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Case Study on Bioterrorism
Create a scenario of a hypothetical bioterrorist attack involving botulism or plague. Your scenario should include characteristics that are more indicative of an intentional outbreak than a natural outbreak.
Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague, an enzootic vectorborne disease usually infecting rodents (rats) and fleas and humans can become infected after being bitten by fleas that have fed on infected rodents; in humans, the disease usually occurs in the form of bubonic plague (Riedel, 2005). However, there are many other forms of this disease that can also be created artificially. In some cases, the infection can spread without the need for infestation and through oral pathways. This from of the disease can be spread to the lungs via the bloodstream and causes secondary pneumonic plague.
Plague is also recognized as a potential agent of bioterrorism because of the person-to-person transmission has been described…
Inglesby, T. (2000). Plague as a Biological Weapon. JAMA, 2281-2290.
Riedel, S. (2005). Plague: from natural disease to bioterrorism. Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center, 166-124.
Bioterrorism and Future Impact in Nursing
Biological warfare threat has spread across the globe from developed to developing, countries in the last few years. It causes alarm among the professionals such as journalist, academics, and policy analysts. Most important, it has caught the attention of policy makers and policy analysts to rethink the whole concept of bioterrorist (Sharyn Janes, 2008). Therefore, what is Bioterrorist? What is its future impact in nursing? Bioterrorism can be defined as the use of biological agents by individual or groups to course harm to people. It's considered to be mostly politically motivated to intimidate the government (WS Carus, 1998).
Terrorist see this biological agents as a tool for achieving specialized objectives not necessarily intended to directly influence government actions. Virtually all bioterrorists seek to keep their use of biological agents a secret, because in many instances success depended on the lack of appreciation that a…
Karen .Saucier Lundy, Sharyn Janes, (2008). Community Health Nursing and bioterrorism
Caring for the Public's Health 2nd edition
Edgar J. DaSilva (2009). Biological warfare, Journal of Biotechnology ISSN: 0717-3458
Bioterrorism, biodefence and the biological and toxin weapons convention
Bioterrorism is "the use, or threatened use, of biological agents to promote or spread fear or intimidation upon an individual, a specific group, or the population as a whole for religious, political, ideological, financial, or personal purposes" (Arizona Department of Health Services, 2005). Bioterrorism is the weaponization of biological agents or material; as such, it poses a huge potential risk to the United States, given the relative affordability and accessibility of its components. A critical determinant of the nation's ability to effectively respond to such an attack is the capacity of the nation's public health system, at the local, state, and federal level.
Gail Dudley and obin McFee's article "Preparedness for Biological Terrorism in the United States: Project BioShield and Beyond" is an introduction and explanation of one of the most important pieces of federal legislation addressing bioterrorism; as such, it falls into the 'federal preparedness' research category. The piece…
Arizona Department of Health Services. (2005). Definition of Bioterrorism. Bureau of Emergency Preparedness and Response. Retrieved from http://www.azdhs.gov/phs/edc/edrp/es/bthistor1.htm
Dudley, Gail, McFee, Robin B. (2005). Preparedness for Biological Terrorism in the United States: BioShield and Beyond. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 105(9): 417-242.
Garfield, Rachel. (2005). State Preparedness for Bioterrorism and Public Health Emergencies. The Commonwealth Fund, Issue Brief, July 2005. Retrieved from http://www.commonwealthfund.org/usr_doc/829_Garfield_bioterrorism.pdf
Levi, J, Segal, LM, Lieberman, Alpert D., St. Laurent, R. (2011). Ready or Not? Protecting the Public's Health from Diseases, Disasters, And Bioterrorism. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, December 2011. Retrieved from http://www.rwjf.org/files/research/73723.readyornot.12.20.11.pdf
Biological weapon can be defined as any kind of organism such as the bacteria, fungi or viruses, or any toxin (poisonous compounds that are produced by organisms) that can be used to kill the host or kill/injure human beings. There are varying acts of bioterrorism ranging from a hoax to actual use of these biological weapons or agents. Of late, a very significant number of countries are pursuing the ownership or possession of biological weapons and there is a growing concern among many nations that there is a possibility of terrorist groups having access to the weapons or the knowledge of making such weapons and using term to kill an individual or a population (Daniel J. Dire, 2011).
The identified bioterrorism in this case is the famous "amerithrax" or the anthrax terror that was launched in the U.S.A. In 2001, shortly after the 9/11 terror attack on America. This…
Daniel J. Dire, (2011). Biological Warfare. Retrieved January 18, 2012 from http://www.emedicinehealth.com/biological_warfare/article_em.htm
Erin C. Hoffman, (2010). U.S. Response to the 2001 Anthrax Incidents. Project on National
Security Reform. Retrieved January 18, 2012 from http://www.pnsr.org/web/page/934/sectionid/579/pagelevel/3/interior.asp
FBI, (2012). Amerithrax or Anthrax Investigation. Retrieved January 18, 2012 from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/history/famous-cases/anthrax-amerithrax/amerithrax-investigation
Bioterrorism has been noted as the use of any kind of organism such as the bacteria, fungi or viruses, or any toxin (poisonous compounds that are produced by organisms) to eliminate the host. hese elements are known to exist naturally within our environment. his then presents a legal loophole into who is supposed to posses these elements and what quantities would be termed as enough to be considered a weapon. here are real legal obstacles or shortcomings to the war against terror and in particular to the idea of bioterrorism. It is quite unclear at the global level what agents constitute biological weapons, and for the few known or categorized agents, there is no definite quantity that has been given a global legal framework to be able to be referred to as biological weapon hence constituting the possibility of being used for bio terrorism.
his lack of clear legal boundaries…
This then calls for a surveillance system that will help cure the effects of this weapon incase it used by some terrorist group. Of central importance in the surveillance system is an operational laboratory where the suspicious elements can be processed fast and an action taken as fast as possible. Early detection and rapid response is also central to the surveillance of the bioterrorism and related activities. This can be effectively done by the use of the syndromic surveillance as well as the proposed surveillance using cell phones.
Both of these surveillance means have significant challenges that come with them making the fight or caution against bioterrorism elusive. There is the issue of syndromic surveillance depending on zip codes which proves to be unreliable as there is an underlying assumption that the mobility of the infected people is minimal or the infection will definitely happen when people are at home since it does not provide for the option of moving people. The data and information given by the syndromic surveillance is also quite nonspecific hence making it hard to identify a bioterrorism threat and make it out from the normal infections that could be plaguing an area. The cell phone surveillance also has its potential shortcomings since the participants may volunteer false information due to panic response to a situation that they have seen with another person or heard of such an outbreak and will take it that they also have the infection.
There are several efforts to ensure that bioterrorism has been reduced to a minimum level where it no longer poses threat to the American population like was the case in 2001 and the world at large. There are several steps that have been taken and to a large extent the efforts have been paying off. There is however need to put in more effort so as to ensure there are legal framework on handling potential bioterrorism elements as well as the effective surveillance methods to keep the relevant authorities in good position to help the public incase of an attack.
iological weapons can significantly change the battlefield. Today's leaders must always be on the watch for new threats that can arise in newly designed ways. The enemy is always planning to expose weaknesses in the defense. iological weaponry is such a technology that can bring devastating effects and exploit weaknesses both tactically and strategically. The purpose of this essay is to examine the appeal of biological weapons to terrorist organizations. I will accomplish this by first defining what biological warfare is and give context to the usage of the idea of terrorism's relationship to these types of arms. I will then explore specific advantages and disadvantages to the use of biological warfare. y comparing and contrasting biological warfare to both nuclear and chemical warfare, the differences will be more clearly understood.
Language and understanding must relate through common definitions and is important to discern between important terms…
"Biological Weapon." Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/938340/biological-weapon (accessed January 12, 2013).
Cooper, Melinda. "Pre-Empting Emergence, The Biological Turn in the War on Terror." Theory, Culture & Society 23(4) (2006), http://www.16beavergroup.org/drift/readings/pre - empting-emergence.pdf (accessed January 12, 2013).
DiGiovanni, Cleto. "Domestic Terrorism With Chemical or Biological Agents: Psychiatric Aspects." American Journal of Psychiatry 156 (199), http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?articleID=173732 (accessed January 12, 2013).
Kortepeter, Mark and Gerald Parker. "Potential Biological Weapons Threats." Emerging Infectious Diseases 5(4) (1999): 523-28.
Then Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen said the program was "specifically designed so that the people we train become trainers themselves. This approach will greatly magnify our efforts to produce a core of qualified first responders across the nation." In March 1998, Cohen announced an additional Department of Defense support initiative -- the military's first-ever rapid assessment teams, AID (rapid assessment, identification and detection). "These new AID teams will quickly reach the scene of the incident in order to help local first responders figure out what kind of attack occurred, its extent, and the steps needed to minimize and manage the consequences." He added: "Getting prepared for such an attack is extremely complicated, given the wide range of possible threats and the many players at the local, state and federal levels (U.S. DOD).
However, a large number of cities do not have any plans to respond to a chemical…
Center for Disease Control. "Biological and Chemical Terrorism: Strategic Plan for Prepardness." Washington, D.C.: Center for Disease Control. 49(RR04), April 21, 2000, 1-14.
Douglass, Joseph D. And Neil C. Livingston. America the Vulnerable. Lexington, MA:
Lexington Books, 1987.
Ember, Lois R. "FBI Takes Lead in Developing Counter-terrorism Effort." Chemical & Engineering News. 4 November 1996: 10-16.
Challenges to bioterrorism
Challenges to surveillance
Having noted the surveillance methods that can be used in the monitoring of the bioterrorism and the possible intentional infection, there are some challenges that these surveillance systems might encounter. Bearing the nature of the agents that are used in bioterrorism, the challenges that might be experienced by both the syndromic surveillance and cell phone surveillance may have several similarities.
The syndromic surveillance challenges
Bearing the fact that syndromic surveillance depends on the general survey of the trend of a bioterrorism agent, the information that is generated from such a surveillance is quite general and in effect whenever such a surveillance systems comes across an anomalous trend in the health of the public, it would be hard for those implementing it to immediately propose a mass measure like issuance of antibiotics in order to curb the threat. There will therefore be a…
Adam Szpiro et.al., (2007). Health Surveillance and Diagnosis for Mitigatinga Bio-terror Attack. Lincoln Laboratory Journal. Vol.17 No.1. Retrieved March 7, 2012 from http://www.ll.mit.edu/publications/journal/pdf/vol17_no1/17_1_5Szpiro.pdf
Tener Godwin, (2006). Early Detection and Surveillance for Biopreparedness and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Retrieved March 8, 2012 from http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Volume112006/No1Jan06/tpc29_2c16059.html
smallpox as a weapon against societies. The writer explores the viability of using smallpox as a weapon as well as some of the things societies have done to prepare for such a possibility. In addition the education of the American public for such an attack is discussed. There were seven sources used to complete this paper.
Bioterrorism has been a concern of the United States for many years. During most skirmishes, following 9-11 and of course during and after the onset of the war in Iraq, Americans were concerned about the release of bio-chemical warfare. One of the more common concerns recently has been small pox. Small pox is something that if released on the world could cause hundreds of thousands if not millions to perish. The American government has voiced concerns about Saddam Hussein's ability to implement such an attack, as well as Al-QADA forces being able to do…
GEORGE GEDDA, Associated Press Writer, U.S. says some countries may have hidden smallpox viruses., AP Worldstream, 11-05-2002
Author not available, U.S. draws up smallpox plan., The Toronto Star, 09-24-2002.
Author not available, EXPERTS ARE RIGHT TO PLAN DEFENSE AGAINST SMALLPOX., Portland Press Herald (Maine), 07-10-2002, pp 8A.
Author not available, Health officials call for renewed smallpox vaccinations., Agence France Presse English, 03-29-2002.
Threat of Bioterrorism
There are many reasons to believe that overruling of the possibility of bioterrorism in the country is a serious mistake. In fact, it is practically impossible to ignore the fact that in the recent past, there has been an escalation in the cases of bioterrorist attacks. However, this has not always been the case and many people were in denial of the possibility of anyone using such measures to cause harm. It was only after the fateful September 11 attacks over a decade away that shook the faith and created the one notion in the minds of Americans that this was real. A month later, a case of a man suffering from inhalational anthrax was trending (okach et al. 2010). This is the reason why the government is keen to take all measures necessary to curb the issue. However, the main question that arises in the issue…
Borrelli, J.V. (2007). Bioterrorism: Prevention, preparedness and protection. New York: Nova
Crosse, M. (2003). Hospital Preparedness: Most Urban Hospitals Have Emergency Plans but Lack Certain Capacities for Bioterrorism Response: GAO-03-924. GAO Reports, 1.
Evans, R., & Lawrence, S. (2006). Preparing for and responding to bioterrorist attacks: the role of disease management initiatives. Disease Management & Health Outcomes, 14(5), 265-
security professionals respond to a Bioterrorism attack in the United States. hat are the precise steps that are taken -- or should be taken -- to protect citizens in the event of an attack? An article by the former head of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Michael Chertoff, provides step-by-step information relative to the response security officials follow in the event of a Bioterrorism attack.
Chertoff asserts on page 8 that the "key" to meeting the challenge of a possible terrorist-related biological threat is to approach it in a "systematic, comprehensive way" which involves a great deal of intelligent advanced planning. Though vitally important, this kind of advanced planning cannot ever fully anticipate all the ramifications of a terror attack in the biological genre. Chertoff is showing his savvy when he explains that "every aspect of society" can be expected to be impacted during a biologically induced catastrophe.…
Chertoff, Michael. (2008). Confronting Biological Threats to the Homeland. Joint Force
Quarterly, 51(4), 8-12.
Smaller particles follow the fluid streamlines and exit the sample." (NATIO, 2001)
The method of operation of a "bubbler or impinger" is through "drawing aerosols through a current inlet tube and jet. Usually the jet is submerged in the liquid contained in the sampler." (NATIO, 2001) the aerosol particles become capture din the base of the jet by the surface of the liquid as the air moves through the liquid. Collection of the smallest of the particles is enabled by a "small critical orifice causing the flow to become sonic." (NATIO, 2001)There are designs that also form bubbles in the liquid as air leaves the jet which is fitted. The Variable Particle-Size Impactors are stated to generally have."..multiple stages" in which "each stage contains a number of precision-drilled orifices that are appropriate for the size of the participle to be collected in that stage and orifice sizes decrease with each…
Farr, Matthew (2004) Chemical Detection vs. Biological Detection Strategies 30 Jun 2004. Frost & Sullivan. Online available at http://www.frost.com/prod/servlet/market-insight-top.pag?docid=20844192
Hood, Ernie (1999) Chemical and Biological Weapons: New Questions, New Answers. Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 107, Number 12, December 1999. Online available at http://www.ehponline.org/docs/1999/107-12/hood.html
DoD. DoD News Briefing. Proliferation: Threat and Response Briefing. Washington, DC:Department of Defense, 1997. Available: http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Nov1997/t112597_t1125ptr.html [cited 19 October 1999
Doesburg, John (2003) Briefing on Chemical and Biological Defense Readiness. 3 March 2003. U.S. Department of Defense. Online available at:
They are relatively inexpensive and available worldwide, easy to produce, easy to hide and is getting easy to deliver as well. iologic agents are viewed by many as the weaponry of the future. They are also called the poor man's bomb. State-sponsored warfare aims at killing large numbers of enemy population. A terrorist organization or individual, on the other hand, may use biologic agents for less deadly aims, such as incapacitating target local population. They may also be used to cause social or political unrest or sow fear and mistrust. The thought of it is deathly and depressing and quite real (Relman & Olson). #
roman, T. et al. (2010). Molecular detection of persistent Francisella Tularensis
subspecies Holaretica in natural waters. Vol 2011 International Journal of Microbiology: Hindawi Publishing Corporation. Retrieved on November 27, 2010
uehler et al. (2003). Syndromic surveillance and bioterrorism-related epidemics. 9 (10)
Broman, T. et al. (2010). Molecular detection of persistent Francisella Tularensis
subspecies Holaretica in natural waters. Vol 2011 International Journal of Microbiology: Hindawi Publishing Corporation. Retrieved on November 27, 2010
Buehler et al. (2003). Syndromic surveillance and bioterrorism-related epidemics. 9 (10)
bio-terrorism. The writer explores what type of threat it is and how the nation has prepared for it, especially after the events of 9-11. The writer also provides a one page outline of the topic. There were ten sources used to complete this paper.
What is Bioterrorism?
How can it be used against us?
What types of things can be used to commit it?
Steps that were taken after 9-11
What should be done for future protection?
Protecting our borders
For almost two hundred years Americans were lulled into a false sense of security with the belief that nobody could penetrate the "invisible" shield of protection around the country. While chaos was happening around the world by way of attacks, bio-terroristic threats, wars and other problems, Americans went about their daily business believing it could never happen here. And then…
Closer to home: Long relegated to the margins, foreign news has experienced a modest resurgence since September 11. But much of the coverage has focused on the war on terrorism and the Middle East. Will the blackout
Health care adapts to 9/11 world; Nursing schools see rise in candidates for degrees.(Careers)
OHIO READIES FOR BIOTERRORISM EFFORT IMPROVING ALL OF PUBLIC HEALTH.(News)
Disasters and bioterrorism: does management training develop readiness? (From the Schools of Public Health).
Therefore the consequences of such restrictions and regulations have further complicated the case, the research activities have been either shunned or go unreported to avoid any confrontation with the investigation agencies, 'the climate of fear created by the Butler case is even threatening the ability of the United States government to detect bioterrorist activity, the labs in one state are no longer reporting routine incidents of animals poisoned with ICIN, a deadly toxin found in castor beans, for fear of federal investigation'. Stanley Falkow, a respected researcher at Stanford University in California, in his letter to the former attorney-general of the United States revealed that, 'Trying to meet the unwarranted burden of what the government considers 'bio-safety' is simply not coincident with the practice of sound, creative scientific research'. The government introduced a policy which highlighted the need for tight control over the biologists 'with access to dangerous pathogens', in…
Robyn L. Pangi, Arnold M. Howitt. Countering Terrorism: Dimensions of Preparedness. 2003. MIT Press. pp. 341
Anthony Kubaik. Stages of Terror: terrorism, Ideology, and Coercion as theatre History. 2000. Pp. 154.
Jamie Lewis Keith. Regulation of Biological Materials under Export Controls and Bioterrorism Laws. University of Florida Press. 2003.
Debora MacKenzie. U.S. crackdown on Bio-Terror is backfiring. New Scientist Publication. November 2003.
This is particularly ironic in light of the 2001 ashington anthrax attacks ("Communicating in the," 2007).
For this reason, the training of the APN/CPL as first responders is critical, particularly in the areas of teamwork and communication in a crisis zone. The APN/CPL professional knows this from firsthand experience in working in triage or emergency situations as first responders. In 2003 in an article in the journal Public Health Nursing a bulwark in the preparedness for a bioterrorism attack (Mondy, Cardenas & Avila, 2003, 424). hile this journal article urges the expansion of training of first responders, we have noted the declining funding levels. e have also noted the importance of making use of other funding and training in the areas of disease prevention and that funding programs in other sectors can do double duty in the preparation for a bioterrorism emergency. Referring back to the Public Health Nursing article,…
Communicating in the first hours bioterrorism agents. (2007, May 14). Retrieved from http://www.bt.cdc.gov/firsthours/bioterrorism.asp.
Texas scored seven out of ten key indicators for emergency health preparedness in new report. (2011). Retrieved from http://healthyamericans.org/reports/bioterror10/release.php?stateid=TX.
Pathogen Detection Methods:
Scientists across the globe have been able to string total microbial genomes effectively and rapidly due to advances in the DNA sequencing technology. This is largely because the access to the DNA sequences of whole microbial genomes provides new opportunities to evaluate and understand micro-organism at the molecular level. Consequently, many scientists have been able to discover pathogens within biological tissues and examine variations in gene expression in reaction to the invasion of pathogens.
esearch Activities in Pathogen Detection:
Pathogen detection methods have been utilized as important parts of research in various fields like food safety, biodefense, pathology, clinical research, drug discovery, forensics, animal health care, and diagnostics. As terrorism has grown to become a major global threat, bioweapons or biological weapons, which are pathogenic organisms and their toxic substances, have become a pernicious threat. These products can be released into the air and water systems or…
Gluodenis, T. & Harrison, S. (2004, February). Homeland Security and Bioterrorism Applications: Detection of Bioweapon Pathogens by Microfluidic-based Electrophoretic DNA Analysis. Retrieved February 14, 2012, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3230/is_2_36/ai_n6065931/
Lazcka, O., Del Campo, F.J. & Munoz, F.X. (2006, August 28). Pathogen Detection: A Perspective of Traditional Methods and Biosensors. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 22(2007), 1205-17. Retrieved from http://cau.ac.kr/~jjang14/BioMEMS/Lazcka_BSBE_Pathogen_Detection_Review_2006.pdf
2001 there was an Anthrax attack which created an alert of how bioterrorism had an impact on the public health emergencies. These types of emergencies can not only spread illnesses but also cause several deaths. The can also affect government operations which include the economic growth, creating fear which can cause International crisis. There has been an alert on illnesses that have previously been curbed reappearing with most of them resisting the drugs in the market. There has also been an alert of the food supplies in the market due to the terrorists because they can be used to spread infections.
The public health system is highly responsible for detecting any bioterrorist attacks enabling the government to prepare for any attacks. This means that the government should enhance all infrastructure connected to health systems in order to integrate any threats related to biological or chemical terror attacks (Hamburg 2003).This is…
Chomel, B., & Sun, B. (2010). Bioterrorism and invasive species. Revue Scientifique Et Technique (International Office Of Epizootics), 29(2), 193-199
Hamburg, M.A. (2003).Testimony to the Government Reform Committee, U.S. House of Representatives.
Heinrich, J. September (2003).Testimony to the Subcommitteeon Emergency Preparedness and Response, Select Committeeon Homeland Security, U.S.House of Representatives
Institute of Medicine. (2003). Microbial Threats to Health: Emergence, Detection, and Response. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Director Danny Boyle's 2003 movie, 28 Days Later, is an insightful reflection of societal fears of bioterrorism, terrorism and catastrophic warfare. In the movie, Boyle uses a variety of techniques, including plot, cinematography, theme, and characters in order to reveal society's uneasiness.
In recent years, the world has been rocked by the growth of fears over a diverse set of growing threats to global political and economic stability and world health. The tragedy of September 11th brought the world into a new era of fear over terrorist acts. Since then, public uneasiness has only been heightened by the train bombings in Madrid, the Bali bombings, and continued governmental appeals for constant vigilance against terrorism. The fear of bioterrorism has also grown in recent years, with the release of sarin nerve gas on a Tokyo subway, and the presence of anthrax in the U.S. mail. Adding to this climate of fear…
28 Days Later. 2003. Director: Danny Boyle. Starring: Cillian Murphy, Naomie Harris, Noah Huntley, Brendan Gleeson, Megan Burns, Christopher Eccleston. Cinematography: Anthony Dod Mantle. Music: John Murphy. Fox Searchlight.
BBC News. U.S. warns against travel to Israel. Last Updated: Thursday, 29 April, 2004, 01:12 GMT 02:12 UK.
29 April 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/3668565.stm
CBC News. More than 100 dead in Thai violence. Last Updated Wed, 29 Apr 2004 20:14:48. 28 April 2004. http://www.cbc.ca/stories/2004/04/28/world/thailand040428
Due to the apparently low level of contagion, the need for public awareness is not urgent, but it is still necessary. Warnings to stay away from the convention area and to report to a local hospital if symptoms developed after being in the area or in contact with someone who had been at the convention should be issued (CDC 2009).
The known details of the attack, however, should not be released, as it is likely to create panic and bolster the terrorists' optimism. Federal assistance should be immediately sought, not necessarily for control of the spread of the disease but for the investigation and apprehension of suspects. All available resources should be called in as soon as possible in order to counter the attack. As far as treatment of the attack goes, mass prophylaxis of all convention attendees and those who have come into contact with infected individuals should be…
Bravata DM, Sundaram V, McDonald KM, Smith WM, Szeto H, Schleinitz MD, et al. (2004). "Detection and diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism response." Emerging infectious diseases. Accessed 25 April 2009.
The obesity crisis is, I believe, even more important than problems surrounding food safety-borne epidemics. Despite the recent attention given to obesity in the popular media, obesity is in some ways more difficult to treat than food safety issues. People's consciousness may be raised by a fear if becoming sick through food poisoning and throw out the offending, recalled products on their shelves if they contain salmonella or e.coli, but they seem less willing and/or able to change food habits that have been ingrained within them since childhood.
The diabetes epidemic, along with other illnesses related to obesity (like heart disease, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and osteoarthritis) will increase unless more active preventative healthcare measures are undertaken on a wide scale. Limiting the number of fast food restaurants that can be present in a specific area and near schools, along with promoting the spread of grocery stores and farmer's…
Changing lifestyles is a vital aspect of making the community healthier -- as well as the world. Sanitary and healthy cooking conditions are, of course, extremely important to observe and to know about, on an individual basis. Increasing the ease of reporting suspected unsafe conditions is also vitally important. But the relative safety of day-in, day-out food choices -- food choices that are often taken for granted -- also cannot be dismissed.
Engber, Daniel (2009). Does poverty make people poor? Slate. Retrieved November 2, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2229523/
The Emergency Volunteer Action Network (EVAN) has been a longtime advocate a Good Samaritan Entity Liability Protection for all public and private healthcare agencies as well as a Uniform Emergency Volunteer Health Practitioners Act (UEVHPA) which would allow out-of-state medical professionals to cross state lines in declared emergencies (EVAN, 2010, UNC). However, these laws tend only to provide for coverage at the immediate scene of the emergency, rather than for the type of sustained medical care demanded during major disasters.
On a gut level, it is hard to imagine me, personally, refusing to provide aid to individuals in dire need, regardless of what the law said. However, for organizations that must make immediate decisions about getting involved in helping victims of a disaster, being legally liable could have serious repercussions for the entity's future, especially if it may be called upon to give aid to large numbers of people for…
Emergency Volunteer Action Network (EVAN). (2010). UNC: Gillings School of Global Public
Health. Retrieved http://nciph.sph.unc.edu/law/evan/index.htm
Ready or not? Protecting the public's health from diseases, disasters and bioterrorism. (2009).
Answering the posed question depends on one's understanding of "substantially different." On the one hand, there is the basic commonality of a recognition of the threat that natural hazards and man made activities pose upon environmental safety. Also, there is the common element of intensified efforts made in the direction of attaining environmental sustainability. What differs however is the extent to which researchers, lawmakers, organizations and individuals will go to protect the environment. Additionally, differences are obvious in terms of the emergence of new threats, such as bioterrorism. So yes, even if they refer to environmental threats and protection, the issues throughout this course will be substantially different from those forwarded in 1996.
Charlesworth, a., 29 September 2009, Cost-Cutting Takes Precedence Over Environmental Concersn, Computing, http://www.computing.co.uk/computing/news/2250303/cost-cutting-takes-precedence last accessed on October 2, 2009
Logue, J.N., 1996, Disasters, the Environment, and Public Health: Improving Our esponse, American Journal of Public Health,…
Charlesworth, a., 29 September 2009, Cost-Cutting Takes Precedence Over Environmental Concersn, Computing, http://www.computing.co.uk/computing/news/2250303/cost-cutting-takes-precedence last accessed on October 2, 2009
Logue, J.N., 1996, Disasters, the Environment, and Public Health: Improving Our Response, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 86, No. 9
Revkin, a.C., January 22, 2009, Environmental Issues Slide in Poll of Public's Concerns, New York Times
2009, Fuel Economy Website, http://www.fueleconomy.gov last accessed on October 2, 2009
Fear Management: Public Trust, Perceived Vulnerability and Psychology of Rumor and Panic
From the readings this week, it was easy to see that there are a number of ways people start to panic, often over issues that are really not threats to them. Helping people understand what the true risks are, versus them coming up with a lot of risks that are not really accurate, can make a big difference in whether people panic or whether they remain calm and consider all the parts of the issue before they decide whether they are going to panic. Concerns like bioterrorism are very important to the public, because it can difficult to predict whether the masses would panic, or whether they would simply hold their ground because they have been taught how to handle the issue. Without the knowledge of how to handle things, though, there is little opportunity to do anything…
"It is only by conducting additional evaluations that not only cover these issues, but also involve all stakeholders and address limitations of existing data sources, that policymakers will have the information they need to identify and quantify needs and develop more effective case management programs for future disasters," pointed out the U.S. Government Accountability Office (USGAO) in its 2009 report to Congress after the federal management of hurricanes ita and Katrina (2009a, p. 35). Nonetheless while the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) concurred with the USGAO's recommendations, and despite what appears to be some progress at the time of publication (USGAO, 2009a, p. 35), the overall recommendations appear as yet unaddressed, according at least to an undated USGAO Office of Public Affairs Web site describing the findings (USGAO 2009b). The 2009 report lists a variety of areas where performance could be improved, indicating future evaluation may continue to deliver…
Pelofsky, J. And Palmer, K. (2012). Five arrested in alleged Cleveland plot to blow up bridge.
Reuters U.S. Edition 1 May 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/05/01/us-usa-security-cleveland-idUSBRE8400UY20120501
United States Environmental Protection Agency (2006). A water security handbook: Planning for and responding to drinking water contamination threats and incidents. EPA Publication No. 817-B-06-001. Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water. Washington, D.C.: U.S. EPA. Retrieved from: www.epa.gov/watersecurity
United States Government Accountability Office (2009a). Disaster assistance: Greater
The larger the region covered by the chemical agent, the more likely it will be to cause the widespread destruction for which the person or group is looking (Brophy & Fisher, 1959). Toxicity matters, of course, but the earliest uses were not about the level of toxicity the chemical agent possessed. They were more focused on how the toxic was absorbed. If the chemical agent could be absorbed through the clothing and skin, a gas mask would be useless against it and it would be more likely to work on a larger number of people (Burck & Flowerree, 1991).
July of 1917 saw the use of mustard gas begin (Brophy & Fisher, 1959). The Germans, once again, were the first to use this chemical. It easily passes through fabric and leather, and causes very painful burns to appear on the skin. There are two categories into which chemical agents like…
Alibek, K. And S. Handelman. (2000). Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World -- Told from Inside by the Man Who Ran it. Delta.
Appel, J.M. (2009). Is all fair in biological warfare? The controversy over genetically engineered biological weapons, Journal of Medical Ethics, Volume 35, pp. 429 -- 432.
Brophy, L.P. & George J.B. Fisher (1959). The Chemical Warfare Service: Organizing for War Office of the Chief of Military History.
Burck, Gordon M. And Charles C. Flowerree. (1991). International Handbook on Chemical Weapons Proliferation.
Community Teaching Plan
Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal
Directions: Develop an educational series proposal for your community using one of the following four topics which was chosen within your CLC group:
Primary Prevention/Health Promotion
Secondary Prevention/Screenings for a Vulnerable Population
Planning Before Teaching:
Estimated Time Teaching Will Last:
Three 2-hour sessions
Location of Teaching:
Athens Community Health Department
Supplies, Material, Equipment Needed:
Laptop; digital projector; screen
Community and Target Aggregate:
Athens Community Health Department, Athens, Georgia
Secondary Prevention/Screenings for a Vulnerable Population
Session I: Sources of Vulnerability
Session II:Implications for Healthcare Providers
Session III: Innovative Practice; Gordon's Functional Health Patterns Assessment
Epidemiological ationale for Topic (statistics related to topic):
The literature on vulnerable people clearly indicates that the special needs of these populations and the ubiquitous barriers to quality care access lead to traceable disparities in the provision of healthcare and in their health outcomes…
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). National healthcare disparities report 2008. Chapter 3, Access to healthcare. Washington: AHRQ; 2008. Retrieved http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr08/Chap3.htm
Edelman, C.L. And Mandle, C.L. (2006). In D. Como, L. Thomas (Eds.), Health Promotion Throughout the Lifespan. St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby.
Biodefense in America
Bioterrorism specifically refers to the use of biological agents such as bacteria, germs, or viruses to cause sickness or death in a population. A bioterrorist can contaminate the food, air, or water supply with infectious agents designed to cause illness. Bioterrorism presents difficulties in tracing the source of the terrorist act because symptoms may not appear for days. It is difficult to know when, where, and how a person was infected. Anyone can be at risk for bioterrorism at any time. Bioterrorism does not only affect combatants or enemy military personnel, it affects innocent people in the general population. Biodefense refers to measures taken to help eliminate or reduce the possibility of a bioterrorist attack on the population. Biodefense in the United States became an important issue in the public eye after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Towers. This research will…
Dennis, T., Wang, K., & Suppes, L. (n.d.) "A History of Bioterrorism." Retrieved from http://people.uwec.edu/piercech/Bio/Examples.htm
Valdes, J. (2005). "Biological Agents: Threat. Preparedness, and Myths." Security Studies
Program Seminar. December 7, 2005. Retrieved from http://web.mit.edu/ssp/seminars/wed_archives05fall/valdes.htm
Wyatt-Lorenz. (2009). "Bioterrorism Defense and Immediate Warning System." Wyatt-Lorenz,
Combatting Future Terrorism
Fighting future terrorism
Over the years, the U.S.A. government and the entire world has been battling with the issue of terrorism. This is because the act of terrorism has diverse faces, from the rebel terrorists, the insurgents, bioterrorism to the religious sect terrorism. The U.S.A. has in particular been busy figuring out the various ways to not only stop the terrorism act before it happens, but more significantly to hinder the development of the terror groups from developing into fully fledged organizations. The U.S. is not alone in this and many nations have invested heavily in the same and some of the internationally known counterterrorism forces are S.A.S. (Special Air Service), the GSG-9, The Navy SEAL Team 6, SFOD-D (Delta Force), and CIA Special Activities Division (SAD). The SAS belongs to the British Military and the GSG-9 Germany. The Navy SEAL, Delta Force, and SAD are United…
Adam Szpiro et.al., (2007). Health Surveillance and Diagnosis for Mitigatinga Bio-terror Attack.
Lincoln Laboratory Journal. Vol.17 No.1. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from http://www.ll.mit.edu/publications/journal/pdf/vol17_no1/17_1_5Szpiro.pdf
Counter Terrorism, (2011). Community Preparedness. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from http://www.counterterrorismtraining.gov/comm/index.html
Daniel J. Dire, (2011). Biological Warfare. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from http://www.emedicinehealth.com/biological_warfare/article_em.htm
26 Yet public health continued to mean, even more than in the Clinton administration, a technological approach to national defense. In the Bush administration, pharmaceutical protection became the centerpiece of biodefense policy. On December 13, 2002, convinced of the Dark Winter-type threat of smallpox, President Bush announced his nationwide smallpox inoculation program. Publicity about Iraq's potential biological arsenal, especially in the lead-up to the 2003 invasion, and the threat of bioterrorism had convinced many in the public to participate. The states and the CDC were ready to handle the logistics. In addition, civilian participation was voluntary, which reduced legal liability for those who administered the vaccine and for the government.
As might have been predicted, this smallpox vaccination campaign found it difficult to circumvent the well-known fears of vaccination as a source of bodily pollution and the mistrust engendered when vaccines appear a worse health risk than the forecast epidemic.…
Fauci, Anthony S.M.D., Bioterrorism Preparedness: NIH Smallpox Research Efforts, available at http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/t011102b.htm Accessed on October 22, 2011.
Frist, William. The Political Perspective of the Bioterrorism Threat, in Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities, 29 (Stacy L. Knobler & Adel A.F. Mahmoud & Leslie A. Pray eds., National Academy Press 2002).
Neergaard, Lauran. Postmaster: Anthrax Threatens Mail, The Washington Post, Oct. 24, 2001, available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/aponline/20011024 / aponline090115_002.html Accessed on October 21, 2011.
Tanielian, Terri. Ricci, Karen. Stoto, Michael A. David Dausey, J. Lois M. Davis, Myers, Sarah. Olmsted, Stuart. Willis, Henry H. (2005) Exemplary Practices in Public Health Preparedness. RAND Corporation. http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/technical_reports/2005/RAND_TR239.pdf Accessed on October 21, 2011.
Anthrax as a Weapon of Mass Destruction
In 2001, a handful of anthrax letters wreaked havoc. What impact might a sackful have? -- Donald Donahue, 2011
Just one week following the deadly terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, three dozen envelopes were mailed through the U.S. Postal Service, including one to Senate majority leader Tom Daschle's office and others to news media containing anthrax that killed five people and injured more than a dozen others. These events, falling hard on the heels of the most destructive domestic terrorist attack in U.S. history, had many already-nervous Americans wondering if their own mailboxes would also come under attack. Since that time, though, concerns over new anthrax attacks have diminished but some observers caution that the threat remains as serious as in the past. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the relevant literature to determine the impacts of anthrax when used as…
Ake, D. C. (2011, September). Technology only a small part of detecting bioterrorist threats. National Defense, 96(694), 38-41.
Allison, G. (2012, September 8). Living in the era of megaterror. International Herald Tribune, 8.
Amerithrax. (2015). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved from https://www.fbi.gov/about-us/history/famous-cases/anthrax-amerithrax .
Anthrax-CDC review. (2003, October). Journal of Environmental Health, 66(3), 42.
Having known the mounting dangers, many public health and bio-terrorism experts, members of Congress and some well-positioned ush administration officials convey increasing discomfort about what they think are flaws in the country's bio-defenses. Over the earlier years, awareness steps have been made, mainly in the large cities. ut most of necessary equipments are not available.
The federal government's standard answer to the anthrax assaults of 2001 and the warning of upcoming bio-terror attacks has been to accumulate huge amounts of drugs and vaccines to take care of or vaccinate sufferers or possible sufferers. However, these medicines are ineffective if there is no dependable system in place to quickly distribute and give out them to the disturbed populations early enough for the drugs to be successful. Regrettably, as of now, we do not have this strong, competent system in position in the United States. At the close of 2003, only two…
Analysis: U.S. Unprepared for Bio-Attack. NewsMax Wires. Retrieved from: http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/11/10/114328.shtml . Accessed on 28 November, 2004
Biological Threat to U.S. Homeland is Very Real. 2004. Retrieved at http://www.aviationnow.com/content/ncof/view_19.htm. Accessed on 28 November, 2004
Biological Weapons and Threat Detection. Osborn Scientific Group BADD white paper. April, 2002. Retrieved at http://osborn-scientific.com/PDF/osg_wp_bw_041802.pdf. Accessed on 28 November, 2004
Brennan, Phil. Bio-terrorism Threat to U.S. is Real & Deadly. October 4, 2001. Retrieved at http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2001/10/3/142304.shtml . Accessed on 28 November, 2004
Management Project in the Health Care Organization Setting
This study describes the implementation of a syndromic surveillance system. The syndromic surveillance system collects and analyzes prediagnostic and nonclinical disease indicators, drawing on preexisting electronic data that can be found in systems such as electronic health records, school absenteeism records and pharmacy systems. The systems are utilized to identify specific symptoms within a population that may indicate a public health event or emergency such as signaling an outbreak of an infectious disease. school absenteeism records and pharmacy systems. The systems are utilized to identify specific symptoms within a population that may indicate a public health event or emergency such as signaling an outbreak of an infectious disease.
Informatics Management Project In The Health Care Organization Setting
Part One - Introduction
The objective of this study is to describe the implementation of a syndromic surveillance system. Syndromic surveillance systems collect and analyze…
Buckeridge, DL, et al. (2005) An Evaluation Model for Syndromic Surveillance: Assessing the Performance of Temporal Algorithm. Vol. 54 MMWR Supplement.
Chen, H, Zeng, D, Ping, Y and Ping Y (2010) Infectious Disease Informatics; Syndromic Surveillance for Public Health and Biodefense. Springer Medical 2010. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=5BdCfSxtNJMC&dq=syndromic+surveillance+system:+state+of+the+art&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Hurt-Mullen, K and Coberly, J. (2005) Syndromic Surveillance on the Epidemiologist's Desktop: Making Sense of Much Data. MMWR Supplement 26 Aug 2005. Retrieved from:
These efforts include: expansion of international efforts to prevent terrorist acquisition of biological agents, initiated Bioatch program to detect initial releases of biological weapons within the environment, launched food programs to carefully inspect foods for potential bioagents (with greater focus on foreign foods), expanded bioterrorism research (including Project Bioshield, a program to develop medical ripostes to biological agents), and increased medical stockpiles and training for dealing with bioterrorism attacks (Cordesman; Lindler, Lebeda, & Korch; Petsko; Fidler & Gostin). These efforts will help to both prevent the initial release of any biological agents within the general populace or environment, as well as effectively treat afflicted individuals and slow spread through appropriate treatments.
Once biological agents are released into the general population, the extent of disease spread and number of individuals afflicted will be significantly affected by the role and effectiveness of the government through quarantine and treatment (Cordesman; Lindler, Lebeda, &…
Cole, Leonard A. The Eleventh Plague. Macmillan, 2002. Print.
Cordesman, Anthony H. The challenge of biological terrorism. CSIS, 2005. Print.
Fidler, David P., and Lawrence O. Gostin. Biosecurity in the global age. Stanford University Press, 2008. Print.
Kortepeter, MG, and GW Parker. "Potential biological weapons threats." Emerging Infectious Diseases 5.4 (1999): 523-527. Print.
The Homeland Security Appropriations Act supplies a total of four billion for state and local assistance agendas. State-based formula grants are financed at one and half billion, including four hundred million for law enforcement, with necessities directing the utilization of the per capita formula. The all hazards Emergency Management Performance Grant program is financed at one hundred and eighty million. Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grants are also made available. The bill provides a total of three hundred and fifteen million in transportation security grants. Firefighter assistance grants are financed at seven hundred and fifteen million, including sixty five million for hiring (Fact Sheet: Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2005, 2004). All of these regulations have placed increased burden on both state and local governments to carry out the tasks that have been placed on them by the approval of these acts.
Fact Sheet: Department of Homeland…
Fact Sheet: Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2005. (2004). Retrieved
Homeland Security and Law Enforcement. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.policeemployment.com/resources/articles/homeland-security-law
Moss, Mitchell, Schellhamer, Charles and Berman, David A. (2009). The Stafford Act and Priorities for Reform. Retrieved from http://www.nyu.edu/ccpr/pubs/Moss_03.09.09.pdf
Epidemiological considerations anthracis originates in soil in a lot of regions of this world in which we live. Environmental aspects (for example plentiful precipitation subsequent to a phase of water dearth) might improve spore mass in soil, even though the precise impact of such features remains badly understood (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002).
The organism by and large subsists in the endospore shape in environment; germination of spores exterior to an animal congregation might take place when the subsequent situations are encountered (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002):
elative humidity >95%
Presence of sufficient nutrients
Temperature amid 8°C and 45°C
PH amid 5 and 9 (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002)
Endospores are opposed to heat, drying, gamma radiation, ultraviolet light, and various antiseptics. Spores can continue in soil for decades, as exemplified by organic combat researches all through World War II on the Scottish island of Gruinard. All through 1943, as well as 1944,…
Bell, D.M., Kozarsky, P.E., Stephens, D.S. (2002). Clinical issues in the Prophylaxis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Anthrax. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(2), 222-225.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2001). Anthrax Disease Information
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Considerations for Distinguishing Influenza-Like Illness from Inhalational Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(44), 984-6.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Update: Interim Recommendations for Ant microbial Prophylaxis for Children and Breastfeeding Mothers and Treatment of Children with Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(45), 1014-6.
" Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 22 Apr. 2009 .
Goldman, D. "The Generals and the Germs." Journal of Military History 73(2). Apr 2009: p. 531-569. Academic Search Complete. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Guillemin, J. "Germ arfare Under the Microscope." Futurist 42(3) May/Jun 2008: p. 31. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Kelle, A. "Strengthening the Effectiveness of the BT Control Regime -- Feasibility and Options." Contemporary Security Policy 24(2) Aug 2003: p. 95-132. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Kellman, B. "Bioviolence: A Growing Threat." Futurist 42(3) May/Jun 2008: p. 25-30. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Littlewood, J. "Biological eapons: Much Ado and Little Action." Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning & Policy 45(2) Apr 2007: p. 191-203. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of…
"Biological Weapon." Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 22 Apr. 2009 .
Goldman, D. "The Generals and the Germs." Journal of Military History 73(2). Apr 2009: p. 531-569. Academic Search Complete. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Guillemin, J. "Germ Warfare Under the Microscope." Futurist 42(3) May/Jun 2008: p. 31. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Kelle, A. "Strengthening the Effectiveness of the BTW Control Regime -- Feasibility and Options." Contemporary Security Policy 24(2) Aug 2003: p. 95-132. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
isk Analysis and the Security Survey
The following risk analysis and security survey report will be centered on the hospital as an organization. Vulnerabilities can be classified as crime opportunities, opportunities for breaking rules and regulations, opportunities for profiting and also for loss. By definition, vulnerability can be a gap or a weakness inside a security program that might be exploited by opponents to acquire unlawful access. Vulnerabilities include procedural, human, structural, electronic as well as other elements that offer opportunities to damage assets (Vellani and Owles, 2007).
A vulnerability assessment can be classified as a systematic method utilized to evaluate an organization's security position, assess the efficiency of current security infrastructure, as well as, recognize security limitations. The basic approach of a Vulnerability Assessment (VA) first measures what precise assets require protection. Subsequently, VA recognizes the protection measures previously being used to protect those assets, as well as what…
Brandon Region Hospital. (2012). Evacuation plan.
Brandon Region Hospital. (2012). Risk management plan.
Chung, S., & Shannon, M. (2005). Hospital planning for acts of terrorism and other public health emergencies involving children. Archives of disease in childhood, 90(12), 1300-1307.
Code Green Networks. (2009). Protecting Healthcare Organizations from Patient Data Loss. Retrieved from: www.codegreennetworks.com/resources/downloads/wp_patient_dlp.pdf
Perhaps the public has become somewhat desensitized by nuclear war, but the idea of unseen agents loosed in the water supply, or used to burn without fire, causes panic to a greater degree (Tucker, 2008, 112-15).
An interesting paradigm regarding the fear factor involved in chemical and biological terrorism may surround the psychological issues that have surrounded the possibility of nuclear fear for decades, almost desensitizing people to it -- and the thought that they would either be instantly vaporized, or at least face a quick death. With biologics and chemicals, though, the fear is more of slowly dying, sick, bleeding, etc. such as shown in the films Outbreak or the Andromeda Strain (Smithson, 2004).
hemical Weapons -- hemical warfare and weaponry is nothing new to the scene of terrorism and war, especially after the advances made during World War I. The destructive effects of chemical weapons are their toxic…
Chemical terrorism is terroristic warfare that uses weapons that are chemically based, such as gas, burning agents, or other liquid or gaseous compounds. Unlike the chemical warfare that so terrorized the soldiers in World War I, in which trenched troops shot poisonous shells into each other's trench cities, or gassed whole planes of battle, is it more systematic and targeted. It differs, too, from a military use of such agents against a human population, for example the use of poisons by Sadaam Hussein against his own minority populations. Chemical terrorism is similar in many ways to biological terrorism, but the agents and toxins used operate in a different manner -- chemically induced carnage from the outside of the body as opposed to bioligically induced destruction from the inside of the body moving outward (Taylor, 2001; Falkenrath, et.al., 1998).
Biological Weapons - a bioterrorism attack uses biological weapons (viruses, bacteria, or germs) that are released in a manner that will negatively impact either humans, flora or fauna in a given environment. The particular agents involved must be deliberately set upon a population and may be natural forms or genetically manipulated agents that are more virulent than naturally found in nature, or resistant to current treatment or detection. These deadly agents may be airborne, ingested in drinking water, or become part of the food chain. This is the crux of their popularity -- they are often difficult to isolate and detect and often are latent for hours or days prior to symptoms, allowing the terrorist to be far away from the specified population when it becomes clear a biological was used. Some of the most power (smallpox, etc.) can be spread from person to person, some (Ebola) are so virulent they often kill their host prior to recontamination and others (anthrax, for example) must be touched or ingested by the individual for the effect to occur ("Bioterrorism Overview," CDC, 2007).
Every society has suffered more from disease than warfare, even though one might argue that the first case of biological warfare was unleashed upon the Aztec and Maya by the Spanish Conquistadores. In fact, many experts believe that without the outbreaks of smallpox, measles, and venereal disease, there would not have been a Spanish victory (Diamond, 2005).
On the prevention side, there needs to be research about the most infectious diseases, widespread vaccination against the most threatening animal borne pathogens, monitoring and intelligence to identify potential threats, and education about bioterrorism at all levels of government (RAND, 2). On the response side, early detection, early containment, treatment plans, stockpiles of vaccines and drugs, and an animal depopulation and disposal plan are all necessary (RAND, 2).
The government has passed a number of laws to help address potential threats and be ready in the event of an attack. For example, the Bioterrorism Preparedness Act tightens control of certain toxins and threatening agents and expands agricultural security. The FDA and USDA have both passed rules to increase record-keeping and monitoring related to potentially dangerous agents. Homeland Security has been authorized to increase agricultural border inspections, with the assistance of the USDA. These inspections identify and quarantine potential threats. (Monke…
Gonzales, Alberto, Regina Schofield, and Glenn Schmitt. Agroterrorism -- Why We're Not Ready: A Look at the Role of Law Enforcement. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 2006. Print.
Monke, Jim. Agroterrorism: Threats and Preparedness. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, 2004. Print.
RAND National Defense Research Institute. Agroterrorism: What Is the Threat and What Can Be Done About it? Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 2003. Print.
Past experience and gut instincts also play a role, and every clinician has his or her own methodology. Even the context of where the patient is seen may impact the assessment: a patient who is treated in the E will receive less personalized care than someone seen by a specialist for the same complaint.
Are Diagnostic Decision Support Systems (DDSS) the solution? They can make medical treatment more standardized, by using data-driven analysis based upon a wealth of experience much greater than one clinician can possess. However, not all DDSS systems may be equally effective. According to Bravata (et al. 2004): "Systems specifically designed to support the diagnosis of bioterrorism-relevant diseases or syndrome" were deemed "critically deficient," and as "false-positive and false-negative rates are unknown for most systems, decision making on the basis of these systems is seriously compromised." Not all DDSS systems are created equal, especially systems designed to…
Bravata, Sundaram V., K.M. McDonald, W.M. Smith, H. Szeto, M.D. Schleinitz, et al.
(2004, January). Detection and diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism response. Emergency Infectious Diseases. [serial online]. Retrieved May 19, 2010. Available from: URL:
6). What doctors do know is that the young, the elderly and those with compromised immune systems are far more likely to suffer adverse effects or become contaminated should an epidemic break out. These populations are also far more likely to develop the disease or suffer from side effects of vaccination which may include a heart attack (Annas, 2003).
Many suggest the risk is unknown, because the disease is nearly eradicated, it would take a modern outbreak to ascertain the prognosis of individuals with the disease in modern times. Many feel however, that discourse on the subject is best left unsaid, because the more people discuss the disease, the more likely it is that someone will inadvertently get hold of the disease and attempt to use it.
Annas, George J. "Smallpox Vaccine: Not Worth the isk," the Hastings Center eport, 33.2, 2003. pp.6-9.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.…
Annas, George J. "Smallpox Vaccine: Not Worth the Risk," the Hastings Center Report, 33.2, 2003. pp.6-9.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2002) Smallpox fact sheet, smallpox overview. Retrieved December 7, 2007: http://www.cdc.gov /smallpox
Giblin, James C. When Plague Strikes: The Black Death, Smallpox, AIDS. New York:
Harper Collins, 1995.
The response by the United States to biorisk management at the national level provides a useful example of what can be accomplished with the right resources and vision. For instance, in December 2009, the U.S. government published its "National Strategy for Countering Biological Threats," representing the basic framework for the U.S. response to emerging bioterrorism threats. In the State of the Union address in 2010, President Barack Obama mentioned the National Strategy as an approach that "will give us the capacity to respond faster and more effectively to bioterrorism or an infectious disease." The implementation and oversight of this initiative is the responsibility of the U.S. Department of State's Biosecurity Engagement Program (BEP). This agency is tasked with promoting the National Strategy through efforts targeted at improving biorisk management and infectious disease surveillance practices around the world. To this end, the BEP has strengthened its commitment to the African continent,…
Biorisk reduction. (2011). World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.who.int / csr/bioriskreduction/en/.
Global alert and response. (2011). World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.
Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network Fact Sheet. (2011). World Health Organization.
The challenges are many for those in the industry for the first quarter-century of the new millenium but the hope is that information technological advances will smooth the transitions that must be made if healthcare is to be effective or successful in future initiatives of delivery quality healthcare.
Public Health Issues
The Global Face of Healthcare
Statement of Thesis:
Finally this work will describe several different countries' public health systems and compare and contrast the similarities and differences noted as well as the political economic, service, expense and other major issues linked to the various structures and forms of the healthcare systems around the world. The various public health tradeoffs that are made on the societal level based on limited resources and competitive priorities will be briefly examined as well.
While the business world has streamlined processes and become more customer-centric the healthcare agency is seeking to do the same…
Wechler, Jill (2004) Healthcare Issues 2005 Formulary on Highbeam Research Engine
Strategic Research Institute Report (2004) BioAsia Licensing and Deal-Making Summit: [Online available at http://www.srinnstitue.com/ApplicationFiles/Agenda / detailed_ae nda.cfm?program_id= 653&iteration_id=7568&person_id=28682]
Stevens, Andrew (2004) City Mayors: Local Government in Japan Online at http://www.citymayors.com/government/jap_locgov.html
HealthCare's Top Business Issues and Responses for 2005 A Capgemini Forecast.
United States' Strategy for Dealing with a Chemical, Biological, adiological or Nuclear Non-State Actor Threat
One of the major potential threats that has emerged in recent years is a chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBN) threat from a non-state actor. In the "good old days" of the Cold War, nation-states with these capabilities were well-known to the international community and contingency plans were developed by the United States and its allies to counter any eventuality. By very sharp contrast, today, non-state actors, including most especially international terrorist groups, have increasing access to these lethal materials, and the potential for their use as a weapon of mass destruction looms large. To determine the current situation with respect to the United States, this paper provides a review of the relevant publicly available literature to identify this country's current strategy for responding to CBN threats, a technical description of the equipment and training…
A national strategy for CBRNE standards. (2011, May). National Science and Technology Council: Subcommittee on Standards. The White House. Retrieved from https://www. whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/chns_cbrne_standards_final_24_aug_11.pdf.
Domestic preparedness. (2015). The James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. Retrieved from http://cns.miis.edu/archive/cbw/120city.htm .
Faria, J. R. (2014, Spring/Summer). The economics of technology in terrorist organizations. The Brown Journal of World Affairs, 20(2), 285-289.
Mauroni, A. J. (2008, October). The new threat of unconventional warfare. Joint Force Quarterly, 51, 21-23.
Digital Disease Detection, commonly referred to as digital epidemiology provided strategies and methods for allowing digital-technology users to monitor infectious disease and conduct surveillance. These strategies help in the understanding of concerns and attitudes regarding infectious diseases. The process begins with the basics, such as the availability of internet access, online sharing platforms and other digital devices. These sources offer huge amounts of data. It is important to note that while these sources collect data, they do not, do so, with public health objectives in focus (Denecke, 2017).
The past few decades have seen tremendous changes in the world. There have been many and varied threats; from bioterrorism, influenza pandemics and the emergence of infectious diseases. There is also the issue of unforeseen population mobility which is among the reasons that triggered the development of public health surveillance systems. Such systems are invaluable tools in the detection and response…
Therefore, it is necessary to account for the acquisition of habits.
Due to certain limitations of the behaviorism approach, there have been revisions to the theory over the century. For example, although behaviorism helped people to forecast, alter, and change behavior over time, it did not attempt nor intend to understand how or why the theory worked. The present-day social cognitive approach asserts that behavior is results from an ongoing reciprocal three-way relationship among the individual (cognition), the environment (physical context, which consists of the organizational structure and design, social context or other people), and the person's past behavior. This broader view, called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) incorporates the cognitive in addition to the behavioral approaches to therapy and view people "as active seekers and interpreters of information, not just responders to environmental influences" (Nevid, 2007, p. 484). Many psychologists now believe that behavior is understood best by studying the…
Fall, K.A., Holden, J.M. & Marquis, A. (2004) Theoretical models of counseling and psychotherapy New York: Taylor and Francis.
Freud, Sigmund. (1926). Inhibitions, symptoms, and anxiety, SE, 20(14): 111-205.
Kohlenberg, R.J., Bolling, M.Y., Kanter, J.W. & Parker, C.R. (2002) Clinical behavior analysis: where it went wrong, how it was made good again, and why its future is so bright. Behavior Analyst Today. 3(3): 248-253
Martz, E (2002) Principles of Eastern philosophies viewed from the framework of Yalom's four existential concerns. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling. 24(1): 31-42
Translational medicine is a new discipline, which covers studies on basic science, on human investigations, non-human investigations, and translational research (Mankoff et al. 2004). asic science studies address the biological effects of medicines on human beings. Studies on humans discover the biology of disease and serve as foundation for developing therapies. Non-human or non-clinical studies advance therapies for clinical use or use in human disease. And translational research refers to appropriate product development for clinical use. Translational research looks into the identity, purity and potency of a drug product during early clinical trial (Mankoff et al.). Translating the knowledge derived from basic sciences into clinical research and treatments is the task of translational medicine (Nagappa 2006). There is a groaning need for this type of research on account of voluminous information in the information age. Using this information is the challenge encountered by scientists and healthcare providers everywhere in the…
Hersh, William. A Stimulus to Define Informatics and Health Information Technology.
Vol 9 BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making: BioMed Central Ltd., 2009.
Retrieved on November 24, 2010 from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6947/24
Mankoff, Stacey P. et al. Lost in Translation: Obstacles to Translational Medicine Vol 2
Some of the nerve agents such as VX and Tabun are also highly persistent in that their effects last in the field for longer periods of time. [Wisconsin Project, (2010)]
Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)
The 1925 Geneva protocol prohibited the use of poisonous gases in warfare but flagrant violations of the accord by various nations is clearly evident when we glance through the wars that took place in the previous century. Starting with the Second World War, the Vietnam War, and the more recent Gulf wars, the use of chemical weapons has continued in sheer violation of the Geneva treaty. [Geneva Protocol, (1925)] The loopholes and the reservations in the Geneva protocol implied that the threat of chemical warfare was always looming large. It is only pertinent here to point out that not only the so called rogue states (Iran, Iraq, Korea) engaged in chemical warfare but also the U.S.…
1) Gerard J. Fitzgerald, (2008), 'Chemical Warfare and Medical Response during World War 1', Am J. Public Health 98(4): 611 -- 625 available online at, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2376985/
2) IDPH, 'Hydrogen Cyanide', retrieved Sep 6th 2010 from, http://www.idph.state.il.us/Bioterrorism/factsheets/cyanide.htm
3) Johan de Wittlaan, (2010), 'Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction (CWC) ', retrieved Sep 6th 2010, from, http://www.nti.org/e_research/official_docs/inventory/pdfs/cwc.pdf
4) Geneva Protocol, (1925) 'Protocol for the prohibition of the use in war of Asphyxiating, Poisonous, or other gases, and of Bacteriological methods of Warfare', retrieved Sep 6th 2010, from, http://www.nti.org/e_research/official_docs/inventory/pdfs/genev.pdf
According to Stefanie Olson (2001), the Act provides government with increased electronic surveillance, search and data gathering power. Under the guise of tracking down "potential" terrorists, the expansion of Internet eavesdropping technology provides the government with full viewing rights into any private life they choose. In this way, immigrants who enter the country and conduct their business in a perfectly legal manner are now targeted for such surveys (White, 2008).
Local and National Changes in Law Enforcement - the basic mission of law enforcement and foreign/defense policy in the United States has dramatically changed since the events of 9/11 and the subsequent "War on Terrorism." Since 9/11, policies across the United States and abroad have changed from being reactive to being intensely proactive. There, are, however, several challenges faced by law enforcement and the legal issues of defense and foreign policy regarding this new approach to terrorism (Simonson, 2006).
"After 9-11, Security Job Openings Abound," cited in:
Bergen, P. (December 5, 2008). "WMD Terrorism Fears are Overblown." CNN
Politics.Com. Cited in:
" (Rosen, 1) in a regard, community health falls within this purview and is a subset to the broader topic of public health.
c. Differences in roles of public and community health nurse and nurse in an acute care setting
The role which is given to the nurse in the public or community health context should be essentially similar to that which is seen in an acute care context. Ethical, practical and medical conditions remain unchanged from one context to the next. However, the nurse will be required to prepare for certain distinctions which do denote a difference. Particularly, nurses in public health settings are less likely to possess the resources and facilities which are afforded those in the acute care setting. This means that in many instances, public health nurses can only function as the front line for consultation, diagnosis and basic treatment. here more serious concerns become apparent,…
Health Disaster OC. (HDOC). (2008). Health Disaster Management Division. Oraange County Health Care Agency.
Orange County Health Care Agency (OCHCA). (2009). Epidemiology & Assessment. County of Orange California. Online at http://ochealthinfo.com/epi/
Rosen, G. (1993). A History of Public Health. JHU Press.
Many responders, lacking clear guidance, would simply react to apparent immediate needs" ("Emergency management," 2009). It is important to note that in the event of a terrorist incident, local first responders would be the first on the scene, and it is imperative that incident commanders gain control or at least understand the complexities of the situation. However, there are national agencies, under the guidance of FEMA and other government agencies, that offer national response coordination 24/7 every day of the year. These organizations train in every state, and would eventually coordinate the response operations for a major terrorist incident in the country. The Department of Health and Human Services Web site notes, "The Secretary's Operations Center (SOC) is directly connected to the DHS National Operations Center and the FEMA National esponse Operations Center. It serves as the focal point for situational awareness, information management and response coordination for HHS" (Yeskey,…
Editors. (2009). About us. Retrieved 7 April 2009 from the National Domestic Preparedness Consortium Web site: http://www.ndpc.us/about_ndpc.html .
Editors. (2009). Emergency management preparation and planning. Retrieved 7 April 2009 from the FEMA.gov/Responder Knowledge Base Web site: https://www.rkb.us/contentdetail.cfm?content_id=20334.
Hill, M., Galarneau, M., Pang, G., & Konoske, P. (2006). Preparing for the worst: Using modeling to determine medical supply requirements for terrorism response. The Forensic Examiner, 15(1), 24+.
Yeskey, K. (2007). Preparing the nation for radiation and nuclear terrorist events. Retrieved 7 April 2009 from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Web site: http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/2007/11/t20071115f.html .
However, surprisingly, distance educators have not caught onto the trend. Web 2.0 applications offer users an experience beyond the typical University experience. Second Life offers the ability to add the social element and interaction that is often missing from the distance education experience. If traditional universities and public entities see the opportunity to use Second Life for education, and to disseminate public information, then this would seem like the next logical step in improving distance education programs. Students could attend a virtual classroom that is like a brick and mortar classroom in many ways.
One of the key difficulties in implementing online education in an online world is that students may not have access or the skills necessary to function in an online world. Second Life requires the most advanced graphics cards and systems to run. It will not run on older systems or those that do not meet the…
Hoover, Aaron. (2007). At UF, distance learning moves off the planet. February 7, 2007. University of Florida News. Retrieved December 20, 2008.
Simteach.com (2008a). Second Life Universities and Private Islands. Retrieved December 19, 2008 at http://www.simteach.com/wiki/index.php?title=Second_Life:_Universities_and_Private_Islands
Simteach.com (2008b). Second Life Universities and Private Islands. Retrieved December 19, 2008 at http://simteach.com/wiki/index.php?title=Second_Life:_Universities_and_Private_Islands
3 Strategies of CDC
As mentioned in the introduction, the Centers for Disease Control and prevention has developed and implemented six sets of strategies as follows:
Health Impact Focus - the alignment of CDC's employees, objectives, strategies, investments and performances in order to maximize the CDC's beneficial effects upon public health
Customer Centricity - Like any other corporation, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is focused on offering those products and services required and needed by the population in order to improve and preserve their health
Public Health esearch - the CDC funds and conducts numerous researches aimed at identifying new treatments and any other issues which would positively affect the public health
Leadership - the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention possesses the best skilled and qualified employees, guided by the most committed managers and supported by strategic partners, all to improve the health system within the United…
Etheridge, E.W., 1994, Sentinel for Health: A History of the Centers for Disease Control, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Volume 24, Number 4
Friede, a. And O'Carroll, P.O., 1996, CDC and ATSDR Electronic Information Resources for Health Officers, Journal of Environmental Health, Volume 59
1994, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on Emerging Infectious Disease Threats, Population and Development Review, Number 13
1999, CDC on Infectious Diseases in the United States: 1990-1999, Population and Development Review, Volume 25, Number 3
Chemical and Biological Terroism
Biological and Chemical Terrorism Prevention
The United States Government has identified the potential of chemical, biological, radiological and/or nuclear (termed CBN) terrorism, especially after the September 11 attacks. They have been concerned ever since Sarin was used in a Tokyo subway (Aum Shinrikyo in 1995) and the anthrax case (in November 2001). The chances of terrorists resorting to these agents in warfare are pretty high considering their advantages over conventional methods. Most organizations fighting terrorism are not equipped well enough to detect such chemicals. A closed container can help most of them escape discovery. The low cost involved in their production increases the dangers manifold. Since most of the above agents affect the human body directly, they are essentially more efficient than conventional warfare.
Chemical weapons have four major classifications. Choking agents are aimed at being fatal and are easily accessible. Phosgene is one such industrial…
Khan, A. Levitt, A. Sage, M. (2000). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Biological and Chemical Terrorism: Strategic Plan for Preparedness and Response. 7-19. Retrieved From http://www.southernnevadahealthdistrict.org/download/epi/mmwr-plan.pdf
Ashraf H. European dioxin-contaminated food crisis grows and grows [news]. Lancet
Khan, A. Swerdlow, D. Juranek, D. (2001) Precautions Against Biological and Chemical Terrorism directed at Food and Water Supplies. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1497290/pdf/11571403.pdf
CRNE Event and Response
Over the last several years, the safety of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive related weapons (CRNE) has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because downfall of the Soviet Union has meant that acquiring these materials from failed states have increased exponentially. As, the stockpiles in many of these areas have questionable security procedures that are allowing terrorist and other rogue organizations to have access to these materials. (Prosser, 2011)
At the same time, the total amount of countries that are possessing these materials have increased dramatically. As different nations, are using these weapons to protect against possible military attacks or internal insurrection. In a number of cases, the majority of states that possess CRNE's are more than likely considered to: have questionable human rights records or they may not have signed different international provisions limiting the proliferation of…
Chemical, Biological and Nuclear Weapons at a Glance. (2011). Arms Control. Retrieved from: http://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/cbwprolif
Alfred, R. (2009). March 20, 1995. Wired. Retrieved from: http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2009/03/dayintech_0320
Carus, S. (1997). The Threat of Bioterrorism. Strategic Forum, 127.
Hoffman, B. (2001). Changes and Continuity. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 24 (5), 417 -- 428.
responsibilities of the federal, state, and local public health systems?
On a federal level, the USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) and the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) regulate food and drug safety, to ensure that American consumers are protected against tainted or unsafe products. The Surgeon General has often been the spearhead of public health campaigns, such as to encourage Americans to quit smoking or to be aware of the gravity of the AIDS epidemic. The White House has likewise championed many public health service campaigns, such as the current 'Let's Move' campaign of Michelle Obama. The Department of Health and Human Services oversees the majority of health-related initiatives on the part of the federal government, including Medicare, the health insurance program provided for all seniors (HHS, 2011, Official Website).
However, state and local public agencies also have substantial responsibilities in safeguarding public safety. "State health agencies must be able…
Beitsch, Leslie M.; Robert G. Brooks, Meade Grigg, & Nir Menachemi. (2006). Structure and functions of state public health agencies. American Journal of Public Health. 96(1): 167 -- 172. Retrieved November 14, 2011 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1470433/
Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). Official Website. Retrieved November 14,
2011 at http://www.hhs.gov/about/whatwedo.html/
Healthy People 2020
eview of Three Articles from Healthy People 2020
The goal of improved global health is to strengthen U.S. national security through global disease detection, response, prevention, and control strategies. Threats to health in one part of the world may have far reaching consequences that impact public health across the globe. The 2003 SAS epidemic and the 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak are recent examples. Furthermore, improving the health of the global population promotes political stability, diplomacy, and economic growth worldwide.
The world and its economies are increasingly interdependent and international travel and commerce is becoming more prevalent. Expanding international trade introduces new health risks. A complex international distribution chain has resulted in potential international outbreaks due to food borne infections, poor quality pharmaceuticals, and contaminated consumer goods. Since the 1970s one or more new diseases have been identified annually. apid identification and control of emerging infectious…
"Early and middle childhood." (2012, January 10). Healthy people 2020. Retrieved January 12, 2012, from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=10
"Global health." (2012, January 10). Healthy people 2020. Retrieved January 12, 2012, from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=16
"Immunization and infectiuos diseases." (2012, January 10). Healthy people 2020. Retrieved January 12, 2012, from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicId=23
It starts with 2 broad branches -- Psychopathic rapists and Non-psychopathic rapists. In this category, Homolka can be classified to be a Psychopathic rapist. The next classification under psychopathic rapists divides them into opportunistic, pervasively angry and sadistic rapists. Here, the behavior of Homolka can be thought to be sadistic in nature. Under sadistic, there are 2 categories of rapists who are the overt and the muted rapists. Here, Homolka is classified as a muted rapist since her actions were not well pronounced and they were hidden and secret. The acts of rape only came to be known when they came clean to their uncle under the fear that their separation would lead to the rapes being discovered. Therefore according to the MTC:3, Homolka can be thought to be a type 5 rapist.
Under the gross typology there are various categories of rapists. There is the power reassurance rapist who…
http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2009330156_holocaustshooting12.htmlEmery , T., & Robbins, L. (2009). Holocaust Museum shooter James von Brunn had history of hate Retrieved 21st January, 2012, from Goodwin, J. (2006). A Theory of Categorical Terrorism. Social Forces, 84(4), 2027-2046.
Kruttschnitt, C. (1989). A Sociological, Offender-Based, Study of Rape. The Sociological Quarterly, 30(2), 305-329.
Studies suggest certain mosquitoes may also transmit the virus (Mulla, 1999).
The host for the disease is humans, and the environment of the case study includes the regions of Norfolk and Portsmouth. The agent examined is yellow fever. Other possible hosts include mosquitoes known to bear infection, like the Asian Tiger Mosquito (Mulla, 1999).
Primary Secondary Tertiary Prevention
If living at the time, primary prevention would have included avoidance of natural spread of the disease. This may have been almost impossible however as ships frequently traveled to cities via ports. However, temporary quarantine of ships entering port from affected areas may have served as a primary prevention technique for preventing spread of the disease (Oberle, 2001). Secondary prevention methods would have included providing citizens with clean waters and immunizations (Oberle, 2001).
Vaccines have proven beneficial for preventing yellow fever transmission in humans. Unfortunately vaccines were not available at the time…
Mulla, Z.B. (1999 - Oct). "Yellow Fever." Florida Dept. Of State. 15, October 2005:
Oberle, M. (2001). Oberle, M. "Bioterrorism: A changing world and what you can do." http://healthlinks.washington.edu/nwcphp/bt/27nov2001.ppt
Wagner, L. (2005 - Jul). "The Fever." The Virginian Pilot, Available: