 95-132. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
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Risk Assessment and Analysis

Words: 4889 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9423985

isk Analysis and the Security Survey

The following risk analysis and security survey report will be centered on the hospital as an organization. Vulnerabilities can be classified as crime opportunities, opportunities for breaking rules and regulations, opportunities for profiting and also for loss. By definition, vulnerability can be a gap or a weakness inside a security program that might be exploited by opponents to acquire unlawful access. Vulnerabilities include procedural, human, structural, electronic as well as other elements that offer opportunities to damage assets (Vellani and Owles, 2007).

A vulnerability assessment can be classified as a systematic method utilized to evaluate an organization's security position, assess the efficiency of current security infrastructure, as well as, recognize security limitations. The basic approach of a Vulnerability Assessment (VA) first measures what precise assets require protection. Subsequently, VA recognizes the protection measures previously being used to protect those assets, as well as what…… [Read More]

References

Brandon Region Hospital. (2012). Evacuation plan.

Brandon Region Hospital. (2012). Risk management plan.

Chung, S., & Shannon, M. (2005). Hospital planning for acts of terrorism and other public health emergencies involving children. Archives of disease in childhood, 90(12), 1300-1307.

Code Green Networks. (2009). Protecting Healthcare Organizations from Patient Data Loss. Retrieved from: www.codegreennetworks.com/resources/downloads/wp_patient_dlp.pdf
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Chemical and Biological Terrorism Types

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36380372

Perhaps the public has become somewhat desensitized by nuclear war, but the idea of unseen agents loosed in the water supply, or used to burn without fire, causes panic to a greater degree (Tucker, 2008, 112-15).

An interesting paradigm regarding the fear factor involved in chemical and biological terrorism may surround the psychological issues that have surrounded the possibility of nuclear fear for decades, almost desensitizing people to it -- and the thought that they would either be instantly vaporized, or at least face a quick death. With biologics and chemicals, though, the fear is more of slowly dying, sick, bleeding, etc. such as shown in the films Outbreak or the Andromeda Strain (Smithson, 2004).

hemical Weapons -- hemical warfare and weaponry is nothing new to the scene of terrorism and war, especially after the advances made during World War I. The destructive effects of chemical weapons are their toxic…… [Read More]

Chemical terrorism is terroristic warfare that uses weapons that are chemically based, such as gas, burning agents, or other liquid or gaseous compounds. Unlike the chemical warfare that so terrorized the soldiers in World War I, in which trenched troops shot poisonous shells into each other's trench cities, or gassed whole planes of battle, is it more systematic and targeted. It differs, too, from a military use of such agents against a human population, for example the use of poisons by Sadaam Hussein against his own minority populations. Chemical terrorism is similar in many ways to biological terrorism, but the agents and toxins used operate in a different manner -- chemically induced carnage from the outside of the body as opposed to bioligically induced destruction from the inside of the body moving outward (Taylor, 2001; Falkenrath, et.al., 1998).

Biological Weapons - a bioterrorism attack uses biological weapons (viruses, bacteria, or germs) that are released in a manner that will negatively impact either humans, flora or fauna in a given environment. The particular agents involved must be deliberately set upon a population and may be natural forms or genetically manipulated agents that are more virulent than naturally found in nature, or resistant to current treatment or detection. These deadly agents may be airborne, ingested in drinking water, or become part of the food chain. This is the crux of their popularity -- they are often difficult to isolate and detect and often are latent for hours or days prior to symptoms, allowing the terrorist to be far away from the specified population when it becomes clear a biological was used. Some of the most power (smallpox, etc.) can be spread from person to person, some (Ebola) are so virulent they often kill their host prior to recontamination and others (anthrax, for example) must be touched or ingested by the individual for the effect to occur ("Bioterrorism Overview," CDC, 2007).

Every society has suffered more from disease than warfare, even though one might argue that the first case of biological warfare was unleashed upon the Aztec and Maya by the Spanish Conquistadores. In fact, many experts believe that without the outbreaks of smallpox, measles, and venereal disease, there would not have been a Spanish victory (Diamond, 2005).
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Environmental and Agricultural Terrorist Targets

Words: 773 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26092703

On the prevention side, there needs to be research about the most infectious diseases, widespread vaccination against the most threatening animal borne pathogens, monitoring and intelligence to identify potential threats, and education about bioterrorism at all levels of government (RAND, 2). On the response side, early detection, early containment, treatment plans, stockpiles of vaccines and drugs, and an animal depopulation and disposal plan are all necessary (RAND, 2).

The government has passed a number of laws to help address potential threats and be ready in the event of an attack. For example, the Bioterrorism Preparedness Act tightens control of certain toxins and threatening agents and expands agricultural security. The FDA and USDA have both passed rules to increase record-keeping and monitoring related to potentially dangerous agents. Homeland Security has been authorized to increase agricultural border inspections, with the assistance of the USDA. These inspections identify and quarantine potential threats. (Monke…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gonzales, Alberto, Regina Schofield, and Glenn Schmitt. Agroterrorism -- Why We're Not Ready: A Look at the Role of Law Enforcement. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 2006. Print.

Monke, Jim. Agroterrorism: Threats and Preparedness. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, 2004. Print.

RAND National Defense Research Institute. Agroterrorism: What Is the Threat and What Can Be Done About it? Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 2003. Print.
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Reply to Student 1 I

Words: 784 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54035166

Past experience and gut instincts also play a role, and every clinician has his or her own methodology. Even the context of where the patient is seen may impact the assessment: a patient who is treated in the E will receive less personalized care than someone seen by a specialist for the same complaint.

Are Diagnostic Decision Support Systems (DDSS) the solution? They can make medical treatment more standardized, by using data-driven analysis based upon a wealth of experience much greater than one clinician can possess. However, not all DDSS systems may be equally effective. According to Bravata (et al. 2004): "Systems specifically designed to support the diagnosis of bioterrorism-relevant diseases or syndrome" were deemed "critically deficient," and as "false-positive and false-negative rates are unknown for most systems, decision making on the basis of these systems is seriously compromised." Not all DDSS systems are created equal, especially systems designed to…… [Read More]

References

Bravata, Sundaram V., K.M. McDonald, W.M. Smith, H. Szeto, M.D. Schleinitz, et al.

(2004, January). Detection and diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism response. Emergency Infectious Diseases. [serial online]. Retrieved May 19, 2010. Available from: URL:  http://www.cdc.gov/ ncidod/EID/vol10no1/03-0243.htm

Leonhardt, David. (2006, February 22).Why doctors so often get it wrong. The New York Times.

Retrieved May 19, 2010 at http://www.nytimes.com/2006/02/22/business/22leonhardt.html
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Smallpox Medical - Epidemiology Smallpox

Words: 1526 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59654184

6). What doctors do know is that the young, the elderly and those with compromised immune systems are far more likely to suffer adverse effects or become contaminated should an epidemic break out. These populations are also far more likely to develop the disease or suffer from side effects of vaccination which may include a heart attack (Annas, 2003).

Many suggest the risk is unknown, because the disease is nearly eradicated, it would take a modern outbreak to ascertain the prognosis of individuals with the disease in modern times. Many feel however, that discourse on the subject is best left unsaid, because the more people discuss the disease, the more likely it is that someone will inadvertently get hold of the disease and attempt to use it.

eferences

Annas, George J. "Smallpox Vaccine: Not Worth the isk," the Hastings Center eport, 33.2, 2003. pp.6-9.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.…… [Read More]

References

Annas, George J. "Smallpox Vaccine: Not Worth the Risk," the Hastings Center Report, 33.2, 2003. pp.6-9.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2002) Smallpox fact sheet, smallpox overview. Retrieved December 7, 2007:  http://www.cdc.gov/ smallpox

Giblin, James C. When Plague Strikes: The Black Death, Smallpox, AIDS. New York:

Harper Collins, 1995.
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Status of World-Level Laboratory Biorisk

Words: 2273 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6181693



The response by the United States to biorisk management at the national level provides a useful example of what can be accomplished with the right resources and vision. For instance, in December 2009, the U.S. government published its "National Strategy for Countering Biological Threats," representing the basic framework for the U.S. response to emerging bioterrorism threats. In the State of the Union address in 2010, President Barack Obama mentioned the National Strategy as an approach that "will give us the capacity to respond faster and more effectively to bioterrorism or an infectious disease." The implementation and oversight of this initiative is the responsibility of the U.S. Department of State's Biosecurity Engagement Program (BEP). This agency is tasked with promoting the National Strategy through efforts targeted at improving biorisk management and infectious disease surveillance practices around the world. To this end, the BEP has strengthened its commitment to the African continent,…… [Read More]

References

Biorisk reduction. (2011). World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.who.int / csr/bioriskreduction/en/.

Global alert and response. (2011). World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.

who.int/csr/bioriskreduction/laboratorynetwork/en/index.html.

Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network Fact Sheet. (2011). World Health Organization.
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Forces That Now Shape and

Words: 2412 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79241388

The challenges are many for those in the industry for the first quarter-century of the new millenium but the hope is that information technological advances will smooth the transitions that must be made if healthcare is to be effective or successful in future initiatives of delivery quality healthcare.

Public Health Issues

The Global Face of Healthcare

Statement of Thesis:

Finally this work will describe several different countries' public health systems and compare and contrast the similarities and differences noted as well as the political economic, service, expense and other major issues linked to the various structures and forms of the healthcare systems around the world. The various public health tradeoffs that are made on the societal level based on limited resources and competitive priorities will be briefly examined as well.

While the business world has streamlined processes and become more customer-centric the healthcare agency is seeking to do the same…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Wechler, Jill (2004) Healthcare Issues 2005 Formulary on Highbeam Research Engine

Strategic Research Institute Report (2004) BioAsia Licensing and Deal-Making Summit: [Online available at http://www.srinnstitue.com/ApplicationFiles/Agenda / detailed_ae nda.cfm?program_id= 653&iteration_id=7568&person_id=28682]

Stevens, Andrew (2004) City Mayors: Local Government in Japan Online at  http://www.citymayors.com/government/jap_locgov.html 

HealthCare's Top Business Issues and Responses for 2005 A Capgemini Forecast.
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Anthrax in the United States Postal Service

Words: 4898 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69190781

Anthrax: An Attack on the United States

Anthrax is an acute disease that is caused by a bacteria known as bacillus anthracis. Anthrax most commonly occurs in lower-level vertebrates both wild and domestic, such as cows, goats, sheep, and camels. However, anthrax infection can also occur in humans when they are exposed to animals that are infected, or to tissue from these animals ("Anthrax," 2003). The anthrax infection in humans can take three forms: cutaneous, inhalation, or gastrointestinal. This paper examines the signs and symptoms of anthrax, as well as looks at the circumstances of the most current outbreak of anthrax in the United States.

Anthrax is not very common in the United States, at least not anymore. Anthrax is primarily a disease of agricultural countries where contact with and exposure to animals is a common, daily occurrence. When anthrax infects a human being, it is normally through contact with…… [Read More]

References

Anthrax." (2003). CDC. Retreived on June 25, 2003 at  http://www.cdc.gov/ ncidod / dbmd/diseaseinfo/anthrax_g.htm#What%20is%20anthrax.

Anthrax Vaccine Availability Concerns USA." (2001). Hospital Management.Net. Retrieved on June 25, 2003 at http://www.hospitalmanagement.net/informer/breakthroughs / break81/.

Anthrax Vaccine? Officials and Experts Weigh Risk Against Need." (2001). CBS News.Com. Retrieved on June 25, 2003 at http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/01/31 / health/main327482.shtml.

Fernandez, Manny and Phuong Ly. "Brentwood Deaths Put Employees on Edge." (2002). Washington Post.Com. Retrieved on June 25, 2003 at http://www.washingtonpost.com / ac2/wp-dyn/A54188-2002Jun14?language=printer.
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An Analysis of the Effectiveness of U S Cbrn Strategy

Words: 2334 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97469412

United States' Strategy for Dealing with a Chemical, Biological, adiological or Nuclear Non-State Actor Threat

One of the major potential threats that has emerged in recent years is a chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBN) threat from a non-state actor. In the "good old days" of the Cold War, nation-states with these capabilities were well-known to the international community and contingency plans were developed by the United States and its allies to counter any eventuality. By very sharp contrast, today, non-state actors, including most especially international terrorist groups, have increasing access to these lethal materials, and the potential for their use as a weapon of mass destruction looms large. To determine the current situation with respect to the United States, this paper provides a review of the relevant publicly available literature to identify this country's current strategy for responding to CBN threats, a technical description of the equipment and training…… [Read More]

References

A national strategy for CBRNE standards. (2011, May). National Science and Technology Council: Subcommittee on Standards. The White House. Retrieved from https://www. whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/chns_cbrne_standards_final_24_aug_11.pdf.

Domestic preparedness. (2015). The James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. Retrieved from http://cns.miis.edu/archive/cbw/120city.htm.

Faria, J. R. (2014, Spring/Summer). The economics of technology in terrorist organizations. The Brown Journal of World Affairs, 20(2), 285-289.

Mauroni, A. J. (2008, October). The new threat of unconventional warfare. Joint Force Quarterly, 51, 21-23.
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Public health officials using computers to manage outbreaks

Words: 2252 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52537041

Introduction

Digital Disease Detection, commonly referred to as digital epidemiology provided strategies and methods for allowing digital-technology users to monitor infectious disease and conduct surveillance. These strategies help in the understanding of concerns and attitudes regarding infectious diseases. The process begins with the basics, such as the availability of internet access, online sharing platforms and other digital devices. These sources offer huge amounts of data. It is important to note that while these sources collect data, they do not, do so, with public health objectives in focus (Denecke, 2017).

The past few decades have seen tremendous changes in the world. There have been many and varied threats; from bioterrorism, influenza pandemics and the emergence of infectious diseases. There is also the issue of unforeseen population mobility which is among the reasons that triggered the development of public health surveillance systems. Such systems are invaluable tools in the detection and response…… [Read More]

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Psychology Models Since Sigmund Freud

Words: 2736 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77173873

Therefore, it is necessary to account for the acquisition of habits.

Due to certain limitations of the behaviorism approach, there have been revisions to the theory over the century. For example, although behaviorism helped people to forecast, alter, and change behavior over time, it did not attempt nor intend to understand how or why the theory worked. The present-day social cognitive approach asserts that behavior is results from an ongoing reciprocal three-way relationship among the individual (cognition), the environment (physical context, which consists of the organizational structure and design, social context or other people), and the person's past behavior. This broader view, called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) incorporates the cognitive in addition to the behavioral approaches to therapy and view people "as active seekers and interpreters of information, not just responders to environmental influences" (Nevid, 2007, p. 484). Many psychologists now believe that behavior is understood best by studying the…… [Read More]

References Cited:

Fall, K.A., Holden, J.M. & Marquis, A. (2004) Theoretical models of counseling and psychotherapy New York: Taylor and Francis.

Freud, Sigmund. (1926). Inhibitions, symptoms, and anxiety, SE, 20(14): 111-205.

Kohlenberg, R.J., Bolling, M.Y., Kanter, J.W. & Parker, C.R. (2002) Clinical behavior analysis: where it went wrong, how it was made good again, and why its future is so bright. Behavior Analyst Today. 3(3): 248-253

Martz, E (2002) Principles of Eastern philosophies viewed from the framework of Yalom's four existential concerns. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling. 24(1): 31-42
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Companion Diagnostics Translational Medicines

Words: 4711 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9971327

Translational medicine is a new discipline, which covers studies on basic science, on human investigations, non-human investigations, and translational research (Mankoff et al. 2004). asic science studies address the biological effects of medicines on human beings. Studies on humans discover the biology of disease and serve as foundation for developing therapies. Non-human or non-clinical studies advance therapies for clinical use or use in human disease. And translational research refers to appropriate product development for clinical use. Translational research looks into the identity, purity and potency of a drug product during early clinical trial (Mankoff et al.). Translating the knowledge derived from basic sciences into clinical research and treatments is the task of translational medicine (Nagappa 2006). There is a groaning need for this type of research on account of voluminous information in the information age. Using this information is the challenge encountered by scientists and healthcare providers everywhere in the…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Hersh, William. A Stimulus to Define Informatics and Health Information Technology.

Vol 9 BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making: BioMed Central Ltd., 2009.

Retrieved on November 24, 2010 from  http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6947/24 

Mankoff, Stacey P. et al. Lost in Translation: Obstacles to Translational Medicine Vol 2
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Chemical Warfare the Twentieth Century

Words: 1261 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41360120

Some of the nerve agents such as VX and Tabun are also highly persistent in that their effects last in the field for longer periods of time. [Wisconsin Project, (2010)]

Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)

The 1925 Geneva protocol prohibited the use of poisonous gases in warfare but flagrant violations of the accord by various nations is clearly evident when we glance through the wars that took place in the previous century. Starting with the Second World War, the Vietnam War, and the more recent Gulf wars, the use of chemical weapons has continued in sheer violation of the Geneva treaty. [Geneva Protocol, (1925)] The loopholes and the reservations in the Geneva protocol implied that the threat of chemical warfare was always looming large. It is only pertinent here to point out that not only the so called rogue states (Iran, Iraq, Korea) engaged in chemical warfare but also the U.S.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Gerard J. Fitzgerald, (2008), 'Chemical Warfare and Medical Response during World War 1', Am J. Public Health 98(4): 611 -- 625 available online at,  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2376985/ 

2) IDPH, 'Hydrogen Cyanide', retrieved Sep 6th 2010 from,  http://www.idph.state.il.us/Bioterrorism/factsheets/cyanide.htm 

3) Johan de Wittlaan, (2010), 'Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction (CWC) ', retrieved Sep 6th 2010, from, http://www.nti.org/e_research/official_docs/inventory/pdfs/cwc.pdf

4) Geneva Protocol, (1925) 'Protocol for the prohibition of the use in war of Asphyxiating, Poisonous, or other gases, and of Bacteriological methods of Warfare', retrieved Sep 6th 2010, from, http://www.nti.org/e_research/official_docs/inventory/pdfs/genev.pdf
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Health Care Law Privacy and

Words: 5626 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3283668

S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011). Furthermore, subpart C explains the privileges and the protections of confidentiality that is attached to the patient's record along with much exception (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011).

The penalty for anyone who breaks confidentiality is imperative. In "November, 23, 2009" was increased to $11,000 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011). This goes for anyone in the medical field or has access to this information. A person has to follow HIPAA precisely or face a huge fine. If one thought of this ahead of time, whether or not they own a business, then no issues would arise legally. However, sometimes this does occur, especially for those who want to harm another person, yet in the medical field the goal is not to do this to any individual, regardless, otherwise he or she could face losing their license in…… [Read More]

References

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Civil Rights. (2011). Your health information privacy rights. Retrieved May 3, 2011, from U.S. Department of Health and Human

Services Civil Rights:

http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/privacy/hipaa/understanding/consumers/consumer_rights.pdf.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). Health information privacy. Retrieved May 3, 2011, from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services:
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Terrorism and Raymond James Stadium

Words: 3212 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76452618

According to Stefanie Olson (2001), the Act provides government with increased electronic surveillance, search and data gathering power. Under the guise of tracking down "potential" terrorists, the expansion of Internet eavesdropping technology provides the government with full viewing rights into any private life they choose. In this way, immigrants who enter the country and conduct their business in a perfectly legal manner are now targeted for such surveys (White, 2008).

Local and National Changes in Law Enforcement - the basic mission of law enforcement and foreign/defense policy in the United States has dramatically changed since the events of 9/11 and the subsequent "War on Terrorism." Since 9/11, policies across the United States and abroad have changed from being reactive to being intensely proactive. There, are, however, several challenges faced by law enforcement and the legal issues of defense and foreign policy regarding this new approach to terrorism (Simonson, 2006).

Even…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

"After 9-11, Security Job Openings Abound," cited in:

http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/weekly/blsecurityjobs.htm

Bergen, P. (December 5, 2008). "WMD Terrorism Fears are Overblown." CNN

Politics.Com. Cited in:
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US Public Health System

Words: 1303 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5397711

U.S. Public Health System to better assess and defend against threats from bio-terrorism and infectious disease. This report discusses public health agencies that are "exemplary" in providing public health services in some way or another. That only thirteen were chosen out of seventy-three initially studied indicates how difficult it is to find exemplary public health protection against infectious disease and bio-terrorism threats. Data collection and surveillance are two areas that need improvement, especially in the field, as this report clearly notes.

This report contains information about thirteen agencies that offer the best of public health services. It shows what other agencies need to do to come up to a level of exemplary services, and how far some have to go to catch up. For example, the authors cite the "Citywatch" computer monitoring system for the Illinois Department of Health. They write, it is "A sophisticated computer-assisted emergency notification system that…… [Read More]

References

Tanielian, T. et al. (2005). Exemplary practices in public health preparedness. Retrieved 26 Oct. 2009 from the Rand.org Web site: http://www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/2005/RAND_TR239.pdf.
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Public Community Health Public Community

Words: 921 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92680489

" (Rosen, 1) in a regard, community health falls within this purview and is a subset to the broader topic of public health.

c. Differences in roles of public and community health nurse and nurse in an acute care setting

The role which is given to the nurse in the public or community health context should be essentially similar to that which is seen in an acute care context. Ethical, practical and medical conditions remain unchanged from one context to the next. However, the nurse will be required to prepare for certain distinctions which do denote a difference. Particularly, nurses in public health settings are less likely to possess the resources and facilities which are afforded those in the acute care setting. This means that in many instances, public health nurses can only function as the front line for consultation, diagnosis and basic treatment. here more serious concerns become apparent,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Health Disaster OC. (HDOC). (2008). Health Disaster Management Division. Oraange County Health Care Agency.

Orange County Health Care Agency (OCHCA). (2009). Epidemiology & Assessment. County of Orange California. Online at http://ochealthinfo.com/epi/

Rosen, G. (1993). A History of Public Health. JHU Press.
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Emergency Services Grant Proposal Disasters

Words: 2514 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17703254

A representative from each agency will also be requested to present a module as part of the educational program.

The programs will then be presented to the management bodies of the school and business chosen. With particularly large businesses and schools, it is advisable to implement the training separately for each department or grade; this is to be determined according to the given situation. With the appropriate permission from the authorities involved, a day will then be set aside during which the training can take place. All the necessary officials and speakers will be notified of the date and presentation requirements.

When the training has been completed, Stage 4 involves an evaluation by means of another survey. All training participants will receive a short questionnaire to determine their experience of the training. They will be asked a variety of questions relating to the training and presentation itself, as well as…… [Read More]

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Terrorism How Agencies Work Together

Words: 1283 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4968631

Many responders, lacking clear guidance, would simply react to apparent immediate needs" ("Emergency management," 2009). It is important to note that in the event of a terrorist incident, local first responders would be the first on the scene, and it is imperative that incident commanders gain control or at least understand the complexities of the situation. However, there are national agencies, under the guidance of FEMA and other government agencies, that offer national response coordination 24/7 every day of the year. These organizations train in every state, and would eventually coordinate the response operations for a major terrorist incident in the country. The Department of Health and Human Services Web site notes, "The Secretary's Operations Center (SOC) is directly connected to the DHS National Operations Center and the FEMA National esponse Operations Center. It serves as the focal point for situational awareness, information management and response coordination for HHS" (Yeskey,…… [Read More]

References

Editors. (2009). About us. Retrieved 7 April 2009 from the National Domestic Preparedness Consortium Web site: http://www.ndpc.us/about_ndpc.html.

Editors. (2009). Emergency management preparation and planning. Retrieved 7 April 2009 from the FEMA.gov/Responder Knowledge Base Web site: https://www.rkb.us/contentdetail.cfm?content_id=20334.

Hill, M., Galarneau, M., Pang, G., & Konoske, P. (2006). Preparing for the worst: Using modeling to determine medical supply requirements for terrorism response. The Forensic Examiner, 15(1), 24+.

Yeskey, K. (2007). Preparing the nation for radiation and nuclear terrorist events. Retrieved 7 April 2009 from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Web site:  http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/2007/11/t20071115f.html .
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Pandemic Fears and Contemporary Quarantine

Words: 1075 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30593853

To meet substantive due process, a public health intervention must be based on a public health necessity, an effective intervention, have a demonstrable means-end connection, be proportionate to the threat involved, and be the least restrictive means of accomplishing the goal. In addition, Daubert explains the parameters of the procedural due process. Due process in a quarantine situation does not always involve a judicial hearing, but it must contain the following elements: notice to the affected individual, an opportunity to contest the government's action, access to legal counsel, and a final decision that is subject to review by a court of law. She includes with a discussion of how due process came to be applied in situations of quarantine, by viewing due process as a continuum, with infected individual on one end of the spectrum and the exposed individual on another. She thinks that due process should increase as the…… [Read More]

References

CDC. (2005). Fact sheet on legal authorities for isolation/quarantine. Retrieved March 8, 2009 from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Web site:  http://www.cdc.gov/ ncidod/sars/factsheetlegal.htm

Daubert, M. (2007). Comment: Pandemic fears and contemporary quarantine: Protecting liberty through a continuum of due process rights. 54 Buffalo L. Rev 1299.
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Department of Health and Human

Words: 3373 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58176948

In 2002, "President Bush signed into law the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002, which, among other things, eliminated the need to convene an advisory committee to amend the list of diseases" listed as quarantineable (Misrahi, Foster, Shaw, & Cetron 2004).

This law became significant during the SARS scare. Before 2002 "the list of federal quarantinable diseases in the United States had not been revised since 1983. It included cholera, diphtheria, infectious tuberculosis, plague, smallpox, yellow fever, and viral hemorrhagic fevers such as Marburg, Ebola, and Congo-Crimean" fevers (Misrahi, Foster, Shaw, & Cetron 2004). The CDC was able to quickly ad SARS to the list. In the past, the CDC "generally deferred to state and local health authorities...to restrict the movement of persons within their boundaries" with such diseases (Misrahi, Foster, Shaw, & Cetron 2004). Its greater legislative ability to move quickly in classifying the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Definition of HHS. (2008). Medicine Net. Retrieved January 2, 2009 at http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=10710

DeNoon, Daniel. (2008). Controversy over new 'conscience' rule. Medicine Net.

Retrieved January 2, 2009 at  http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=95180 

Dowshen, Steven. (2008, August). CDC: Measles outbreaks may be tied to parents' choice not to vaccinate. The Children's Hospital. Retrieved January 2, 2009 at http://www.thechildrenshospital.org/wellness/info/news/62622.aspx
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Second Life and Distance Education

Words: 952 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88033665

However, surprisingly, distance educators have not caught onto the trend. Web 2.0 applications offer users an experience beyond the typical University experience. Second Life offers the ability to add the social element and interaction that is often missing from the distance education experience. If traditional universities and public entities see the opportunity to use Second Life for education, and to disseminate public information, then this would seem like the next logical step in improving distance education programs. Students could attend a virtual classroom that is like a brick and mortar classroom in many ways.

One of the key difficulties in implementing online education in an online world is that students may not have access or the skills necessary to function in an online world. Second Life requires the most advanced graphics cards and systems to run. It will not run on older systems or those that do not meet the…… [Read More]

References

Hoover, Aaron. (2007). At UF, distance learning moves off the planet. February 7, 2007. University of Florida News. Retrieved December 20, 2008.

Simteach.com (2008a). Second Life Universities and Private Islands. Retrieved December 19, 2008 at http://www.simteach.com/wiki/index.php?title=Second_Life:_Universities_and_Private_Islands

Simteach.com (2008b). Second Life Universities and Private Islands. Retrieved December 19, 2008 at http://simteach.com/wiki/index.php?title=Second_Life:_Universities_and_Private_Islands