(Hawkins, 1998, p. 80)
The foundations of these understandings, though they cannot take as long as they do in real time to occur, develop a set of variable understandings of the whole of the system. The changing opinion is then a reflection of the fact that one must understand the whole picture, rather than the sum of its parts, or as in the past the individual known and observed occurrences out of context with the system. "The most dramatic and spectral effect, however, is the hardest to see, understand, and gauge." (Miller, 1999, p. 99) This is not to say that individual dynamic occurrences are not worth understanding and that they have not culminated to create a larger picture, such as the one offered by Tucker, Tananbaum & Fabian, in their brief but informative big picture article, but that studying the tree has in the past led to a limited…… [Read More]
Astronomers have had a long-term fascination with the phenomenon of the black hole. Until the later part of the twentieth century, however, they provided little more than inspiration for science fiction writers. As humans, we have traditionally been skeptical of anything we cannot tangibly see or hear or manipulate on some level with our senses. Black holes do not satisfy the criteria for our need of proof. They cannot be photographed, or for that matter seen as they absorb all light. Also, little more has been expected to be gained from exploring black holes than an extrapolation of Einstein's Theory of elativity. In the past five years however, great strides have been made not only in the realm of empirical proof but in applying the knowledge of black holes to pertinent questions for all of humankind. Black holes may indeed explain the origins of all nature (Kluger, 44).…… [Read More]
However, unlike other spiral galaxies found scattered throughout the universe, the black hole which is assumed to exist in the center of the Milky Way galaxy is dormant and is not "actively feeding," meaning that it is not currently swallowing up material for some unknown reason. Almost from the beginning of astronomical observations of galactic bodies in the universe, it has always been thought that "the more massive the bulge, the more massive the black hole" which has led scientists and astronomers to reason that "somehow the formation and growth of galaxy bulges and their central black holes are intimately connected." ut in 2003 when the Spitzer Space Telescope began to be utilized to collect infrared data from a number of different types of galaxies, scientists discovered that thin or slender galaxies which lack prominent central bulges did indeed contain supermassive black holes.
During a recent study with the Spitzer…… [Read More]
King's The Man In The lack Suit
The modern concept of self, and the human trait of self-awareness, have been a part of humanity since recorded history -- as has the notion of good and evil, although clearly on a sliding scale. However, it was not until the Middle Ages that the concept of the self in relation to the choices of good and evil coalesced, moving away from the supernatural "the devil made me do it," and allowing for personal responsibility. That did not change the idea that the human individual always has a choice in their path -- the euphemistic fork in the road -- do we choose good, or do we choose evil? Stephen King's short story, The Man in the lack Suit, is a modern retelling of this conflict, albeit not in the traditional manner (King). King's Devil is more like his own Randy Flagg than…… [Read More]
They were followed in 1936 by the Harlem River Houses, a more modest experiment in housing projects. And by 1964, nine giant public housing projects had been constructed in the neighborhood, housing over 41,000 people [see also Tritter; Pinckney and oock].
The roots of Harlem's various pre 1960's-era movements for African-American equality began growing years before the Harlem Renaissance itself, and were still alive long after the Harlem Renaissance ended. For example:
The NAACP became active in Harlem in 1910 and Marcus Garvey's Universal
Negro Improvement Organization in 1916. The NAACP chapter there soon grew to be the largest in the country. Activist a. Philip Randolph lived in Harlem and published the radical magazine the Messenger starting in 1917.
It was from Harlem that he organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car
Porters. .E.B. DuBois lived and published in Harlem in the 1920s, as did
James eldon Johnson and Marcus Garvey.…… [Read More]
ince neither of those explanations is likely (let alone knowable), philosophical naturalists would have to doubt that the universe exists at all; yet, very clearly, it does. The most likely explanation for the existence of the universe is simply that some force or consciousness (i.e. God) caused whatever the so-called "first cause" of existence was.
The second major philosophical assumption of philosophical naturalism presupposes that all philosophical postulates must, necessarily, fit the scientific model. However, that supposition clearly closes off many possible explanations simply because they may lie outside of human understanding. Again, that position is an a priori assumption that also violates the first major philosophical assumption of philosophical naturalism. In essence, it suggests that scientific concepts provide the only possible set of tools for understanding phenomena, including phenomena that obviously defy scientific explanation such as miracles and faith. Most importantly, it automatically (and in a manner that is…… [Read More]
Hume and Experience
In morals, politics, religion and science, Hume was a conservative empiricist who emphatically rejected all theories he thought of as metaphysical or not based on actual experience and sense perceptions. He did not regard religious and metaphysical theories as scientific, but more like idle speculation, superstition and prejudice. No ultimate original principles existed outside of the mind and perceptions, and this certainly included the concept of cause and effect, which he insisted was derived from the senses and later processed through the mind in the form of simple and complex ideas. Nothing could be known about human nature or any other subject outside of an exact, empirical science, while innate and a priori ideas did not exist. Even his theories of mathematics, logic and the color spectrum were all based on empiricism, and the ability of the mind to reflect, compile and make connections based on repeated…… [Read More]
Martin Heidegger and Jean-Paul Sartre on Existentialism and Humanism
The Essentials of Essentialism
Martin Heidegger's philosophical opus is both deep and complex and a comprehensive examination of it here would be impossible. However it is possible to provide an overview of his essential teachings - of the essential aspects of his essentialism. Doing so will allow us, in later sections, to explore his criticisms of Jean-Paul Sartre's far more famous version of existentialism as well as to examine the ways in which - despite Heidegger's criticism of Sartre - the two are in many ways the same.
Heidegger, like all modern philosophers (and possibly the ancient ones as well), incorporated the work of a number of earlier thinkers into his own formulation of existentialism and his understanding of the nature of reality of the place of humans in the world. As an existentialist, Heidegger believed in a philosophy that was…… [Read More]
When we ask ourselves what is knowledge (as we do when we are engaged in the process of philosophy) we are effectively asking what is our relationship with the world. V.S. amachandran - as is the norm for philosophers - asks the question about our relationship to the world by using what at first might seem to be a relatively trivial issue, or at least one that very few of us shall ever actually have to worry about, which is the question of phantom limbs, the subject of both amachandran's interest and our own.
The desire to know and the desire to discover are essentially active, even aggressive actions taken on the part of consciousness to acquire pieces or aspects of the world. When we seek knowledge, we seek to take into our minds (and so to take into our bodies physically) something that exists in the world.…… [Read More]
Tom Shulich ("ColtishHum")
A comparative study on the theme of fascination with and repulsion from Otherness in Song of Kali by Dan Simmons and in the City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre
In this chapter, I examine similarities and differences between The City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre (1985) and Song of Kali by Dan Simmons (1985) with regard to the themes of the Western journalistic observer of the Oriental Other, and the fascination-repulsion that inspires the Occidental spatial imaginary of Calcutta. By comparing and contrasting these two popular novels, both describing white men's journey into the space of the Other, the chapter seeks to achieve a two-fold objective: (a) to provide insight into the authors with respect to alterity (otherness), and (b) to examine the discursive practices of these novels in terms of contrasting spatial metaphors of Calcutta as "The City of Dreadful Night" or "The City of…… [Read More]
The Formation and Evolution of Galaxies
One of the greatest and possibly most important questions about our universe is how it originated. Astronomer Sandy Faber of California's Lick Observatory states that, "Galaxies are the building blocks of the universe, and therefore one of the greatest questions of modern astronomy is to understand how they form." (Chaikin)
Galaxy is usually understood as a cluster or aggregate of stars - combined gas and dust - held together by gravity. Galaxies come in three main types: ellipticals, spirals, and irregulars. (The Galaxies) There are a number of theories about the formation of galaxies. Two predominant theories are the ottom-Up and Top-Down theories. The ottom-Up theory states that the Universe started from small particles of mass that came together to form galaxies, which evolved into clusters and then super-clusters. (ibid) The second theory - the Top-Down theory - states that "vast pancaked-shaped clouds…… [Read More]
Quasars and Distant Galaxies
How primeval matter cast with uniformity in all directions by an assumed violent explosion, called the ig ang, gathered together into vast groups of starts and galaxies that evolved into the universe remains a mystery (Peterson 1990). There have been speculations about its origins, pieced together and offering new standards against which theories could be tested and measured. Some of these speculations involved cosmic strings, global textures and late-time phase transitions, notions too strange to merit acceptance. Cosmologists have to reconcile separate and contradictory observations in explaining the origins of galaxies and the structure of the universe, such as the receding of galaxies from one another and the astonishingly uniform glow of invisible radiation in the universe known as the cosmic microwave background, the left-over heat from the creation of the universe. These observations and the abundance of hydrogen, helium and lithium resulting from the initial…… [Read More]
International egulation of Tourism in Antarctica
Since the mid-1980s, Antarctica has been an increasingly popular tourist destination, despite the relative danger of visiting the largest, least explored -- and arguably least understood -- continent on earth. Beginning with the 1959 treaty establishing Antarctica as an international zone free of claims of sovereignty by nation's that had been instrumental in establishing research stations there, there has been almost constant negotiation about how to administer regulations pertaining to the preservation of life forms on the continent, what those regulations should be, and what sanctions should be applied and by whom.
To understand the depths of the negotiations, and the potential for discord, it is necessary to understand what the continent offer the 65% of global nations that are party to the 1959 and all subsequent treaties. To understand the possible future of Antarctica, it is necessary to outline treaty attempts to minimize…… [Read More]
The collapse increases internal pressure until some of the stars external matter is ejected, eventually stabilizing into a dwarf star of degenerate matter.
A variable star is one whose apparent brightness changes as viewed from earth. Cepheid variables are a certain type of variable star whose apparent brightness changes in regular cycles lasting from 3 to 50 days. Astronomers use them to measure distances in space.
Q: 4 describe and explain the characteristic of Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.
what is the significant and use of this diagram? how is a black hole formed? what are the properties of black holes? compute the Schwarzschild radius for the sun.
What happens when the star shrinks to the radii? what is the most likely place to find a black hole?
The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is a scatter-graph of stars that allows astronomers to plot their absolute luminosity against their specific classifications and temperatures. This technique demonstrated…… [Read More]
The lonely and symmetrical blackness is stark. At first it looks ordinary, merely decorative. But the shining blackness is harsh against the blinding white of the floor, and seems even more poignant against the gleeful yellow of the brick walls around it. Although the geometry of the work is arresting given the contrast of colors, the work does not call attention to itself as art. But upon being prompted to gaze at it, the startling black-hole like quality of the circle in the midst of a riot of color, light and openness, causes the viewer to reflect upon the work's larger meaning. The hole conveys a greater sense of absence than the entire empty room. Paradoxically, the room feels more 'full' given the presence of a hole as its central focus, although the viewer is prompted to reflect upon absence at the sight of the hole. A single bit of…… [Read More]
Hawking, Stephen William. The Univese in a Nutshell. New Yok: Bantam, 2001.
The espected physicist Stephen W. Hawking attempts to intoduce the aveage laypeson to the physical pinciples of the mateial univese in his book entitled The Univese in a Nutshell. Hawking is pehaps best known to the wold as the late 20th centuy's most compelling image of pue scientific genius, as Albet Einstein was the most compelling image of genus fo scientific aficionados duing the fist half of the 20th centuy. Of couse, Hawking took issue with some of Einstein's basic concepts. Hawking is famous fo this bit of scientific daing. Hawking is also famous fo possessing a billiant mind, encased in a body that has unfotunately been sticken by a teible neuological condition that paalyzes his ability to feely move and speak -- although, as this book makes clea, not to wite.
The Univese in a Nutshell is…… [Read More]
It is almost as if Hawking wants science and religion to agree.
He also uses a sense of humor often times to get his point across. In UIAN, he uses visual jokes, written puns and several witticisms to get you in a light mood to keep going through the book and picking up the important ideas that are in there. His life work has been dissecting these questions and proposing answers and it seems important to him to get the reader and his listeners, students and followers excited with him.
Stephen illiam hawkings http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Hawking.html
Hawking's mother spent part of her life in dangerous places during orld ar II. His mother went to live in a safe town and gave birth to Stephen.
The family were soon back together living in Highgate, north London, where Stephen began his schooling.
In 1950 Stephen's father moved to the Institute for Medical Research in…… [Read More]
This image is of the galactic center, which is the center of the Milky Way. The photograph is taken using infrared light, which changes the appearance of dust particles so that they do not obscure the image. As Wright (2003) points out, the universe is filled with dust, which tends to block the light being emitted from light-giving objects like stars. The composition of most galactic dust includes carbon, silicon, and oxygen (Wright, 2003). The dust can grow in molecular clouds, and are created in the atmosphere of red-giant stars that are cooling off (Nemiroff & Bonnell, 2006).
Infrared allows the exposure of rays that are beyond what the naked eye can see. These rays are beyond or below the red part of the color spectrum, which is why the technology is called "infrared." Below infrared rays are microwave and radio waves. Although not visible to the human…… [Read More]
However, cursory studies that have been conducted are either biased because they seem to present a biased review of certain products or are insufficient because of their limitations and shallowness. Those studies that have been considered to be useful are mentioned below.
Robert D. oerner, Joanne ourquard, Pam Greenberg (2000) comprehensively elaborates the legal aspect of spam. He provides an in-depth review of the present laws in actions and the future of legislation against spam. He concludes his study by revealing, "Most of the laws target spammers who misrepresent, falsify or forge the point of origin or the routing information of messages. Several states also prohibit the sale or distribution of software that is primarily designed for this type of falsification (Robert D. oerner, Joanne ourquard, Pam Greenberg, 2000)." Also, "Most states have specified that the laws apply only to spam that is sent to or generated from locations within…… [Read More]
Igneous rock is one of the three main types of rock formations making up the earth's crust. It is formed primarily through the cooling and subsequent solidification of magma or lava. Igneous rock may also form without any crystallization -- below the surface as intrusive rocks or above as extrusive. It is best to think of igneous rock as being formed with heat -- one or more of three processes: temperature increases, decreases in pressure, or changes in composition. There are a number of types of igneous rocks; at least 700 have been cataloged, with most being formed deep within the earth's crust.
To describe the events that take place to move igneous rock from deep within the earth's core to the surface requires an understanding of the rock cycle. This is a concept that describes how rocks move and evolve into other types of rock or onto the surface…… [Read More]
I am not sure what I expected about my check-up. I suppose I thought that the new relationship I had the OBGYN because of my pregnancy would continue on as a special relationship. I was wrong. My visit was, once again, the sterile, medical kind, and not the kind that I had with him while I was pregnant. My OBGYN performed the post surgical exam, and then spoke with me briefly.
"You're healthy," he said, "and I would recommend beginning again, as soon as you're ready, to get pregnant again. If that's what you." Then he was gone, and the nurse came in with a prescription.
"This, she said, is a prescription for a mild pain killer for cramping. Really, it's just a prescription strength aspirin." Then she looked at me and added, "I know what you're going through."
I thought she was the connection I needed. Someone who had…… [Read More]
cabinet-level agency in the U.S. government termed "Agency X" herein is the largest healthcare provider in the nation. With a multi-billion dollar budget, virtually universal support from the American public and a national network of healthcare facilities, Agency X should be well situated to achieve its mission to "care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan." Unfortunately, on far too many occasions, Agency X has failed to deliver the high quality health care services the nation's veterans deserve and hundreds if not thousands have died as a result. In order to gain a better understanding of these failures, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide an analysis of the ethical and social issues faced by Agency X and its administrators, followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning ethics and social justice at this organization in the conclusion.…… [Read More]
50, this "would indicate that the company really lost $0.50 of cash per share vs. The reported $1.00" (yman 2009).
A company could very easily show a positive EPS because of a one-off sale of an unprofitable venture. But if the company did not change its poor management policy, or was in a poorly-performing sector of the economy, this would not bode well for investors in the coming years. Thus, industry trends are another potential guideline for investors. Even if a company posts a strong showing one year, this is no guarantee that the trend upward will continue, if it is located in a potential 'black hole' of the economy. For example, a luxury company might sell off a division of its holdings, and post strong earnings, but if its core operations were showing a loss, this would be even more troubling for investors than if the company was part…… [Read More]
Justice for All
The title itself is an ironic play on words, because as this film plays out, nobody is treated justly -- every character, even the central protagonist played by Al Pacino has either been screwed by the system of justice, or is part of the system that screws others. The "justice" shown in this film is only lip service to a system that is rotten from top to bottom. This is a satire, and a comedy, but there are deeper issues brewing here, because although what happens is an exaggeration of the twisted justice in real life, it also shows the heart beat of how power and politics and justice flourish side-by-side-by-side in the real world.
Anyone who reads the newspapers or watches serious news programs on TV knows that political personalities, individuals in the justice system, corporations, even the media members themselves, are in the news frequently,…… [Read More]
The general assumption is that the term evolution suggests that change is always progressive and follows a course of going from simple to complex. But actually this is not true. In the broadest sense of the term evolution merely refers to change and so galaxies, societies, customs, languages, etc. all change (Gould, 2002). In effect, it is well-known that the theory of evolution when applied to the changes of a galaxy or of a star such as our sun predicts an increase in the randomness over time and not an increase in complexity (Hansen, Kawaler, & Trimble, 2004). The sun for example will extinguish one day and become a black dwarf or black hole (Hansen, Kawaler, & Trimble, 2004).
In general when people speak of "evolution" they are speaking of biological evolution which can be defined as the change in the properties of populations of living organisms that occur…… [Read More]
There was an attempt of cybercrime on a MoD skynet military sate light by an undersized group of hackers, this brought about a security intrusion which officials could characterized as information warefare, this could be further elaborated as an enemy attacks in terms of military communication disruption. The authority was able to trace the group to as far as southern England. The group managed to gain access to the Mod skynet military sate light and succeeded in reprograming the system in charge of the control before they were discovered. The case was taken over by the joint team of Scotland Yard's Computer Crimes Unit as well as the U.S. Air Force.
It is without doubt that Satellites plays a major role in supporting the existing balance in the universal economy, society, as well as advanced militaries and this has made a number of nations to develop…… [Read More]
" (4) it is unclear how to understand "things are because we see them." Traditionally perception is conceived as a passive process: we open our eyes and receive input from the world. Kant suggests that perhaps it is not so passive: we "organize" the world into temporal and spatial dimensions, attribute cause and effect, etc. But what Wilde suggests here is even more radical. The "things are because" suggests a causal relationship, such that what we see exists as an effect of seeing. It would be as if looking "paints" the world. But this is completely absurd. Onto what would seeing "paint" the world? and, even weirder, notice that it wouldn't be that seeing paints the world so that we could then look at what was painted. Rather, it would be that seeing is painting, so that we always see and paint simultaneously, always just "creating" whatever we see, under…… [Read More]
Interestingly enough, though, what is it that is so aesthetically pleasing that we want there to be a single theory of everything -- why does everything need to be explained in one fell swoop? This idea of a Theory of Everything is becoming more philiosophical than scientific. Aristotle and Plato were unsuccesful in their attempt to make a theory work, and Hawking said, in A Brief History of Time, that even if we had a Theory of Everything, it would necessarily be a large set of equations. "What is it that breathes fire into the equations and makes a universe for them to describe?"(Hawking in Fletcher, 2008, 196).
Now, though, Hawking has revised his views. In the new book, The Grand Design, Hawking and Mlodinow (Caltech physicist) argue that it is a set of equations that will, indeed, tie theories together, but that a final theory may never have a…… [Read More]
The other universal concept shared among so many human religions relates to the fate of the individual (or of the individuals spirit or "soul"). Judeo-Christian religious traditions generally teach that a soul survives physical death and the eternal fate of that soul is substantially determined by the behaviors and choices of the individual in life (agan, 1997). Eastern religious traditions generally reflect a more general belief in the cycles of life and in multiple successive lives sharing a fundamental kernel of identity even if not exactly in the same form of soul as described in Western religions (Armstrong, 1993). Contemporary objective moralists would (again) suggest that any energies or thought in life about perpetual existence in another spiritual form of any afterlife is a waste of time.
Armstrong K. (1993). A History of God. London: Heinemann.
Egner RE and Denonn LE. (1992). The Basic Writings…… [Read More]
Much work remains to enable a seamless
Integration, for example that can extend IP to support mobile network devices. (Chlamtac, Conti, and Liu, 2003)
4G is stated to begin with the assumption "that future networks will be entirely packet-switched, using protocols evolved from those in use in today's Internet." (Chlamtac, Conti, and Liu, 2003) It is reported that a 4G wireless network that is all IP-based "has intrinsic advantages over its predecessors." (Chlamtac, Conti, and Liu, 2003)
IP is stated to be both compatible with and independent of "the actual radio access technology" meaning that 'the core 4G network can be designed and evolves independently from access networks. Using IP-based core network also means the immediate tapping of the rich protocol suites and services already available, for example, voice and data convergence, can be supported by using readily available VoIP set of protocols such as MEGACOP, MGCP, SIP, H.323, SCTP.…… [Read More]
The decision of investing or not here then depends on the personal adversity to risk of each individual investor. The general theory states that each investor should construct a diversified portfolio, which adequately balances high risk-high gain shares with medium or even low rates of risk and gains (Hagin, 2004). New Zealand could then be assimilated with a medium risk-medium gain share, and as such would be perceived as a valuable addition to one's portfolio. In this order of ideas then, the recommendation would be that of investing in the country.
Amadeo, K., 2009, An Introduction to the Financial Markets, About, http://useconomy.about.com/od/themarkets/a/capital_markets.htm last accessed on December 17, 2009
Hagin, ., 2004, Investment Management: Portfolio Diversification, isk and Timing -- Fact and Fiction, John Wiley and Sons
Healy, J., 2001, New Zealand Capital Markets, Ministry of Economic Development, http://www.med.govt.nz/upload/18163/healy.pdf last accessed on December 17, 2009
Malkin, B., 2009, Financial Crisis:…… [Read More]
In principle, it would be entirely possible to replace religious-inspired morality with logically derived concepts of morality in human life. Generally little else would be required besides suspending religious teachings and substituting the rules of organized religion with very basic ideas such as "do no harm." In that regard, the commandment "do unto others" is a perfectly useful and easily understandable ethical principle that could be taught with much better results without the cloak of its religious context.
Instead of teaching that human beings are incapable of ascertaining what is right and what is wrong without divine help and that we are morally tarnished by our involuntary thoughts, we would learn that one ought not to treat other unfairly or cause them harm and that the worse our involuntary desires and thoughts, the more moral credit we deserve for resisting the impulse to act on them. Ultimately, one of…… [Read More]
The proposed health care program for the Amish would include, providing doctors that would travel to the Amish community for home visits.
Another aspect of the program would be to offer an advanced medical education to some of the Amish young people in order to establish local medical treatment centers managed and maintained by these same Amish individuals.
One of the health issues that might be more appropriately addressed by these local centers is the issue of non-appropriate advise being circulated among pregnant Amish women who, according to Miller, "often seek prenatal care from lay practitioners and female relatives" (pg. 163). One of the reasons behind such action is likely that they have no professional medical workers to seek such advice from. The closeness of their community provides them some sense of security but it is always nice to have professionals close at hand in case of any trouble. Miller's…… [Read More]
Ultimately, it is inconceivable why any God, much less a loving God, would ever conceive of a universe in which His creatures had no will of their own or were not free to accept His offer of love or to reject it. Salvation, therefore, cannot be predestined and must be a function of human choice or election, precisely because love without choice is not "love" at all.
Armstrong, Karen. 1993. A History of God. London: Heinemann.
Bennet, David. 2004. Predestined for Free ill. Online. Available from the Internet, www.freewill-predestination.com/,accessed18 March 2009. accessed 18 March 2009. http://www.freewill-predestination.com/,accessed18 March 2009. accessed 18 March 2009. accessed 18 March 2009.
Capoccia, Tony. 2009. Bible Questions and Answers Part 19. Online. Available from the Internet, http://www.biblebb.com/files/macqa/1301-Q-11.htm. accessed18 March 2009.
Deem, Richard. 2008. Predestination vs. Free ill - Is it One or the Other? Online. Available from the Internet, http://www.godandscience.org/doctrine/predestination.html,accessed18 March 2009.
Dennett, Daniel,…… [Read More]
It was a discovery that opened our eyes to the vastness of the universe and all that we do not know about it.
According to Steve Ruskin, Bell Burnell's discovery is significant for two reasons. First, "it was an incredible discovery for astronomers. It not only confirmed the existence of the theoretical neutron star, but it also enabled scientists to make advances in astrophysics, particularly in their theories of stellar collapse and the formation of black holes" (Ruskin). Ruskin adds that the discovery is important because pulsars are the "most regular 'clocks' in the universe" (Ruskin). Second, Bell Burnell's discovery "shed light on the important role of women in science" (Ruskin). Ruskin admits, "Perhaps more surprising than the fact that a new type of star was discovered was that a woman had discovered it" (Ruskin). omen in all fields of science owe some gratitude to Bell Burnell for beginning to…… [Read More]
Therefore, for the international scene to actually consider that change is taking place in Cuba none of Fidel Castro's men should be part of the government or the administration.
In trying to establish an ascendant trend for the Cuban national and international image, Raul Castro must also deal with the issue of totalitarian rule and that of the state authoritarian leadership in a different manner that one which destroys his authority as state ruler. However, any such measures must include a combination of the implementation of slow democratic measures, and the maintenance of a certain authority especially from the perspective of any political forces that may rise against the system. This is part of the model implemented in China, whose aim was precisely that of controlling the political power while being committed to opening up to foreign investments and western influence.
The international reaction to the rise of Raul Castro…… [Read More]
3. Definition of the World Wide Web
World-wide web See
INTENET. Internet: A global network of computers (also known as the World-Wide Web) which allows instantaneous access to an expanding number of individual Web sites offering information about practically anything and everything -- including the contents of daily newspapers, the price of goods in local shopping malls, library holdings, commodity prices, sports news and gossip, eroticism, and so-called chat-rooms (by means of which people can communicate with each other online about their interests, hobbies, and opinions).
Who is the American computer consultant who promoted the idea of linking documents via hypertext during the 1960's? (the Encyclopedia.com did not have the answer, as it said the U.S. Government developed the internet. The answer was found at (http://www.boutell.com/newfaq/history/inventednet.html):
Leonard Kleinrock was the first to publish a paper about the idea of packet switching, which is essential to the Internet. He did so…… [Read More]
David E. Sorkin, Technical and Legal Approaches to Unsolicited Electronic Mail, 35 U.S.F.L. Rev. 325 (2001).
Google and other search engines:
Encarta Encyclopedia online. 2006
Articles collected for Review so far (just a sampling of articles on SPAM laws) www.spamlaws.comSpam Laws: Articles
David E. Sorkin, www.jcil.orgSpam Legislation in the United States, 22 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 3 (2003).
David E. Sorkin, www.spamlaws.comTechnical and Legal Approaches to Unsolicited Electronic Mail, 35 U.S.F.L. Rev. 325 (2001).
David E. Sorkin, www.spamlaws.comUnsolicited Commercial E-Mail and the Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991, 45 Buffalo L. Rev. 1001 (1997).
David E. Sorkin, Revocation of an Internet Domain Name for Violations of "Netiquette": Contractual and Constitutional Implications, 15 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 587 (1997).
Dominique-Chantale Alepin, Note, "Opting-Out": A Technical, Legal and Practical Look at the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003, 28 Colum. J.L.…… [Read More]
First, math courses are required as part of college work in the pursuit of most degrees in the health care field. The level of required achievement is different, depending on the degree sought. For example, a student pursuing an LPN may take a semester or two of college algebra. A pre-med student is often required to take one or two semesters of calculus. A student pursuing a master's degree in health care administration will take courses in statistics, finance and accounting. The master's candidate can perhaps more easily see the relevance of the required math courses toward the future career. For the nursing student studying algebra or the pre-med student struggling through calculus, the correlation between academic study and actual practice may be unclear. They may wonder why they must undertake these courses, which seem to have little to do with the work in which they will eventually be engaged.…… [Read More]
Peter Mazelis suggests that while Malkovich has suffered "the virtual hijacking of his mind," the characters are all too willing to "trade their identity for love and acceptance" (which is a human strategy that plays out daily on a million stages).
When Malkovich finally enters his own self through his own portal, it's like "being pulled down into the black hole of your own personality," writes Roger Ebert. The noted film critic doesn't say so, but if Malkovich didn't have his memory banks still firing, he would be nothing but a player in Cusack's world of puppetry.
In conclusion, the audience in this film is being jerked from one emotion to the next, which is of course one of the theatrical tactics that make it a success, albeit a confusing, sometimes troubling success. Thanks to Schwartz staying inside Malkovich's body for those very weird eight months, Malkovich becomes a world…… [Read More]
ouglas Adam's comic work of science fiction, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, satirizes both society and science. As the story opens, protagonist Arthur ent is railing against the local government for its decision to raze his home, which is in the way of highway construction. ent argues that he was never made aware of the decision, though officials assure him the plans had been on display for a sufficient amount of time, albeit "on the bottom of a locked filing cabinet stuck in a disused lavatory with a sign on the door saying 'Beware of the Leopard'"(Adams 2010, p. 9). Similarly, planet Earth is in the way of hyperspace bypass construction project, for which plans were also available for review. Bureaucratic red tape ensured the plans were never seen and ent flees the planet with his alien friend Ford Prefect before it explodes. They hitchhike their way…… [Read More]
POST-9/11 Management OF U.S. AILINE INDUSTY
Strategic Management of the United States
Airline Industry after the 9/11/2001 Terrorist Attacks
Strategic Management of the United States
Airline Industry after the 9/11/2001 Terrorist Attacks
Airlines in the United States have a long, complicated history in terms of management strategy that includes alterations due to technological advances, bankruptcies, economic downturns, deregulation and even presidential intervention, but none of these forces had the power to both destroy and restructure the industry like the events of September 11, 2001.
The 9/11/01 attacks on the United States fundamentally altered the way the U.S. airline industry operated both publically and internally. One area that suffered significantly from these attacks, and brought about the need for major overhaul within the industry itself was strategic management strategies and practices within the airline industry in its entirety. The 9/11 attacks on America brought about the need for immediate change in…… [Read More]
Technology Management and Improving Department Performance
As the manager of a team of 25 customer service representatives our company, I've noticed the significant investments made in key technology, systems and processes are losing their effectiveness. Over the last year for example, the large investments in Customer elationship Management (CM) systems and training have only led to greater confusion on the part of customer service reps regarding escalation paths. The investments in analytics are leading not to a single version of the truth, but literally dozens of them. The intent of this analysis is to identify the issues, concerns and incidents leading to poor technology management, in addition to defining strategies and techniques to improve my team's and the company's use of technologies. In conclusion I'll provide a strategy for turning this situation around in 6 months.
Identifying the Causes of Poor Technology Management in our Company
Most systemic to the…… [Read More]
This monument is intended to commemorate the brilliance and courage and integrity of Giordano Bruno. It consists of a life-size bronze figure tied to a vertical wooden stake behind him. His face is angry but focused as though he is staring into the eyes of those who murdered him for being right. Bronze flames surround him and reach almost up to his neck. At his feet is a flat stone bearing the inscription of what Bruno was said to have responded to the judges after they pronounced him guilty of heresy and sentenced him to death: Maiori forsan cum timore sententiam in me fertis quam ego accipiam along with the English translation "Perhaps you pronounce this sentence against me with greater fear than I receive it."
Behind Bruno is a representation of the Milky Way galaxy depicted against a background of many similar galaxies that are smaller because they are…… [Read More]
Originally developed in 1989, the World Wide Web has fundamentally changed the way many people shop, work, recreate and receive an education. Likewise, the emergence of e-commerce has had enormous implications for the business world and governments alike, making this innovation one of the most significant in human history. Moreover, tens of millions of new Web pages are added to the World Wide Web every day, and current signs indicate this growth will continue to accelerate into the foreseeable future. One of the more important trends to emerge in recent years has been the use of the World Wide Web for social interaction in what has been termed the "Social Web." To gain a better understanding of the Social Web and its implications, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion…… [Read More]
Nichols, M.W. And . Grant Stitt, David Giacopassi (1999) Casino gambling and bankruptcy in new United States casino jurisdictions. Journal of Socio-Economics: 247-261.
This journal article examines personal bankruptcy filings and compares the data obtained to determine what effect, if any, casino gambling may have had on said filings. The authors used the bankruptcy filings from the jurisdictions having legalized casino gambling and compared these filing with bankruptcy filings from jurisdictions without legalized casino gambling. According to the authors, personal bankruptcy filings increased in seven of the eight jurisdictions that had legal casino gambling and that in five of these seven there was a statistical significance. An interesting exception was noted by the article in that in one jurisdiction, iloxi, Mississippi, which had legal casino gambling, personal bankruptcies actually decreased. In the article the authors examined the reasons behind this unusual development and argued that the unique nature of the…… [Read More]
Enacted after the horrors of World War II demonstrated the limitations of earlier treaties, the Geneva Convention of 1949 have become one of the preeminent international standards dictating the behavior of combatants and the treatment of individuals in the context of international and other conflicts, to the point that it has become a part of generally accepted customary international law. Building upon three earlier treaties signed in Geneva, the Convention of 1949 outlined rigorous standards defining and governing the treatment of civilian and military prisoners, the wounded, and civilians found in and around the war zone. Over the course of the last decade, the centrality of the Geneva Convention to international war and politics has come to the fore as a result of debates surrounding the relevance of the Convention to the United States execution of the War on Terror, especially in regards to the treatment and detainment…… [Read More]
Counterproductive & Productive Behaviors in Organizations
In every organization that are some behaviors that are counterproductive, and also there are productive behaviors to be found in every organization. hat are those behaviors, what impact to they have on job performance and what strategies would be best to ensure a maximum number of workers are engaged in productive behaviors? This paper reviews those issues and provides answers to the questions.
Productive behaviors are those that contribute to the success of an organization and to the happiness of the individual employee. Those behaviors include cooperation; loyalty; flexibility when being assigned to a new task; genuine concern for doing things correctly; and consistency in attendance and adherence to company guidelines.
There are strategies for increasing or improving productive behavior, according to authors of Getting Things Done (David Allen) and Be Excellent at Anything (Tony Schwartz). Both of these authors were interviewed…… [Read More]
Premeaux's investigation into ethics and business behavior resulted in four categories that can lead to ethical problems: a) coercion and control (the use of threats or extortion to force a manager to make a certain decision); b) conflict of interest (a manager has more than one interest and if he pursues both, harm may come to the company); c) physical environment (this relates to conflict of interest that can harm the environment); and d) personal integrity (making a decision based on one's own needs can raise a red flag in terms of right and wrong even if the law doesn't specifically spell out a guideline to follow) (16).
In a survey of managers, Premeaux received 413 questionnaires to test ethical responses. The results of those surveys (there is not enough room in this paper to report appropriate data) showed that managers have "…a heightened sense of ethical awareness with most…… [Read More]
The U.S. is a property owning civilization and a number of the people wanted land and housing. Americans however scarcely ever create savings. "The country itself lives on other countries' savings by issuing bonds to finance its excessive consumption. The current crisis began with cheap housing loans offered by banks. Banks provided loans but instead of holding the loan in their books, they packaged them into collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) and sold them to other agencies. These agencies passed them on to others and spread them globally as assets" (the Current Economic Crisis, its causes, its impact and possible alternatives, 2009).
Interest rates were lowered and housing loans went up with construction activities leading to land prices increasing. The real estate was booming, generating employment and incomes. But as the rate of interest on housing loans came down, banks started to compete to get more business. Because of low interest…… [Read More]
725 degree Kelvin (-454.765 degree Fahrenheit, -270.425 degree Celsius) Cosmic Microwave ackground radiation (CM) that pervades the observable universe. This is believed to be the remnant that scientists were looking for. Penzias and Wilson shared the 1978 Nobel Prize for Physics for this discovery.
Finally, the abundance of the "light elements" hydrogen and helium found in the observable universe are believed to support the ig ang model of origins (the ig-ang Theory Web site, 2003).
In 2003, Physicist Robert Gentry proposed an alternative to the standard ig ang theory, an alternative that also accounts for the evidences listed above (Eastman and Missler, 1996). Gentry believes that the standard ig ang model is founded upon a faulty paradigm that he claims is inconsistent with the empirical data. Gentry bases his model on Einstein's static-spacetime paradigm that he claims is the "genuine cosmic Rosetta."
Gentry is not alone. Other high-profile dissenters include…… [Read More]
While cases such as that of Kukdong graphically illustrate the importance of CS and codes of conduct, anti-sweatshop activists continue to display considerable hesitation and equivocation as they wrestle with implementing CS in China. In the words of the late activist Trim Bissell of the Campaign for Labor ights, China has become a "planetary black hole" attracting global production with its cheap labor, but "the anti-sweatshop movement has been without a China strategy."9For example, in January 2000, the University of California (UC) announced that it would not allow any university-licensed products to be produced in countries that do no tallow freedom of association and collective bargaining, in effect banning products made in China (China and the American Anti-Sweatshop Movement (http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:MfmUl9ll5pwJ:laborcenter.berkeley.edu/globaleconomy/china_american.pdf+china+sweatshops+unions&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=9&ie=UTF-8)."
Efforts are underway to accomplish several things when it comes to China's sweatshops. The first thing that the union and labor leaders are demanding is that the world pay closer…… [Read More]
Fiat / Chrysler -- Leadership - Teambuilding
The Chrysler merger with Fiat was met with skepticism and doubts when it was first proposed. Chrysler had just recently emerged from near bankruptcy -- saved by a U.S. government bailout -- and Fiat is a strong internationally respected corporation building cars, earth-moving machines, and more. The merging of Chrysler and Fiat was seen as having a greater opportunity for success than did the merger between Chrysler and Daimler-Benz, but still there were doubters in the industry. However, as of May, 2012, the blending together of the two companies (Fiat and Chrysler) has produced a profitable situation. This paper examines the cultures -- and leadership -- shown within the two companies, a strong combination that has allowed success to be achieved. The paper also critiques the leadership styles in the dynamics of this merger, and delves into the concept of teambuilding when two…… [Read More]
In the retailing industry, it is challenging an organization to break down all its previous designs, advertising plans, and store environments to make a new beginning. Nonetheless, that is precisely what JC Penney did, and has done several times. Founded over 100 years ago, this organization has seen changes and redesigns with each new CEO. ecently, JC Penney, otherwise called JCP, has begun a fresh again with a new CEO. The head of JCP comes from a successful inventive organization and is presently carrying this victory to the new organization (Peterson, 2012). The redesigned changes produced results in February 2012, revolutionizing the pricing approach within the store. The store has been given new existence with new pricing, marketing, promotion, store environment, and organizational structure. All the changes have been organized around areas that previously failed to be effective the company's success.
Previously, JCP provided its customers with one…… [Read More]
Suddenly I receive a Titian to hang on my wall -- a Greek bas-relief to stick over my chimney-piece." (James in: Phelan-Cox, 2004)
Through the analogies of alph, the reader is able to view the manner in which "male pleasure in spectatorship with interconnected with Western aesthetics generally." (Phelan-Cox, 2004) it is the argument of Laura Mulvey that the film of Hollywood is structured around "the voyeurism and scopopophilia of the male gaze by denying the existence of other viewing positions." (Phelan-Cox, 2004) James veritably denied other ways to view through his description of the scene "by consciously omitting Isabel's own perception of herself in that setting or any objective description of the scene that might include observations about alph." (Phelan-Cox, 2004)
VII. Portrait and the Implications
The title of this story is even misleading as noted by Phelan-Cox the word 'portrait' "implies that the novel is to be a…… [Read More]
Death in the Poetry of Emily Dickinson
In many of her poems Emily Dickinson explores the theme of death. Death is the ultimate experience and reveals the truth about the nature of God and the state of the human soul. Dickinson personifies death in guises, from suitor to tyrant, and her attitude toward death varies from poem to poem, drawing no absolute conclusion about death's nature. The poet portrays death as a terror to be feared and avoided, a trick on humanity played by God, a welcome relief, and a way to heaven.
Poem XXXV begins "I heard a fly buzz when I died;" (Dickinson, p. 153, Line 1). This poem presents death as painless yet gruesome. The image of the buzzing of a fly as the last conscious awareness of a dying soul is both disconcerting and quite possibly a reality. In poem XLV, which begins, "Because I could…… [Read More]
Archival Mission and Practice
How does the primary mission of the archives (institutional vs. collecting) affect archival practice (acquisitions, processing, preservation, reference, etc.)?
Historical organizational records often have continuing value to an organization. They may provide evidence of an organization's existence, practice, operations, and day-to-day functions (Fruscian, 2011). One of the key elements in establishing a successful archive is to define its mission or purpose. An archive's mission is often impacted by institutional variations; however, in general the goal is to collect, evaluate, describe, and offer historical records of value to an institution (Cross, 1997). The core elements of the mission include what the organization decides to collect and a definition of the audience the organization serves (Cox, 1998). Archives make legal, fiscal, administrative and proprietary records accessible and help preserve that data which has operational significance to the institution (Maher, 1992). Members of the organization and the larger community…… [Read More]
Division by Zero
Mathematics is unique in that it is an objective subject. hen answering a question, something is either empirically true or it is completely false; there is little if any subjectivity about it in most situations. One of the most interesting aspects about math is that there are certain laws which are irrefutable and must be accepted in order for the correct answer to be discovered. A particularly intriguing and potentially frustrating aspect of math has to do with the division of zero. According to the laws of math, division by zero is impossible. hen someone solves a problem and finds themselves with a fraction where zero is in the denominator, the answer is always undefined because in mathematics, there is no such number. Mathematically, it is not possible to divide a numerator by zero and have either a real or imaginary number for an answer.
There are…… [Read More]
Twins - Typically a word indicating the production of two offspring from the same source of origin, mostly referred during reproductive results.
Science Express -- A science publication that electronically publishes selected articles prior to the articles' appearance in print.
Matthew Turk and Tom Abel -- Turk was a former astrophysics graduate student of the Kavli Institute, and currently studying at a post-doctoral fellowship at UC San Diego. Abel is an associate professor at KIPAC's physics department, with research interests in cosmological and astrophysical systems.
Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology -- Known usually as KIPAC and is a laboratory independent of Stanford University, funded by Stanford University, the U.S. Department of Energy, and initiated through the grant from the Kavli Foundation.
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory -- SLAC boasts a multipurpose laboratory dedicated to astrophysics, photon science, accelerator and particle physics research, with the longest linear accelerator…… [Read More]
Carl Jung Personality/Iceberg Theory
Introduction to Carl Jung
Carl Jung grew up during the late nineteenth century in Switzerland in a Protestant Victorian culture. It was this culture that had such an impact on the values held by American individuals during that timeframe. Jung's father was a pastor and Jung, following medical school completion in the early part of the 1900s became a psychiatrist as well as a disciple of Sigmund Freud. (, paraphrased)
Summary of Jung's Personality/Iceberg Theory
The work of Sally Palmer Thomason (1992) states that the human psyche "could be compared to a giant iceberg -- the conscious mind is like the small exposed tip that is seen above the waterline; the far greater part, the unconscious mind, lies unseen, hidden beneath the surface." (Thomason, 1992) The work of Briggs Myer and Myers entitled "Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type" states that Jung wrote the theory of type…… [Read More]