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Case Study on Bioterrorism
Create a scenario of a hypothetical bioterrorist attack involving botulism or plague. Your scenario should include characteristics that are more indicative of an intentional outbreak than a natural outbreak.
Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague, an enzootic vectorborne disease usually infecting rodents (rats) and fleas and humans can become infected after being bitten by fleas that have fed on infected rodents; in humans, the disease usually occurs in the form of bubonic plague (Riedel, 2005). However, there are many other forms of this disease that can also be created artificially. In some cases, the infection can spread without the need for infestation and through oral pathways. This from of the disease can be spread to the lungs via the bloodstream and causes secondary pneumonic plague.
Plague is also recognized as a potential agent of bioterrorism because of the person-to-person transmission has been described…… [Read More]
Bioterrorism and Future Impact in Nursing
Biological warfare threat has spread across the globe from developed to developing, countries in the last few years. It causes alarm among the professionals such as journalist, academics, and policy analysts. Most important, it has caught the attention of policy makers and policy analysts to rethink the whole concept of bioterrorist (Sharyn Janes, 2008). Therefore, what is Bioterrorist? What is its future impact in nursing? Bioterrorism can be defined as the use of biological agents by individual or groups to course harm to people. It's considered to be mostly politically motivated to intimidate the government (WS Carus, 1998).
Terrorist see this biological agents as a tool for achieving specialized objectives not necessarily intended to directly influence government actions. Virtually all bioterrorists seek to keep their use of biological agents a secret, because in many instances success depended on the lack of appreciation that a…… [Read More]
Bioterrorism is "the use, or threatened use, of biological agents to promote or spread fear or intimidation upon an individual, a specific group, or the population as a whole for religious, political, ideological, financial, or personal purposes" (Arizona Department of Health Services, 2005). Bioterrorism is the weaponization of biological agents or material; as such, it poses a huge potential risk to the United States, given the relative affordability and accessibility of its components. A critical determinant of the nation's ability to effectively respond to such an attack is the capacity of the nation's public health system, at the local, state, and federal level.
Gail Dudley and obin McFee's article "Preparedness for Biological Terrorism in the United States: Project BioShield and Beyond" is an introduction and explanation of one of the most important pieces of federal legislation addressing bioterrorism; as such, it falls into the 'federal preparedness' research category. The piece…… [Read More]
Biological weapon can be defined as any kind of organism such as the bacteria, fungi or viruses, or any toxin (poisonous compounds that are produced by organisms) that can be used to kill the host or kill/injure human beings. There are varying acts of bioterrorism ranging from a hoax to actual use of these biological weapons or agents. Of late, a very significant number of countries are pursuing the ownership or possession of biological weapons and there is a growing concern among many nations that there is a possibility of terrorist groups having access to the weapons or the knowledge of making such weapons and using term to kill an individual or a population (Daniel J. Dire, 2011).
The identified bioterrorism in this case is the famous "amerithrax" or the anthrax terror that was launched in the U.S.A. In 2001, shortly after the 9/11 terror attack on America. This…… [Read More]
Bioterrorism has been noted as the use of any kind of organism such as the bacteria, fungi or viruses, or any toxin (poisonous compounds that are produced by organisms) to eliminate the host. hese elements are known to exist naturally within our environment. his then presents a legal loophole into who is supposed to posses these elements and what quantities would be termed as enough to be considered a weapon. here are real legal obstacles or shortcomings to the war against terror and in particular to the idea of bioterrorism. It is quite unclear at the global level what agents constitute biological weapons, and for the few known or categorized agents, there is no definite quantity that has been given a global legal framework to be able to be referred to as biological weapon hence constituting the possibility of being used for bio terrorism.
his lack of clear legal boundaries…… [Read More]
iological weapons can significantly change the battlefield. Today's leaders must always be on the watch for new threats that can arise in newly designed ways. The enemy is always planning to expose weaknesses in the defense. iological weaponry is such a technology that can bring devastating effects and exploit weaknesses both tactically and strategically. The purpose of this essay is to examine the appeal of biological weapons to terrorist organizations. I will accomplish this by first defining what biological warfare is and give context to the usage of the idea of terrorism's relationship to these types of arms. I will then explore specific advantages and disadvantages to the use of biological warfare. y comparing and contrasting biological warfare to both nuclear and chemical warfare, the differences will be more clearly understood.
Language and understanding must relate through common definitions and is important to discern between important terms…… [Read More]
Then Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen said the program was "specifically designed so that the people we train become trainers themselves. This approach will greatly magnify our efforts to produce a core of qualified first responders across the nation." In March 1998, Cohen announced an additional Department of Defense support initiative -- the military's first-ever rapid assessment teams, AID (rapid assessment, identification and detection). "These new AID teams will quickly reach the scene of the incident in order to help local first responders figure out what kind of attack occurred, its extent, and the steps needed to minimize and manage the consequences." He added: "Getting prepared for such an attack is extremely complicated, given the wide range of possible threats and the many players at the local, state and federal levels (U.S. DOD).
However, a large number of cities do not have any plans to respond to a chemical…… [Read More]
Challenges to bioterrorism
Challenges to surveillance
Having noted the surveillance methods that can be used in the monitoring of the bioterrorism and the possible intentional infection, there are some challenges that these surveillance systems might encounter. Bearing the nature of the agents that are used in bioterrorism, the challenges that might be experienced by both the syndromic surveillance and cell phone surveillance may have several similarities.
The syndromic surveillance challenges
Bearing the fact that syndromic surveillance depends on the general survey of the trend of a bioterrorism agent, the information that is generated from such a surveillance is quite general and in effect whenever such a surveillance systems comes across an anomalous trend in the health of the public, it would be hard for those implementing it to immediately propose a mass measure like issuance of antibiotics in order to curb the threat. There will therefore be a…… [Read More]
smallpox as a weapon against societies. The writer explores the viability of using smallpox as a weapon as well as some of the things societies have done to prepare for such a possibility. In addition the education of the American public for such an attack is discussed. There were seven sources used to complete this paper.
Bioterrorism has been a concern of the United States for many years. During most skirmishes, following 9-11 and of course during and after the onset of the war in Iraq, Americans were concerned about the release of bio-chemical warfare. One of the more common concerns recently has been small pox. Small pox is something that if released on the world could cause hundreds of thousands if not millions to perish. The American government has voiced concerns about Saddam Hussein's ability to implement such an attack, as well as Al-QADA forces being able to do…… [Read More]
Threat of Bioterrorism
There are many reasons to believe that overruling of the possibility of bioterrorism in the country is a serious mistake. In fact, it is practically impossible to ignore the fact that in the recent past, there has been an escalation in the cases of bioterrorist attacks. However, this has not always been the case and many people were in denial of the possibility of anyone using such measures to cause harm. It was only after the fateful September 11 attacks over a decade away that shook the faith and created the one notion in the minds of Americans that this was real. A month later, a case of a man suffering from inhalational anthrax was trending (okach et al. 2010). This is the reason why the government is keen to take all measures necessary to curb the issue. However, the main question that arises in the issue…… [Read More]
security professionals respond to a Bioterrorism attack in the United States. hat are the precise steps that are taken -- or should be taken -- to protect citizens in the event of an attack? An article by the former head of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Michael Chertoff, provides step-by-step information relative to the response security officials follow in the event of a Bioterrorism attack.
Chertoff asserts on page 8 that the "key" to meeting the challenge of a possible terrorist-related biological threat is to approach it in a "systematic, comprehensive way" which involves a great deal of intelligent advanced planning. Though vitally important, this kind of advanced planning cannot ever fully anticipate all the ramifications of a terror attack in the biological genre. Chertoff is showing his savvy when he explains that "every aspect of society" can be expected to be impacted during a biologically induced catastrophe.…… [Read More]
Smaller particles follow the fluid streamlines and exit the sample." (NATIO, 2001)
The method of operation of a "bubbler or impinger" is through "drawing aerosols through a current inlet tube and jet. Usually the jet is submerged in the liquid contained in the sampler." (NATIO, 2001) the aerosol particles become capture din the base of the jet by the surface of the liquid as the air moves through the liquid. Collection of the smallest of the particles is enabled by a "small critical orifice causing the flow to become sonic." (NATIO, 2001)There are designs that also form bubbles in the liquid as air leaves the jet which is fitted. The Variable Particle-Size Impactors are stated to generally have."..multiple stages" in which "each stage contains a number of precision-drilled orifices that are appropriate for the size of the participle to be collected in that stage and orifice sizes decrease with each…… [Read More]
They are relatively inexpensive and available worldwide, easy to produce, easy to hide and is getting easy to deliver as well. iologic agents are viewed by many as the weaponry of the future. They are also called the poor man's bomb. State-sponsored warfare aims at killing large numbers of enemy population. A terrorist organization or individual, on the other hand, may use biologic agents for less deadly aims, such as incapacitating target local population. They may also be used to cause social or political unrest or sow fear and mistrust. The thought of it is deathly and depressing and quite real (Relman & Olson). #
roman, T. et al. (2010). Molecular detection of persistent Francisella Tularensis
subspecies Holaretica in natural waters. Vol 2011 International Journal of Microbiology: Hindawi Publishing Corporation. Retrieved on November 27, 2010
uehler et al. (2003). Syndromic surveillance and bioterrorism-related epidemics. 9 (10)
Journal…… [Read More]
bio-terrorism. The writer explores what type of threat it is and how the nation has prepared for it, especially after the events of 9-11. The writer also provides a one page outline of the topic. There were ten sources used to complete this paper.
What is Bioterrorism?
How can it be used against us?
What types of things can be used to commit it?
Steps that were taken after 9-11
What should be done for future protection?
Protecting our borders
For almost two hundred years Americans were lulled into a false sense of security with the belief that nobody could penetrate the "invisible" shield of protection around the country. While chaos was happening around the world by way of attacks, bio-terroristic threats, wars and other problems, Americans went about their daily business believing it could never happen here. And then…… [Read More]
Therefore the consequences of such restrictions and regulations have further complicated the case, the research activities have been either shunned or go unreported to avoid any confrontation with the investigation agencies, 'the climate of fear created by the Butler case is even threatening the ability of the United States government to detect bioterrorist activity, the labs in one state are no longer reporting routine incidents of animals poisoned with ICIN, a deadly toxin found in castor beans, for fear of federal investigation'. Stanley Falkow, a respected researcher at Stanford University in California, in his letter to the former attorney-general of the United States revealed that, 'Trying to meet the unwarranted burden of what the government considers 'bio-safety' is simply not coincident with the practice of sound, creative scientific research'. The government introduced a policy which highlighted the need for tight control over the biologists 'with access to dangerous pathogens', in…… [Read More]
This is particularly ironic in light of the 2001 ashington anthrax attacks ("Communicating in the," 2007).
For this reason, the training of the APN/CPL as first responders is critical, particularly in the areas of teamwork and communication in a crisis zone. The APN/CPL professional knows this from firsthand experience in working in triage or emergency situations as first responders. In 2003 in an article in the journal Public Health Nursing a bulwark in the preparedness for a bioterrorism attack (Mondy, Cardenas & Avila, 2003, 424). hile this journal article urges the expansion of training of first responders, we have noted the declining funding levels. e have also noted the importance of making use of other funding and training in the areas of disease prevention and that funding programs in other sectors can do double duty in the preparation for a bioterrorism emergency. Referring back to the Public Health Nursing article,…… [Read More]
Pathogen Detection Methods:
Scientists across the globe have been able to string total microbial genomes effectively and rapidly due to advances in the DNA sequencing technology. This is largely because the access to the DNA sequences of whole microbial genomes provides new opportunities to evaluate and understand micro-organism at the molecular level. Consequently, many scientists have been able to discover pathogens within biological tissues and examine variations in gene expression in reaction to the invasion of pathogens.
esearch Activities in Pathogen Detection:
Pathogen detection methods have been utilized as important parts of research in various fields like food safety, biodefense, pathology, clinical research, drug discovery, forensics, animal health care, and diagnostics. As terrorism has grown to become a major global threat, bioweapons or biological weapons, which are pathogenic organisms and their toxic substances, have become a pernicious threat. These products can be released into the air and water systems or…… [Read More]
2001 there was an Anthrax attack which created an alert of how bioterrorism had an impact on the public health emergencies. These types of emergencies can not only spread illnesses but also cause several deaths. The can also affect government operations which include the economic growth, creating fear which can cause International crisis. There has been an alert on illnesses that have previously been curbed reappearing with most of them resisting the drugs in the market. There has also been an alert of the food supplies in the market due to the terrorists because they can be used to spread infections.
The public health system is highly responsible for detecting any bioterrorist attacks enabling the government to prepare for any attacks. This means that the government should enhance all infrastructure connected to health systems in order to integrate any threats related to biological or chemical terror attacks (Hamburg 2003).This is…… [Read More]
Director Danny Boyle's 2003 movie, 28 Days Later, is an insightful reflection of societal fears of bioterrorism, terrorism and catastrophic warfare. In the movie, Boyle uses a variety of techniques, including plot, cinematography, theme, and characters in order to reveal society's uneasiness.
In recent years, the world has been rocked by the growth of fears over a diverse set of growing threats to global political and economic stability and world health. The tragedy of September 11th brought the world into a new era of fear over terrorist acts. Since then, public uneasiness has only been heightened by the train bombings in Madrid, the Bali bombings, and continued governmental appeals for constant vigilance against terrorism. The fear of bioterrorism has also grown in recent years, with the release of sarin nerve gas on a Tokyo subway, and the presence of anthrax in the U.S. mail. Adding to this climate of fear…… [Read More]
Due to the apparently low level of contagion, the need for public awareness is not urgent, but it is still necessary. Warnings to stay away from the convention area and to report to a local hospital if symptoms developed after being in the area or in contact with someone who had been at the convention should be issued (CDC 2009).
The known details of the attack, however, should not be released, as it is likely to create panic and bolster the terrorists' optimism. Federal assistance should be immediately sought, not necessarily for control of the spread of the disease but for the investigation and apprehension of suspects. All available resources should be called in as soon as possible in order to counter the attack. As far as treatment of the attack goes, mass prophylaxis of all convention attendees and those who have come into contact with infected individuals should be…… [Read More]
The obesity crisis is, I believe, even more important than problems surrounding food safety-borne epidemics. Despite the recent attention given to obesity in the popular media, obesity is in some ways more difficult to treat than food safety issues. People's consciousness may be raised by a fear if becoming sick through food poisoning and throw out the offending, recalled products on their shelves if they contain salmonella or e.coli, but they seem less willing and/or able to change food habits that have been ingrained within them since childhood.
The diabetes epidemic, along with other illnesses related to obesity (like heart disease, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and osteoarthritis) will increase unless more active preventative healthcare measures are undertaken on a wide scale. Limiting the number of fast food restaurants that can be present in a specific area and near schools, along with promoting the spread of grocery stores and farmer's…… [Read More]
The Emergency Volunteer Action Network (EVAN) has been a longtime advocate a Good Samaritan Entity Liability Protection for all public and private healthcare agencies as well as a Uniform Emergency Volunteer Health Practitioners Act (UEVHPA) which would allow out-of-state medical professionals to cross state lines in declared emergencies (EVAN, 2010, UNC). However, these laws tend only to provide for coverage at the immediate scene of the emergency, rather than for the type of sustained medical care demanded during major disasters.
On a gut level, it is hard to imagine me, personally, refusing to provide aid to individuals in dire need, regardless of what the law said. However, for organizations that must make immediate decisions about getting involved in helping victims of a disaster, being legally liable could have serious repercussions for the entity's future, especially if it may be called upon to give aid to large numbers of people for…… [Read More]
Answering the posed question depends on one's understanding of "substantially different." On the one hand, there is the basic commonality of a recognition of the threat that natural hazards and man made activities pose upon environmental safety. Also, there is the common element of intensified efforts made in the direction of attaining environmental sustainability. What differs however is the extent to which researchers, lawmakers, organizations and individuals will go to protect the environment. Additionally, differences are obvious in terms of the emergence of new threats, such as bioterrorism. So yes, even if they refer to environmental threats and protection, the issues throughout this course will be substantially different from those forwarded in 1996.
Charlesworth, a., 29 September 2009, Cost-Cutting Takes Precedence Over Environmental Concersn, Computing, http://www.computing.co.uk/computing/news/2250303/cost-cutting-takes-precedence last accessed on October 2, 2009
Logue, J.N., 1996, Disasters, the Environment, and Public Health: Improving Our esponse, American Journal of Public Health,…… [Read More]
Fear Management: Public Trust, Perceived Vulnerability and Psychology of Rumor and Panic
From the readings this week, it was easy to see that there are a number of ways people start to panic, often over issues that are really not threats to them. Helping people understand what the true risks are, versus them coming up with a lot of risks that are not really accurate, can make a big difference in whether people panic or whether they remain calm and consider all the parts of the issue before they decide whether they are going to panic. Concerns like bioterrorism are very important to the public, because it can difficult to predict whether the masses would panic, or whether they would simply hold their ground because they have been taught how to handle the issue. Without the knowledge of how to handle things, though, there is little opportunity to do anything…… [Read More]
"It is only by conducting additional evaluations that not only cover these issues, but also involve all stakeholders and address limitations of existing data sources, that policymakers will have the information they need to identify and quantify needs and develop more effective case management programs for future disasters," pointed out the U.S. Government Accountability Office (USGAO) in its 2009 report to Congress after the federal management of hurricanes ita and Katrina (2009a, p. 35). Nonetheless while the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) concurred with the USGAO's recommendations, and despite what appears to be some progress at the time of publication (USGAO, 2009a, p. 35), the overall recommendations appear as yet unaddressed, according at least to an undated USGAO Office of Public Affairs Web site describing the findings (USGAO 2009b). The 2009 report lists a variety of areas where performance could be improved, indicating future evaluation may continue to deliver…… [Read More]
The larger the region covered by the chemical agent, the more likely it will be to cause the widespread destruction for which the person or group is looking (Brophy & Fisher, 1959). Toxicity matters, of course, but the earliest uses were not about the level of toxicity the chemical agent possessed. They were more focused on how the toxic was absorbed. If the chemical agent could be absorbed through the clothing and skin, a gas mask would be useless against it and it would be more likely to work on a larger number of people (Burck & Flowerree, 1991).
July of 1917 saw the use of mustard gas begin (Brophy & Fisher, 1959). The Germans, once again, were the first to use this chemical. It easily passes through fabric and leather, and causes very painful burns to appear on the skin. There are two categories into which chemical agents like…… [Read More]
Community Teaching Plan
Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal
Directions: Develop an educational series proposal for your community using one of the following four topics which was chosen within your CLC group:
Primary Prevention/Health Promotion
Secondary Prevention/Screenings for a Vulnerable Population
Planning Before Teaching:
Estimated Time Teaching Will Last:
Three 2-hour sessions
Location of Teaching:
Athens Community Health Department
Supplies, Material, Equipment Needed:
Laptop; digital projector; screen
Community and Target Aggregate:
Athens Community Health Department, Athens, Georgia
Secondary Prevention/Screenings for a Vulnerable Population
Session I: Sources of Vulnerability
Session II:Implications for Healthcare Providers
Session III: Innovative Practice; Gordon's Functional Health Patterns Assessment
Epidemiological ationale for Topic (statistics related to topic):
The literature on vulnerable people clearly indicates that the special needs of these populations and the ubiquitous barriers to quality care access lead to traceable disparities in the provision of healthcare and in their health outcomes…… [Read More]
Biodefense in America
Bioterrorism specifically refers to the use of biological agents such as bacteria, germs, or viruses to cause sickness or death in a population. A bioterrorist can contaminate the food, air, or water supply with infectious agents designed to cause illness. Bioterrorism presents difficulties in tracing the source of the terrorist act because symptoms may not appear for days. It is difficult to know when, where, and how a person was infected. Anyone can be at risk for bioterrorism at any time. Bioterrorism does not only affect combatants or enemy military personnel, it affects innocent people in the general population. Biodefense refers to measures taken to help eliminate or reduce the possibility of a bioterrorist attack on the population. Biodefense in the United States became an important issue in the public eye after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Towers. This research will…… [Read More]
Combatting Future Terrorism
Fighting future terrorism
Over the years, the U.S.A. government and the entire world has been battling with the issue of terrorism. This is because the act of terrorism has diverse faces, from the rebel terrorists, the insurgents, bioterrorism to the religious sect terrorism. The U.S.A. has in particular been busy figuring out the various ways to not only stop the terrorism act before it happens, but more significantly to hinder the development of the terror groups from developing into fully fledged organizations. The U.S. is not alone in this and many nations have invested heavily in the same and some of the internationally known counterterrorism forces are S.A.S. (Special Air Service), the GSG-9, The Navy SEAL Team 6, SFOD-D (Delta Force), and CIA Special Activities Division (SAD). The SAS belongs to the British Military and the GSG-9 Germany. The Navy SEAL, Delta Force, and SAD are United…… [Read More]
26 Yet public health continued to mean, even more than in the Clinton administration, a technological approach to national defense. In the Bush administration, pharmaceutical protection became the centerpiece of biodefense policy. On December 13, 2002, convinced of the Dark Winter-type threat of smallpox, President Bush announced his nationwide smallpox inoculation program. Publicity about Iraq's potential biological arsenal, especially in the lead-up to the 2003 invasion, and the threat of bioterrorism had convinced many in the public to participate. The states and the CDC were ready to handle the logistics. In addition, civilian participation was voluntary, which reduced legal liability for those who administered the vaccine and for the government.
As might have been predicted, this smallpox vaccination campaign found it difficult to circumvent the well-known fears of vaccination as a source of bodily pollution and the mistrust engendered when vaccines appear a worse health risk than the forecast epidemic.…… [Read More]
Anthrax as a Weapon of Mass Destruction
In 2001, a handful of anthrax letters wreaked havoc. What impact might a sackful have? -- Donald Donahue, 2011
Just one week following the deadly terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, three dozen envelopes were mailed through the U.S. Postal Service, including one to Senate majority leader Tom Daschle's office and others to news media containing anthrax that killed five people and injured more than a dozen others. These events, falling hard on the heels of the most destructive domestic terrorist attack in U.S. history, had many already-nervous Americans wondering if their own mailboxes would also come under attack. Since that time, though, concerns over new anthrax attacks have diminished but some observers caution that the threat remains as serious as in the past. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the relevant literature to determine the impacts of anthrax when used as…… [Read More]
Having known the mounting dangers, many public health and bio-terrorism experts, members of Congress and some well-positioned ush administration officials convey increasing discomfort about what they think are flaws in the country's bio-defenses. Over the earlier years, awareness steps have been made, mainly in the large cities. ut most of necessary equipments are not available.
The federal government's standard answer to the anthrax assaults of 2001 and the warning of upcoming bio-terror attacks has been to accumulate huge amounts of drugs and vaccines to take care of or vaccinate sufferers or possible sufferers. However, these medicines are ineffective if there is no dependable system in place to quickly distribute and give out them to the disturbed populations early enough for the drugs to be successful. Regrettably, as of now, we do not have this strong, competent system in position in the United States. At the close of 2003, only two…… [Read More]
Management Project in the Health Care Organization Setting
This study describes the implementation of a syndromic surveillance system. The syndromic surveillance system collects and analyzes prediagnostic and nonclinical disease indicators, drawing on preexisting electronic data that can be found in systems such as electronic health records, school absenteeism records and pharmacy systems. The systems are utilized to identify specific symptoms within a population that may indicate a public health event or emergency such as signaling an outbreak of an infectious disease. school absenteeism records and pharmacy systems. The systems are utilized to identify specific symptoms within a population that may indicate a public health event or emergency such as signaling an outbreak of an infectious disease.
Informatics Management Project In The Health Care Organization Setting
Part One - Introduction
The objective of this study is to describe the implementation of a syndromic surveillance system. Syndromic surveillance systems collect and analyze…… [Read More]
These efforts include: expansion of international efforts to prevent terrorist acquisition of biological agents, initiated Bioatch program to detect initial releases of biological weapons within the environment, launched food programs to carefully inspect foods for potential bioagents (with greater focus on foreign foods), expanded bioterrorism research (including Project Bioshield, a program to develop medical ripostes to biological agents), and increased medical stockpiles and training for dealing with bioterrorism attacks (Cordesman; Lindler, Lebeda, & Korch; Petsko; Fidler & Gostin). These efforts will help to both prevent the initial release of any biological agents within the general populace or environment, as well as effectively treat afflicted individuals and slow spread through appropriate treatments.
Once biological agents are released into the general population, the extent of disease spread and number of individuals afflicted will be significantly affected by the role and effectiveness of the government through quarantine and treatment (Cordesman; Lindler, Lebeda, &…… [Read More]
The Homeland Security Appropriations Act supplies a total of four billion for state and local assistance agendas. State-based formula grants are financed at one and half billion, including four hundred million for law enforcement, with necessities directing the utilization of the per capita formula. The all hazards Emergency Management Performance Grant program is financed at one hundred and eighty million. Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grants are also made available. The bill provides a total of three hundred and fifteen million in transportation security grants. Firefighter assistance grants are financed at seven hundred and fifteen million, including sixty five million for hiring (Fact Sheet: Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2005, 2004). All of these regulations have placed increased burden on both state and local governments to carry out the tasks that have been placed on them by the approval of these acts.
Fact Sheet: Department of Homeland…… [Read More]
Epidemiological considerations anthracis originates in soil in a lot of regions of this world in which we live. Environmental aspects (for example plentiful precipitation subsequent to a phase of water dearth) might improve spore mass in soil, even though the precise impact of such features remains badly understood (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002).
The organism by and large subsists in the endospore shape in environment; germination of spores exterior to an animal congregation might take place when the subsequent situations are encountered (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002):
elative humidity >95%
Presence of sufficient nutrients
Temperature amid 8°C and 45°C
PH amid 5 and 9 (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002)
Endospores are opposed to heat, drying, gamma radiation, ultraviolet light, and various antiseptics. Spores can continue in soil for decades, as exemplified by organic combat researches all through World War II on the Scottish island of Gruinard. All through 1943, as well as 1944,…… [Read More]
" Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 22 Apr. 2009 .
Goldman, D. "The Generals and the Germs." Journal of Military History 73(2). Apr 2009: p. 531-569. Academic Search Complete. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Guillemin, J. "Germ arfare Under the Microscope." Futurist 42(3) May/Jun 2008: p. 31. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Kelle, A. "Strengthening the Effectiveness of the BT Control Regime -- Feasibility and Options." Contemporary Security Policy 24(2) Aug 2003: p. 95-132. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Kellman, B. "Bioviolence: A Growing Threat." Futurist 42(3) May/Jun 2008: p. 25-30. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Littlewood, J. "Biological eapons: Much Ado and Little Action." Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning & Policy 45(2) Apr 2007: p. 191-203. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of…… [Read More]
isk Analysis and the Security Survey
The following risk analysis and security survey report will be centered on the hospital as an organization. Vulnerabilities can be classified as crime opportunities, opportunities for breaking rules and regulations, opportunities for profiting and also for loss. By definition, vulnerability can be a gap or a weakness inside a security program that might be exploited by opponents to acquire unlawful access. Vulnerabilities include procedural, human, structural, electronic as well as other elements that offer opportunities to damage assets (Vellani and Owles, 2007).
A vulnerability assessment can be classified as a systematic method utilized to evaluate an organization's security position, assess the efficiency of current security infrastructure, as well as, recognize security limitations. The basic approach of a Vulnerability Assessment (VA) first measures what precise assets require protection. Subsequently, VA recognizes the protection measures previously being used to protect those assets, as well as what…… [Read More]
Perhaps the public has become somewhat desensitized by nuclear war, but the idea of unseen agents loosed in the water supply, or used to burn without fire, causes panic to a greater degree (Tucker, 2008, 112-15).
An interesting paradigm regarding the fear factor involved in chemical and biological terrorism may surround the psychological issues that have surrounded the possibility of nuclear fear for decades, almost desensitizing people to it -- and the thought that they would either be instantly vaporized, or at least face a quick death. With biologics and chemicals, though, the fear is more of slowly dying, sick, bleeding, etc. such as shown in the films Outbreak or the Andromeda Strain (Smithson, 2004).
hemical Weapons -- hemical warfare and weaponry is nothing new to the scene of terrorism and war, especially after the advances made during World War I. The destructive effects of chemical weapons are their toxic…… [Read More]
On the prevention side, there needs to be research about the most infectious diseases, widespread vaccination against the most threatening animal borne pathogens, monitoring and intelligence to identify potential threats, and education about bioterrorism at all levels of government (RAND, 2). On the response side, early detection, early containment, treatment plans, stockpiles of vaccines and drugs, and an animal depopulation and disposal plan are all necessary (RAND, 2).
The government has passed a number of laws to help address potential threats and be ready in the event of an attack. For example, the Bioterrorism Preparedness Act tightens control of certain toxins and threatening agents and expands agricultural security. The FDA and USDA have both passed rules to increase record-keeping and monitoring related to potentially dangerous agents. Homeland Security has been authorized to increase agricultural border inspections, with the assistance of the USDA. These inspections identify and quarantine potential threats. (Monke…… [Read More]
Past experience and gut instincts also play a role, and every clinician has his or her own methodology. Even the context of where the patient is seen may impact the assessment: a patient who is treated in the E will receive less personalized care than someone seen by a specialist for the same complaint.
Are Diagnostic Decision Support Systems (DDSS) the solution? They can make medical treatment more standardized, by using data-driven analysis based upon a wealth of experience much greater than one clinician can possess. However, not all DDSS systems may be equally effective. According to Bravata (et al. 2004): "Systems specifically designed to support the diagnosis of bioterrorism-relevant diseases or syndrome" were deemed "critically deficient," and as "false-positive and false-negative rates are unknown for most systems, decision making on the basis of these systems is seriously compromised." Not all DDSS systems are created equal, especially systems designed to…… [Read More]
6). What doctors do know is that the young, the elderly and those with compromised immune systems are far more likely to suffer adverse effects or become contaminated should an epidemic break out. These populations are also far more likely to develop the disease or suffer from side effects of vaccination which may include a heart attack (Annas, 2003).
Many suggest the risk is unknown, because the disease is nearly eradicated, it would take a modern outbreak to ascertain the prognosis of individuals with the disease in modern times. Many feel however, that discourse on the subject is best left unsaid, because the more people discuss the disease, the more likely it is that someone will inadvertently get hold of the disease and attempt to use it.
Annas, George J. "Smallpox Vaccine: Not Worth the isk," the Hastings Center eport, 33.2, 2003. pp.6-9.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.…… [Read More]
The response by the United States to biorisk management at the national level provides a useful example of what can be accomplished with the right resources and vision. For instance, in December 2009, the U.S. government published its "National Strategy for Countering Biological Threats," representing the basic framework for the U.S. response to emerging bioterrorism threats. In the State of the Union address in 2010, President Barack Obama mentioned the National Strategy as an approach that "will give us the capacity to respond faster and more effectively to bioterrorism or an infectious disease." The implementation and oversight of this initiative is the responsibility of the U.S. Department of State's Biosecurity Engagement Program (BEP). This agency is tasked with promoting the National Strategy through efforts targeted at improving biorisk management and infectious disease surveillance practices around the world. To this end, the BEP has strengthened its commitment to the African continent,…… [Read More]
The challenges are many for those in the industry for the first quarter-century of the new millenium but the hope is that information technological advances will smooth the transitions that must be made if healthcare is to be effective or successful in future initiatives of delivery quality healthcare.
Public Health Issues
The Global Face of Healthcare
Statement of Thesis:
Finally this work will describe several different countries' public health systems and compare and contrast the similarities and differences noted as well as the political economic, service, expense and other major issues linked to the various structures and forms of the healthcare systems around the world. The various public health tradeoffs that are made on the societal level based on limited resources and competitive priorities will be briefly examined as well.
While the business world has streamlined processes and become more customer-centric the healthcare agency is seeking to do the same…… [Read More]
Anthrax: An Attack on the United States
Anthrax is an acute disease that is caused by a bacteria known as bacillus anthracis. Anthrax most commonly occurs in lower-level vertebrates both wild and domestic, such as cows, goats, sheep, and camels. However, anthrax infection can also occur in humans when they are exposed to animals that are infected, or to tissue from these animals ("Anthrax," 2003). The anthrax infection in humans can take three forms: cutaneous, inhalation, or gastrointestinal. This paper examines the signs and symptoms of anthrax, as well as looks at the circumstances of the most current outbreak of anthrax in the United States.
Anthrax is not very common in the United States, at least not anymore. Anthrax is primarily a disease of agricultural countries where contact with and exposure to animals is a common, daily occurrence. When anthrax infects a human being, it is normally through contact with…… [Read More]
United States' Strategy for Dealing with a Chemical, Biological, adiological or Nuclear Non-State Actor Threat
One of the major potential threats that has emerged in recent years is a chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBN) threat from a non-state actor. In the "good old days" of the Cold War, nation-states with these capabilities were well-known to the international community and contingency plans were developed by the United States and its allies to counter any eventuality. By very sharp contrast, today, non-state actors, including most especially international terrorist groups, have increasing access to these lethal materials, and the potential for their use as a weapon of mass destruction looms large. To determine the current situation with respect to the United States, this paper provides a review of the relevant publicly available literature to identify this country's current strategy for responding to CBN threats, a technical description of the equipment and training…… [Read More]
Digital Disease Detection, commonly referred to as digital epidemiology provided strategies and methods for allowing digital-technology users to monitor infectious disease and conduct surveillance. These strategies help in the understanding of concerns and attitudes regarding infectious diseases. The process begins with the basics, such as the availability of internet access, online sharing platforms and other digital devices. These sources offer huge amounts of data. It is important to note that while these sources collect data, they do not, do so, with public health objectives in focus (Denecke, 2017).
The past few decades have seen tremendous changes in the world. There have been many and varied threats; from bioterrorism, influenza pandemics and the emergence of infectious diseases. There is also the issue of unforeseen population mobility which is among the reasons that triggered the development of public health surveillance systems. Such systems are invaluable tools in the detection and response…… [Read More]
Therefore, it is necessary to account for the acquisition of habits.
Due to certain limitations of the behaviorism approach, there have been revisions to the theory over the century. For example, although behaviorism helped people to forecast, alter, and change behavior over time, it did not attempt nor intend to understand how or why the theory worked. The present-day social cognitive approach asserts that behavior is results from an ongoing reciprocal three-way relationship among the individual (cognition), the environment (physical context, which consists of the organizational structure and design, social context or other people), and the person's past behavior. This broader view, called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) incorporates the cognitive in addition to the behavioral approaches to therapy and view people "as active seekers and interpreters of information, not just responders to environmental influences" (Nevid, 2007, p. 484). Many psychologists now believe that behavior is understood best by studying the…… [Read More]
Translational medicine is a new discipline, which covers studies on basic science, on human investigations, non-human investigations, and translational research (Mankoff et al. 2004). asic science studies address the biological effects of medicines on human beings. Studies on humans discover the biology of disease and serve as foundation for developing therapies. Non-human or non-clinical studies advance therapies for clinical use or use in human disease. And translational research refers to appropriate product development for clinical use. Translational research looks into the identity, purity and potency of a drug product during early clinical trial (Mankoff et al.). Translating the knowledge derived from basic sciences into clinical research and treatments is the task of translational medicine (Nagappa 2006). There is a groaning need for this type of research on account of voluminous information in the information age. Using this information is the challenge encountered by scientists and healthcare providers everywhere in the…… [Read More]
Some of the nerve agents such as VX and Tabun are also highly persistent in that their effects last in the field for longer periods of time. [Wisconsin Project, (2010)]
Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)
The 1925 Geneva protocol prohibited the use of poisonous gases in warfare but flagrant violations of the accord by various nations is clearly evident when we glance through the wars that took place in the previous century. Starting with the Second World War, the Vietnam War, and the more recent Gulf wars, the use of chemical weapons has continued in sheer violation of the Geneva treaty. [Geneva Protocol, (1925)] The loopholes and the reservations in the Geneva protocol implied that the threat of chemical warfare was always looming large. It is only pertinent here to point out that not only the so called rogue states (Iran, Iraq, Korea) engaged in chemical warfare but also the U.S.…… [Read More]
S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011). Furthermore, subpart C explains the privileges and the protections of confidentiality that is attached to the patient's record along with much exception (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011).
The penalty for anyone who breaks confidentiality is imperative. In "November, 23, 2009" was increased to $11,000 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011). This goes for anyone in the medical field or has access to this information. A person has to follow HIPAA precisely or face a huge fine. If one thought of this ahead of time, whether or not they own a business, then no issues would arise legally. However, sometimes this does occur, especially for those who want to harm another person, yet in the medical field the goal is not to do this to any individual, regardless, otherwise he or she could face losing their license in…… [Read More]
According to Stefanie Olson (2001), the Act provides government with increased electronic surveillance, search and data gathering power. Under the guise of tracking down "potential" terrorists, the expansion of Internet eavesdropping technology provides the government with full viewing rights into any private life they choose. In this way, immigrants who enter the country and conduct their business in a perfectly legal manner are now targeted for such surveys (White, 2008).
Local and National Changes in Law Enforcement - the basic mission of law enforcement and foreign/defense policy in the United States has dramatically changed since the events of 9/11 and the subsequent "War on Terrorism." Since 9/11, policies across the United States and abroad have changed from being reactive to being intensely proactive. There, are, however, several challenges faced by law enforcement and the legal issues of defense and foreign policy regarding this new approach to terrorism (Simonson, 2006).
Even…… [Read More]
" (Rosen, 1) in a regard, community health falls within this purview and is a subset to the broader topic of public health.
c. Differences in roles of public and community health nurse and nurse in an acute care setting
The role which is given to the nurse in the public or community health context should be essentially similar to that which is seen in an acute care context. Ethical, practical and medical conditions remain unchanged from one context to the next. However, the nurse will be required to prepare for certain distinctions which do denote a difference. Particularly, nurses in public health settings are less likely to possess the resources and facilities which are afforded those in the acute care setting. This means that in many instances, public health nurses can only function as the front line for consultation, diagnosis and basic treatment. here more serious concerns become apparent,…… [Read More]
Many responders, lacking clear guidance, would simply react to apparent immediate needs" ("Emergency management," 2009). It is important to note that in the event of a terrorist incident, local first responders would be the first on the scene, and it is imperative that incident commanders gain control or at least understand the complexities of the situation. However, there are national agencies, under the guidance of FEMA and other government agencies, that offer national response coordination 24/7 every day of the year. These organizations train in every state, and would eventually coordinate the response operations for a major terrorist incident in the country. The Department of Health and Human Services Web site notes, "The Secretary's Operations Center (SOC) is directly connected to the DHS National Operations Center and the FEMA National esponse Operations Center. It serves as the focal point for situational awareness, information management and response coordination for HHS" (Yeskey,…… [Read More]
In 2002, "President Bush signed into law the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002, which, among other things, eliminated the need to convene an advisory committee to amend the list of diseases" listed as quarantineable (Misrahi, Foster, Shaw, & Cetron 2004).
This law became significant during the SARS scare. Before 2002 "the list of federal quarantinable diseases in the United States had not been revised since 1983. It included cholera, diphtheria, infectious tuberculosis, plague, smallpox, yellow fever, and viral hemorrhagic fevers such as Marburg, Ebola, and Congo-Crimean" fevers (Misrahi, Foster, Shaw, & Cetron 2004). The CDC was able to quickly ad SARS to the list. In the past, the CDC "generally deferred to state and local health authorities...to restrict the movement of persons within their boundaries" with such diseases (Misrahi, Foster, Shaw, & Cetron 2004). Its greater legislative ability to move quickly in classifying the…… [Read More]
However, surprisingly, distance educators have not caught onto the trend. Web 2.0 applications offer users an experience beyond the typical University experience. Second Life offers the ability to add the social element and interaction that is often missing from the distance education experience. If traditional universities and public entities see the opportunity to use Second Life for education, and to disseminate public information, then this would seem like the next logical step in improving distance education programs. Students could attend a virtual classroom that is like a brick and mortar classroom in many ways.
One of the key difficulties in implementing online education in an online world is that students may not have access or the skills necessary to function in an online world. Second Life requires the most advanced graphics cards and systems to run. It will not run on older systems or those that do not meet the…… [Read More]
3 Strategies of CDC
As mentioned in the introduction, the Centers for Disease Control and prevention has developed and implemented six sets of strategies as follows:
Health Impact Focus - the alignment of CDC's employees, objectives, strategies, investments and performances in order to maximize the CDC's beneficial effects upon public health
Customer Centricity - Like any other corporation, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is focused on offering those products and services required and needed by the population in order to improve and preserve their health
Public Health esearch - the CDC funds and conducts numerous researches aimed at identifying new treatments and any other issues which would positively affect the public health
Leadership - the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention possesses the best skilled and qualified employees, guided by the most committed managers and supported by strategic partners, all to improve the health system within the United…… [Read More]
Chemical and Biological Terroism
Biological and Chemical Terrorism Prevention
The United States Government has identified the potential of chemical, biological, radiological and/or nuclear (termed CBN) terrorism, especially after the September 11 attacks. They have been concerned ever since Sarin was used in a Tokyo subway (Aum Shinrikyo in 1995) and the anthrax case (in November 2001). The chances of terrorists resorting to these agents in warfare are pretty high considering their advantages over conventional methods. Most organizations fighting terrorism are not equipped well enough to detect such chemicals. A closed container can help most of them escape discovery. The low cost involved in their production increases the dangers manifold. Since most of the above agents affect the human body directly, they are essentially more efficient than conventional warfare.
Chemical weapons have four major classifications. Choking agents are aimed at being fatal and are easily accessible. Phosgene is one such industrial…… [Read More]
CRNE Event and Response
Over the last several years, the safety of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive related weapons (CRNE) has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because downfall of the Soviet Union has meant that acquiring these materials from failed states have increased exponentially. As, the stockpiles in many of these areas have questionable security procedures that are allowing terrorist and other rogue organizations to have access to these materials. (Prosser, 2011)
At the same time, the total amount of countries that are possessing these materials have increased dramatically. As different nations, are using these weapons to protect against possible military attacks or internal insurrection. In a number of cases, the majority of states that possess CRNE's are more than likely considered to: have questionable human rights records or they may not have signed different international provisions limiting the proliferation of…… [Read More]
responsibilities of the federal, state, and local public health systems?
On a federal level, the USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) and the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) regulate food and drug safety, to ensure that American consumers are protected against tainted or unsafe products. The Surgeon General has often been the spearhead of public health campaigns, such as to encourage Americans to quit smoking or to be aware of the gravity of the AIDS epidemic. The White House has likewise championed many public health service campaigns, such as the current 'Let's Move' campaign of Michelle Obama. The Department of Health and Human Services oversees the majority of health-related initiatives on the part of the federal government, including Medicare, the health insurance program provided for all seniors (HHS, 2011, Official Website).
However, state and local public agencies also have substantial responsibilities in safeguarding public safety. "State health agencies must be able…… [Read More]