Black History Essays (Examples)

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Black Films as a Reflection

Words: 4019 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90025348

"

The Aftermath

Uncle Tom characters were common in both white and black productions of the time, yet no director before Micheaux had so much as dared to shine a light on the psychology that ravages such characters. By essentially bowing to the two white men, Micheaux implied that Old Ned was less than a man; an individual whittled down to nothing more than yes-man and wholly deprived of self-worth. At this point in the history of black films, with some of the most flagrant sufferings of blacks exposed to the American public, the only logical path forward that African-Americans could take was to begin making cogent demands to improve their collective social situation.

Slowly, black characters in film took on greater and more significant roles in film. Sidney Poitier was one of the most powerful film stars of the mid twentieth century. In roles like the 1950 film by…… [Read More]

Reference List

Finlayson, R. (2003). We Shall Overcome: The History of the American Civil Rights

Movement. Lerner Publications Company, Minneapolis, MN.

King, Jr., M. And Jackson, J. (1963). Why We Can't Wait. Signet Classic, New York,

NY.
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Black Consciousness Helps With a

Words: 327 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 873331

lack Consciousness came about because many African-American individuals were dissatisfied with the treatment that they were receiving from Caucasian individuals and the organizations that were designed to protect them were really not doing enough to ensure the protection of African-American individuals. Various works have been created that deal with lack Consciousness in different ways. Much of it is being read in schools today so that all people can gain a better understanding of their own culture and other cultures. One of these works is "Amistad 1: Writings on lack History and Culture" by John Williams and Charles Harris. This particular work was written in 1970, but it still has much relevance today for black consciousness, and it deals with many different interpretations regarding Western culture. Also looked at in this work is the philosophical validity of African-Americans when they discuss their interpretations of…… [Read More]

Black Consciousness helps with a realization of several things. The two most important of these are the awareness that being black actually involves a mental attitude, and stating that one is black works toward that individual's emancipation and freedom. Those that embrace black consciousness do not allow themselves to be oppressed or mistreated by others based on the color of their skin. There are various definitions of black consciousness, but one of the best and most comprehensive definitions is that black consciousness is when a black person realizes that there is a need to rally with other black individuals regarding what causes their oppression, which is the color of their skin, and to work together as a group so that they can rid themselves of what still holds them down and binds them into servitude. In other words, by trying to 'act white' they are insulting the Creator's intelligence in making them black. Instead of doing this, they should embrace who and what they are and try to ensure that they are treated fairly and equally with those of other skin colors and ethnicities. Black Consciousness came about because many African-American individuals were dissatisfied with the treatment that they were receiving from Caucasian individuals and the organizations that were designed to protect them were really not doing enough to ensure the protection of African-American individuals. Various works have been created that deal with Black Consciousness in different ways. Much of it is being read in schools today so that all people can gain a better understanding of their own culture and other cultures. One of these works is "Amistad 1: Writings on Black History and Culture" by John Williams and Charles Harris. This particular work was written in 1970, but it still has much relevance today for black consciousness, and it deals with many different interpretations regarding Western culture. Also looked at in this work is the philosophical validity of African-Americans when they discuss their interpretations of Black Consciousness.
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Black Church the Redemptive Role

Words: 16899 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2523902

It will use historical evidence to examine the role of the church is a spiritual entity. It will examine the role of the church as a political entity throughout changing political landscapes. It will explore the role of the church as a social service provider with regards to the importance of this role in helping black people to redeem themselves in light of historical cultural atrocities that they have faced.

esearch Questions

In order to examine that topics of interest un this research study the following research questions be addressed.

1. How has the black church served as redemptive force in helping the black people to heal?

2. What factors served as a redemptive force in helping the image of black people in the black church to improve?

3. How has a black church helped black communities to regain and maintain their self-sufficiency?

4. How has the black church served…… [Read More]

References

Primary Sources

Aaron. (1845), the Light and Truth of Slavery. Aaron's History: Electronic Edition. Retrieved June 19, 2010 from  http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/aaron/aaron.html#p6 

Adams, John Quincy. (1872). Narrative of the Life of John Quincy Adams. Retrieved June 19,

2010 from  http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/adams/adams.html#adams6
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Black Tailored Schools the November

Words: 957 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14807524



The education reporters of the article cite complaints by students who charge that white teachers give up on them, do not take them seriously as students, and that they detect a difference in the attitude of the teacher towards them that they do not note in the teacher's approach or perception of white students. First, if we finding students making those complaints about teachers, there should be some immediate and serious evaluation of the teacher, and perhaps even training for social sensitivity that such a teacher might be lacking.

In conclusion, it is evidenced by a review of the information in table 4.3, it quickly becomes clear that there is a move afoot to - according to the table - to cause social welfare agencies and the government to be more proactive in addressing the needs of minority students. This may be a good idea, and certainly a necessary move…… [Read More]

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History of Multicultural Psychology History

Words: 2799 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68026623

It would be agreeable that the growth of multicultural focus is something that has remained a long journey towards our present understanding of the topic. The path towards our contemporary multiculturalism remains a distinct area of psychology that developed some years ago. The historical development shows clearly that there have been different individuals and thinkers who have focused on the ethnic associations and issues related to human interactions (Cauce, 2011).

Throughout the years in history, it would be clearly agreeable that different historical periods have constantly played a unique role in establishing different thoughts, ideas, and concepts that have defined our societies. For instance, there are stances of activism and even racism that have been playing a unique towards the development and establishment our present ideas on human psychology and multiculturalism (Franklin, 2009, p. 420). Different societal establishments and communities have over the years been critical towards establishing the best…… [Read More]

References

Adams, J.Q. & Welsch, J.R. (2009). Multiculturalism: The Manifest Destiny of the U.S.A.: An

Interview With Ronald Takaki. Multicultural Perspectives, 11(4), 227 -- 231

American Psychological Association (2012). Crossroads: The Psychology of Immigration in

The New Century. American Psychological Association: 1-18
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History African Diaspora Subject - Fredrick Douglass Ambassor

Words: 1455 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86818821

History African Diaspora (Subject)- Fredrick Douglass Ambassor Hatti. (Objectives )-Two primary sources Two secondary sources, Outline, Structure, Thesis, Arugument, Motives, Primaries a Tittle.

Frederick Douglass and the African Diaspora

Africa is presently perceived as a land of origin by millions of people from around the world, as numerous Africans have either willingly or unwillingly left their homes throughout time. Although the term African Diaspora generally refers to a series of Africans who left their home continent from antiquity and until the present day, it is widely used to relate to Africans who descend from individuals who were forcefully brought to the American continent during the Atlantic slave trade. In spite of the fact that they were persecuted and forced to work as slaves in the Americas, some Africans actually rose against their oppressors and are presently remembered as some of the most reputable individuals in all of history.

Africans have…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Gomez, William Angelo, Reversing Sail: A History Of The African Diaspora, (Cambridge University Press, 2005)

McFeely, William S. Frederick Douglass (New York W.W. Norton, 1991)

"Lecture on Haiti," Retrieved March 3, 2012, from the Webster University Website: http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti/history/1844-1915/douglass.htm

The Liberator, 27 March 1846; Reprinted in Philip Foner, ed., Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass, vol. 1 (New York: International Publishers, 1950), p. 138.
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Black Culture and Black Consciousness

Words: 841 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96943533

Notwithstanding its roots in African dance, in actuality, it was a fighting style designed by African slaves as a means of protecting themselves from government agents searching for them after their escape from enslavement. Likewise, Levine focuses heavily on the connection between the slave culture that was evident in the American South, while much of it may actually have been shaped by the need to conceal it from white society.

The mere fact that Christianity, and more specifically, Southern Baptism, became the predominant religion of the millions of descendants of the Africans enslaved in America would seem to provide the most support for Rock's position. It is difficult to know how many of the slaves who eventually (and ironically) adopted the very religious traditions of those who enslaved them and held them captive for generations. Certainly, there are elements of contemporary black religious culture that can be traced back to…… [Read More]

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Black Slaveowners Agriculture and Even

Words: 2773 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97033780

.. The history of miscegenation in this country...demonstrate[s] how society has used skin color to demarcate lines between racial groups and to determine the relative position and treatment of individuals within racial categories. (Jones, 2000, p. 1487)

Prior to the civil war lighter skinned blacks were more likely to gain their freedom, and own property, through favor or inheritance. This is probably in part to the public, sometimes even official, recognition of their lineage, often they were the product of their white masters and favored slaves.

The large number of mulattoes among the slaves freed in Missouri suggests the master's benevolence was a genuinely warm feeling he had for persons he knew to be his blood relations. By 1860, the presence of 1,662 mulattoes in the total free Negro group of 3,572 in Missouri, indicates considerable race-mixing. (Official Manual State of Missouri, 1973-1974 "The ole of the Negro in Missouri…… [Read More]

References

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=25779117

Eltis, D. (1999). 1 Slavery and Freedom in the Early Modern World. In Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor, Engerman, S.L. (Ed.) (pp. 25-49). Stanford, CA: Stanford University. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=25779117

Engerman, S.L. (Ed.). (1999). Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor. Stanford, CA: Stanford University. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002003949

Evans, P. (2003, September/October). The Known World. Book, 87+. Retrieved November 8, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001254480
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History of the American South

Words: 1726 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21207367

However, they "were too few in number to provide adequate protection and were not always themselves fully committed to ensuring justice for freed blacks" (Cary Royce 67). The American public wanted reform to happen but few people were actually willing to risk their position in society by supporting black people. As a consequence, former slaves were provided with little support and were practically forced to maintain many of their attributes as slaves despite the fact that they were free.

orks cited:

Berlin, Ira, et al. "The Terrain of Freedom: The Struggle over the Meaning of Free Labor in the U.S. South." History orkshop Journal 22 (1986)

Cary Royce, Edward, the origins of southern sharecropping, (Temple University Press, 1993)

Fast, Howard, Freedom Road (Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1995)

An Interdisciplinary Bibliography, 1865-1980 an Interdisciplinary Bibliography, 1865-1980, vol. 1 (estport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982)

Lanza, Michael, L. Agrarianism and Reconstruction Politics: The…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Berlin, Ira, et al. "The Terrain of Freedom: The Struggle over the Meaning of Free Labor in the U.S. South." History Workshop Journal 22 (1986)

Cary Royce, Edward, the origins of southern sharecropping, (Temple University Press, 1993)

Fast, Howard, Freedom Road (Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1995)

An Interdisciplinary Bibliography, 1865-1980 an Interdisciplinary Bibliography, 1865-1980, vol. 1 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982)
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History of Alabama History of

Words: 1561 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92750473

At this time, African-Americans were not allowed to enroll in this institution Autherine only stayed for three days not because she could not cope with the education, but because her life was in danger. Majority of the white students protested because of her presence. There is also the George allace incident that has also been mentioned bringing the University of Alabama into the limelight.

The university is also well-known for its prowess in football which was initiated in 1892 in the institution. Football in the University of Alabama is on a professional level ranked next to clubs in the league (Brad, 3). Many students receive football scholarships thus providing career opportunities to the students not only through education.

Conclusion

Alabama has been at the centre stage of civil rights activities involving fight against segregation, and providing inspirational individuals who will forever be celebrated like Reverend Martin Luther King and Rosa…… [Read More]

Works cited

Alabama . Infoplease. 2005. 18 Oct. 2010.

http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0108176.html

Brad, Jason. Alabama Is No. 1 in Preseason Poll. New York Times

Oct. 18, 2010: 3
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History of America Through 1877

Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27861139

Blackness was not an unremittingly negative quality, as it would be seen later on, but the associations of blackness and other stereotypes that would be attached to 'Negroes' began fairly early.

The development of colonies based upon cash crops, including those in the Southern United States, necessitated a large enslaved labor force, larger than whites could provide. As the economic need for slave labor increased, so did negatively expressed views of Africans and blackness in general. Indentured servitude of whites grew more controversial, thus replacing then with Africans who were justified as being 'natural' slaves became an accepted solution. Even Thomas Jefferson would eventually see 'Negros' as existing at the end of a chain of being, the beginning phase of a kind of evolutionary 'erasure' of color, and erasure of the 'mark of Cain' of blackness, as Christian missionaries used to think the Africans possessed.

Jordan believes if there had…… [Read More]

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Black Slaves in North America

Words: 538 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19255918

Once they arrived, they were brought to a slave market and usually auctioned off to the highest bidder just as cattle and horses were auctioned off. he slaves then spent their lives of servitude helping white farm and plantation owners in their agricultural operations. he slaves weren't typically compensated and lived in deplorable conditions. Slavery helped many white land owners become rich, and the southern colonies, which turned into the southern states, remained slave states, while those in the north became know as free states, where slavery was not legal. his dichotomy of cultures, between the northern and southern states, eventually led to further economic and cultural rifts leading up to the Civil War in 1860.

During the Civil War, the northern states allowed blacks to serve in the Union Army. Southern states, eager to fight for their way of life and economic interests, were against the abolition of slavery.…… [Read More]

The English Colonies were set up as resource providers for the English Monarchy and economy in Europe. Products like cotton, tobacco, and other crops were planted and harvested in the rich soils of the colonies. The land and plantation owners were eager to cut costs, and with the African slave trade to places like the Caribbean and southern Spanish colonies booming, black slaves were an abundant and relatively cheap labor resource, especially for the farms and plantations in the southern colonies. Unlike the southern colonies, the northern colonies' economies began to differentiate themselves as producers of manufactured goods as well as services. In this way, even though slavery was legal in all of the English Colonies, the northern colonies had less of a demand for black slaves than the southern ones.

Operationally, slaves were brought in primarily from West African locales to work in agriculture-related servitude. Many of the slaves were separated from their families and many died during the long voyage via slave ship to the English Colonies. Once they arrived, they were brought to a slave market and usually auctioned off to the highest bidder just as cattle and horses were auctioned off. The slaves then spent their lives of servitude helping white farm and plantation owners in their agricultural operations. The slaves weren't typically compensated and lived in deplorable conditions. Slavery helped many white land owners become rich, and the southern colonies, which turned into the southern states, remained slave states, while those in the north became know as free states, where slavery was not legal. This dichotomy of cultures, between the northern and southern states, eventually led to further economic and cultural rifts leading up to the Civil War in 1860.

During the Civil War, the northern states allowed blacks to serve in the Union Army. Southern states, eager to fight for their way of life and economic interests, were against the abolition of slavery. This is not to say that the Civil War was fought on the question of whether black slavery should be legitimized, but slavery, as an economic mechanism, had much to do with the build up to war that had been occurring for nearly a century previous. After the Civil War, slavery was abolished. But though the institution of slavery was outlawed, the cultural and social norms were still left intact. Across the country, Jim Crow laws were left on the books that held blacks as second-class citizens with fewer rights than whites. Even after the reconstruction period, blacks had a hard time assimilating into mainstream American culture, and were economically and socially disadvantaged because of their history.
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Black Picket Fences

Words: 3033 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29959129

Black Picket Fences

Sharlene looked at me with her big, watery brown eyes. "No," she said emphatically, with a definite doleful tone in her voice. "I have never felt like I fit in here." Sharlene, who is 31 years old and has two children, is a black woman that falls into what Mary Patillo-McCoy calls the "black middle class." However, unlike the men, women, and children that Patillo-McCoy interviews for her book Black Picket Fences: Privilege and Peril Among the Black Middle Class, Sharlene lives in a predominantly white neighborhood. Her neighbors are not all Anglo-Saxon or ASP; some of them are Hispanic-American and Asian as well. However, Sharlene is one of the few people in a two-block radius of African origin. Because of this, Sharlene feels completely disconnected from her community.

'I like the neighborhood," she says with an upbeat tone and gracious smile. "I liked it since my…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Patillo-McCoy. Black Picket Fences: Privilege and Peril among the Black Middle Class. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.
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Black Culture Films Black Culture Documentaries Quite

Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77888875

Black Culture Films

Black Culture Documentaries

Quite often and particularly in the United States, it is commonplace to understand the black cultural experience largely through the lenses of slavery and the Civil Rights movement. And to be certain, these are aspects of the experience that have left indelible imprints on black identity. However, as the collection of documentaries assessed here denotes, the black cultural experience is diverse and nuanced in a way that often goes unnoted in the discourse over struggle and oppression. This is particularly on display in the pair of documentary installments by Basil Davidson, which are concerned with the cultural conditions both historical and present in different parts of Africa.

Indeed, what is so compelling about works such as Caravans of Gold is that such films alter the discussion on the black cultural experience by reflecting on the variant of positive contributions made to the evolution of…… [Read More]

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Blacks in Florida

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61645206

Blacks in Florida

The history of slavery that has haunted the African-Americans for centuries has allowed the society to forget the heritage of their culture. The shame and considerable violence that surrounds their slave pasts overwhelms people so that they are apt to forget that these peoples had a history before they came or were brought to the 'western' world. Most historians and academics follow the impact of the African-American culture on the U.S. lands and people, much like the influence of the African-Americans on Spanish Colonial Florida as presented by Jane Landers in her article, "Traditions of African-American Freedom and Community in Spanish Colonial Florida" and Hall's "African eligious etentions in Florida" through the basis of slaves being seen as mere 'animals' that had to be civilized. What influence they are seen to have then is seen to emerge from their repressive slave pasts rather than from the time…… [Read More]

Robert Hall and Jane Landers are academics who have studied the influence of African-Americans of the Spanish Colonial region of Florida. Yet, they have narrowed down their study by viewing the heritage of the Africans Americans through the lenses of slavery. Most academics are unable to study the African-American past without bias not because they view the African-Americans as second class citizens but because they associate African-Americans with 'slavery' and cannot see beyond that label. While they realize that the African-Americans immigrated, or were forcefully brought from the regions of Africa to the Americas they are unable to separate the 'slaves' from the 'free' people.

Hall [1990] presents the influence of the African-Americans on Florida by studying the religious facets of the African culture; from the drum beats to black magic to the rich death and burial rites. Hall and Landers [1995] both suggest that the Florida region had been influenced by the African-American more than other states because they were to some extent allowed to retain their moral and religious personalities by the law and church. The slaves colonial Spanish area were till a greater part of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century allowed to continue their own cultural rituals and it was only after annexation of the Florida area to the American states that the slave rights began to be suppressed.

Yet, while both these writers contend that the African-Americans had their basis in Western Africa to some extent they fail to pursue the cultural base. They focus more on the influence of African-Americans on Florida through the kaleidoscope of slavery than actually tracing the origin of the culture from the Africa's. In
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History New Jersey Slavery

Words: 1226 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73720127



By March 2, 1785, it was clear that New Jersey had begun to try to ban slavery, as the legislature enacted a law banning "foreign slave trade in the state" (p. 115). And in 1786, the New Jersey Society for the Abolition of Slavery was founded, although the citizens of Monmouth "were deeply divided" over whether or not slavery should be banned from the state.

Meantime, during the 1790s, several "gradual emancipation" bills were voted down in the New Jersey legislature, albeit (p. 124) "popular opinion and party newspapers cautiously shifted" towards an anti-slavery position. The citizens were clearly divided on the issue, as the author points out on page 125: Quakers opposed to slavery were accused by proslavery interests of "harboring pro-British attitudes" and were accused of "poisoning the minds of our slaves." Other extremists in the proslavery ranks pushed the notion that the Quakers antislavery movement was just…… [Read More]

Reference

Hodges, Graham Russell (1997). Slavery and Freedom in the Rural North. Madison,

Wisconsin: Madison House.
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History as Myth This-Based Myth Atreus Thyestes

Words: 1157 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23861822

History As Myth

This-based Myth Atreus Thyestes In paper I conversational I supposed a myth teacher a continuing education program geared library patrons aged 50+, a conversation actual essay. Below directions assignment: Briefly describe a historical event, a controversy, a world event, a current event, a military group action, a political event group, a religious group action, a similar phenomenon.

Thyestes and Atreus: The great Civil War of Mycenae

Once upon a time, long, long ago there lived two brothers named Thyestes and Atreus. These two brothers were extremely power hungry and even their own father King Pelops was forced to exile them when they killed their half-brother to better their chances to ascend to the throne. Undeterred, the two brothers found another kingdom to dominate, the land of Mycenae. Proving there is no honor amongst thieves; Atreus was determined to be the sole ruler of this new kingdom. One…… [Read More]

References

Freeman, Elsie, Schamel, Wynell Burroughs & West, Jean. (2992). The fight for equal rights: A

recruiting poster for black soldiers in the Civil War. Social Education 56 (2): 118-120. [24 Mar 2013] Retrieved:

 http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/blacks-civil-war/ 

The war: The crossroads of our being. (2002). The Civil War. PBS. Retrieved:
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Blacks and the Great Depression the Great

Words: 1316 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53203092

lacks and the Great Depression

The Great Depression, which had significant impacts across America, had a lesser impact on lack America. The greater is the loss, the greater the impact. Vice versa, the lesser is the loss, the lesser the impact. Historically, lack Americans had relatively less to lose in a Great Depression. Consequently, lacks, already disenfranchised from American society, were less affected in the Great Depression than White Americans.

Understanding the Great Depression means, in part, that its effects on Americans cannot be painted with one brush stroke because the Great Depression had different effects on different groups of people. Certainly, the Great Depression had devastating effects on many Americans. As excerpts from two of the more than fifteen million letters written directly to President and Mrs. Roosevelt show, some Americans desperately needed coats[footnoteRef:1], rent, transportation, food and utilities[footnoteRef:2] but were unable to obtain financial relief from government programs.[footnoteRef:3]…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Greenberg, Cheryl Lynn. "Or Does it Explode?": Black Harlem in the Great Depression. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc., 1991.

McElvaine, Robert S. "Letters to the Roosevelts During the Depression." In America: A Narrative History, 8th Edition, by George Brown Tindall and David E. Shi, 221-222. New York, NY W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2009.

Shlaes, Amity. The Forgotten Man: A New History of the Great Depression. New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2008.

Turkel, Studs. "Two Views of the Great Depression (1932)." In America: A Narrative History, 8th Edition, by George Brown Tindall and David E. Shi, 214-216. New York, NY W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2009.
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Black Monday - 1987 on Monday October

Words: 1028 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78370517

Black Monday - 1987

On Monday, October 19, 1987, the Dow Jones Industrial fell 508 points -- which meant that it lost 22.6% of its value -- which was an unprecedented fiscal calamity at that time. This paper delves into that frightening dive, into the reasons why it happened, and looks into the possibility that it could happen again.

hy did it happen?

In January, 1987, the Dow Jones Industrials gained 13.8%, according to NBC's Consumer News and Business Channel (CNBC). Through the month of March the Dow was up 21.6% and through July the Dow was up 37.7% (CNBC). In August of 1987 the Dow peaked at 2,722, a remarkable gain of 43.6% on the year. Then in October (between the 2nd and 16th) the Dow lost 15%, which was a kind of warning shot to investors that something was wrong. Then on the 19th of October, the market…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bozzo, Albert. (2007). Can It Happen Again? CNBC.com. Retrieved November 27, 2012, from http://www.cnbc.com.

Carson, Mark. (2006). A Brief History of the 1987 Stock Market Crash. Federal Reserve

Board. Retrieved November 27, 2012, from  http://www.federalreserve.gov .

Consumer News and Business Channel (CNBC). (2012). Remembering the Crash of 87.
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History Questions Chap14 Senator Douglas Created the Kansas

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38552966

History Questions/Chap14

Senator Douglas created the Kansas and Nebraska territories as a way to appease both sides of the slavery issue, but this action resulted in increased tensions and hostility. Do you think the problems that resulted from creating these territories could have been prevented? If so, how? If not, why not?

The problems that resulted from the creation of the Kansas and Nebraska territories could not have been prevented because by 1854, the nation was already divided by the slavery question and tensions were high. There was more at stake than merely the question of whether or not blacks should be free and in fact for most people, on either side of the debate, personal and business interests were what really mattered, not the morality of making slaves out of fellow human beings.

As the United States expanded westward, controversy swirled as citizens debated whether new territories should be…… [Read More]

References

Kennedy, D.M., Cohen, L., & Bailey, T.A. (2010). The American Pageant. AP Edition.

Boston: Wadsworth.

Schultz, K. (2011). HIST: Volume 2. Independence, KY: Cengage
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History of Crime and Punishment in Europe 17c 18c

Words: 3773 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13465288

History of Crime and Punishment in Europe 17C-18C

This paper traces the history crime and punishment in Europe. It looks at the influences of that time the social and philosophical movements and how they affected the whole evolution of treatment of crime and the thought behind punishment. The paper details about the neoclassical period its forbearers and how they regarded the issue of crime and punishment and their assumptions regarding the problem.

Crime is as old as civilization itself and where you find groups of people, you will consistently find some shape of criminal activity. You will also find punishment. The criminal has always been seen as undermining the values and, even, the very fabric of the society she or he deceives. Accordingly, those found out or found culpable have often been dealt with unsympathetically. Again, the Jewish Mythology will spring to the Western mind with its mantra of an…… [Read More]

References

Andrews Richard Mowery. 1994. Law, Magistracy and Crime in Old Regime Paris, 1735-1789. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dictionary of the History of Ideas. 1973-4. 5 vols. Edited by Philip D. Wiener New York: Scribners

Gatrell, V.A.C., Bruce Lenman and Geoffrey Parker eds. 1980.Crime and the Law. The Social History of Crime in Western Europe since 1500. London: Europa.

Garland, David. 1985. Punishment and Welfare: In History of Penal Strategies. Aldershot: Gower. GOLDMANN Lucien. 1973. The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
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History of Western Philosophy John

Words: 708 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28499301

He points out that Filmer's essay had been written before Cromwell's victory over Charles I, and that the attitude towards government in general and the monarchy specifically had greatly changed. The way he describes the unique circumstance in England, too, especially in regards to the situation of religion, makes it clear that Locke's thoughts could really only have been possible in a given environment. This notion seems initially repugnant to me; if philosophy is logical, as it is purported or even required to be, then what is true in one situation ought to be just as true in another. What Russell seems to be suggesting in his description of how Locke's thoughts arose, however, is hat there is no such thing as eternal truth or even eternal or consistent logic -- that extrinsic realities will and do and even must affect internal reasoning.

I would have liked to see Russell…… [Read More]

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Black Athena First Discuss Your Overall Thoughts

Words: 806 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12684841

lack Athena

First, discuss your overall thoughts on the controversial lack Athena theory, and discuss the extent to which you think this theory holds weight (be specific: avoid empty answers like "I totally agree" or "this theory is stupid").

The theory itself is reasonable. That is, ernal's critique of earlier historians and their failure to recognize the tremendous cultural influence of North Africa, noted by the ancient Greeks themselves, on Greece in their study of Greek history. However, much of the support that ernal gives, regarding the presence of Greco-African contacts are not directly relevant to his major claim that the Greeks originated in Africa. The revelation of African contact and influence on ancient Greece during the Iron Age, though a valuable contribution to our understanding of the region, is not in itself sufficient to prove the origin of the Greek people.

Overall, ernal's study is interesting and provocative. Also,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Iliffe, John. Africans: The History of a Continent. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Print.

Levtzion, Nehemia; Hopkins, John F.P. eds. And trans. (2000), Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West Africa, New York, NY: Marcus Weiner.
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Blackest Bird by Joel Rose

Words: 1224 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41173477

Blackest Bird opens on July 26, 1841 at midnight. A man, somewhat reluctantly and with a twinge of guilt, dumps Mary's dead body into the Hudson River. The killer audibly cries out, teeming with guilt as he wonders what have I done? "Oh Mary!" (Rose 11). Therefore, the killer knows Mary, and was likely either in love with her or a close companion. He could even be her relative.

Detective Jacob Hays is sixty-nine years old and in no mood to retire. He has long served the city of New York, as high constable. Known as Old Hays, he is obsessed with crime, and especially solving them. The murder of the as-of-yet unknown Mary captures his attention. hen he realizes that the body belongs not just to any Mary, but to Mary Rogers, Old Hays knows he's got a huge story on his hands. Mary Rogers is the locally famous…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Rose, Joel. The Blackest Bird. New York: W.W. Norton, 2007.

"Who Killed Mary Rogers?" Retrieved online:  http://my.ilstu.edu/~ftmorn/cjhistory/casestud/rogers.html
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History Provides Us With Insight

Words: 1391 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37861664

Furthermore, those people who did not speak Greek were referred to as barbar, the root of our word barbarian."[footnoteRef:5] [4: Ibid] [5: Ibid]

Question 3

There are many aspects of Greek culture and artistic traditions that have left their mark on civilization. These contributions included, their architecture, theatre and athletic competition.

Each one of these aspects requires a student of history to investigate and understand how these ideas have impacted human development.

Greek architecture stands out as a visual representation of how the Greeks preferred their living conditions. Greeks spent much time on the design of their buildings. Temples, a Greek staple, were adorned with many flourishes and exact proportions. Giant stone structures were placed in locations important to the region and as a source of pride. esides temples, theaters and gyms were developed to provide a unique sense of community.

Ancient Greek theater is a lasting contribution of this…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"Ancient Greek Philosophy." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://www.iep.utm.edu/greekphi / (accessed April 21, 2013).

"Culture and Society." Ancient Greece. http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/Culture / (accessed April 19, 2013).

Polopolus, Leonidas. "Athens, Greece: A City State That Grew From OPtimality in the Golden Era to Excessive Urbanization." University of Florida. http://web.clas.ufl.edu/users/kapparis/aoc/athens.htm (accessed April 19, 2013).

Sage, Michael. Warfare in Ancient Greece. London, New York: Routledge, 1996. (accessed April 19, 2013).
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Black Folk Clair Drake Describes

Words: 1107 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40670607

In fact, some scholars of the modern era even projected on Akhenaten Christ-like qualities. Akhenaten was described as a messiah figure who was a "precursor of Jesus Christ," (Drake p. 208).

The convergence of these two projections onto the Pharaoh Akhenaten has racial implications. Drake suggests that Breasted would not have been able to have conceived of a man in such a position of great political and spiritual power who was not also white. The prevailing attitude that blacks were "closest to the ape" during the era of social Darwinism had influenced such beliefs (Drake xvii). The revisionist perspective arose in direct reaction to the racialist view presented by Breasted and also by eigall, who described Akhenaten as "the first Pharaoh to be a humanitarian," and "the first man to preach simplicity, honesty, frankness, and sincerity...from a throne," (cited by Drake p 207).

Idealizing Akhenaten most certainly could not coincide…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Drake, St. Clair. Black Folk Here and There.
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Black Women in the Florida Legislature

Words: 925 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8886137

Black omen in the Florida Legislature:

A Short History of Cherry, Meek, and Joyner

There is little question that the history of women's participation in the United States Political scene has been a rocky one. Indeed, from the birth of the nation, women have had to struggle for the most basic rights of governmental participation -- from the acquisition of the vote, to the winning of the most basic issues of equality under the laws of the land. However, when one enters into the history of women's participation in the halls of government, the struggles of women in general, and Black women in particular are even more pronounced. Given this reality, it is interesting to view the political lives of three of Florida's legislators -- Gwendolyn Cherry, Carrie Meek and Arthenia Joyner -- all Black women who have surpassed tremendous odds and difficulties in order to take their place in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

HOFA. Humanists of Florida. "Resolution on the Equal Rights Amendment." 08 Sept. 2002. Retrieved from Web site on November 17, 2004, from
FCSW. Florida Commission on the Status of Women (Staff). "The Lives and Works of Florida's Historical Women." Office of the Attorney General. 2003.

FHOR. Florida House of Representatives. "Rep. Arthenia L. Joyner." Web site. Retrieved from Web site on November 17, 2004, from
Locuasto, Wendy. "Florida's First 150 Women Lawyers." Ceremonial Session Honoring
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Black Elk's Journal

Words: 1717 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96425390

Black Elk's Journal

The offering of the pipe

Black Elk believes himself as a symbol of his tribal values. According to him, he embodies the spiritual forces which have been bestowed upon him by the superiors of his tribe. In the first chapter, he has mentioned how the sacred pipe came to his tribe and the values borne by it.

"Behold!! She said. "ith this you shall multiple and be a good nation. Nothing but good shall come from it. Only the hands of the good shall take care of it and the bad shall not even see it." Then, she sang and went out of the tepee; and as the people watched here going. (Niehardt 3)"

In most of the religions of the world, there is always a character who is message bearer. It is amazing to see this similarity in the tribal history of Black Elk as well.…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Niehardt, John, G. Black Elk Speaks, The Life History of the Holy Man of Ogalala Sioux. 1932. Print.
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History of Science-Patronage Guiding Thinkers

Words: 1644 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13308766

Therefore, it can be said that the patronage of Federico Cesi was important for Galileo because it placed him in contact with well-known scientists, it offered him the possibility to conduct research by consulting materials from a variety of fields, thus broadening the spectrum of his analysis, and, at the same time, it enabled him to conduct research that would probably bring him prestige and fortune due to the respectability of the group he is part of.

The oyal Academy of Science of Paris is yet another remarkable example of patronage. However, this example points out a new level of motivation for patronage. During the reign of Louis 16th, the oyal Academy of Science came under royal patronage to point out the fact that "the king was the source of everything that happened in his kingdom" (Dear, 115). However, the king at the time had little interest in the actual…… [Read More]

References

Dear, Peter. Revolutionizing the Sciences: European Knowledge and Its Ambitions, 1500-1700. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001

Lindberg, David C. The Beginnings of Western Science: The European Scientific Tradition in Philosophical, Religious, and Institutional Context, 600 B.C. To a.D. 1450. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
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History Organization Organizational Structure the Company That

Words: 1053 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79131652

History Organization

Organizational Structure

The company that we will be examining is Apple. They are one the largest computer and electronics manufacturers in the world. At the same time, they also provide support to their various products through additional services they provide (such as: the I Tunes store). It is currently divided into several different divisions to include: Personal Computers, Network Solutions / Peripherals, Media, Digital Content and Third Party Digital Applications. ("Apple," 2011) ased on how Apple is structured, one way to improve economic performance is to re-establish its alliance with Google. What made the partnership fall apart is that Steve Jobs (the founder / CEO) believed that Google stole key I Phone features and placed them in the Android. This created contention between the two sides, as it appeared as if Apple was trying to prevent Google from releasing a competitor to the I Phone. If the company…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Apple. (2011). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved from:  http://finance.yahoo.com/q/pr?s=AAPL+Profile 

Apple. (2011). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved from:  http://finance.yahoo.com/q/ae?s=AAPL+Analyst+Estimates 

Apple's Core Values. (2009). Manueal Corpas. Retrieved from:  http://manuelcorpas.com/2009/03/08/apples-core-values-according-to-its-ceo-tim-cook/ 

Apple is a Good Employer but Not as Amazing. (2007). Glass Door. Retrieved from: http://www.glassdoor.com/Reviews/Employee-Review-Apple-RVW35192.htm
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Black Women at Work 1900-1970

Words: 1662 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97279105

Black Women in Law Profession Early Twentieth Century

Black women attempting to enter careers in law during the period from 1900 through 1970 faced a variety of unique challenges. During this era, many women of all races began to question their role and place into society; it was during this time that civil rights campaigns were beginning to flourish, and African-American women as faced the prospect of not only being a minority as a woman, but also being a minority because of their skin color and ethnic heritage.

African-American women attempting to pursue careers during this time rarely had the opportunity to hold leadership positions, which was common for women of any race. Another challenge facing black women was the lack of adequate representation, influence and emphasis in the workforce. The lack of attention to black women's careers is even evident in the context of textual references and history; the…… [Read More]

References

Benjamin, Lois H. "Black Women in the Academy: Promises and Perils." University Press of Florida: 1997

Coquery-Vidrovitch, C., Raps, B. "African Woman: A Modern History." Boulder: Westview Press, 1997.

Fassinger, Ruth E., Johnson, J., Linn, Sonja, Prosser, J., Richie, B., Robinson, S. "Persistence, Connection, and Passion: A Qualitative Study of the Career Development of Highly Achieving African-American Black and White Women." Journal of Counseling Psychology, Vol. 44, 1997

High Beam Research, LLC. "History." {Online}. Available: http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0878427/html
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History of Racism and the

Words: 3824 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5709741

This was racism at its worst. The enslaved Africans and the native Indians began to get closer to each other, and started to share certain ethic traditions between themselves, and soon, they started to marry each other, especially because of the disproportionate number of African males to females. A number of red-black people began to emerge from these unions, and these people formed traditions of their own. However, slavery continued to flourish and all these people were technically termed slaves. Having decided to take maters into their own hands to protest against the indignities being perpetrated against them in the name of slavery, Africans, Cherokees or Native Americans, and also Irish workers put up small acts of resistance and revolutions. (Chronology on the History of Slavery 1619 to 1789)

In the year 1790, in the United States of America, a census revealed that about 19% of the entire population of…… [Read More]

References

Ainslie, Ricardo; Brabeck, Kalina. Race Murder and Community Trauma: Psychoanalysis and Ethnography in Exploring the Impact of the Killing of James Byrd in Jasper, Texas. Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society. Vol. 8; No: 1; 2003; pp: 114-116

Allen, Annette M; Brackett, Kimberly P; Marcus, Ann; Mullins, Larry C; Pruett, Daniel W; Tang, Zongli. Perceptions of Racism on Campus. College Student Journal. Vol. 37; No: 1; 2003; pp: 20-24

Bynon, Gai; Cleary, Felicity; Hamilton, Alex; Maller, Jerome; Melior, David; Watson, Lara. The Perception of Racism in ambiguous scenarios. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. Vol. 27; No: 2; 2001; pp: 46-52

Chronology on the History of Slavery 1619 to 1789. Retrieved at http://www.innercity.org/holt/chron_1790_1829.html. Accessed on 28 June, 2005
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Black Churches New Pastors

Words: 4891 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99514907



There are some generalizations from the survey that are useful in the sense that they offer solid social reasons why pastors should be in touch with today's unmarried parents, in order to provide services for them outside their attendance for Sunday sermons: one, unmarried parents are "twice as likely to live below the poverty line as married parents"; two, unmarried parents are "twice as likely to have dropped out of school as married parents"; three, unmarried parents are "twice as likely" to have reported being in some degree of trouble with alcohol or with illegal drugs; four, unmarried parents "are younger than married parents" by an average of 7 years; and five, forty-three percent of unmarried mothers "have children with at least two men," while just 15% of married mothers "have children with different fathers."

In conclusion, Parke writes that the data from the research helps to dispel the myth…… [Read More]

References

Baldwin, Lewis. 2003. Revisiting the 'All-Comprehending Institution': Historical

Reflections on the Public Roles of Black Churches, in New Day Begun: African-

American Churches and Civic Culture in Post-Civil Rights America. Durham, NC:

Billingsley, Andrew. 1992. Climbing Jacob's Ladder: The Enduring Legacy of African-
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History of Multi-Cultural America Different Mirror A

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38747750

History of Multi-Cultural America

Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America - Ronald Takaki

What was the result of the 1903 Supreme Court Lone Wolf Decision and the 190 Burke Act? The Lone Wolf Decision came about partly in response to a law passed by Congress in 1902. That law "accelerated the transfer of lands from Indians to whites," according to Takaki (237). The provisions of the 1902 law required that those who inherited the land must sell all allotted lands at public auctions - once the original owners had passed away. Basically, this meant that unless an Indian had the money to purchase their own family lands, they would lose what had been their property. The President (Theodore Roosevelt) was informed that this new law would ensure that all Indian lands will pass into the hands of settlers within a short few years.

But, notwithstanding this injustice, when Chief…… [Read More]

6) Why do you think the author named this chapter, "Through a Glass Darkly"? One can see that the tumultuous times following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor were "dark" times in more ways than one. First, the fear and loathing generated against Japan by the sneak attack on Hawaii was nearly universal and immediate among the American population. And secondly, it is a dark time indeed in American history when pure paranoia is the motivation for "interring" (e.g., placing in concentration camps) tens of thousands of Japanese-Americans. Even so-called responsible media members such as the LA Times (380) behaved with racist spite; "A viper is nonetheless a viper wherever the egg is hatched," the Times editorialized. "So a Japanese-American, born of Japanese parents - grows up to be a Japanese, not an American."

7) To what was the NAACP responding when they said, "A Jim Crow army cannot fight for a free world"? Discuss the effect of the 1941 Executive Order 8802 on the U.S. labor force. The NAACP statement was responding to the fact that a) many blacks felt that they didn't really enjoy all the fruits of democracy in American anyway, so why would they shed their blood to "save democracy" from the Nazis; and b) while fighting for the U.S. In WWII blacks were in general assigned to segregated units because, according to the War Department, "social relationships" between blacks and whites had "been established...through custom and habit." Racial segregation is very much akin to Jim Crow laws from the South's history. When FDR instituted Executive Order #8802, it in effect allowed over a million blacks to take jobs in the defense industry during the war. But more than that, it set in motion the movement of many blacks from the South to better paying jobs in the industrial north.

8) List three (3) things you learned from your cross-cultural presentation and one (1) you learned from someone else's cross-cultural presentation.
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Black Experience in American Culture This Is

Words: 2599 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17779611

Black Experience in American Culture

This is a paper that analyzes the black experience in American culture as presented by Hughes, Baldwin, Wright and Ellison. It has 20 sources in MLA format.

African-American authors have influenced American culture as they have come forward to present issues that the society would rather have forgotten. Authors such as ichard Wright alph Ellison, Langston Hughes and James Baldwin have come under fire as they have written about the racial and biased experiences throughout their life [Capetti, 2001] and through their narratives they have forged a link between the past, the present (themselves) and their future (the unborn generation).

These literary works are an effort on their part to prove to their nations that regardless of the perceived realities their existence and lives have valuable. The slave past some of these authors have had created a void in their lives that at times left…… [Read More]

Reference:

1] Sundquist, Eric J. who was Langston Hughes? Relevancy: 100; (Commentary) 12-01-1996

2] Buttitta, Anthony. "A Note on Contempo and Langston Hughes." London: Cunard, 1934. 141.

3] Langston Hughes on Scottsboro. College Literature, 10-01-1995, pp. 30(20). Vol. 22

4] Okafor-Newsum, Ikechukwu, of Dreams Deferred, Dead or Alive: African Perspectives on African-American Writers.. Vol. 29, Research in African Literatures, 03-22-1998, pp. 219(12).
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Blacks in Blues Music

Words: 2189 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94972467

Blacks in Blues Music

Biographer Lawrence Jackson wrote that author Ralph Ellison was exposed to the blues and classical music from an early age, eventually playing the trumpet and pursuing a degree in music at Tuskegee (McLaren Pp). hen he moved to New York to pursue his writing career, Ellison was exposed to the musical developments in jazz and often attended the Apollo Theater, the Savoy Ballroom, and Cafe Society Downtown, and although he admired such figures as pianist Teddy ilson, Count Basie and Duke Ellington, he did not particularly admired Dizzy Gillespie's Bebop, considering its use of Afro-Cuban influences as a "strategic mistake" (McLaren Pp). Ellison, writes Jackson, was more concerned with the "homegrown idiom" (McLaren Pp). That homegrown idiom that Ellison referred to was the blues, a music born in the fields of the South by black workers who used their African musical heritage to give birth to…… [Read More]

Work Cited

McLaren, Joseph. "Ralph Ellison: Emergence of Genius."

Research in African Literatures; 12/22/2004; Pp.

Southern, Eileen. The Music of Black Americans. W.W. Norton & Company.

1983; pp. 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 336, 338.
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Black & Decker Supply Chain

Words: 3883 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89480933

The Black & Decker DOM system aligns with the Distributed Order Management (DOM) Hierarchical Model shown in Figure 1 as is shown in the Appendix of this study. This model conceptually illustrates how the Black & Decker supply chain, DOM, and distribution networks are integrated with each other (Johnson, 2003, et.al.).

The Data Services of Black & Decker, as defined by its customer- and shipment history databases, anchor the model, followed by Application Services, Presentation Services, and a separate Presentation Services specifically for Internal and External Constituents of the logistics provider.

The Master Data Services component is where Black & Decker 'normalizes and synchronizes data on customers, products, accounts, and suppliers is the primary building block. There are several techniques Black & Decker relies on building a system of record from database consolidation to the development of virtual objects that are a composite of various systems. egardless of the overall…… [Read More]

References

David Drickhamer (2005, October). Bringing Value to the Table: How Today's Logistics Service Providers Stay One Step Ahead. Material Handling Management, 60(10), 25-27. Retrieved August 16, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 918963711).

Joseph Galli (1998, January). Retooling Black & Decker. Chief Executive,(131), 59. Retrieved August 15, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 26830773).

Sidney Hill Jr. (2002). Not your father's SPC. Quality, 41(2), 29-33. Retrieved August 1, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 105856969).

William Hoffman (2006, July). Hunting for Hidden Costs. Traffic World,20-21. Retrieved August 5, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1078955011).
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Black Wax Museum Young Civil Rights Advocates

Words: 728 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4833014

Black Wax Museum

Young Civil ights Advocates at the National Great Blacks in Wax Museum

One of the most powerful images from the National Great Blacks in Wax Museum is that of two young children standing behind a sign that reads "We are not afraid." Behind them stands a tall figure hooded in the sinister white costume of the Ku Klux Klan. The photos that serve as the backdrop to this display show how African-Americans had to fight for basic rights that were already enjoyed by whites. The children are a sad reminder that racial prejudice was directed towards people of all ages, no matter how innocent they were. The children's sign is a reminder that African-Americans showed courage in the face of prejudice, and even children took bold steps to secure their rights and the rights of others.

In the display, the children appear to be of elementary school…… [Read More]

References

 http://www.greatblacksinwax.org/ , "The National Great Blacks In Wax Museum." Accessed

November 23, 2013.

http://www.rubybridges.com/story.html, "The Ruby Bridges Story." Accessed November 23,
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Black Power

Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50402048

Black Arts

Known as the "artistic sister of the Black Power movement," Black Arts refers to the collective expressions of African-American culture during the 1960s and 1970s. Corresponding with the climax of the Civil Rights movement and the self-empowerment of the African-American community, the Black Arts was a politically charged yet aesthetically ripe collection of visual, performance, music, and literary art forms. Amiri Baraka is credited widely with the genesis of the Black Arts movement. The assassination of Malcolm X is said to have inspired Baraka to move to Harlem and delve into the transformative power of art for emboldening the black community (Salaam). Even when he was still known as LeRoi Jones, Baraka had been involved in the publishing industry, and had worked as a poet, arts critic, and playwright. His founding of the Black Arts Repertory Theatre/School (BARTS) is the "formal beginning" of the movement, which Baraka himself…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"The Black Arts Movement." Retrieved online:  http://www.blackpast.org/aah/black-arts-movement-1965-1975 

"A Brief Guide to the Black Arts Movement." Poets.org. Retrieved online: http://www.poets.org/poetsorg/text/brief-guide-black-arts-movement

Neal, Larry. "The Black Arts Movement." The Making of African-American Identity, Vol. 3, 1917-1968. Retrieved online:  http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/maai3/community/text8/blackartsmovement.pdf 

Salaam, Kaluma Ya. "Historical Overviews of the Black Arts Movement."  http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/blackarts/historical.htm
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History Naval Warfare What Was Naval Power

Words: 2454 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74689093

History Naval Warfare

What was naval power in the age of sail and how did different sea going states exercise it from the period 1650-1850?

"There is a deep landlubber bias in historical and social research," writes Charles King. "History and social life, we seem to think, happen on the ground. What happens on the water…is just the scene-setter for the real action when the actors get where they are going. ut oceans, seas, and rivers have a history of their own, not merely as highways or boundaries but as central players in distinct stories of human interaction and exchange." Current essay is an exploration of the naval power and sea command during the period of the age of sail (1650-1850). The author has mentioned the war history and war strategies of major navies and sailors during this era. The author has also discussed how different sea going states exercise…… [Read More]

BibliographyAmes, Glenn Joseph. "Colbert, Mercantilism, and the French Quest for Asian Trade." DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press, (1996).Black, Jeremy. "Britain as a Military Power, 1688-1815." London: UCL Press, (1999).Boxer, C.R. "The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825." London: Hutchinson, (1969). Brewer, John. "Sinews of Power: War, Money and the English State, 1688-1783." Cambridge: Harvard University Press, (1988).Charles King, "The Black Sea: A History" Oxford: Oxford University Press (2004), 3.Diamond, Jared. "Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies." New York W.W. Norton & Co., (1997).Kennedy, Paul M. "The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery." Malabar, FL.: Robert E. Krieger, (1982).Pearson, M.N. Merchants and Rulers in Gujarat: The Response to the Portuguese in the Sixteenth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.Timothy Brook, The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1998), 12.Warren I. Cohen East Asia at the Center: Four Thousand Years of Engagement with the World (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 88.]

Conclusion

The author discussed the sea power in the age of sail i.e., 1650-1800 and how different countries adopt this power. For this purpose the author analyzed main sea powers during this period i.e., Purtogues, Dutch, French and English in the Atlantic Ocean and Chinese navy. The author concluded that sea power was the main source of authority for any country. The courtiers with powerful fleet ships and navy were dominant in the world.

Mostly the countries having command on sea used this dominance to expand trade. There are also evidences of unfair means to occupy other countries as well to maintain this occupation. The author also discussed how the British Royal Navy used impressments system to forcefully include the seaman in the Royal Navy.

Endnotes
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Black Fly Larvae According to

Words: 763 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27447706

" They also are capable of spinning a type of thread to anchor themselves and may remain larva through the winter. According to Lyon: "Pupation occurs in a cocoon, open at one end. Adults emerge in two to three days when the water is warm. They are capable of immediate flight and mating. The entire life history spans about four to six weeks, depending on species, water temperature, available food, etc. There may be four generations per year." (Lyon, 2000)

IV. The LARVAE SPINS an UNDERWATER COCOON

According to the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada report entitled "lack Flies (Simullidae)" various species of black fly larvae "may be found in every type of flowing water, from minute seepages in which the flow is scarcely detectable, to the largest rivers and waterfalls. Each species seems to have its preferences for streams of a certain width, velocity, and character; springs and seepages have…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Lyon, William F. (2000) Black Flies HYG-2167-97 Entomology - Ohio State University Fact Sheet. Online available at http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/2000/2167.html.

Black Flies (Simullidae) (2003) Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Online available at http://sci.agr.ca/ecorc/diptera/bf11-dp11_e.htm.

Featured Creatures (1998) University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Online available at http://creatures.ifas.ufl.edu/livestock/bfly.htm

Black Fly Larvae
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Black White and Jewish by Rebecca Walker

Words: 1741 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97405355

Black, White, Jewish

Black, White, and Jewish -- the Source of All Rebecca Walker's Angst?

Rebecca Walker's memoir Black, White, and Jewish, is subtitled "Autobiography of a Shifting Self." Walker states that is a woman who is most comfortable "in airports" because they are "limbo spaces -- blank, undemanding, neutral." (3) In contrast, because of her multi-racial and multi-ethnic identity, she is both never 'neutral' and also never quite 'of a color.' nly in airports to the rules of the world completely apply to her as well as to the rest of the world, Walker states -- and even then, this statement has an irony, given the recent events and controversies over airport racial profiling that occurred after the book's publication. The book does on to describe, with great poignancy, the author's perceived difficulty of living with a dual, often uncomfortable identity of whiteness and blackness, of Jewishness and 'gentileness.'…… [Read More]

One might ask Walker, however, if this sense of alienation from one's own parents, from one's own past identity, even one's own ancestry, is a condition of a multi-racial and mixed religious background, or a product of American adolescence? But the conventional existence eventually chosen by her father suggests that a White man can return to the mainstream after spurning all these things as a rite of adolescent passage, while Walker cannot. Walker's physical appearance forces her into a continual existence of protest, whether she chooses to conform or not. Even her mother's bohemian existence is chosen, and offers the comfort of ancestry, even an enslaved one.

How constructed, however, one might ask is the idea of ancestry and connection? The unbroken line between African-Americans might itself, one say, be a construction, a tracing together between various Africans who were enslaved centuries ago. An African-American immigrant from Haiti might be 'read' the same by white eyes as one from South Carolina, causing a sense of identity diffusion because of societal mis-reading, as one cannot always see Rebecca Walker's Jewishness upon her. Making a social argument about the destructive legacy of the 1960's from hurt, from the depression and parental and personal conflict that seems to be characteristic of American adolescence is difficult. Individuals of different sexualities, of conflicted relationships even with homogenous paths might make the same argument of placenessness, of existing in a space they must create, rather than find. Although Rebecca Walker's book is a powerful personal testimony, it does not quite hold up -- nor perhaps should it aspire to -- as a sociological document. It is written, as the author admits, with emotion and in her own blood, and cannot admit the alternative perspectives of other American twenty and thirty-somethings undergoing similar identity crisis.

But unlike the identity crisis of leaving and returning to the bosom of the family, Walker has no family to return to -- her parents are divorced and have returned from their respective crisis of identities, into the bosoms of their own ethnic identities. They have been changed and perhaps improved by their heightened cultural exposure. But after her own rebellion, Rebecca Walker has no place to comfortably rest and return to -- except, ironically, the airport, she might say. "I am flesh and blood but I am also ether," she states at the end of her work. She attempts to create anew rather than return to ancestors, like her parents, and this re-creation is a constant source of consternation.
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History of Management Accounting Management

Words: 4082 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95845101

The mistake occurred when enthusiasts tried to use those data for other purposes such as 'strategic product decisions.' The average cost of production never could, and never will, be relevant for those classes of decisions where only the change in total costs and revenues are relevant. That is, the rough, average post calculations provided a guide for pricing unique one-off products or services, but were of no use for the other purposes (emphasis added) (Garner & Tsuji, 1995, p. 52).

The strategic product decision function of management accounting described above is based on the strategic management accounting method; this approach serves to cause change in the management framework through various accounting devices designed to adapt effectively to the constantly changing external business environment (Garner & Tsuji, 1995). Strategic management accounting, though, should be managed by production people (including sales and engineering), rather than by accounting staff (Garner & Tsuji, 1995).…… [Read More]

References

Anthony, R.N. (2003, January 1). Management accounting: a personal history. Journal of Management Accounting Research, 15, 249.

Black, T., & Gallagher, L. (1999). Are physical capacity constraints relevant?: Applying finance-economics theory to a management accounting misconception. Australian Journal of Management, 24(2), 143.

Cooper R., & Kaplan, R.S. (1990, February). Measure costs right: Make the right decision. CPA Journal, 25.

Cortada, J.W. (2004). The digital hand: How computers changed the work of American manufacturing, transportation, and retail industries. New York: Oxford University Press.
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History of Western Art Looking

Words: 1837 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54328299

To illustrate these different views, he creates Starry Night over the Rhone. This shows the sense of anticipation that is occurring before the evening begins. As he is depicting, a quit outdoor cafe that is waiting for: the customers to begin arriving and the festivities to commence. To illustrate this sense of anticipation he uses different colors and lighter brush strokes. As there is: yellow, black, blue, tan and gray; to highlight the overall emotions that Van Gogh is feeling (when he reflects on his life in Paris). At the same time, the lighter brush strokes are used to show the changes of time that are taking place, by making the background somewhat blurry. This is important, because it is illustrating how the artist is trying to create that sense of realism and the passage of time, by showing their positive emotions about their past lives. ("Vincent Van Gough," 2011)…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette. (2011). Web Museum Paris. Retrieved from:  http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/renoir/moulin-galette/ 

Frans Hals. (2011). ABC Gallery. Retrieved from:  http://www.abcgallery.com/H/hals/hals.html 

Hudson River School. (2011). Visual Arts. Retrieved from:  http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/history-of-art/hudson-river-school-landscape-painting.htm 

Jean -- Antione Houdon. (2011). Scholar Resource. Retrieved from:  http://www.scholarsresource.com/browse/artist/637
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Black Rock Industries History of the Firm

Words: 929 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29688849

Black Rock Industries

History of the Firm

BlackRock, Inc., the world's largest financial asset and management company, began in a one-room office in New York in 1988. BlackRock, which began under the name of BlackStone Financial Management, was led by Larry Fink and a team of seven others: Keith Anderson, Benett . Golub, Charles Hallac, Robert S. Kapito, Barbara Novick, Ralph Schlosstein, and Susan agner. All were unified by their desire to educate clients; not simply push them into purchasing products they neither needed or understood (Ody 63).

By helping General Electric in 1999 to rid itself of unwanted mortgages BlackRock's presence on all Street was solidified. By 2004 the company had grown to $342 billion in assets by selling its products. In 2005 BlackRock purchased State Street Research & Management, followed by an acquisition of Merrill Lynch Investment Management in 2006, Quellos Group in 2007 and R3 Capital Partners…… [Read More]

Works Cited

BlackRock. (2011). http://www2.blackrock.com/global/home/index.htm

BlackRock Investor Relations. http://www2.blackrock.com/global/home/InvestorRelations/index.htm

Kephart, Jason. "BlackRock Liquidating Four Funds." Fund Action (2011): 37. Business Source Complete. EBSCO. Web. 16 Apr. 2011.

Ody, Elizabeth. "GREAT DAYS AT BLACKROCK." Kiplinger's Personal Finance 64.9 (2010): 36-39. Business Source Complete. EBSCO. Web. 16 Apr. 2011.
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History and Links of Social Psychology

Words: 1320 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89246979

History Of Social Psychology

According to Kruglanski and Stroebe (2012) social psychology is defined as the scientific study of how a person's feelings, behaviors, and thoughts are influenced by the implied, imagined, or real presence of other people. Social psychology will analyze various social topics including social perception, behavior leadership, conformity, prejudice, nonverbal behavior, and aggression. It attempts to understand a person's behavior in a social context. Therefore, social psychology will look at human behavior as other people and the social setting that this occurs shape it. Social psychologists will deal with the factors that lead a person to behave in a given way in front of others, and it looks at the conditions in which some behaviors and feelings will occur. Social psychology is a young field that began in the 20th century. Around 90% of all social psychologists are believed to be alive. The early influencers of this…… [Read More]

References

Baumeister, R.F., & Finkel, E.J. (2010). Advanced social psychology: The state of the science. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

Fiske, S.T., Gilbert, D.T., & Lindzey, G. (2010). Handbook of social psychology (Vol. 2). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Kruglanski, A.W., & Stroebe, W. (2012). Handbook of the history of social psychology. Church Rd, Hove: Psychology Press.
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History of Discrimination From Legislation to the

Words: 1826 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54389448

History Of Discrimination From Legislation to the Present Day

There are various form of discrimination that have been in existence over the decades, racism is just one of the oldest and most prevailing kind of discrimination. acism is the belief that a race of people is inferior to another. Various practices in the U.S. are seen to be motivated by racism and these include the slave trade where humans are treated as property that is disposable, without any rights and privileges. It was mainly practiced in southern U.S. until the civil war when it was outlawed by the 13th amendment. Job discrimination is also widespread and involves exclusion of people from jobs due to their race which was outlawed on a national level in 1964.segregaton in public places, schools, sports and other places was also in existence but was outlawed in 1964. Denial of voting rights like literacy tests, poll…… [Read More]

References

NSW Business Chamber.(2012). Vicarious Liability. Retrieved February 12, 2014 from http://www.workplaceinfo.com.au/resources/employment-topics-a-z/vicarious-liability

Naomi, A, L.(2009).Motivational strategies and their impact on productivity. Retrieved February 12,2014 from http://dspace.knust.edu.gh:8080/jspui/bitstream/123456789/4257/1/Aryeetey%20Loretta%20Naomi.pdf

Fair work Ombudsman.(2012).Types of Discrimination. Retrieved February 12, 2014 from http://www.fairwork.gov.au/employment/discrimination/pages/types-of-discrimination.aspx
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History of Human Services

Words: 924 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31976697

History Of Human Services

When the Kalamazoo Foundation began in 1925, the welfare state in the U.S. was minimal, and on the federal level almost nonexistent. Problems of poverty, hunger, racism, unemployment, and inadequate education were largely left to the start and local levels to be dealt with by private charities and religious organizations. This only changed with the expansion of the federal safety net during the New Deal of the 1930s and the Great Society of the 1960s, although it has been contracting again over the last thirty years. During the Progressive Era of 1900-20 and into the next decade, civic-minded philanthropists and capitalists often took the lead in dealing with the social and economic problems of urban, industrial America, among them Dr. W.E. Upjohn, founder of Upjohn Pharmaceuticals. In addition to donating the first $1,000 in stock to establish the Kalamazoo Foundation, Upjohn also founded Bronson Methodist Hospital,…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Kalamazoo Community Foundation (2011). The Lifeline Initiative.

 http://www.kalfound.org/AboutUs/AbouttheCommunityFoundation/tabid/259/Default.aspx  http://www.kalfound.org/InitiativesImpact/OurInitiatives/LifelineInitiative/tabid/247/Default.aspx

Miller-Adams, M. (2009). The Power of a Promise: Education and Economic Revival in Kalamazoo. W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.

Rakstis, T.J. (1967). "Grass Roots Philanthropy." The Rotarian, March 1967, pp. 34-37.
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History of Riga Latvia the

Words: 876 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46012022

9-11).

Wars

In 1621, iga came under the rule of Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus who declared iga the second capital of Sweden. During the ussian-Swedish War, ussia failed to colonize iga as it remained to be the, "second largest city under Swedish control until 1720 during a period in which the city retained a great deal of self-government autonomy" (ibid., par. 13). In 1720, Tsar Peter the Great of ussia became successful in its invasion to iga. As a result, "iga was annexed by ussia and became an industrialized port city of the ussian empire" (ibid., par. 13). By 1900, iga was already holding the third spot in terms of ussia's most industrialized cities. This massive industrialization led to the rise of Latvian bourgeoisie which made iga the center of National Awakening. This particular social phenomenon entailed a string of nationalist movements (ibid., par.15).

German occupation in iga during World…… [Read More]

References

History of Nations. (n.d.) "History of Latvia." Retrieved from www.historyofnations.net/europe/latvia.html. On December 1.

Latvia & Riga. (n.d.). "History." Retrieved at  http://www.latvia-riga.com/history_latvia.htm#on  December 1, 2008.

New World Encyclopedia, (n.d.). "Riga, Latvia." Retrieved at http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Riga,_Latviaon December 1, 2008.

U.S. Department of State. (n.d.). "Background Note: Latvia." Retrieved from www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5378.htm. On December 1.
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History of Egyptian and Mayan Writing Egyptian

Words: 2110 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37558866

History Of Egyptian and Mayan Writing

Egyptian writing

The Egyptian language is one of the first languages to be put into written form. Some scholars have claimed that the earliest form of writing is the Sumerian language, but this contention has been put into doubt by more recent findings. Egyptian writing first appears on stone and pottery and dates back to 3,000 .C. (Mysteries of Egypt) The earliest alphabetical writing was found in the Abydos-Luxor -Thebes region of Egypt dating to 1800 .C.

Egyptologists have found limestone inscriptions that they say are the earliest known examples of alphabetic writing... carved in the cliffs of soft stone, the writing - in a Semitic script with Egyptian influences - has been dated to somewhere between 1900 and 1800 .C., two or three centuries earlier than previously recognized uses of a nascent alphabet.

Smith, Tony)

Recently, Egyptian writing dating to 3,300 .C. has…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ancient Egyptian Writing. May 18, 2004.  http://www.dragonstrike.com/egypt/write.htm 

The Ancient Maya.

Digital Meesh. May 18, 2004.  http://www.digitalmeesh.com/maya/history.htm 

Egyptian writing dating to 3300 B.C. discovered. The Japan Times, December 17, 1998. Accessed: May 20, 2004.  http://www.trussel.com/prehist/news95.htm
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History of Construction Technology Time

Words: 6960 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51255638

It consists a series of successively smaller platforms which lifted to a height of about 64 feet, and was constructed with a solid core of mud-brick covered by a thick skin of burnt-brick to guard it from the forces of nature (Burney). The Ziggurat's corners are oriented to the compass points, with walls sloping slightly inwards (Molleson and Hodgson) .

The Ziggurat of Ur was a component of a temple building complex that serviced the urban center as an administrative hub. Additionally, in terms of spirituality, it was believed to be the site on earth that the moon god Nanna (the patron deity of Ur) had selected to inhabit. Nanna was shown as a wise and unfathomable old man, complete with a flowing beard and four horns in number. A single shrine crowned the summit of the ziggurat (Faiella). This was purportedly the bedchamber of the god, and was occupied…… [Read More]

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History of the War on

Words: 564 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98173261

This social, cultural, and economic war has only brought on more disgrace to neighborhoods that are still torn with violence and poverty. The shady history that this war has, makes it that much more doubtful that there were ever any good intentions involved in the first place. It has been a war for power, money, and regulation by the United States' own government. It has been a way to keep the poor poorer and to make the rich even richer.

The War on Drug's history is only reason enough to discontinue its implementation. No actual noticeable achievement has been made to even put a dent into a system of illegal drug trafficking, and although Baum declared a failure in this system more than fifteen years ago, it has officially been declared that the War on Drugs has been lost. Billions of dollars in taxpayer money has gone into a system…… [Read More]

References:

Baum, Dan. Smoke and Mirrors: The War on Drugs and the Politics of Failure. Little Brown and Company: United States, 1997. Print.
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History of Chopsticks Chopsticks Eating

Words: 730 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81979963

71). Because of this, with few exceptions, the Japanese eat nearly everything with chopsticks. Many Japanese do not want to eat sandwiches with their hands, and in Japan, sandwiches are cut into small pieces and served with toothpicks (Grew, p. 266). Chopsticks play an important role from a child's earliest days in Japan to teach the importance of not eating with the hands. Around 100 days after its birth, a small ceremony is held where the child is introduced to solid food. Soft food suitable for a small baby is prepared and placed in front of the child. The mother uses never-before-used chopsticks to give the baby morsels of the solid food (endry, p. 36).

But while the Japanese culture was using chopsticks as part of a cultural interest in cleanliness, in China, chopsticks became a symbol of their cultural value on belonging to a group rather than standing out…… [Read More]

Hendry, Joy. Becoming Japanese: The World of the Pre-School Child. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1986.

Ohnuki-Tierney, Emiko. "Rice as Self: Japanese Identities through Time." Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Shih, Chih-Yu. Negotiating Ethnicity in China: Citizenship as a Response to the State. Oxford, England: Routledge, 2002.
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History of Corrections

Words: 2922 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38581426

History Of Corrections

Humankind, all through recorded history, has actually created innovative methods to "punish" their own kind for legitimate and even apparent transgressions. Amongst tribal communities as well as in much more developed cultures, this kind of punishment may include, amongst various other tortures, lashes, branding, drowning, suffocation, executions, mutilation, as well as banishment (which within faraway areas had been equivalent to the dying sentence). The degree related to the punishment frequently relied on the actual wealth and standing of the offended individual and also the culprit. Individuals charged or determined guilty and those who had been more potent had been frequently permitted to make amends simply by recompensing the sufferer or their family members, whilst people who had been less well off as well as lower status had been prone to endure some kind of physical penalties. However regardless of the strategy, and also for no matter what…… [Read More]

References

Johnson, R. 2002. Hard Time: Understanding and Reforming the Prison. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

King, R., and M. Mauer. 2002. State Sentencing and Corrections Policy in an Era of Fiscal Restraint. Washington, DC: Sentencing Project.

King, D., 2011. Changes In Community Corrections: Implications For Staff And Programs. Available at:  http://aic.gov.au/media_library/publications/proceedings/11/king.pdf 

Lin, A.C. 2000. Reform in the Making: The Implementation of Social Policy in Prison. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
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Black Fem Thought a History

Words: 1983 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15383721



Another distinction central to the Black feminist's thoughts is the alienation she suffers due to the omission of her presence in history. This omission is not only found in traditional examples of history, but also in Eurocentric feminist views of history. The following quotation from Lorde in her letter to Daly shows the frustration and lack of understanding about the reason such an omission is propagated even among those of her same sex. "…why doesn't Mary deal with Afreket as an example? hy are her goddess-images only white, western-european, judeo-christian…here are the warrior-goddesses of the Vodun, the Dohomeian Amazons and the warrior-women of Dan…Mary has made a conscious decision to narrow her scope and to deal only with the ecology of western-european women (Lorde, 1979, p. 94)." The exclusion of African goddesses from Daly's text, which described the historical roots of women's power, is only a slight example of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

1. Carby, H. (1982) "White Woman Listen! Black Feminism and the Boundaries of Sisterhood" in Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies The Empire Strikes Back: Race and Racism in 70s Britain. London: Hutchinson.

2. hooks, b. (1981) Aint I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism. Boston: South End Press.

3. hooks, b. (1990) Yearning: Race, Gender and Cultural Politics. Boston: South End Press.

4. Lourde, A. (1981) "An Open Letter to Mary Daly" in Moraga C. And Azadula G. This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Colour. Watertown: Persephone Press.
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Black Mesa Mine the Black

Words: 2067 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49625594

Lands are reclaimed to a condition that typically is 20 times more productive for grazing than native range. These results, which are nationally recognized, are important to local American Indian families who make their livelihood raising cattle, sheep and goats (Peabody Western Coal Company 2007:1).

Of course, the company is ignoring the damage to the water supply when it makes these claims and does not account for this damage against the benefits. The intent of the company is clear in a settlement proposal it made to keep Black Mesa in operation while giving the federal government control over the aquifer and dismissing all claims against Peabody for injury to the groundwater (Helms 2007:1).

A call to action by a group called Honor the Earth makes the implicatiosn for the sacred land clear:

If the plan to allow Peabody to restart its Black Mesa Mine goes ahead, the cultural implications will…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, Frederick R., Jeffrey D. Baxter, Bruce a. Bishop, David Brookshire, F. Lee Brown, Albert M. Church, Mark O. Evans, Allen V. Kneese, Jerrold E. Levy, Alfred L. Parker, William D. Schulze, Walter O. Spofford, and Michael Williams

1981 the Southwest under Stress: National Resource Development Issues in a Regional Setting. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Benedek, Emily.

1999 the Wind Won't Know Me: A History of the Navajo-Hopi Land Dispute. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.