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He uses alliteration and repetition to continue his argument throughout. hile doing this his word choice is very intellectual with words containing more than two syllables. He uses this word choice to convey the power of language. He does this because as a Black man, he wants the white world to see different context is possible. In this respect, he establishes his argument by applying a strong tone along with his word usage. This style is effective because while it is strong it is also communicating to every person who respects language.
He concludes powerful language can be difficult to attain in a society not made for you and this can halt progress. He brings up a valid point. Yes, language is powerful but it is also segmented. Not just in nationality but in race. He regrets his people have not received adequate education. "The brutal truth is that the…
Baldwin, James. "If Black English Isn't a Language, Then Tell Me, What Is?"
New York Times on the Web 29 July 1979. 20 Dec. 2004 http://partners.nytimes.com/books/98/03/29/specials/baldwin-english.html
African-American Vernacular English can be described as an assortment of American English that is mostly used by urban-working class and mostly bi-dialectical middle-class black Americans. The language is also commonly known as Black Vernacular English or Black English. In some cases, particularly outside the academic community, it is referred to as Ebonics given its distinctive features and similarities with other non-standard English varieties. The similarities with other varieties are evident when compared to various standard and non-standard English languages that are commonly used in the United States and the Caribbean. In the past few years, African-American Vernacular English has been the subject of various public debates and attracted considerable attention among sociolinguists. This paper examines the development of this language, its distinctive features, cultural context, and socio-economic implications of the use of African-American Vernacular English.
oots of African-American Vernacular English
The history and origin of African-American Vernacular English and other…
Fisher, D. & Lapp, D. (2013, May). Learning to Talk Like the Test: Guiding Speakers of African
American Vernacular English. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 56(8), 634-648.
Harris, Y.R. & Schroeder, V.M. (2013, January 24). Language Deficits or Differences: What We
Know about African-American Vernacular English in the 21st Century. International Education Studies, 6(4), 194-204.
Once they arrived, they were brought to a slave market and usually auctioned off to the highest bidder just as cattle and horses were auctioned off. he slaves then spent their lives of servitude helping white farm and plantation owners in their agricultural operations. he slaves weren't typically compensated and lived in deplorable conditions. Slavery helped many white land owners become rich, and the southern colonies, which turned into the southern states, remained slave states, while those in the north became know as free states, where slavery was not legal. his dichotomy of cultures, between the northern and southern states, eventually led to further economic and cultural rifts leading up to the Civil War in 1860.
During the Civil War, the northern states allowed blacks to serve in the Union Army. Southern states, eager to fight for their way of life and economic interests, were against the abolition of slavery.…
The English Colonies were set up as resource providers for the English Monarchy and economy in Europe. Products like cotton, tobacco, and other crops were planted and harvested in the rich soils of the colonies. The land and plantation owners were eager to cut costs, and with the African slave trade to places like the Caribbean and southern Spanish colonies booming, black slaves were an abundant and relatively cheap labor resource, especially for the farms and plantations in the southern colonies. Unlike the southern colonies, the northern colonies' economies began to differentiate themselves as producers of manufactured goods as well as services. In this way, even though slavery was legal in all of the English Colonies, the northern colonies had less of a demand for black slaves than the southern ones.
Operationally, slaves were brought in primarily from West African locales to work in agriculture-related servitude. Many of the slaves were separated from their families and many died during the long voyage via slave ship to the English Colonies. Once they arrived, they were brought to a slave market and usually auctioned off to the highest bidder just as cattle and horses were auctioned off. The slaves then spent their lives of servitude helping white farm and plantation owners in their agricultural operations. The slaves weren't typically compensated and lived in deplorable conditions. Slavery helped many white land owners become rich, and the southern colonies, which turned into the southern states, remained slave states, while those in the north became know as free states, where slavery was not legal. This dichotomy of cultures, between the northern and southern states, eventually led to further economic and cultural rifts leading up to the Civil War in 1860.
During the Civil War, the northern states allowed blacks to serve in the Union Army. Southern states, eager to fight for their way of life and economic interests, were against the abolition of slavery. This is not to say that the Civil War was fought on the question of whether black slavery should be legitimized, but slavery, as an economic mechanism, had much to do with the build up to war that had been occurring for nearly a century previous. After the Civil War, slavery was abolished. But though the institution of slavery was outlawed, the cultural and social norms were still left intact. Across the country, Jim Crow laws were left on the books that held blacks as second-class citizens with fewer rights than whites. Even after the reconstruction period, blacks had a hard time assimilating into mainstream American culture, and were economically and socially disadvantaged because of their history.
A appreciate the fact that this English course also included sections on writing effective narrative papers. I found narrative papers to be fun to write because they involve storytelling and rich descriptive language. I feel more creative writing narrative papers, which is why I prefer writing them, as opposed to research papers. When we write narrative papers, I can draw from personal experience, which makes the writing process easier than it is during the process of writing a research paper. Also, the techniques of writing narrative papers differ from the techniques of writing research and persuasive papers. Organization and focus is important, but the paper can be less formal in a narrative essay.
A found literary analysis papers to be among the most difficult to write. I found it very helpful to encounter some of the common techniques for approaching literary criticism. Learning about the different formats such as MLA…
Blacks in Blues Music
Biographer Lawrence Jackson wrote that author Ralph Ellison was exposed to the blues and classical music from an early age, eventually playing the trumpet and pursuing a degree in music at Tuskegee (McLaren Pp). hen he moved to New York to pursue his writing career, Ellison was exposed to the musical developments in jazz and often attended the Apollo Theater, the Savoy Ballroom, and Cafe Society Downtown, and although he admired such figures as pianist Teddy ilson, Count Basie and Duke Ellington, he did not particularly admired Dizzy Gillespie's Bebop, considering its use of Afro-Cuban influences as a "strategic mistake" (McLaren Pp). Ellison, writes Jackson, was more concerned with the "homegrown idiom" (McLaren Pp). That homegrown idiom that Ellison referred to was the blues, a music born in the fields of the South by black workers who used their African musical heritage to give birth to…
McLaren, Joseph. "Ralph Ellison: Emergence of Genius."
Research in African Literatures; 12/22/2004; Pp.
Southern, Eileen. The Music of Black Americans. W.W. Norton & Company.
1983; pp. 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 336, 338.
Known as the "artistic sister of the Black Power movement," Black Arts refers to the collective expressions of African-American culture during the 1960s and 1970s. Corresponding with the climax of the Civil Rights movement and the self-empowerment of the African-American community, the Black Arts was a politically charged yet aesthetically ripe collection of visual, performance, music, and literary art forms. Amiri Baraka is credited widely with the genesis of the Black Arts movement. The assassination of Malcolm X is said to have inspired Baraka to move to Harlem and delve into the transformative power of art for emboldening the black community (Salaam). Even when he was still known as LeRoi Jones, Baraka had been involved in the publishing industry, and had worked as a poet, arts critic, and playwright. His founding of the Black Arts Repertory Theatre/School (BARTS) is the "formal beginning" of the movement, which Baraka himself…
"The Black Arts Movement." Retrieved online: http://www.blackpast.org/aah/black-arts-movement-1965-1975
"A Brief Guide to the Black Arts Movement." Poets.org. Retrieved online: http://www.poets.org/poetsorg/text/brief-guide-black-arts-movement
Neal, Larry. "The Black Arts Movement." The Making of African-American Identity, Vol. 3, 1917-1968. Retrieved online: http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/maai3/community/text8/blackartsmovement.pdf
Salaam, Kaluma Ya. "Historical Overviews of the Black Arts Movement." http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/blackarts/historical.htm
It is also more likely to create a constructive rather than a destructive outcome, it is a process of conflict resolution that may aim to arrive at the truth of a given situation rather than simple victory for one side and it is the only technique of struggle that is consistent with the teachings of the major religions (eber and Burrowes, n.d.).
Nonviolent action is a method by which people who reject passivity and submission, and who see struggle as necessary, can have their conflict without violence. Nonviolent acts are not seen as an attempt to steer clear of or ignore conflict. They are one reaction to the problem of how to act effectively in politics, particularly how to wield powers effectively. It consists of acts of protest and persuasion, noncooperation and nonviolent intervention designed to undermine the sources of power of the opponent in order to bring about change…
Burstein, Stanley M. And Shek, Richard. 2005. "World History Ancient Civilizations." Texas:
Holt, Rinhart and Winston
Jones, Chris. 2008. "Analysis of Martin Luther King Jr.'s Letter from Birmingham Jail."
Web. 27 April 2010.
English 1540 EL 10 Take-Home Exam:
Please read the short essay called "Something from the Sixties" reproduced for you below. Feel free to make notes as you read if this helps you to understand it. Then, complete the following questions in complete sentences and paragraphs.
Something from the Sixties
About five o'clock last Sunday evening, my son burst into the kitchen and said, "I didn't know it was so late!" He was due at a party immediately -- a sixties party, he said -- and he needed something from the sixties to wear. My son is almost fifteen years old, the size of a grown man, and when he bursts into a room glassware rattles and the cat on your lap grabs on to your knees and leaps from the starting block. I used to think the phrase "burst into the room" was only for detective fiction, until my son…
Scout and Jem are likewise tormented by their classmates because of their father's courageous decision to defend an obviously innocent man. Scout already hates school and feels like a persecuted mockingbird in its controlled, conformist environment. She would rather be playing with her brother and her best friend Dill. School is yet another example of the ways in which society can be cruel and persecutory of people who are 'different.'
Scout is not above hurting other people, however. When she is humiliated by her teacher because she explains why a poor boy named Walter cannot afford even to borrow money for lunch and her teacher reprimands her, Scout turns against Walter by beating him up during lunchtime. Before she is saved by Boo, she is frightened of him and she and her friends make up stories about him, because they fear what they do not understand. It is this misunderstanding…
In this light. Dee represents the most successful fulfillment of the material side of the American Dream (Whitsitt). On the other hand, she is unsuccessful at preserving what is most beautiful about her culture by no longer honoring it in any practical sense. In this, she represents the tragedy of loss in terms of meaning, culture, and heritage in blind pursuit of material gain and social success.
The Red Convertible" by Louise Erdrich
The story by Louise Erdrich similarly demonstrates a dichotomy between the past, the potential of the future, and the scars that cannot be healed as a result of trauma and tragedy. The American Dream and its destruction in this story is represented by two brothers and their initially healthy relationship (boosh). As young men, Henry and Lyman are happy-go-lucky and somewhat irresponsible. Their relationship is healthy and close, represented by a red convertible that they buy restore,…
Powell, Rachel. Character Analysis and Symbolism in Alice Walker's Everyday Use. Dec 03, 2007. Associated Content. http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/462096/character_analysis_and_symbolism_in.html?page=2&cat=38
Sboosh Academic Article Library. Loss of Innocence in Louise Erdrich's the Red Convertible. 2008. http://www.sboosh.com/articles/201_1/Loss-of-Innocence-in-Louise-Erdrich-the-Red-Convertible/
Walker, Kristen. Symbolism in the Red Convertible by Louise Erdrich. Jul 15, 2008. Associated Content. http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/815075/symbolism_found_in_the_red_convertible.html?page=2&cat=37
Whitsitt, Sam. In Spite of it all: A reading of Alice Walker's "Everyday Use." African-American Review, Fall, 2000. Database: FindArticles. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2838/is_3_34/ai_67413399/pg_12
African-American Vernacular English
There are a couple of theories as to the origin of African-American Vernacular Englsh (AAVE). Some linguists believe that the language derives from est African languages. This dialect theory is based on the knowledge that most African-Americans who were brought to the United States from Africa had to learn how to speak English by ear. The may have picked up some of the English words incorrectly and incorporated the incorrect words in their language. Another theory is called the Creole Hypothesis. This theory bases its origin on the thought that slaves developed the language themselves. The slaves, who came from many different countries in Africa formulated AAVE so that they may talk amongst themselves. They developed with is called a pidgin by combining words from their own language with new words from America. They used grammar and speech patterns that were known to them from their own…
Jackson, Jenny Ebonics and Gullah, One and the Same? (http://www.ac.wwu.edu/~petersj4/jenny.htm)
Labov, William Academic Ignorance and Black Intelligence (Labov (http://www.arches.uga.edu/~bryan/AAVE/).
Rickford, John. "Creole Origins of AAVE http://www.stanford.edu/~rickford/papers/CreoleOriginsOfAAVE.html
Where Did It Come at (http://www.arches.uga.edu/~bryan/AAVE/).
In addition, they were often enslaved by fellow blacks, capitalizing on the white man's desires, and so, another misconception about slavery is demolished, races did not band together; they worked against each other when enslaving their neighbors.
Slavery ended due to several instances, such as nations becoming larger and larger, taking over more territory, and thus reducing the areas available for slave capture. These areas tended to be small and weak, and when they were taken over, they were no longer acceptable for slave capture (Sowell 115). Serfdom, a popular agricultural solution in Europe, tended to supplant slavery, ending it there, as well. A true philosophy of ending enslavement began in Britain in the 18th century, before that, most civilizations did not view slavery as a problem at all. In fact, the people who first objected were extremely conservation religious members of society, but this is often overlooked or ignored.…
Sowell, Thomas. Black Rednecks and White Liberals. San Francisco, Encounter Books, 2005.
lack Elk Speaks: being the life story of a holy man of the Oglala Sioux
This book is about the life and development of an Indian medicine man, lack Elk. From a historical perspective the life of lack Elk is significant as he was present at the famous he attle of the Little ig Horn and he survived the Wounded Knee Massacre1890. lack Elk is also an important figure as he represents the Sioux people as a holy man or medicine man. The cultural as well as the spiritual aspects of the story of lack Elk also provides the modern reader with insight into the culture of the American Indian.
This book also has a message for the modern person living in a world such as ours, where war, poverty and other problems such as climate change have caused humanity to look at other cultures and views of life for…
Black Elk Speaks: being the life story of a holy man of the Oglala Sioux. Web. 7 Nov.
2011. ( http://www.humanresonance.org/black_elk.pdf).
Black Girl by Patricia Smith and Aurora Levin's Morales' Child of the Americas
Comparison between What it's Like to Be a Black Girl by Patricia Smith and Aurora Levin's Morales' Child of the Americas
Issues of race and racism coupled with those of culture and multiculturalism, in the society constitute one of the problem areas in which different groups of people have had to deal with, some of them having to face the issues on a day-to-day basis. In light of this, various literary works have been produced with the view of expressing the existence of such problems and finding ways in which these issues can be handled (Gale Group, 2003). Such literary works come in the form of poems which include the likes of "Child of the Americas" written by Aurora Morales and "What it is like to be a Black Girl" by Patricia Smith, works which form the…
Gale Group (2003) Twentieth Century Literary Criticism Annual Cumulative Title Index, Volumes 1-130, Connecticut, Cengage Learning
Reilly, K et al. (2003) Racism: a global reader. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe
San Juan, E, (2004) Working through the contradictions from cultural theory to critical practice. Bucknell University Press
Strachan, J.R & Terry, R.G (2000) Poetry: an Introduction, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press
I had no idea that black people were brutally assaulted for just sitting on the wrong bench or that the police were part of the problem at that time.
The new appreciation for the factual understanding of what the American civil rights era was about scared me in some ways because it reminded me that human beings have a certain natural capacity for illogical group loyalties and prejudices. It is something that I also recognize in my country of origin and also between different Asian races of people as well. The course also changed my view of the way that white and black Americans may view one another. Even in today's era of civil rights, racial equality, and appreciation for cultural diversity, there must be some resentment remaining in many black Americans, especially those who remember life in the U.S. before the 1960s.
To be perfectly honest, I think…
One example of this is the "famous egg box metaphor of international society (in which states were the eggs, and international society the box), one might see this unevenness as a pan of fried eggs. Although nearly all the states in the system belong to a thin, pluralist interstate society (the layer of egg-white), there are sub-global and/or regional clusters sitting on that common substrate that are both much more thickly developed than the global common, and up to a point developed separately and in different ways from each other (the yolks)" (Buzan and Gonzalez-Pelaez, 2005: 6).
For example the EU and North America, for example are "sub-global interstate societies that are more thickly developed within themselves. Lesser attempts to create thicker, liberal, regional interstate/international societies by cultivating joint economic development can be found in...various other regional economic cooperations," such as OPEC (Buzan and Gonzalez-Pelaez, 2005: 6). "Above some of…
Armstrong, David. (2007). Order and Justice in International Society. Retrieved 20 Aug 2007 at http://www.leeds.ac.uk/polis/englishschool/readarmstrong.doc
Bania-Dobyns, Sarah. (2005, Aug). The Contribution of the System Concept to the English School: Clarifying the System Concept by Means of Methodological
Pluralism. Paper for the Panel 'ES Theory Debates' WISC Conference Istanbul. Retrieved 20 Aug 2007 at http://www.leeds.ac.uk/polis/englishschool/papers.htm
Buzan, Barry & Ana Gonzalez-Pelaez. (2005, Aug). The Middle East Through English
The renowned author Robert Louis Stevenson wrote The Black Arrow in 1888. Set in England during the 15th-century Wars of the Roses, this swash-buckling historical novel by the author of Treasure Island and Kidnapped tells the story of young Dick Shelton. It was written in not the language of his time, but the language of the setting he wished to portray.
Although this medieval romance is one of Stevenson's minor adventure stories, still it has been very popular as a coming of age novel. Its key character is immature young noble Richard Shelton, who learns that his guardian is in fact an evil man who murdered Richard's father and who intends to attain wealth by constantly changing sides in the Wars of the Roses. Being a guardian entails that when a noble heir is orphaned, his revenues until he came of age are in the hands of his…
english topic Steroid. I specific details topic Steroid Use Sports. steroid ? famous types steroid sport function type. good bad effective steroid athletes steroid ? steroid affect short-term long-term.
Steroids: are they a necessary evil?
Society traditionally encouraged people to experience progress in any field that they possibly could and this made it difficult for some to keep up with the fact that the world was constantly changing. In their struggle to keep up and even to be recognized for their contributions, some individuals have turned to using controversial methods. Athletes are provided with difficult choices as they feel the need to satisfy the needs of their fans. Society is indirectly responsible for the fact that some athletes use steroids because of the pressure that it puts on their shoulders. Many athletes today use steroids at the expense of their own health because they know that this is one of…
Dilingham, Michael, "Steroids, Sports and the Ethics of Winning," Retrieved December 4, 2011, from the Santa Clara University Website: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/ethicalperspectives/steriods-ethics.html
Dodgshon, Robert, The Age of the Clans: The Highlands from Somerled to the Clearances (Edinburgh: Birlinn, 2002)
Hecht, Annabel, "Anabolic Steroids: Pumping Trouble," FDA Consumer Sept. 1984
Sender Aaron J. "Anabolic Steroids for non-therapeutic use," Retrieved December 4, 2011, from the New York University Website: http://www.nyu.edu/classes/jaeger/anabolic_steroids.htm
Thus, he covers both sides of the issue effectively, and notes that while eighteen Americans died, between 500 and 1,000 Somalis died on the ground. Thus, as a journalist, he uses balance and both sides of the issue to make his points and back up his reasoning. That is the mark of a good journalist, and probably one of the reasons the book was considered for a National Book Award. It is an emotional book, but it is also balanced and fair, leading the reader to make their own conclusions about what happened in Somalia.
One of the great strengths of the book is the way the author portrays the soldiers. They are more than a group of men fighting together, they are a team, a cohesive group that care about each other and will never leave another behind. That is one of the enduring themes of the book, and…
Editors. "Mark Bowden: Biography." AtlanticMonthly.com. 2007. http://www.theatlantic.com/about/people/mbbio.htm
Mark Bowden. Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1999.
The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter
The book "The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter" by Caron McCullers has received critical reviews by the likes of critics such as Laurie Champion. Here is what Champion had to say:
As quoted by Champion, ichard Cook makes the following statement in his book, "Carson McCullers": "Yet McCullers has consistently subordinated moral outrage and social and political commentary to her overriding concern with the mysteries of individual human name (Champion, 1991). She describes the social environment with a fullness of detail not found in any of her later novels, but we are asked to look inward to the heart rather than onward to political and economic structures in society for any final answers to human problems (Champion, 1991)."
Hence, the quote provided by Champion is quite agreeable. McCuller has given a thorough detail regarding the social environment, which wasn't a part of…
McCuellers, Carson. The Heart Is A Lonely Hunter. 1st ed. N.p.: Mariner, (2004). Library Genesis. Web. 27 Feb. 2015. .
Politics makes strange bedfellows, we are told, with the implication that those brought together by the vagaries of politics would be best kept apart. But sometimes this is not true at all. In the case of the Black Seminoles, politics brought slaves and Seminole Indians politics brought together two groups of people who would - had the history of the South been written just a little bit differently - would never have had much in common. But slaves fleeing their masters and Seminoles trying to lay claim to what was left of their traditional lands and ways found each other to be natural allies in Florida and in time in other places as well. This paper examines the origin of this particular American population, describing how the Black Seminoles changed over time and how their culture reflected both African and Seminole elements.
The Black Seminoles began in the early 1800s…
Amos, Alcione M., and Thomas Senter (eds). The Black Seminoles. History of a Freedom-Seeking People. Gainesville: UP of Florida, 1996.
Hancock, I. The Texas Seminoles and Their Language. Austin: African and Afro-American Studies and Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, 1980. http://members.aol.com/angelaw859/movement.html http://www.nps.gov/foda/Fort_Davis_WEB_PAGE/About_the_Fort/Seminole.htm
Jahoda, G. The Trail of Tears. Kansas City: Wings Press, 1995.
In fact, he identified himself entirely with it, even in his own self-reflection. In the reflective poem "leroy," published in 1969 under his newly adopted name Amiri Baraka, a nostalgic comment on his mother becomes a lofty vision of himself as the bearer of black wisdom -- that "strong nigger feeling" (5) -- from his ancestors forward to the next generation. He refers to this legacy that he is passing on as his "consciousness" (11), an indication that he had by this point in his life entirely adopted his race as his identity.
This wholehearted self-identification with race, along with a keen awareness of his cultural power as a poet, combined to create an artist absorbed with his own capacity for social comment and change. After the assassination of Malcolm X in 1965, Baraka became disenchanted with the somewhat passive anti-establishment attitudes of the Greenwich Village artistic community, and moved…
"Amiri Baraka: Biography and Historical Context." Modern American Poetry. The University of Illinois. Web. 29 May 2010.
Baraka, Amiri. "Speech to Rutgers University." Chicago Review. Chicago: Fall 1997. Vol. 43, Iss. 4, 109. Print.
-, and William Harris. The LeRoi Jones / Amiri Baraka Reader. New York: Avalon, 1999. Print.
Lease, Joseph. "Progressive Lit: Amiri Baraka, Bruce Andrews, and the Politics of the Lyric 'I'." African-American Review. Terre Haute: Summer 2003. Vol. 37, Iss. 2, 389. Print.
Doom in the luest Eye and the Voyage Out Doomed From the eginning:
The Inevitability of Death in the luest Eye and the Voyage Out Commonality is a funny thing. Who would suppose that a young, white twenty-four-year-old, turn of the twenty-first century, English lady might have a great deal in common with a young, adolescent, black American girl? This is exactly the case, however, between Virginia Woolf's main character, Rachel in The Voyage Out, and Toni Morrison's Pecola, in her work, The luest Eye.
Despite their differences in time, location, culture, and circumstance, the characters in the two novels share a common fate based on a common cause. oth characters begin life in unfortunate circumstances that foreshadow the inevitable doom that results from their respective positions in life.
Morrison's The luest Eye, opens with the words, "Here is the house."
It starts out innocently enough -- yet, even before…
Gordon, Lyndall. Virginia Woolf: A Writer's Life. New York W.W. Norton, 1984.
Hussey, Mark. Virginia Woolf A to Z. New York: Facts on File, Inc., 1995.
Morrison, Toni. The Bluest Eye. New York: Plume, 1994.
Woolf, Virginia. The Voyage Out. Oxford: Oxford University, 1992.
Black Women: Diversity and Inclusion Programs - Are they really assisting?
In the last few decades, researchers, policymakers, economic development experts, and analysts of public policy are increasingly concentrating on the aspect of entrepreneurship in the African-American community, with respect to devising distinct strategies for facilitating economic success. Establishment of set-aside initiatives for minorities (or disadvantaged business initiatives) is one political strategy which serves as an instrument for enhancing small, poor businesses' chances of survival. Several of these businesses were African-American-owned and -run businesses (House-Soremekun, 2007; Chatterji, Chay & Fairlie, 2013). This paper will look into the economics-politics interrelationship, by analyzing the aforementioned disadvantaged business initiatives' effect on African-American businesswomen's economic outcomes.
Set-aside initiatives for minorities first developed during the 1930s, with President oosevelt's Great-Depression-era New Deal initiatives for addressing economic issues (House-Soremekun, 2007). The 1933 Unemployment elief Act prohibited discrimination against people on the basis of color,…
Bardach, E. (2011). Practical guide for policy analysis: the eight-fold path to more effective problem solving, 4th Edition. Sage
Bates, T. and Williams, D. (1995). Preferential Procurement Programs and Minority-Owned Businesses, Journal of Urban Affairs, 17(1): 1-17.
Bates, T. and Williams, D.L. (1993). Racial Politics: Does It Pay? Social Science Quarterly, 74(3): 507-22.
Boston, T. D. (1998). Trends in Minority-Owned Businesses, prepared for the National Research Council Conference on Racial Trends in the United States, Georgia Tech Working Paper.
" (Adams et al.)
hat the report went on to show was how a decades long deception was practiced on a race that was viewed primarily as a guinea pig for medical science.
The Tuskegee Institute had been established by Booker T. ashington. Claude McKay had passed through there in 1912 to study agriculture (under the patronage of alter Jekyll, a man who provided the basis for Robert Louis Stevenson's classic horror tale character). Around the same time that Eleanor Dwight Jones was striving to preserve the white race, the United States Public Health Service began the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. hat took place was a forty year analysis of the life of syphilis. The two hundred black men who had syphilis were "deliberately denied treatment" (Adams et al.) in what was just one more step in oppression and callous social engineering.
And at the same time the Tuskegee experiment was…
Adams, Myrtle, et al. "Final Report of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Legacy Committee."
1996. Web. 8 June 2011.
Cone, James. Risks of Faith. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1999. Print.
Dowlings, Keven, and Knightley, Philip. "The Spy Who Came Back from the Grave."
C.O.R.E. And Its Role in the Black Freedom Struggle
Nearly one hundred forty years ago, a tall, and not very good-looking, bearded man stepped out onto a great, open field. His tired eyes wandered over the bloody ground, over the earth covered with corpses, over the scene of one of the greatest battles in American History, and his words rang out true and clear -."..Our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal."
Abraham Lincoln's famous address gave meaning and purpose to all those young lives so tragically cut short. It etched forever in the minds of posterity the real aim behind that great war. e were a nation of free people. Subjection and slavery were banished for all time from our shores. Or were they? The Civil ar freed the slaves. A piece of…
http://www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=22777836"Anderson, Terry H. The Movement and the Sixties. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. De Leon, David, ed. Leaders from the 1960s: A Biographical Sourcebook of American Activism. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994. Eskew, Glenn T. But for Birmingham: The Local and National Movements in the Civil Rights Struggle / . Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1997. Jasper, James M. The Art of Moral Protest: Culture, Biography, and Creativity in Social Movements. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997. King, Richard H. Civil Rights and the Idea of Freedom. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. Levy, Peter B. The Civil Rights Movement. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998. Peake, Thomas R. Keeping the Dream Alive: A History of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference from King to the Nineteen-Eighties. New York: Peter Lang, 1987. Pinkney, Alphonso. Black Americans. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prenitice-Hall, 1975.
Learning to read and write in English has been one of my most treasured accomplishments in the recent past. To begin with, learning to read and write in English is in my opinion the very first step towards becoming a fluent speaker of one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. In that regard therefore, I am convinced that fluency in English is a plus as I pursue my career of choice. Given that English is one of the most common languages, corporations and most organizations would ordinarily hire individuals who can relate well with their customers and clients. Being able to read, write, and speak English will therefore give me a distinct advantage in my future job seeking endeavors. It is also important to note that fully aware that the world is increasingly becoming interconnected; the relevance of learning an additional language cannot be overstated. It is…
Baldwin, James. Sonny's Blues. Stuttgart: Klett Sprachen, 2009. Print.
Brinton, Margaret. 100 Little Reading Comprehension Lessons. New York: Lorenz Educational Press, 2004. Print.
Cusipag, Maria, et al. Critical Thinking through Reading and Writing. Philippines: De La Salle University Press, 2007. Print.
Promised Land/Black Girl
Ousmane Sembene's short story "The Promised Land," which was later adapted into a film called Black Girl, asks its audience to step into the life and subjectivity of a young Senegalese woman working in France, and attempts to demonstrate the isolation and persecution she experiences. The story opens with police arriving at the villa where the main character, Diouana, has killed herself, and immediately the story reveals the distinct divide between the French and Diouana, as nearly everyone calls her "the black woman" (Sembene 85). From this introduction, Sembene returns to Diouana's origins and traces how she went from an excited young woman to a disillusioned and ultimately suicidal servant, and the result is a tragic, though ultimately enlightening look at the ramifications of colonialism and the implicit racism it leaves as a legacy. Even though it was first published in 1974, the story is still relevant…
Sembene, Ousmane. Tribal scars, and other stories. New York: Inscape, 1974.
These rights are voluntarily given by the people to the government through a 'social contract' and governments exist only to protect such rights.
How Far is Locke's "Theory of Property" reflected in the U.S. Declaration of Independence?
The Declaration of Independence," a formal announcement of independence by the American colonists from British rule in the summer of 1776, is widely believed to be based on John Locke's theories of natural and property rights as well as the right (even obligation) of the people to rebel against a government that fails to honor the 'contract' between rulers and the ruled by failing to protect the rights of the people.
There is no doubt that Thomas Jefferson, the main author of the "Declaration of Independence" was deeply influenced by the Libertarian philosophy of John Locke and the wordings of the Declaration parallel the writings of Locke regarding "the inalienable rights of life,…
As a result, the variables that can be extracted from this information, is that there needs to be a wide variety of solutions made available to educators. At the same time, there must be more support in helping them to reach out to these students. Once this occurs, it will provide the greatest amounts of learning comprehension. This helps to make the Action Research Project more effective by: understanding how this can improve the student's grasp of the materials and what are the underlying weaknesses in using this technology. (Zimmerman, 2009, pp. 3356 -- 3362)
This resource that was written by Freeman (2008) is significant, because it is highlighting how using technology to teach English language learners can improve the overall amounts of learning comprehension. The reason why, is because a host of different ideas are being presented in format that is using the various language skills of the student…
Black, R. (2009). English Language Learners, Fan Communities and 21st Century Skills. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy. 52 (8), 668 -- 697.
Freeman, B. (2008). Creating a Middle School Mathematics Curriculum. Remedial and Special Education. 29 (1), 9 -- 19.
Lopez, O. (2010). The Digital Learning Classroom. Computers and Education. 54 (4), 901 -- 915.
Moore, S. (2009). Uses of Technology in the Instruction of Adult English Language Learners. Centers for Applied Linguistics. 1 -- 4.
Mannoni's belief that colonial racism is different than other kinds of racism Fanon dismisses as utterly naive: "All forms of exploitation are identical because all of them are applied against the same 'object': man" (88). He next turns to Mannoni's statement that a minority can only have experiences of dependency or inferiority toward the majority (92-93). Fanon spends the remainder of the chapter disproving this claim by engaging with various aspects of Mannoni's argument. He concludes that Mannoni's lacks foundation for his claims.
Fanon focuses this chapter on the observation that only in interaction with the white man is the black man compelled to "experience his being" (109). He argues that, contrary to other claims, this condition is not reciprocal; only the black man suffers from a 3rd person view of himself. Fanon strives to find an identity for the black man outside the parameters of the white man's view.…
Hooper's wearing of the veil only reinforces this notion. e are all unclean and should be aware of our condition. Hooper believed this and says so on his deathbed when he tells those around him, "On every visage a Black Veil!" (Hawthorne 640) G.A. Santangelo believes that Hawthorne was concerned with a delusional state of innocence in that no one can be innocent in this world "because man has a propensity for evil that musty be understood" (Santangelo 61). No one of this earth can be innocent and failure to recognize this "leads to a childish egotism and an unrealistic ethic which results in a sterile paganism" (61). Hooper makes a choice that isolates him but it is a choice that is "dedicated to a higher purpose" (66). In this sense, he "accepts the darkness, not in pride, but of necessity" (66). This story is tragic, according to Santangelo because…
Gilbert P. Voigt. "The Meaning of 'The Minister's Black Veil.' College English. 1952. JSTOR
Resource Database. Information Retrieved March 19, 2009.
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Minister's Black Veil." Concise Anthology of English Literature. McMichael, George. Ed. New Jersey: Upper Saddle River. 2006.
Morsberger, Robert. "The Minister's Black Veil': Shrouded in a Blackness, Ten Times Black."
he was lucky too that a dedicated and gifted teacher came his way who recognized his skills and effort fully interceded on his behalf.
If not for Jack MacFarland, ose may never have gone onto Loyola or become the kind of person that he became today.
In contrast, ichard odriquez's memoir "the achievement of desire" derogates education and amplifies the true value of the 'ordinary' person that is often overlooked...
The two articles have one thing in common: both indicate that there is more thantn one kind of knowledge and that we do ill by abrogating people's capacities and skills to a Western construct of 'knowledge'.
The conventional school system, at least in the Western world, perceives 'knowledge' to be comprised of certain skills in certain subjects at a certain level that they rate to be applicable This they have pronounced to be the 'norm' and so anything that…
Rose, M. "I Just Wanna Be Average"
Rodriquez, R. The achievement of desire http://myweb.cwpost.liu.edu/lbai/Data/English%201F -- Materials/Open%20Questions/the%20Achievement%20of%20Desire.pdf
Spanglish is a combination of Spanish and English, with each of these two languages having more or less of an influence on the final product depending on the circumstances. The speech of Spanghlish users involves them bringing together the two languages and creating a dialect that is not native to the country they inhabit. Spanglish is widely used in Hispanic communities in North America, as they prefer it as an intermediary dialect assisting them to connect with the English-speaking community.
Living in two cultures can have a strong impact on a person, as he or she gradually comes to switch back and forth between cultural values promoted in each of these respective environments. This is perfectly demonstrated by individuals speaking Spanglish, taking into account that they need to concentrate on adopting attitudes that enable them to improve their relationship to both English and Spanish-speaking communities.
Although Spanish plays an integral…
Betz, Regina M., "Chicana "Belonging" in Sandra Cisneros' The House on Mango Street," Retrieved November 23, 2013, from http://rmmla.innoved.org/ereview/SI2012/Betz.pdf
Canas, Alberto, "Spanglish: The Third Way," Retrieved November 23, 2013, from http://www.hokuriku-u.ac.jp/jimu/kiyo/kiyo25/209.pdf
Cisneros, Sandra, "The House on Mango Street," (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2004)
Johnston, Bethany, "Code Switching as Spanglish," (GRIN Verlag, 14 Jan 2011)
Frantz Fanon's Black Skin, White Masks.
Read the book and discuss the book in terms of the title.
Fanon's book is an analysis of identity and racism issues about blacks in a culturally white world.
In order to understand Frantz Fanon's book, Black Skin, White Masks, it's important to understand a little bit about the author himself. Fanon was born in French Martinique in 1925 and moved to France in 1943. e had always thought of himself as French and it was here in France that he had his first taste of racism. e began to write political essays and plays and it was here that he wrote Black Skin, White Masks.
The book represents his own first-hand experience with being a black well-educated man in a world of whites. Because he had studied medicine and psychology, Fanon interjected psychological theories into his writing.
Fanon believes that because blackness is…
His book is a fascinating journey through psychological and intellectual theories that collide to from a work that distinguishes itself as one of the most influential statements on anti-colonial revolutionary thought. It is the culmination of some of his lectures and his own experiences in Lyon.
Fanon died in 1961 but his works still impact and challenge the idea of racism and colonization. The last paragraph of this astounding novel identifies his continued despair and frustration with the state of being black.
A www.emory.edu/ENGLISH/Bahri/Fanon.html www.thei.aust.com
English-speaking versions of Hamlet vs. European versions
The many contemporary interpretations of Shakespeare enacted on the modern stage underline the fact that Shakespeare was a playwright for the ages, not simply a man of his own time. However, in the ways in which Shakespeare has been adapted to modernity, it becomes apparent that modern directors are just as intent upon revealing their own personal preoccupations as well as revealing the nuances of Shakespeare's plays. This can be seen when comparing British interpretations with European and other non-English language stagings of Hamlet. Although the most obvious difference between these two categories is that British interpretations are in the original language of Shakespeare while European stagings are enacted in translation, the difference runs far deeper. English productions tend to emphasize the psychological, internal conflict of Hamlet and view the play in terms of its psychological drama. In contrast, European interpretations of…
Dasgupta, Gautam. "Germany's Fourth Wall." Performing Arts Journal, 13. 2 (May, 1991):
Goldman, Peter. "Hamlet's Ghost: A Review Article." Greenblatt, Stephen. Hamlet in Purgatory.
Princeton UP, 2001. Anthropoetics 7. 1 (Spring / Summer 2001).
Mr. Hooper states that he is no better or worse than the other members of his community, who he believes also harbor secret sins, even though they act as though they do not. The anti-Transcendentalist concept, like Transcendentalism, suggests that society harbors a false surface, but it believes this is due to an innate sinfulness of humankind, not because human beings outside of society are better.
Anti-transcendentalists believed that humans are hypocrites, and removing social constrictions will not heal the sins of humanity. Mr. Hooper, unlike Emerson's joyful sense of solitude in nature also experiences his isolation as a penance. He chooses to punish himself, not to gain a more positive sense of his inner self, but to fully understand and apprehend its sinfulness. Another key concept of Transcendentalism is the idea that a person's inner life is more important than their social, outer life. However, in Mr. Hooper's estimation,…
Brulatour, Meg. "Heaven on Earth: The Legacy of 19th Century Transcendentalism as an Ecumenical Philosophy of Nature." American Transcendentalist Web 1999
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Minister's Black Veil." E-text available from http://etext.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=HawMini.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=1&division=div1
New World" & "Black Robe"
Both Terrence Malick's "The New World" and Bruce Beresford's "Black Robe" deal with themes of Native American encounters with European settlers and how it impacted both parties. There are subtle differences in each movie, but the main themes of cultures clashing and the inevitable conflict that will occur as a result permeate both films. Both films are notable for their attention to detail and their respective quests for historical accuracy, though "The New World" deals with the far more mythologized and recognized story of Pocahontas. These two films together represent a shift in the telling of Native American tales in the cinema, no longer satisfied to project the image of "Noble Savage" that had previously dominated these types of movies.
In Malick's "The New World," Pocahontas is portrayed as a woman torn between two cultures: the one she has known for the whole of her…
lack Tar Heroin Dealer
I am sitting in my ex-roommate's living room. The television casts the only light in the room. It dances on the coffee table and upon our faces; a dull placid light from some meaningless rerun on Nick at Nite. Sharon gets up from the sofa, murmuring something about popcorn and her 'stupid' boyfriend, Tony. They've been together for 4 weeks now, that's why she's my ex-roommate, and in a nutshell: I don't like him. Not because he took my roommate away -she still pays for her room there- and not because he greases back his hair with half a jar of rylcreem everyday I don't like Tony because he's scum. He's the kind of scum you tend to pull up your coat to avoid their stares penetrating the back of your neck as you walk past them on the street. The kind of scum…
Cooper, M.H. "Competition in the Heroin Industry"
The Business of Drugs
Washington DC Congressional Quarterly, 1990
Black Tar Heroin
According to this research, these trends are due to changes in the association of husbands' and wives' education rather than by changes in the relative supply of more- and less-educated partners.
In addition to income and education, individuals select marriage partners along racial lines (Fu, 2001). In fact, although racial homogamy has declined over time, it remains as the strongest pattern in assortative mating according to Fu. Further, many individuals remain particularly resistance to marriage between whites and blacks than they do between whites and other minorities. Fu (2001) also reveals that African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans who are in interracial marriages tend to have a higher socioeconomic status than others from these groups. Fu theorizes that this higher socioeconomic status helps to equalize their status with majority group partners.
In summary, forced marriages may be dead, at least in the modern Western world, but individual preferences are alive and well. Ironically,…
"Assortative Marriage and Inequality." Economist's View. http://economistsview.typepad.com/economistsview/2007/05/assortative_mar.html
d'Addio. Anna Christina. "Intergenerational Transmission of Disadvantage: Mobility or Immobility across Generations? A Review of the Evidence for OECD Countries." OECD
Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers no. 52. 2007.
Fu, Vincent Kang. "Racial Intermarriage Pairings." Demography. 38(2) 2001: 147-159
Gorgias, Encomium of Helen
In the English language in the twenty-first century, the term "sophistry" still exists to refer to a plausible-sounding but misleading argument, an evaluatively negative term to describe bad reasoning. Although the term derives from the original Sophists in Athens in the 5th century BCE, the modern usage of the term is inaccurate in describing the likes of the Sophist Gorgias. By examining Gorgias' "Encomium of Helen" and the related "dissoi logoi" fragment (sometimes attributed to Protagoras) we can see the real origins of sophistry in legal argumentation. In a society -- like that of Athens, or like most of the contemporary world -- that believes in jury trials as a means of obtaining justice, a work like Gorgias' "Encomium of Helen" represents the idea that even the most unlikely candidates deserve a good defense.
Athenian sophists like Gorgias were basically teachers of rhetoric. Because Plato frequently…
Anonymous. "Dissoi Logoi." An Introduction to Classical Rhetoric: Essential Readings. Ed. James D. Williams. West Sussex, U.K.: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. 54. Print.
Gorgias. "The Encomium of Helen." An Introduction to Classical Rhetoric: Essential Readings. Ed. James D. Williams. West Sussex, U.K.: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. 64-66. Print.
The advent of World War II saw and end of the period of economic turmoil and massive unemployment known as the Great Depression, and thus was a time of increased opportunity for many of the nation's citizens and immigrants, but the experiences of some groups during and following the war were far less positive than others. Some of this was due to the different histories that different immigrant groups had in the country, as well as the different roles that various nations played in the war itself, but often the source for the treatment of different ethnic groups was all too similar and all too simple -- racism and ethnocentrism that made the white Americans "true" citizens while others were labeled as outsiders, and those that didn't belong.
The Japanese suffered the worst during World War II; even families that had been in the country for generations and many decades…
Library of Congress. (2008). "African-American odyssey." Accessed 29 October 2010. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aointro.html
Morgan, T. (1995). "Native Americans in world war II." Accessed 29 October 2010. http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/NAWWII.html
Takaki, R. (2008). A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America (Rev. ed.) Boston: Little Brown Company.
Vogel, R. (2004). "Stolen birthright: The U.S. conquest and exploitation of the Mexican people." Accessed 29 October 2010. http://www.houstonculture.org/hispanic/ conquest5.html
No Child Left Behind and Black Males
No child left behind
No Child Left Behind: Cause and Effect Essay
The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) was passed in 2001 in order to improve overall students' performance and to decrease the performance gap between minority and mainstream students. However other effects have emerged since its implementation. Through this cause and effect essay, author sheds light on effects of the NCLB. It has been discussed, how the NCLB has helped to improve education levels as well as how school administrators are facing challenges to meet the standards of this act.
The Influence of No Child Left Behind on Black Male Graduate ate
The Influence of No Child Left Behind on Black Male Graduate ate
NCLB is an educational policy that emphasizes accountability by imposing constraints on school systems. According to Gay (2007),
"The achievement gaps persist among different ethnic group,…
Allensworth, E.M., & Easton, J.Q., (2007). What matters for staying on-track and graduating in Chicago public highs schools: A close look at course grades, failures, and attendance in the freshman year (Research Report). Retrieved from University of Chicago, Consortium on Chicago School Research website: http://ccsr.uchicago.edu/content/publications.php?pub_id=116 .
Balfanz, R., & Legters, N., (2008). NCLB and reforming the nation's lowest- performing high schools: Help hindrance, or unrealized potential? In G. Sunderman (Ed.), Holding NCLB accountable: Achieving accountability, equity, & school reform, 191-222. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Gay, G. (2007). The Rhetoric and Reality of NCLB. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 10(3): 279-293.
Language, One People?
Arguments for and Against Proclaiming English the Sole Official Language
Few issues are as emotionally charged as the current debate over immigration in America. It is a question that has been fired with a new sense of urgency in light of the tragic events of September 11th.
Acts of terror, and the fear of further acts of terror, has created a climate in which foreigners are suspect. Native-born Americans find themselves looking over their shoulders, eyeing with suspicion those who look different or speak with a strange accent. However, there is also another side to this argument. All Americans are descended from people who were once immigrants. Even the ancient inhabitants of this land once crossed over from Asia, and in recent centuries, millions have come here from Europe, Africa, Latin America, and all parts of the world. e are a nation of immigrants and each of…
Antle, James W. III.
Immigration and Identity Politics." The American Partisan. 5 March 2002. URL:
Buchanan Declares: The Death of the West." Free Republic. 2002.
Their philosophy was that immoral laws could be changed through the constitutional process and that even non-violent and civil disobedience was a form of lawlessness and that it is not acceptable to violate any laws even to achieve justice.
5.) According to Zinn, what were the achievements of the Civil Rights era and what has yet to be achieved?
Zinn acknowledges that the United States made tremendous progress in racism. However, he also warns that there are still many remaining areas of inequality between white and black society that have lasted much longer. In almost every measure of the quality of life, black people have fewer advantages than white people and they still face prejudice and discrimination. Zinn suggests that there is still a substantial amount of racism in the country that exists on more subtle levels that, in some ways makes it harder to address effectively.
1.) What is…
Blues music however did not cross racial lines, with the majority of famous blues musicians still residing in New Orleans and various other well-known black music entertainment venues of the South.
Gospel music has been an African-American church tradition with influences from traditional African music and especially prevalent during the slavery era. Later (most likely because of those particular ignominious associations and all they implied, especially in the South) gospel music was strongly discouraged within mainstream society and actively suppressed.
Similarly, blues music represented a blending of black musical traditions with a centuries-long history originating from the earliest days of American slavery. Sammy Davis Jr. And Nat King Cole, were and remain today among the best-known of early black entertainers within the (then) up-and-coming rock 'n roll genre of the 1940's. Each had a heavy influence upon Elvis himself.
Obviously, though, the blending of Southern musical traditions was not started…
African-American Musical Tradition." (June 9, 1998). Retrieved January 9, 2007,
From: http://www.questia.com/html .
Bane, Michael. White Boy Singin' the Blues: The Black Roots of White Rock.
Harmondsworth, Eng: Penguin, 1982.
Through this paper, I will present my personal response to Ayoola's article, 'Challenges to a new generation of Nigerian writers in English', which was first printed in Cambridge University Press's English Today, 85th Edition, Vol. 22, Issue 1, dated January, 2006.
The article's author narrates the challenges new Nigerian writers encounter in an atmosphere that treats rising authors in an unfriendly way. The experiences that are portrayed and analyzed in the article typify the experiences as well as predicament of these new creative writers. Language choice issues -- native tongue or English -- are reviewed, in addition to the many justifications, whether noble or not, presented for aspects like genre choice, audience recognition issues, the writer's reactions to the phenomena of globalization and democracy, and ineffective do-it-yourself (DIY) marketing/promotion and publishing (Kehinde Ayoola, 2006). Through this response paper, I will articulate my standpoint, in writing, with regard to the abovementioned…
Apartheid certainly represents some of the darkest times in the history of South Africa as well as the larger world. In the several decades it existed, a white minority exploited and oppressed a black majority in a violent and suppressive manner. Indeed, the very word "apartheid" means separation and being "apart." The brutality in question lasted from just after World War II in 1948 and eventually (and finally) ended in 1994. While the scars are still healing in South Africa and many social/racial problems still exist, a full generation has passed since Apartheid fell.
Apartheid was the brainchild and creation of the National Party and the Broederbond organization but was actually a continuation of what was started by the Dutch when they controlled the area. There was a significant amount of blowback and strife that followed as the black populace oppressed by Apartheid rejected and roiled…
Apartheid Museum. (2014, June 19). Home | Apartheid Museum. Home | Apartheid Museum. Retrieved June 19, 2014, from http://www.apartheidmuseum.org/
History Channel. (2014, June 17). Apartheid. History.com. Retrieved June 17, 2014, from http://www.history.com/topics/apartheid
Finally, in that regard, it seems that the author's choice of Christopher as Tituba's betrayer may suggest that while racial, religious, and ethnic prejudices may have subsided substantially in modern Western society, a fundamental conflict still exists in which men cannot be trusted by women.
The Significance of the Book
The significance of the book is that it provides a personal account, albeit fictionalized, of the horrors of slavery, violent oppression, gender inequality that characterized Western civilization in the 17th century. The narrative illustrates the humanity and the personal experiences of slavery from the perspective of the slave instead of the usual historical perspective. It effectively highlights the state of injustice and fear that were the everyday reality of countless individuals who were ripped fro their families and societies, sold into slavery, and usually brutalized for the rest of their lives in servitude of those regarded as the founders…
Consequences of the Industrial Revolution on English Society
The ninety years between 1760 and 1850, commonly regarded as the "First Generation" of the Industrial Revolution in Britain, were to bring about sweeping changes: technological, economic, philosophical and social. Previously, technology was low. Manufactured goods were produced by hand, often in the home or in small workshops, by skilled artisans who generally specialized in making one type of goods or one component of an item. The economy was dominated by agriculture, and the majority of the population was rural. ealthy families who owned the land rented it to tenant farmers; these tenants, while mostly illiterate, had the opportunity to grow their own food and live in somewhat appealing and healthful surroundings. They were almost a cashless society, paying their rents and buying goods largely through their produce and exchange of labor. Their diversions often centered around fairs and saints' days, and…
Chadwick, Edwin. "Report from the Poor Law Commissioners on an Inquiry into the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population of Great Britain." London, 1842, pp. 369-372. http://188.8.131.52/victorian/history/chadwick2.html
Gaskell, P. The Manufacturing Population of England. London, 1833 http://184.108.40.206/victorian/history/workers2.html
Hartwell, R.M. "History and Ideology," Modern Age, Vol. 18, No. 4, Fall, 1974.
Hartwell, R.M. The Industrial Revolution and Economic Growth. London: Methuen and Company, 1971.
This entertainment is the ceremonial or festive taking of alcoholic drinks at events called "beer parties." Researchers noted the significance of the festive element of work among the laborers but showed beer as an essential aspect of work. The rule in these beer work parties are adjusted to the particular workers involved. It invokes the overall value and morality of helpfulness and reciprocity, which are part of beer-drinking events. It is an expression of a general interdependence between homesteads. Ordinary beer parties emphasize the general principle of mutual helpfulness and mutual relationships in homesteads. ut beer parties for harvest give thanks to ancestors for the homestead's harvest. These parties give recognition to those who plow the homestead's garden (McAllister).
A recent analyzed the relation between cooperative work and beer drinking. It found that beer drinks served as a contact point of everyday activity and ideas in the Xhosa society in…
CESA. The Xhosa. People Profile. Central Eastern Southern Africa, 2008. Retrieved on May 8, 2008 at http://cesa.imb.org/peoplegroups/xhosa.htm
Christian Action. The National Suicide of the Xhosa. Vol 2. The Christian Action
Cornwell, Jane. Sweet Sounds of Freedom. The (London) Independent: Independent
I wonder whether they ever recovered emotionally from the abuses they endured. Do they pretend not to hate white people today? Do they believe that white people today feel the same way about them as they did fifty years ago but only act differently because of the different laws today? When they see white men today who are in their early twenties, do they picture them as being the same as the young white men who tormented and abused them back then, but only behaving better because they have no choice?
I realize that these types of feelings and thoughts must be very similar among all groups of people who suffered wrongfully because of others. I am sure that there are just as many film clips of Jews being persecuted in Nazi Germany during World War II and of Chinese people being slaughtered and raped by Japanese soldiers during the…
That makes me wonder about what they think about their behavior back then. I wonder about the white men who were in their early twenties at the time who must be approximately seventy years old today. Are they still as hateful toward African-Americans today as they were back then? Do they realize how horribly they treated other people for no justifiable reason? Do they pretend they were not involved? Are they proud today of the way they acted back then? Did they ever realize that they were taught wrong? Did they teach their own children the same hate that they learned from their families and from their society back then? What do they think about black people today? What do they think about equal rights and cultural sensitivity as issues in modern American society?
I also have similar thoughts about the black people in the video because many of them are probably alive today as well. I wonder whether they ever recovered emotionally from the abuses they endured. Do they pretend not to hate white people today? Do they believe that white people today feel the same way about them as they did fifty years ago but only act differently because of the different laws today? When they see white men today who are in their early twenties, do they picture them as being the same as the young white men who tormented and abused them back then, but only behaving better because they have no choice?
I realize that these types of feelings and thoughts must be very similar among all groups of people who suffered wrongfully because of others. I am sure that there are just as many film clips of Jews being persecuted in Nazi Germany during World War II and of Chinese people being slaughtered and raped by Japanese soldiers during the Japanese invasions of China beginning in 1936. I am sure that in all of these groups there must be many people who have never fully recovered from what they experienced themselves or what they saw happen to their friends and loved ones by the cruelty of other people. I wonder how they look at people today who might remind them of some of their tormentors and abusers even though they know that none of them were the same people or even alive yet at that time.
Irony and juxtaposition are used very effectively in this film. The director has a habit of allowing the protagonist to find some joy or momentary salvation, but soon afterwards - sometimes immediately - that joy turns to seriousness at best and disappointment at worst. Highs and lows, in other words, are put into solid motifs that lead the viewer into the depth of the personal feelings of Apu. He loves the rain, jumps around in it like a little boy on his birthday, but soon his landlord comes in to demand rent. He receives a letter that tells him a publisher is interested in his manuscript but in the next scene he is turned down for a teaching position.
More examples are found throughout the film; he attends a wedding, a joyful time in the lives of the couple and their families, but it turns out the bridegroom has serious…
When his friend wakens Apu, the protagonist is treated to a startling fact - that there will be no wedding because there is no bridegroom. The camera catches so many emotions on Apu's face throughout the film, but these scenes bring out the most drama in his face. The headlines might read, "Unemployed writer, living in poverty, becomes a Hindu hero by substituting for a lunatic bridegroom." And when Apu agrees to this absurd arrangement - to marry the bride lest she be cursed in her culture - the film falls into a lovely moment of understatement. Instead of saying, "Yes I will marry her," Apu simply states to his friend, "You'll have to lend me a shirt, and I must shave first."
This film is a wonderful portrayal of life in the slow lane of poverty, of family, and of personal sacrifice. Life knocks Apu down again and again and pushes him all over the map of emotions. But he goes about wandering and when he finally returns, to see his son for the first time, it gives the film a warm sense of humanity. The starkness of the pictures, backed by the wonderful emotions provided by Ravi Shankar's musical score, give this a compelling and haunting story worth seeing again.
The World of Apu. Directed by Satyajit Ray. Sony Pictures Classics. (1959).
Rhetorical Theory & Practice
Analysis of "The Rhetorical Stance" by Wayne C. Booth
Wayne Booth's article entitled, "The Rhetorical Stance" provides a discussion and analysis of the role that rhetoric plays in allowing writers, students, academicians -- everybody -- to create a "polemic, unpretentious, stimulating, organized, convincing" compositions and arguments (25).
In the essay, Booth makes his own argument and illustrates this through an enumeration of three examples of rhetorical stances that are commonly utilized by students and academicians. The point of Booth's essay is to determine these rhetorical stances as ineffective means to make an argument through writing; it is only by adopting the "right" rhetorical stance that one can effectively argue, and at the same time persuade, through writing. And the author answers this dilemma by introducing the concept of the "rhetorical balance" -- that is, a balance of stimulating and convincing writing.
This essay discusses the nature…
River Runs Through Her: River Imagery and Symbolism in Harriet Jacobs' Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl"
Water symbolism, and especially that of the river, is integral to Harriet Jacobs' Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. Rivers, with their winding waters, are not just part of the geographic landscape or the natural world. For Jacobs, rivers and all bodies of water have both practical and symbolic functions. The river forms a physical barrier between places; it divides states and physical locations. Rivers divide cites like Philadelphia and they provide natural borders between cities and states. Rivers also help delineate the North and the South, which in Jacobs' time was eminently significant. Therefore, the river is a metaphorical barrier between slavery and freedom. The oppressive plantations of the south are separated from the Free States in the north by these flowing bodies of water. In Harriet Jacobs'…
Nobody Mean More to Me than You and the Future Life of Willie Jordan," June Jordan writes about the need to pay attention to Black English and to learn how important it is for African-American cultural identity. In David Sedaris's "Me Talk Pretty One Day," the author writes about how hard it is to learn a new language: French, in particular. Although both authors write about language diversity, Jordan and Sedaris come from two totally different points-of-view. Jordan is concerned about race relations in America. The bulk of "Nobody Mean More to Me than You and the Future Life of Willie Jordan" is about Black English and its rules. However, the essay is also about race-motivated police brutality. The author links the two issues together, showing that race and language can go hand-in-hand to create political solidarity. In "Me Talk Pretty One Day," Sedaris does not write about race or…
Jordan, June. "Nobody Mean More to Me than You and the Future Life of Willie Jordan." Harvard Educational Review. Vol 58, No. 3. Aug 1988.
Sedaris, David. "Me Talk Pretty One Day." Retrieved online: http://www.macobo.com/essays/epdf/Me%20Talk%20Pretty%20One%20Day%20by%20Sedaris.pdf
"from the outside in" by Barbara Mellix
Languages represent identities and people use these languages to signal identities (Borland, 2005). On the other hand, different languages symbolize different cultures in which people belong. In addition, there is a relationship between language and sense of belonging to a national group (UEMATSU, 2010). This results in a sense of national identity in people living in a country. Consequently, this means that there is a national language spoken by all people with similar national identity. A study in the article, 'From Outside, In', by Barbara Mellix, shows that, adapting a new language can have challenges to both identity and culture. In this article, Barbara Mellix gives a clear indication that there are two languages in America; the Black English and the Standard English. Barbara Mellix being a Black American is conversant with her native language. However, she has to acquire the…
Borland, H. (2005). Heritage Languages and Community Identity Building: The Case of a Language of Lesser Status. International Journal Of Bilingual Education & Bilingualism, 8(2/3), 109-123.
Cortina, R. (2010). Empowering Indigenous Languages and Cultures. European Education, 42(3), 53-67. doi:10.2753/EUE1056-4934420303
Martin, B. (2012). Coloured language: identity perception of children in bilingual programmes. Language Awareness, 21(1/2), 33-56. doi:10.1080/09658416.2011.639888
UEMATSU, A. (2010). The Role of Ethnic Identity in Cross-cultural Environment: Relationship between Group Identity and Ego Identity. (English). Japanese Journal Of Personality, 19(1), 25-37.
Linguicism and Its Implications for Assessing English Language Learners (ELL) For Suspected Disabilities
(a) Define The Term Linguicism And Explain It In Your Own Words,
Throughout the 1980s, a period of language conservatism resurfaced, with federal officials giving up their proactive position and advocating more decision making be moved to local control. The 1980s in addition saw the increase of the official English or English-only movement, which sparked the contemporary debate around the language and which shaped new tensions for educators teaching linguistically assorted students (Banks, 2006). During the 1990s, the sociopolitical environment became openly antagonistic toward the linguistic rights of non-English speakers with the passage of California Proposition 227 (Doppen & Tesar, 2008). The California proposition made sure that all children be placed in English-language classrooms, despite their English-language ability. Non-English-speaking, immigrant children were permitted to participate in ESL classes for 1 year (180 school days). The proposition's objective…
Banks, J. A. (2006). The historical reconstruction of knowledge about race: Implications for transformative teaching. Educational Researcher, 24(2), 15-25.
Banks, J., Cookson, P., Gay, G., Hawley, W., Irvine, J., Nieto, Schofield, J., & Stephan, W. (2001). Diversity within Unity: Essential Principles for Teaching and Learning in a Multicultural Society. The Phi Delta Kappan, 83(3), 196-198, 200-203.
Calderon, M. E., & Wasden, R. (2012). Preparing secondary school teachers to teach reading, language and content: A look at professional development programs. In J. Coppola & E. Primas (Eds.), One classroom, many learners: Best literacy practices for today's multilingual classroom (pp. 251-270). Washington, DC: International Reading Association.
Colombi, M. C. & Schleppegrell, M. J. (2002). Theory and practice in the development of advanced literacy. In M. C. Columbi and M. J. Schleppegrell (Eds.), Developing advanced literacy in first and second languages, (pp. 1-19). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
V. Government System RARPA
The government introduced the RARPA Program which is abbreviated for the:: "Recording and Recognition of Progress and Achievement Summary of the Evaluation Report" in relation to the Pilot Projects April 2003 to March 2004 Learning and Skills Development Agency National Institute of Adult Continuing Education 2004 August. Since 2002 the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) has focused its efforts on establishing an appropriate method of recognizing and recording the progress and achievement of learners that is non-accredited in nature. Development of a model called the 'Staged Process." The RARPA consists of the application "of an explicit and common staged process to the recognition and recording of progress and achievement, together with the validation of this process through a range of judgments about its consistent and effective application." The background of the project is stated to be that LSDA and NIACE were involved in preparation of work…
McCallum, Myra K. (1999) "Strategies and Activities to Stimulate Adequate ESOL Instruction in Content Area Courses and Increase Honest Effort and Motivation Among ESOL Students Dekalb County School System, Decatur, GA 1999 November U.S. Department of Education: #FL026093.
Your Guide 2 Skills For Life Policy and Strategy (2005) Skills and Education Network March Online available at: http://senet.lsc.gov.uk/guide2/skill sforlife/G2skillsforlifeG028.pdf
English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) Case Studies of Provision, Learner's Needs and Resources, National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy Online at www.nrcd.org.uk ISBN 0 95456492 Kings College London, University of Leeds, Institute of Education, University of London and Lancaster University.
Fogel, H. & Ehri, L.C. (2000). Teaching elementary students who speak Black English Vernacular to write in Standard English: effects of dialect transformation practice. Contemporary Educational Psychology, vol. 25.
Jordan has not been honored by naming any street or postal holidays. She was respected and recognized by her own milestones; as she designed modern Harlem with . Buckminster Fuller, had coffee with Malcolm X, received suggestive teachings from Toni Cade Bambara, acted with Angela Davis in a film, and authored an opera with John Adams and Peter Sellars. Irrespective of so much achievements there was no 'Day' named after June Jordan. She was the awarded author of about two dozen books, a great American poet known both for creativity and collections and was one of most critical activists and teachers who have not yet been recognized. This paper is a good testimony to know her better. (June Jordan- www.randomhouse.com)
Jordan is all-inclusive as a poet, essayist, reporter, dramatist, academician, cultural and political activist, however above all she is an inspirational teacher both in words and actions and is considered…
Brown, Kimberly N. (1999) "June Jordan (1936- )." Contemporary African-American Novelists: A Bio-Bibliographical Critical Sourcebook. Ed. Emmanuel S. Nelson. Westport, CT: Greenwood. pp: 233-37.
Busby, Margaret. "June Jordan" June 20, 2002. The Guardian. pp: A4-A5
Carpenter, Humphrey; Prichard, Mari. (1984) "Oxford Companion to Children's Literature" New York: Oxford University Press.
Jackson, Agnes Moreland. "June Jordan (b. 1936)" Retrieved from http://college.hmco.com/english/heath/syllabuild/iguide/jordan.html Accessed on 12 October, 2004