82+ documents containing “bioterrorism”.
Case Study on Bioterrorism
Create a scenario of a hypothetical bioterrorist attack involving botulism or plague. Your scenario should include characteristics that are more indicative of an intentional outbreak than a natural outbreak.
Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague, an enzootic vectorborne disease usually infecting rodents (rats) and fleas and humans can become infected after being bitten by fleas that have fed on infected rodents; in humans, the disease usually occurs in the form of bubonic plague (Riedel, 2005). However, there are many other forms of this disease that can also be created artificially. In some cases, the infection can spread without the need for infestation and through oral pathways. This from of the disease can be spread to the lungs via the bloodstream and causes secondary pneumonic plague.
Plague is also recognized as a potential agent of bioterrorism because of the person-to-person transmission has been described for pneumonic plague but….
Bioterrorism and Future Impact in Nursing
Biological warfare threat has spread across the globe from developed to developing, countries in the last few years. It causes alarm among the professionals such as journalist, academics, and policy analysts. Most important, it has caught the attention of policy makers and policy analysts to rethink the whole concept of bioterrorist (Sharyn Janes, 2008). Therefore, what is Bioterrorist? What is its future impact in nursing? Bioterrorism can be defined as the use of biological agents by individual or groups to course harm to people. It's considered to be mostly politically motivated to intimidate the government (WS Carus, 1998).
Terrorist see this biological agents as a tool for achieving specialized objectives not necessarily intended to directly influence government actions. Virtually all bioterrorists seek to keep their use of biological agents a secret, because in many instances success depended on the lack of appreciation that a disease outbreak….
Karen .Saucier Lundy, Sharyn Janes, (2008). Community Health Nursing and bioterrorism
Caring for the Public's Health 2nd edition
Edgar J. DaSilva (2009). Biological warfare, Journal of Biotechnology ISSN: 0717-3458
Bioterrorism, biodefence and the biological and toxin weapons convention
Bioterrorism is "the use, or threatened use, of biological agents to promote or spread fear or intimidation upon an individual, a specific group, or the population as a whole for religious, political, ideological, financial, or personal purposes" (Arizona Department of Health Services, 2005). Bioterrorism is the weaponization of biological agents or material; as such, it poses a huge potential risk to the United States, given the relative affordability and accessibility of its components. A critical determinant of the nation's ability to effectively respond to such an attack is the capacity of the nation's public health system, at the local, state, and federal level.
Gail Dudley and obin McFee's article "Preparedness for Biological Terrorism in the United States: Project BioShield and Beyond" is an introduction and explanation of one of the most important pieces of federal legislation addressing bioterrorism; as such, it falls into the 'federal preparedness' research category. The piece of….
Arizona Department of Health Services. (2005). Definition of Bioterrorism. Bureau of Emergency Preparedness and Response. Retrieved from http://www.azdhs.gov/phs/edc/edrp/es/bthistor1.htm
Dudley, Gail, McFee, Robin B. (2005). Preparedness for Biological Terrorism in the United States: BioShield and Beyond. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 105(9): 417-242.
Garfield, Rachel. (2005). State Preparedness for Bioterrorism and Public Health Emergencies. The Commonwealth Fund, Issue Brief, July 2005. Retrieved from http://www.commonwealthfund.org/usr_doc/829_Garfield_bioterrorism.pdf
Levi, J, Segal, LM, Lieberman, Alpert D., St. Laurent, R. (2011). Ready or Not? Protecting the Public's Health from Diseases, Disasters, And Bioterrorism. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, December 2011. Retrieved from http://www.rwjf.org/files/research/73723.readyornot.12.20.11.pdf
Biological weapon can be defined as any kind of organism such as the bacteria, fungi or viruses, or any toxin (poisonous compounds that are produced by organisms) that can be used to kill the host or kill/injure human beings. There are varying acts of bioterrorism ranging from a hoax to actual use of these biological weapons or agents. Of late, a very significant number of countries are pursuing the ownership or possession of biological weapons and there is a growing concern among many nations that there is a possibility of terrorist groups having access to the weapons or the knowledge of making such weapons and using term to kill an individual or a population (Daniel J. Dire, 2011).
The identified bioterrorism in this case is the famous "amerithrax" or the anthrax terror that was launched in the U.S.A. In 2001, shortly after the 9/11 terror attack on America. This was in….
Daniel J. Dire, (2011). Biological Warfare. Retrieved January 18, 2012 from http://www.emedicinehealth.com/biological_warfare/article_em.htm
Erin C. Hoffman, (2010). U.S. Response to the 2001 Anthrax Incidents. Project on National
Security Reform. Retrieved January 18, 2012 from http://www.pnsr.org/web/page/934/sectionid/579/pagelevel/3/interior.asp
FBI, (2012). Amerithrax or Anthrax Investigation. Retrieved January 18, 2012 from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/history/famous-cases/anthrax-amerithrax/amerithrax-investigation
Bioterrorism has been noted as the use of any kind of organism such as the bacteria, fungi or viruses, or any toxin (poisonous compounds that are produced by organisms) to eliminate the host. hese elements are known to exist naturally within our environment. his then presents a legal loophole into who is supposed to posses these elements and what quantities would be termed as enough to be considered a weapon. here are real legal obstacles or shortcomings to the war against terror and in particular to the idea of bioterrorism. It is quite unclear at the global level what agents constitute biological weapons, and for the few known or categorized agents, there is no definite quantity that has been given a global legal framework to be able to be referred to as biological weapon hence constituting the possibility of being used for bio terrorism.
his lack of clear legal boundaries has….
This then calls for a surveillance system that will help cure the effects of this weapon incase it used by some terrorist group. Of central importance in the surveillance system is an operational laboratory where the suspicious elements can be processed fast and an action taken as fast as possible. Early detection and rapid response is also central to the surveillance of the bioterrorism and related activities. This can be effectively done by the use of the syndromic surveillance as well as the proposed surveillance using cell phones.
Both of these surveillance means have significant challenges that come with them making the fight or caution against bioterrorism elusive. There is the issue of syndromic surveillance depending on zip codes which proves to be unreliable as there is an underlying assumption that the mobility of the infected people is minimal or the infection will definitely happen when people are at home since it does not provide for the option of moving people. The data and information given by the syndromic surveillance is also quite nonspecific hence making it hard to identify a bioterrorism threat and make it out from the normal infections that could be plaguing an area. The cell phone surveillance also has its potential shortcomings since the participants may volunteer false information due to panic response to a situation that they have seen with another person or heard of such an outbreak and will take it that they also have the infection.
There are several efforts to ensure that bioterrorism has been reduced to a minimum level where it no longer poses threat to the American population like was the case in 2001 and the world at large. There are several steps that have been taken and to a large extent the efforts have been paying off. There is however need to put in more effort so as to ensure there are legal framework on handling potential bioterrorism elements as well as the effective surveillance methods to keep the relevant authorities in good position to help the public incase of an attack.
iological weapons can significantly change the battlefield. Today's leaders must always be on the watch for new threats that can arise in newly designed ways. The enemy is always planning to expose weaknesses in the defense. iological weaponry is such a technology that can bring devastating effects and exploit weaknesses both tactically and strategically. The purpose of this essay is to examine the appeal of biological weapons to terrorist organizations. I will accomplish this by first defining what biological warfare is and give context to the usage of the idea of terrorism's relationship to these types of arms. I will then explore specific advantages and disadvantages to the use of biological warfare. y comparing and contrasting biological warfare to both nuclear and chemical warfare, the differences will be more clearly understood.
Language and understanding must relate through common definitions and is important to discern between important terms in order to….
"Biological Weapon." Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/938340/biological-weapon (accessed January 12, 2013).
Cooper, Melinda. "Pre-Empting Emergence, The Biological Turn in the War on Terror." Theory, Culture & Society 23(4) (2006), http://www.16beavergroup.org/drift/readings/pre - empting-emergence.pdf (accessed January 12, 2013).
DiGiovanni, Cleto. "Domestic Terrorism With Chemical or Biological Agents: Psychiatric Aspects." American Journal of Psychiatry 156 (199), http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?articleID=173732 (accessed January 12, 2013).
Kortepeter, Mark and Gerald Parker. "Potential Biological Weapons Threats." Emerging Infectious Diseases 5(4) (1999): 523-28.
Then Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen said the program was "specifically designed so that the people we train become trainers themselves. This approach will greatly magnify our efforts to produce a core of qualified first responders across the nation." In March 1998, Cohen announced an additional Department of Defense support initiative -- the military's first-ever rapid assessment teams, AID (rapid assessment, identification and detection). "These new AID teams will quickly reach the scene of the incident in order to help local first responders figure out what kind of attack occurred, its extent, and the steps needed to minimize and manage the consequences." He added: "Getting prepared for such an attack is extremely complicated, given the wide range of possible threats and the many players at the local, state and federal levels (U.S. DOD).
However, a large number of cities do not have any plans to respond to a chemical….
Center for Disease Control. "Biological and Chemical Terrorism: Strategic Plan for Prepardness." Washington, D.C.: Center for Disease Control. 49(RR04), April 21, 2000, 1-14.
Douglass, Joseph D. And Neil C. Livingston. America the Vulnerable. Lexington, MA:
Lexington Books, 1987.
Ember, Lois R. "FBI Takes Lead in Developing Counter-terrorism Effort." Chemical & Engineering News. 4 November 1996: 10-16.
Challenges to bioterrorism
Challenges to surveillance
Having noted the surveillance methods that can be used in the monitoring of the bioterrorism and the possible intentional infection, there are some challenges that these surveillance systems might encounter. Bearing the nature of the agents that are used in bioterrorism, the challenges that might be experienced by both the syndromic surveillance and cell phone surveillance may have several similarities.
The syndromic surveillance challenges
Bearing the fact that syndromic surveillance depends on the general survey of the trend of a bioterrorism agent, the information that is generated from such a surveillance is quite general and in effect whenever such a surveillance systems comes across an anomalous trend in the health of the public, it would be hard for those implementing it to immediately propose a mass measure like issuance of antibiotics in order to curb the threat. There will therefore be a need to move from….
Adam Szpiro et.al., (2007). Health Surveillance and Diagnosis for Mitigatinga Bio-terror Attack. Lincoln Laboratory Journal. Vol.17 No.1. Retrieved March 7, 2012 from http://www.ll.mit.edu/publications/journal/pdf/vol17_no1/17_1_5Szpiro.pdf
Tener Godwin, (2006). Early Detection and Surveillance for Biopreparedness and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Retrieved March 8, 2012 from http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Volume112006/No1Jan06/tpc29_2c16059.html
smallpox as a weapon against societies. The writer explores the viability of using smallpox as a weapon as well as some of the things societies have done to prepare for such a possibility. In addition the education of the American public for such an attack is discussed. There were seven sources used to complete this paper.
Bioterrorism has been a concern of the United States for many years. During most skirmishes, following 9-11 and of course during and after the onset of the war in Iraq, Americans were concerned about the release of bio-chemical warfare. One of the more common concerns recently has been small pox. Small pox is something that if released on the world could cause hundreds of thousands if not millions to perish. The American government has voiced concerns about Saddam Hussein's ability to implement such an attack, as well as Al-QADA forces being able to do….
GEORGE GEDDA, Associated Press Writer, U.S. says some countries may have hidden smallpox viruses., AP Worldstream, 11-05-2002
Author not available, U.S. draws up smallpox plan., The Toronto Star, 09-24-2002.
Author not available, EXPERTS ARE RIGHT TO PLAN DEFENSE AGAINST SMALLPOX., Portland Press Herald (Maine), 07-10-2002, pp 8A.
Author not available, Health officials call for renewed smallpox vaccinations., Agence France Presse English, 03-29-2002.
Threat of Bioterrorism
There are many reasons to believe that overruling of the possibility of bioterrorism in the country is a serious mistake. In fact, it is practically impossible to ignore the fact that in the recent past, there has been an escalation in the cases of bioterrorist attacks. However, this has not always been the case and many people were in denial of the possibility of anyone using such measures to cause harm. It was only after the fateful September 11 attacks over a decade away that shook the faith and created the one notion in the minds of Americans that this was real. A month later, a case of a man suffering from inhalational anthrax was trending (okach et al. 2010). This is the reason why the government is keen to take all measures necessary to curb the issue. However, the main question that arises in the issue is….
Borrelli, J.V. (2007). Bioterrorism: Prevention, preparedness and protection. New York: Nova
Crosse, M. (2003). Hospital Preparedness: Most Urban Hospitals Have Emergency Plans but Lack Certain Capacities for Bioterrorism Response: GAO-03-924. GAO Reports, 1.
Evans, R., & Lawrence, S. (2006). Preparing for and responding to bioterrorist attacks: the role of disease management initiatives. Disease Management & Health Outcomes, 14(5), 265-
security professionals respond to a Bioterrorism attack in the United States. hat are the precise steps that are taken -- or should be taken -- to protect citizens in the event of an attack? An article by the former head of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Michael Chertoff, provides step-by-step information relative to the response security officials follow in the event of a Bioterrorism attack.
Chertoff asserts on page 8 that the "key" to meeting the challenge of a possible terrorist-related biological threat is to approach it in a "systematic, comprehensive way" which involves a great deal of intelligent advanced planning. Though vitally important, this kind of advanced planning cannot ever fully anticipate all the ramifications of a terror attack in the biological genre. Chertoff is showing his savvy when he explains that "every aspect of society" can be expected to be impacted during a biologically induced catastrophe.
Smaller particles follow the fluid streamlines and exit the sample." (NATIO, 2001)
The method of operation of a "bubbler or impinger" is through "drawing aerosols through a current inlet tube and jet. Usually the jet is submerged in the liquid contained in the sampler." (NATIO, 2001) the aerosol particles become capture din the base of the jet by the surface of the liquid as the air moves through the liquid. Collection of the smallest of the particles is enabled by a "small critical orifice causing the flow to become sonic." (NATIO, 2001)There are designs that also form bubbles in the liquid as air leaves the jet which is fitted. The Variable Particle-Size Impactors are stated to generally have."..multiple stages" in which "each stage contains a number of precision-drilled orifices that are appropriate for the size of the participle to be collected in that stage and orifice sizes decrease with each….
Farr, Matthew (2004) Chemical Detection vs. Biological Detection Strategies 30 Jun 2004. Frost & Sullivan. Online available at http://www.frost.com/prod/servlet/market-insight-top.pag?docid=20844192
Hood, Ernie (1999) Chemical and Biological Weapons: New Questions, New Answers. Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 107, Number 12, December 1999. Online available at http://www.ehponline.org/docs/1999/107-12/hood.html
DoD. DoD News Briefing. Proliferation: Threat and Response Briefing. Washington, DC:Department of Defense, 1997. Available: http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Nov1997/t112597_t1125ptr.html [cited 19 October 1999
Doesburg, John (2003) Briefing on Chemical and Biological Defense Readiness. 3 March 2003. U.S. Department of Defense. Online available at:
They are relatively inexpensive and available worldwide, easy to produce, easy to hide and is getting easy to deliver as well. iologic agents are viewed by many as the weaponry of the future. They are also called the poor man's bomb. State-sponsored warfare aims at killing large numbers of enemy population. A terrorist organization or individual, on the other hand, may use biologic agents for less deadly aims, such as incapacitating target local population. They may also be used to cause social or political unrest or sow fear and mistrust. The thought of it is deathly and depressing and quite real (Relman & Olson). #
roman, T. et al. (2010). Molecular detection of persistent Francisella Tularensis
subspecies Holaretica in natural waters. Vol 2011 International Journal of Microbiology: Hindawi Publishing Corporation. Retrieved on November 27, 2010
uehler et al. (2003). Syndromic surveillance and bioterrorism-related epidemics. 9 (10)
Journal of Emerging Infectious Diseases: Centers….
Broman, T. et al. (2010). Molecular detection of persistent Francisella Tularensis
subspecies Holaretica in natural waters. Vol 2011 International Journal of Microbiology: Hindawi Publishing Corporation. Retrieved on November 27, 2010
Buehler et al. (2003). Syndromic surveillance and bioterrorism-related epidemics. 9 (10)
bio-terrorism. The writer explores what type of threat it is and how the nation has prepared for it, especially after the events of 9-11. The writer also provides a one page outline of the topic. There were ten sources used to complete this paper.
What is Bioterrorism?
How can it be used against us?
What types of things can be used to commit it?
Steps that were taken after 9-11
What should be done for future protection?
Protecting our borders
For almost two hundred years Americans were lulled into a false sense of security with the belief that nobody could penetrate the "invisible" shield of protection around the country. While chaos was happening around the world by way of attacks, bio-terroristic threats, wars and other problems, Americans went about their daily business believing it could never happen here. And then the events of 9-11 unfolded. Americans were horrified and glued to….
Closer to home: Long relegated to the margins, foreign news has experienced a modest resurgence since September 11. But much of the coverage has focused on the war on terrorism and the Middle East. Will the blackout
Health care adapts to 9/11 world; Nursing schools see rise in candidates for degrees.(Careers)
OHIO READIES FOR BIOTERRORISM EFFORT IMPROVING ALL OF PUBLIC HEALTH.(News)
Disasters and bioterrorism: does management training develop readiness? (From the Schools of Public Health).
Therefore the consequences of such restrictions and regulations have further complicated the case, the research activities have been either shunned or go unreported to avoid any confrontation with the investigation agencies, 'the climate of fear created by the Butler case is even threatening the ability of the United States government to detect bioterrorist activity, the labs in one state are no longer reporting routine incidents of animals poisoned with ICIN, a deadly toxin found in castor beans, for fear of federal investigation'. Stanley Falkow, a respected researcher at Stanford University in California, in his letter to the former attorney-general of the United States revealed that, 'Trying to meet the unwarranted burden of what the government considers 'bio-safety' is simply not coincident with the practice of sound, creative scientific research'. The government introduced a policy which highlighted the need for tight control over the biologists 'with access to dangerous pathogens',….
Robyn L. Pangi, Arnold M. Howitt. Countering Terrorism: Dimensions of Preparedness. 2003. MIT Press. pp. 341
Anthony Kubaik. Stages of Terror: terrorism, Ideology, and Coercion as theatre History. 2000. Pp. 154.
Jamie Lewis Keith. Regulation of Biological Materials under Export Controls and Bioterrorism Laws. University of Florida Press. 2003.
Debora MacKenzie. U.S. crackdown on Bio-Terror is backfiring. New Scientist Publication. November 2003.
Bioterrorism Case Study on Bioterrorism Create a scenario of a hypothetical bioterrorist attack involving botulism or plague. Your scenario should include characteristics that are more indicative of an intentional outbreak than…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Bioterrorism and Future Impact in Nursing Biological warfare threat has spread across the globe from developed to developing, countries in the last few years. It causes alarm among the professionals…Read Full Paper ❯
Bioterrorism is "the use, or threatened use, of biological agents to promote or spread fear or intimidation upon an individual, a specific group, or the population as a whole…Read Full Paper ❯
Bioterrorism Biological weapon can be defined as any kind of organism such as the bacteria, fungi or viruses, or any toxin (poisonous compounds that are produced by organisms) that can…Read Full Paper ❯
Bioterrorism has been noted as the use of any kind of organism such as the bacteria, fungi or viruses, or any toxin (poisonous compounds that are produced by organisms)…Read Full Paper ❯
ioterrorism iological weapons can significantly change the battlefield. Today's leaders must always be on the watch for new threats that can arise in newly designed ways. The enemy is always…Read Full Paper ❯
Then Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen said the program was "specifically designed so that the people we train become trainers themselves. This approach will greatly magnify our…Read Full Paper ❯
Bioterrorism Surveillance Challenges to bioterrorism Challenges to surveillance Having noted the surveillance methods that can be used in the monitoring of the bioterrorism and the possible intentional infection, there are some…Read Full Paper ❯
smallpox as a weapon against societies. The writer explores the viability of using smallpox as a weapon as well as some of the things societies have done to…Read Full Paper ❯
Threat of Bioterrorism There are many reasons to believe that overruling of the possibility of bioterrorism in the country is a serious mistake. In fact, it is practically impossible to…Read Full Paper ❯
security professionals respond to a Bioterrorism attack in the United States. hat are the precise steps that are taken -- or should be taken -- to protect citizens…Read Full Paper ❯
Smaller particles follow the fluid streamlines and exit the sample." (NATIO, 2001) The method of operation of a "bubbler or impinger" is through "drawing aerosols through a current inlet…Read Full Paper ❯
They are relatively inexpensive and available worldwide, easy to produce, easy to hide and is getting easy to deliver as well. iologic agents are viewed by many as…Read Full Paper ❯
bio-terrorism. The writer explores what type of threat it is and how the nation has prepared for it, especially after the events of 9-11. The writer also provides…Read Full Paper ❯
Therefore the consequences of such restrictions and regulations have further complicated the case, the research activities have been either shunned or go unreported to avoid any confrontation with…Read Full Paper ❯