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Black Markets and Their Results
Introduction to black markets, and why they exist
Its related problems
The trafficking of nuclear weapons
Affect on society and safety
Organ trafficking and its morality
Baby trafficking for profit
Slave trade today
Results of human trafficking
The purpose of this paper is to introduce and discuss the recurring problem of black markets, including drug trafficking, nuclear weapons, and human black markets (consisting of organs, babies, and slaves). It will point out the difficulties with black marketing, including the obvious moral issues, resulting problems to the community, and try to discover some solutions to the black market trade.
BLACK MARKETS AND THEIR RESULTS
Illegal substances have always been a magnet for black market profits. Prohibition failed largely because there was such a lucrative and enormous black market surrounding the manufacture and supply of illegal alcohol. Many family…
Backman, Jules. "Apparel Uptrading." Price Practices and Price Policies: Selected Writings. New York: Ronald Press Co., 1953. 633-637.
Cimbala, Stephen J. Nuclear Strategy in the Twenty-First Century. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2000.
Dornin, Rusty. "Group Works for end to Desperate Practice of Organ Selling." CNN.com. 14 Nov. 1999. 15 Aug. 2002. http://www.cnn.com/ASIANOW/south/9911/14/organ.selling/
Ebbe, Obi N. Ignatius, et al. "Ghana (Posttraditional Nation-State)." Crime and Crime Control: A Global View. Ed. Gregg Barak. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000. 49-63.
He says that post-9/11, this policy has become entrenched in national security rhetoric, and also in action. He links this entrenchment of this thought to action taken against al-Qaeda, and (in articles by him, subsequent to his book) also to the attack on Iraq.
In short, Naylor's book argues that the system currently in place to deal with "cartels" and the illegal drug trade are wholly inadequate, and are leading to an infringement of civil liberties, certainly for Americans, but also for people the world over, who are being affected by the U.S.' uncompromising stance against the international drug trade.
An article by agley (2003) entitled, "Globalization, weak states and international organized crime" reinforces some of Naylor's arguments. He argues that weak states are the best places for organized crime to flourish, using the cases of Russia and Colombia. In Colombia, in particular, he singles out the lack of transparency…
Bruce Bagley, "La Globalizacion de la delincuencia organizada," in Foreign Affairs en Espanol, Vol 3, num 2 (2003) pp. 110-137
Naylor, R.T., Wages of Crime: Black Markets, Illegal Finance, and the Underworld Economy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002.
Gold has had fans in many places since the dawn of civilization. From the pre-Columbian Americas to Greece, from China to India, gold has served as a symbol of status and also as a tangible means of accumulating and exchanging wealth. In a world in which speculation and virtual currencies reign, gold occupies a more unique position than it has ever before. In Wages of Crime, Naylor reveals the dark underbelly of the world’s most popular precious metal. The chapter “The Underworld of Gold” addresses everything from how gold is mined nefariously in both black and grey market ways, and similarly traded in ways that resemble other types of organized crime. National laws often tax either the import or export of precious metals, driving gold markets to the grey and black zones of the global economy. In a world in which international banking leaves a potentially dangerous paper trail, gold…
Uncle Tom characters were common in both white and black productions of the time, yet no director before Micheaux had so much as dared to shine a light on the psychology that ravages such characters. By essentially bowing to the two white men, Micheaux implied that Old Ned was less than a man; an individual whittled down to nothing more than yes-man and wholly deprived of self-worth. At this point in the history of black films, with some of the most flagrant sufferings of blacks exposed to the American public, the only logical path forward that African-Americans could take was to begin making cogent demands to improve their collective social situation.
Slowly, black characters in film took on greater and more significant roles in film. Sidney Poitier was one of the most powerful film stars of the mid twentieth century. In roles like the 1950 film by…
Finlayson, R. (2003). We Shall Overcome: The History of the American Civil Rights
Movement. Lerner Publications Company, Minneapolis, MN.
King, Jr., M. And Jackson, J. (1963). Why We Can't Wait. Signet Classic, New York,
Once they arrived, they were brought to a slave market and usually auctioned off to the highest bidder just as cattle and horses were auctioned off. he slaves then spent their lives of servitude helping white farm and plantation owners in their agricultural operations. he slaves weren't typically compensated and lived in deplorable conditions. Slavery helped many white land owners become rich, and the southern colonies, which turned into the southern states, remained slave states, while those in the north became know as free states, where slavery was not legal. his dichotomy of cultures, between the northern and southern states, eventually led to further economic and cultural rifts leading up to the Civil War in 1860.
During the Civil War, the northern states allowed blacks to serve in the Union Army. Southern states, eager to fight for their way of life and economic interests, were against the abolition of slavery.…
The English Colonies were set up as resource providers for the English Monarchy and economy in Europe. Products like cotton, tobacco, and other crops were planted and harvested in the rich soils of the colonies. The land and plantation owners were eager to cut costs, and with the African slave trade to places like the Caribbean and southern Spanish colonies booming, black slaves were an abundant and relatively cheap labor resource, especially for the farms and plantations in the southern colonies. Unlike the southern colonies, the northern colonies' economies began to differentiate themselves as producers of manufactured goods as well as services. In this way, even though slavery was legal in all of the English Colonies, the northern colonies had less of a demand for black slaves than the southern ones.
Operationally, slaves were brought in primarily from West African locales to work in agriculture-related servitude. Many of the slaves were separated from their families and many died during the long voyage via slave ship to the English Colonies. Once they arrived, they were brought to a slave market and usually auctioned off to the highest bidder just as cattle and horses were auctioned off. The slaves then spent their lives of servitude helping white farm and plantation owners in their agricultural operations. The slaves weren't typically compensated and lived in deplorable conditions. Slavery helped many white land owners become rich, and the southern colonies, which turned into the southern states, remained slave states, while those in the north became know as free states, where slavery was not legal. This dichotomy of cultures, between the northern and southern states, eventually led to further economic and cultural rifts leading up to the Civil War in 1860.
During the Civil War, the northern states allowed blacks to serve in the Union Army. Southern states, eager to fight for their way of life and economic interests, were against the abolition of slavery. This is not to say that the Civil War was fought on the question of whether black slavery should be legitimized, but slavery, as an economic mechanism, had much to do with the build up to war that had been occurring for nearly a century previous. After the Civil War, slavery was abolished. But though the institution of slavery was outlawed, the cultural and social norms were still left intact. Across the country, Jim Crow laws were left on the books that held blacks as second-class citizens with fewer rights than whites. Even after the reconstruction period, blacks had a hard time assimilating into mainstream American culture, and were economically and socially disadvantaged because of their history.
Black Monday - 1987
On Monday, October 19, 1987, the Dow Jones Industrial fell 508 points -- which meant that it lost 22.6% of its value -- which was an unprecedented fiscal calamity at that time. This paper delves into that frightening dive, into the reasons why it happened, and looks into the possibility that it could happen again.
hy did it happen?
In January, 1987, the Dow Jones Industrials gained 13.8%, according to NBC's Consumer News and Business Channel (CNBC). Through the month of March the Dow was up 21.6% and through July the Dow was up 37.7% (CNBC). In August of 1987 the Dow peaked at 2,722, a remarkable gain of 43.6% on the year. Then in October (between the 2nd and 16th) the Dow lost 15%, which was a kind of warning shot to investors that something was wrong. Then on the 19th of October, the market…
Bozzo, Albert. (2007). Can It Happen Again? CNBC.com. Retrieved November 27, 2012, from http://www.cnbc.com .
Carson, Mark. (2006). A Brief History of the 1987 Stock Market Crash. Federal Reserve
Board. Retrieved November 27, 2012, from http://www.federalreserve.gov .
Consumer News and Business Channel (CNBC). (2012). Remembering the Crash of 87.
Black-Scholes model is essentially a formula used in the calculation of a theoretical call price for options. It is considered to be the fundamental model for pricing in the option market (Cretien, 2006). This model uses in its calculation the five main determinants of an option's price, which include stock price, strike price, volatility, time left until expiration, as well as risk-free, short-term interest rate (Hoadley, 2010). The computations executed by the Black-Scholes model result in prices that are close to actual market value as long as input variables are determined that are reasonably accurate (Cretien, 2006). A benefit resulting from the use of this model is that it provides traders with a means to compare market prices with alternative values while using different inputs (Cretien, 2006). The Black-Scholes model also assists in the prediction of movements in price for investments other than options by providing a way to compute…
Crawford, Gregory. "A new model; The world of finance was changed when Myron Scholes and Fischer Black penned a paper on how to price an option.(P&I at 30: The class of '73)." Pensions & Investments. Crain Communications, Inc. 2003. HighBeam Research. 8 Dec. 2010 .
Cretien, Paul D. "Comparing option pricing models." Futures. . 2006. HighBeam Research. 8 Dec. 2010 .
Hoadley, Peter, (2010). Option pricing models and the 'Greeks'. Hoadley Trading and Investment Tools. Retrieved from http://www.hoadley.net/options/bs.htm 8 Dec. 2010.
McKenzie, Scott; Gerace, Dionigi; Subedar, Zaffar. "AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE BLACK-SCHOLES MODEL: EVIDENCE FROM THE AUSTRALIAN STOCK EXCHANGE." Australasian Accounting Business & Finance Journal. University of Wollongong School of Accounting and Finance. 2007. HighBeam Research. 8 Dec. 2010 .
Black and Decker
Joseph Galli, VP Sales and Marketing for Power Tools
Strategic Marketing Management Services
Market Share Issues re: Makita
Per your request, we have done an analysis on the market share for Professional Tradesman tools between Black and Decker and Makita Tools. While B&D holds a substantial amount of market share in the portable power tools, Professional-Industrial and Consumer segments, a critical issue is the low comparative share in the fastest growing market, that of the Professional-Tradesman (See Figure 1). While B&D has remained a clear market leader for consumers, the lower than average perception of the product line by Professional-Tradesmen has lowered the share to 9%, with Makita, relatively new to the arena, at a solid 50%.
Demographically and psychographically, the buying behaviors of the tradesmen show that they spend an average of $1,000/annum on tools, usually replacing a broken or outdated model. This…
Industrial Power Tools. (2013). Makita.com. Retrieved May 2013 from: http://makita.com/en-us/Modules/Home/
Power Tools. (2013). Blackanddecker.com. Retrieved May 2013 from: http://blackanddecker. com/matrix
B&D Overall Market Share
The Black & Decker DOM system aligns with the Distributed Order Management (DOM) Hierarchical Model shown in Figure 1 as is shown in the Appendix of this study. This model conceptually illustrates how the Black & Decker supply chain, DOM, and distribution networks are integrated with each other (Johnson, 2003, et.al.).
The Data Services of Black & Decker, as defined by its customer- and shipment history databases, anchor the model, followed by Application Services, Presentation Services, and a separate Presentation Services specifically for Internal and External Constituents of the logistics provider.
The Master Data Services component is where Black & Decker 'normalizes and synchronizes data on customers, products, accounts, and suppliers is the primary building block. There are several techniques Black & Decker relies on building a system of record from database consolidation to the development of virtual objects that are a composite of various systems. egardless of the overall…
David Drickhamer (2005, October). Bringing Value to the Table: How Today's Logistics Service Providers Stay One Step Ahead. Material Handling Management, 60(10), 25-27. Retrieved August 16, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 918963711).
Joseph Galli (1998, January). Retooling Black & Decker. Chief Executive,(131), 59. Retrieved August 15, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 26830773).
Sidney Hill Jr. (2002). Not your father's SPC. Quality, 41(2), 29-33. Retrieved August 1, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 105856969).
William Hoffman (2006, July). Hunting for Hidden Costs. Traffic World,20-21. Retrieved August 5, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1078955011).
Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model was developed in the 1970s as a way to generate a legitimate and accurate valuation model for stock prices based on specific circumstances in the market and the stock options. It is the creation of economists Myron Scholes and Fischer Black who aimed to better forecast call options at various times within the option life cycle (PBS, 2000). According to the research, "this work involved calculating a derivative to measure how the discount rate of a warrant varies with time and stock price" (ubash, 2012). Essentially, the formula is a method for analyzing and forecasting call and put options within specific market circumstances for individual stock options. It is often used in modern investing and trading for "calculating the premium of an option" (Investopedia, 2013). Since its inception, the formula has become a powerful tool that greatly strengthens the ability of investors to forecast just the…
Investopedia. (2013). Options pricing: Black-Scholes Model. Active Trading. Web. http://www.investopedia.com/university/options-pricing/black-scholes-model.asp
PBS. (2000). The formula that shook the world. NOVA Online. Web. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/stockmarket/formula.html
Rubash, Kevin. (2012). A study of option pricing models. Bradley University. Web. http://bradley.bradley.edu/~arr/bsm/model.html
3. How the quality of service changed and why?
The quality of service increased significantly as all practices areas of the hospital better aligned to the cultural norms, values and needs of each ethnic population represented by the segments served. The quality also increased because the staff also began to better understand the unique needs of the patients being served, with more emphasis on interpersonal communication than had been the case in the past. This personalization aspect of leadership works both ways; the hospital staff had a much better appreciation and understanding of the unique needs of the population they were serving, and the potential patients and customers developed familiarity and trust with the providers. The next step for the hospital is to create a means to continually evaluate the level of satisfaction they are delivering to patients. The hospital could use the SEVQUAL metrics to evaluate the level of…
Barrett, H., Balloun, J., & Weinstein, a.. (2009). How variation in management perceptions affects organizational performance. Quality and Quantity, 43(3), 451-461.
Paul Hughes-Cromwick, Sarah Root, & Charles Roehrig. (2007). Consumer-Driven Healthcare: Information, Incentives, Enrollment, and Implications for National Health Expenditures. Business Economics, 42(2), 43-57.
Ravichandran, K., S. Prabhakaran, and S. Kumar. 2010. Application of Servqual Model on Measuring Service Quality: A Bayesian Approach. Enterprise Risk Management 2, no. 1, (January 1): 145-169.
Wrenn, B.. (2006). Marketing Orientation in Hospitals: Findings from a Multi-Phased Research Study. Health Marketing Quarterly, 24(1/2), 15.
Such data gathering helped decide the number to be produced and the time frame to be given for the manufacturing process for the first batch at least. Similarly, data is now sought on the problem that has developed and for the development of alternatives for addressing the problem and achieving a better procedure for the future.
Management is aware that what the company needs are both short- and long-term solutions, and the two are clearly linked. If the short-term solution includes a product recall, for instance, then the long-term reputation of the company may suffer and require specific attention. The alternatives for the short-term include the following:
product recall ignore the issue as if it were a one-time freak accident continue to sell the product with a warning label sell the current inventory while also taking a look at the product and its manufacture for possible changes for the…
Black Rock Industries
History of the Firm
BlackRock, Inc., the world's largest financial asset and management company, began in a one-room office in New York in 1988. BlackRock, which began under the name of BlackStone Financial Management, was led by Larry Fink and a team of seven others: Keith Anderson, Benett . Golub, Charles Hallac, Robert S. Kapito, Barbara Novick, Ralph Schlosstein, and Susan agner. All were unified by their desire to educate clients; not simply push them into purchasing products they neither needed or understood (Ody 63).
By helping General Electric in 1999 to rid itself of unwanted mortgages BlackRock's presence on all Street was solidified. By 2004 the company had grown to $342 billion in assets by selling its products. In 2005 BlackRock purchased State Street Research & Management, followed by an acquisition of Merrill Lynch Investment Management in 2006, Quellos Group in 2007 and R3 Capital Partners…
BlackRock. (2011). http://www2.blackrock.com/global/home/index.htm
BlackRock Investor Relations. http://www2.blackrock.com/global/home/InvestorRelations/index.htm
Kephart, Jason. "BlackRock Liquidating Four Funds." Fund Action (2011): 37. Business Source Complete. EBSCO. Web. 16 Apr. 2011.
Ody, Elizabeth. "GREAT DAYS AT BLACKROCK." Kiplinger's Personal Finance 64.9 (2010): 36-39. Business Source Complete. EBSCO. Web. 16 Apr. 2011.
For example, in the early 1990's the 'Intel Inside' of computers was great for computer sales. That is until the Intel brand name took a major hit for allowing a faulty chip to make its way to the market. The internet-based Word-of-Mouth made the 'Intel Inside' a marketing nightmare.
The Word-of-Mouth and Buzz marketing approach coupled with the internet are more effective than any available print or television ad currently used because consumers are too overly saturated by those mediums. This new approach of the future was recently used and studied for the popular film 'Fahrenheit 911' and the blockbuster results in revenues clearly show that this new approach is the wave of the next generation.
In conclusion, the world of marketing has changed and our more global and technologically advanced social and business environment will make marketers reevaluate their approach. Marketing executives can no longer go about in…
Bianco, Anthony, Lowry, Tom, Berner, Robert, & Arndt, Michael (2004). The Vanishing Mass Market. Business Week, July 12, 60-68.
Durgee, Jeffrey F., Gina Colarelli O'Connor, and Robert W. Veryzer. "Translating values into product wants." Journal of Advertising Research Vol. 36 (1996).
Khermouch, Gerry & Green, Jeff (2001, July 30). "Buzz Marketing: Suddenly This Stealth Strategy Is Hot -- but it's Still Fraught with Risk." Business Week Online. Retrieved on May 4, 2005, at http://www.businessweek.com /magazine/content/01_31/b3743001.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
emaining workers will get jobs at higher than equilibrium wage, the Supply curve shifts to the left, and wage and output stabilize until something else changes like input cost or legislation.
Were firms able to hire workers at less than minimum wage, say like in Figure 4, where the cost of paying illegals including the enforcement cost results in lower demand for legal minimum wage workers, the result would be a total average cost between the two supply lines, increased outcome for the firm, at less than average minimum wage cost. The new Alabama law seems to attempt to drive off the black line "illegals" by mandating stiffer enforcement for services and privileges like business or auto licenses, awls (2011) explains. This creates an interesting distribution of costs if firms derive profit, but the cost of enforcement is being pushed onto others not employing illegals. If the black line in…
Rawls, P. (2011). Ala. GOP leaders have 2nd thoughts on immigration. The Associated Press, 8
Dec. 2011. Financial News, Bloomberg Businessweek Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com /ap/financialnews/D9RGJL8G1.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
" (Adams et al.)
hat the report went on to show was how a decades long deception was practiced on a race that was viewed primarily as a guinea pig for medical science.
The Tuskegee Institute had been established by Booker T. ashington. Claude McKay had passed through there in 1912 to study agriculture (under the patronage of alter Jekyll, a man who provided the basis for Robert Louis Stevenson's classic horror tale character). Around the same time that Eleanor Dwight Jones was striving to preserve the white race, the United States Public Health Service began the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. hat took place was a forty year analysis of the life of syphilis. The two hundred black men who had syphilis were "deliberately denied treatment" (Adams et al.) in what was just one more step in oppression and callous social engineering.
And at the same time the Tuskegee experiment was…
Adams, Myrtle, et al. "Final Report of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Legacy Committee."
1996. Web. 8 June 2011.
Cone, James. Risks of Faith. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1999. Print.
Dowlings, Keven, and Knightley, Philip. "The Spy Who Came Back from the Grave."
The stability is evident in the statistics as well. Between 1880 and 1914, the golden age of the gold standard, inflation averaged 0.1%. Between 1946-2003, even with Bretton oods, inflation average 4.1% (Bardo, n.d.). Short-term price changes, however, could be highly unstable. This is a consequence of the fact that the gold standard ignores fundamental economic principles. Any system where the value of a good is established by artificial means is subject to such shocks. Another drawback to the gold standard is that it gives governments very little discretion over monetary policy. Another drawback is the cost of producing gold. The gold standard relies on having physical gold reserves. Thus, gold must be produced, and for that there is a cost (Ibid).
ith the decline of Bretton oods, the gold standard died. It was replaced by the modern foreign exchange system. At the core of this system are fiat currencies.…
Bordo, Michael D. (no date). The Gold Standard. Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Retrieved April 11, 2009 from http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/GoldStandard.html
Cohen, Benjamin. (no date). Bretton Woods System. University of California at Santa Barbara Retrieved April 11, 2009 from http://www.polsci.ucsb.edu/faculty/cohen/inpress/bretton.html
Pharmaceutical Gray Market on Operations and Strategies
The safety, security and prices of pharmaceuticals in the United States represent a fundamental national security interest. When essential drugs are unavailable or priced too high, the public's health is threatened and this is what is happening because of the pharmaceutical gray market. This paper reviews the relevant literature to determine how the pharmaceutical "gray market" affects the operations of pharmaceutical companies operating in the U.S. pharmaceutical market as well as strategies used by pharmaceutical companies to combat this issue. A summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Generally speaking, pharmaceuticals are enormously expensive to develop and bring to market (Kelly, 1999). According to Kelly, "The development of prescription pharmaceuticals requires costly and time-consuming research. After a product has been developed, it must undergo the rigorous approval process of the Food and…
Bender, A.D. (2004, Winter). The coming of the baby boomers: Implications for the pharmaceutical industry. Generations, 28(4), 26-30.
Chen, H.L. (2002, June). Gray marketing and unfair competition. Atlantic Economic Journal,
Chercici, C., McGinnis, P. & Russell, W. (2011, August). Buyer beware: drug shortages and the gray market. Premier, 3-11.
The importance of markets in our lives is vast, especially as we are all considered consumers today and it often feels that our number one priority in life as a good citizen is to consume. If we are not buying new products all the time, we are told our economy is going to go into a recession. We are encouraged to spend rather than to save (especially since the Federal Reserve drove interest rates down to near 0% for so long, which meant that savers were essentially losing value over time because the rate of inflation was higher than the interest they were earning on their savings). So markets really dictate our thought processes, our actions (we work long hours all week in order to be able to spend and have the kind of consumerist life expected of us). The markets, meanwhile, take on a life of their own for…
Few hospitals offered both the expertise and the necessary facilities.
Location of the donor and the recipient also impacted availability. Human organs cool and degenerate quickly when removed from the donor. Transportation in the 50s, 60s, and 70s was in the early stages of rapid jet aircraft travel and was too slow for the transportation of organs. The donor needed to be in close proximity to the recipient which was possible with living family members and donors. Research during this time focused on immunosuppressant drugs and on methods to maintain a viable organ outside the host.
In his discussion of justice in respect to the allocation of scarce goods, Jon Elster (1992) identified three levels of scarcity: natural, quasi-natural and artificial. The availability of twins with one needing a kidney transplant and one willing to donate a kidney generates a natural scarcity similar to the availability of natural black pearls.…
The price of Google today is $520.00 (MSN Moneycentral, 2014). The assumption then is that the strike price is going to be $572. The price of an option is related to the strike price, the price of the stock, the time to expiry, and the volatility of the stock and the risk free rate, according to the Black-Scholes option pricing model (Folger, 2014). The case notes that the option is a call, but does not say anything about expiry. So it is assumed that the option expires in 90 days. The risk free rate, based on the 1 year Treasury, is 0.078%.
The challenge in implementing Black-Scholes is to figure out the implied volatility. There doesn't appear to be a great source for this, but online it seems to be in the 17-18% range for Google, so 17% will be used. The Black-Scholes calculator is used: http://www.mystockoptions.com/black-scholes.cfm
Folger, J. (2014). Options pricing: Black-Scholes model. Investopedia. Retrieved May 15, 2014 from http://www.investopedia.com/university/options-pricing/black-scholes-model.asp
MSN Moneycentral. (2014). Google. Retrieved May 15, 2014 from http://investing.money.msn.com/investments/stock-price?symbol=GOOG&ocid=qbeb
Trading Charts.com (2014). Light crude. Trading Charts. Retrieved May 15, 2014 from futures.tradingcharts.com/marketquotes/CL_.html
planning is a method by which organizations can look at potential future situations and use this knowledge to improve the organization's ability to respond. Scenarios are created that test the managers to see what their strategies might be, and how they will respond. The value of scenario planning is that it can reveal blind spots in thinking, and can help managers to recognize situations before they occur, in the future, having already seen similar things during the scenario planning (NetMBA, 2010). For a business, the scenario might be anecdotal, it could be based on worst case possibilities or it can involve a combination of different scenarios.
Scenario planning can be of critical importance to organizations because it can allow for organizations to think about different types of future scenarios. Often, organizations plan for the future mainly be assuming that trends today are going to be continued in the future. Plans…
Bloch, B. (2015). Black swan events and investment. Investopedia. Retrieved May 22, 2015 from http://www.investopedia.com/articles/trading/11/black-swan-events-investing.asp
NetMBA (2015). Scenario planning. NetMBA . Retrieved May 22, 2015 from http://www.netmba.com/strategy/scenario/
Clapp, R. (2005). Nuclear power and public health. Environmental Health Perspectives Vol. 113 (11) 720.
MIT. (2003). The future of nuclear energy. MIT: Cambridge, MA.
lack Women on Early Television
African-American portrayals on television have been based on negative stereotypes that do not objectively or accurately portray reality... These stereotypes include, but are not limited to, the portrayal of African-Americans as inferior, lazy, dumb, dishonest, comical, unethical, and crooked (U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 1977). Dates (1990) was able to add to this list: insolent, bestial, brutish, power-hungry, money hungry and ignorant." (Rada)
The image of lack people on television has changed somewhat since the early era of television. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the roles that black women played in the early era of Television. We will discuss how the roles of lack women were limited to playing the role of mammies during the early era of television. The paper will also discuss roles for lack women that were labeled as being too white. In addition, our research will examine the…
Carroll, Diahann. Diahann! An Autobiography.1986
Ford, T.E. Effects of sexist humor on tolerance of sexist events. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 9, 1094-1107(2000) http://condor.depaul.edu/~mwilson/extra/humor/steoaatv.html http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=29237660
Giovanni, Nikki. Images of Blacks in American Culture: A Reference Guide to Information Sources. Ed. Jessie Carney Smith. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001291049
Hamlet, Janice D. "Mammies No More: The Changing Image of Black Women on Stage and Screen." The Western Journal of Black Studies 23.2 (1999): 135. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=15287542
Black & Decker
Since the merger with Stanley, Black and Decker has seen a steady increase in its revenues, gross profit and net income. The different elements of the new company are still being integrated, underperforming divisions are being shed, and synergies between the different components are still being developed. As the company continues to make internal improvements, it can expect that it will continue to grow both its top and bottom lines. It is reasonable to expect that over the next 2-3 years, ongoing internal improvements will help to improve margins, all other factors being equal. The post-merger improvements in the percentage of SGA expenses to revenue should continue in the short-run, albeit at a slower pace. Likewise, internal factors are likely to be responsible for at least a modest growth in income, as marketing synergies in particular emerge.
External factors are also critical to the forecast. The…
Schurr, L. (2013) Home prices see best yearly gain since 2006. Reuters. Retrieved January 29, 2013 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/01/29/us-usa-economy-homes-index-idUSBRE90S0JZ20130129
eal Options Valuation
Market investors often carry out their research in a sell side or buy side method. Sell side carry out their investment research to enable them satisfy buy side customers. They carry out this research to generate business or reach the goal of generating transactions. The buy side follows the prospective of banking customers as away of attracting new customers and a service to past customers. Sell side firms sell IPO's and services to the buy side companies.
Buy side and sell side
Buy side reports produced in house consumption are used by colleagues to the analyst. These colleagues can be corporate development executives and development and portfolio managers. Sell-side reports done by firm analysts are vastly distributed than the buy side reports. Sell side reports should be clear because of their wide distribution, while by side reports should be simple and brief because company's management uses them.…
Albrran, B.S. (2009). Handbook Of Media Management Aand Economics. Atlanta: Routledge.
Amram, M. (2002). Value Sweep. Atlanta: Havard Business Press.
Hook, C. (2010). Security Analysis And Business Valuation On Wall Street. New York: John Willey and Sons.
Marion, A. (2003). Real Options In Practice. New York: John Willey and Sons.
The author of this report is asked to look at a competitive market and its main business that leads or otherwise exemplifies the sector. The sector that will be looked at is retail. The far and away leader of this retail market is Wal-Mart but they have three competitors in the form of Target, Kroger and K-Mart/Sears, that each compete against Wal-Mart in their own way. Despite the fact that they are in the same general line of business, they each have their own niche that they target.
Niche of Each Business
Wal-Mart's clear objective is to sell in bulk at low prices. They deal heavily in the grocery and hardline sectors and are very aggressive discounters in both markets. In half a century, they have risen a nascent retail to a worldwide juggernaut that employs more than a million people in the United States alone and nearly…
K-Mart. (2013, September 26). Kmart - Deals on Furniture, Toys, Clothes, Tools,
Tablets & TVs. Kmart - Deals on Furniture, Toys, Clothes, Tools, Tablets & TVs.
Retrieved September 26, 2013, from http://www.kmart.com
Kroger. (2013, September 26). Kroger. Kroger. Retrieved September 26, 2013, from http://www.kroger.com
Product/Services/Promotional Strategies offered by Black Diamond Equipment and My Web Page
eport on Product/Services/Promotional Strategies offered by Black Diamond Equipment
Black Diamond designs and manufactures a complete line of authentic, inspired, performance equipment for rock climbers, ice climbers, alpinists and backcountry and telemark skiers. Black Diamond's products are targeted toward those who are dedicated to the process of climbing and skiing. Especially Black Diamond likes to promote its products for young people who take pride and enjoy rock climbing, alpinism or backcountry skiing. Black Diamond also targets its products for kids to provide them equipments that are versatile and lightweight and can be used for mountaineering. Moreover, Black Diamond's captures a share of market because of its high level of expertise in manufacturing high quality devices and equipments that have made the experience of rock climbers and skiers enjoyable. Black and Diamond prides the quality of its products that…
Kotler, P. (1991). Marketing Management. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Kotler, P. And Armstrong, G. (1996).
Principles of Marketing. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
black colleges/Tuskegee University
The psychological, economic, political importance of historically black colleges
In a workplace, the significance of scholarly and nourished atmosphere cannot be underrated in forming a stronger base for future success. (Historically Black Colleges - Letters to the Editor) Before the period of 1964, the 'Historically Black Colleges and Universities'- HBCU's, the postsecondary academic institutions were established and its educational purpose was to teach African-Americans. (The Importance of HBCUs) Historically, HBCUs came into being at a time when Black students were mainly barred from other institutions of higher education, and their purpose was to give these students with chances for scholarship and professional training. (Students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Their Aspirations & Accomplishments) HBCU's have been a main basis in the growth of the African-American middle class. They offer a helpful social, cultural, and racial atmosphere for people of color who are looking for a college…
History of Tuskegee University. Retrieved from http://www.tuskegee.edu/Global/story.asp?S=1070392& ; nav=CcX4DGwrTuskegee Accessed on 16 February, 2005
Recognizing National Historically Black Colleges and Universities and the importance and accomplishments of historically Black colleges and universities. (Introduced in House). Retrieved from http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z-c108:H.RES.82.IH : Accessed on 16 February, 2005
Students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Their Aspirations & Accomplishments. Retrieved from http://www.ets.org/research/pic/hbcprefa.html Accessed on 16 February, 2005
The Importance of HBCUs. The Common Sense Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.common-sense.org/?fnoc=/common_sense_says/99_february Accessed on 16 February, 2005
To take one example, in its sphere of industrial and automotive products, FACOM is described as thus: "In 1918, in the heart of Paris, a young engineer named Louis Moses founded a company called Franco Americaine de Construction d'Outillage Mecanique, or FACOM for short. It manufactured a single product: the 101 adjustable wrench, which built the French ailways. Today, FACOM has more than 130 trucks of demonstration which visit more than 100,000 customers a year. Today, FACOM has over 7,000 industry-leading products. Today, we bring auto mechanics, industrial professionals, and utility workers the answers to their questions, and the products to solve their problems" (Industrial & Automotive, 2010, Official Website). More so than the company's current status, the past history and reputation of the company is stressed in its marketing and promotional literature, including on its website.
Stanley Black & Decker has remodeled itself and is making use of…
Black & Decker MM 275. (2010). Viewpoints.com. Retrieved September 27, 2010 at http://www.viewpoints.com/Black-amp-Decker-MM275-18-Inch-9-Amp-Electric-Mulching-Mower-reviews
Conkey, Christopher & Louise Radnofsky. (2009, August 5). Stimulus slow to flow to infrastructure. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 27, 2010 at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124942875620406143.html
Industrial. (2010). Stanley Black & Decker Official Website. Retrieved September 25, 2010 at http://www.stanleyblackanddecker.com/products-services/industrial
Neuton. (2010). Official website.
These stages could be assimilated with the product life cycles and they are relevant as they signal the strategies to be implemented at each stage. In this line of thoughts, star products generate increased amounts of money (due to a strong market share), but also consume high budgetary levels (due to rapid growth rates). Cash cows consume reduced amounts of money and generate less that stars, but are more stable (they are leaders in a mature market). Dogs are products that consume little money, but also generate low levels of profitability - they are often in the stages of decline. Finally, question marks consume large amounts of money and generate little profits; they could either become stars (and then cash cows) or dogs (Net MBA, 2007).
Sony currently manufactures and produces items belonging to all four categories previously mentioned. The Sony Cyber Shot-DSC-W300 BLACK could be considered a cash cow…
Kim, K.A., 2002, Global Corporate Finance: Text and Cases, Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 0631229515
Nellis, D., Parker, D., 2006, Principles of Business Economics, 2nd Edition, Pearson Education, ISBN 0273693069
Wilson, R.M.S., Gilligan, C., 2005, Strategic Marketing Management: Planning, Implementation and Control, 3rd Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN 0750659386
2007, the BCG Growth-Share Matrix, Net MBA, http://www.netmba.com/strategy/matrix/bcg/lastaccessed on March 19, 2009
Price Call Models
Black-Scholes Model and the Binomial Model are some of the widely used price call options. Despite the fact that these two models share the same theoretical foundation and assumptions like the Brownian motion theory and risk neutral valuation, they happen to have some notable differences (endleman & Bartter, 1979).
The Black-Scholes model is basically used to calculate a theoretical call price. This call price ignores dividends paid during the life of the call option. Some of the determinants of the option price include stock price (S), strike price (X), volatility (v), time to expiration (t), and short-term interest rate (r) (endleman & Bartter, 1979). This model has got some assumptions. One of the assumptions is that the stock pays no dividend during the option's life. This assumption is a serious limitation of the model considering that companies do pay dividends to their shareholders (endleman & Bartter, 1979).…
Conroy, R.M. (2003). Binomial Option Pricing. Retrieved August 27, 2013 from http://faculty.darden.virginia.edu/conroyb/derivatives/Binomial%20Option%20Pricing%
Rendleman, R. & Bartter, B. (1979). Two State Option Pricing. Journal of Finance, 34 (1979),
Earnings of Black Men After orld ar II
Both men in these peer-reviewed articles -- James P. Smith and James J. Heckman -- agree that the earnings of black males rose relative to the earnings of Caucasian men up until 1980. How does Smith see the key reason for this phenomenon? That is, why, in Smith's view, did "…income ratios first begin to converge in the 1960s?"
First of all according to Morton Zeman's (and others') studies, in the 1950s, a few years after orld ar II, if anything the relative economic situation for black men had deteriorated (Smith, 1984). Racial differences (and less education for black) apparently factored into this uneven economic situation, according to Smith's article. But in the 1960s and 1970s, new surveys of census information reflected the fact that the rates of blacks utilizing educational opportunities had been "significantly understated" -- and moreover, incomes…
Heckman, James J. "The Central Role of the South in Accounting for the Economic Progress of Black Americans." The American Economic Review, 80.2 (1990): 242-246.
Smith, James P. "Race and Human Capital." The American Economic Review, 74.4 (1984):
According to the same source, the Australian market proves to be very fertile for the U.S. companies which already account for the greatest import share (over 50% in 2004). Such data are outlined by the following table:
Total market (million of dollars)
Total imports (million of dollars)
Imports from U.S. (million of dollars)
2002 2004%Change 2002-2004%Change 2002-2004%Change Australia 950-1400 47% 380-560 47% 185-285 54% 51% Source: http://www.buyusainfo.net/docs/x_4239321.pdf.
The U.S. home security market is another outlet offering promising perspectives. According to Frost & Sullivan's report (http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reportinfo.asp?report_id=365296),one of the levers responsible for increased demand is the emergence of new homes as a result of the low interest rate. The U.S. Census ureau studies showed that, in 2002, 1.7 million new houses were built in comparison with 2001 when 1.6 million new constructions were made. Moreover, the number was expected to grow in the near future.
Other reasons for a…
Brown, C., (2000). Australians' attitude to security. On the Internet at: www.infolink.com.au/articles/A4/0C0026A4.aspx.Retrieved February 20.
Best Export Markets for U.S. Security and Safety Equipment (2005). On the Internet at: www.buyusainfo.net/docs/x_4239321.pdf.Retrieved February 20
Environmental Scan of the Security Industry (2006). On the Internet at http://www.asial.com.au/default.asp?page=/media%20centre/research+and+articles/environmental+scan+of+the+security+industry.Retrieved February 20, 2007.
Home Security Market Goes Hi-tech (2006). On the Internet at: svconline.com/resav/hitech_home_security_06192006. Retrieved February 20, 2007.
Office Market Analysis of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Today, Philadelphia is highly modern and vigorous city that hosts a number of historic American sites and enjoys numerous natural resources. It is the fourth largest city in the United States and the largest in Pennsylvania. Philadelphia exhibits a number of characteristics of a small town environment complete with trees, parks, and other open spaces; these attributes reflect the legacy of the city's founder, illiam Penn. Philadelphia represents an important urban center of national and international commerce, with one of the largest and busiest freshwater ports in the world. The tremendous industrial production of the city and the surrounding metropolitan regions represent an enormous opportunity for those who recognize what will be needed in this environment today and in the future. To this end, this paper will provide a market analysis of the Philadelphia to determine the condition of the local economy, the competitive…
Adams, Carolyn, Bartelt, David and Ira Goldstein et al. Philadelphia: Neighborhoods, Division, and Conflict in a Postindustrial City. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991.
Archer, Wayne R. And Marc T. Smith. (2003). Explaining Location Patterns of Suburban Offices. Real Estate Economics, 31(2):139.
Philadelphia, PA Office Market - First Quarter 2004. (2004). Cushman & Wakefield. Available: http://www.mack-cali.com/graphics2/markets/pdfs_1Q_04/Phi_Off_1Q04 . pdf.
Imbroscio, David L. (1995). Nontraditional Public Enterprise as a Local Economic Development Policy: Dimensions, Prospects, and Constraints. Policy Studies Journal, 23(2):218.
The decision of investing or not here then depends on the personal adversity to risk of each individual investor. The general theory states that each investor should construct a diversified portfolio, which adequately balances high risk-high gain shares with medium or even low rates of risk and gains (Hagin, 2004). New Zealand could then be assimilated with a medium risk-medium gain share, and as such would be perceived as a valuable addition to one's portfolio. In this order of ideas then, the recommendation would be that of investing in the country.
Amadeo, K., 2009, An Introduction to the Financial Markets, About, http://useconomy.about.com/od/themarkets/a/capital_markets.htm last accessed on December 17, 2009
Hagin, ., 2004, Investment Management: Portfolio Diversification, isk and Timing -- Fact and Fiction, John Wiley and Sons
Healy, J., 2001, New Zealand Capital Markets, Ministry of Economic Development, http://www.med.govt.nz/upload/18163/healy.pdf last accessed on December 17, 2009
Malkin, B., 2009, Financial Crisis:…
Amadeo, K., 2009, An Introduction to the Financial Markets, About, http://useconomy.about.com/od/themarkets/a/capital_markets.htm last accessed on December 17, 2009
Hagin, R., 2004, Investment Management: Portfolio Diversification, Risk and Timing -- Fact and Fiction, John Wiley and Sons
Healy, J., 2001, New Zealand Capital Markets, Ministry of Economic Development, http://www.med.govt.nz/upload/18163/healy.pdf last accessed on December 17, 2009
Malkin, B., 2009, Financial Crisis: Australia and New Zealand Guarantee All Ban Deposits, The telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/financetopics/financialcrisis/3187662/Financial-crisis-Australia-and-New-Zealand-guarantee-all-bank-deposits.html last accessed on December 17, 2009
The internet has given marketers a great deal of flexibility of time and message, though it must be clear that contrary to the previous assumptions there are limits to advertising ability and revenue. The tool enters the individuals home, just as direct marketing does and often offers links to direct purchase of the product advertised. Television, also enters the consumers home, and offers product information and brand exposure. Radio is often a mode of marketing that is accessed in transit, where millions of people listen to the radio as they drive and remember products, services and events that they hear about on the radio. Word of mouth marketing is important as it provides a personal touch to the product or service as testimonial can be the key to product awareness and utilization. (Ryans, 1996, p. 63)
8. Old statistics with regard to advertising to sales ratios, 10 years ago being…
Geller, 2002, p. null03)
10. Foreign market growth is one of the biggest issues in business today and many even small and medium sized companies often direct resources toward finding and establishing foreign market locations in the increasingly global economy. There are several risks involved with entering a foreign market and at least three are, non-existent or low consumer demand for product, competition of local market and lastly legal and ethical issues that determine the market situation. Some demand situations are unknown until a service or product has been exposed to a foreign market, and historical consumer desires must be discovered before entrance, sometimes this is difficult as if a consumer is unaware of a product they do not know if they would buy it or use it, they may have historical and traditional desires to utilize existing market products and not care to try something new, in which case a risk would be great. Competition in local markets is often a risk that a foreign company must weigh as there are often similar products and services available on a local scale that have a market hold, without proper information and/or research a risk could be great for product not fitting in to an existing market, because local providers already serve the niche. Lastly, legal issues are often unknown to the foreign provider, as some communities are more or less controlled by government entities, through non-free market set ups. Without such information the foreign provider takes great risk in having his goods and/or services sanctioned, overtaxed, refused or even confiscated in a foreign market that is not freely active, as many across the globe are.
Bauer, 1963, p. ii)
Technical Analysis in the Implication of Efficient Market Hypothesis on Silver Market
The thesis is for the study of simple commonly used technical trading rules, which are applied on silver market. It covers years 1989 to 2005. A famous study carried out by Lakonishok, Lebaon and in year, 1992 has clearly shown that technical analysis can lead to abnormal prices when compared with buy-and-hold strategy. Other studies have been carried out and found out that technical trading rules cannot over-rule passive investment management strategy. The study uses Brock et al.'s methodology. Several trading rules are discussed (Dawson & Steeley 2003).
In financial theory, efficiency of financial silver market is highly disputed. This has led to many attempts to explain efficiency of silver markets. Eugene.F. Fama formulated the most famous definition in 1970 referred to as the, Efficient Silver market Hypothesis (EHM). The basis of the hypothesis is that…
Alexander, S.S. (1964) 'Price Movements in Speculative Markets: Trends or Random Walks'. Industrial management Review 5 (2), 25-46
Brock, W., Lakonishok, J., & LeBaron, B. (1992) 'Simple Technical Trading Rules and the Stochastic Properties of Stock Returns'. Journal of finance 4, (5), 1731-1764
Chang, P.H., & Osler, C.L. (1999) 'Methodical Madness: Technical Analysis and the Irrationality of Exchange Rate Forecasts'. Economic Journal 109 (458), 636-661
Dawson, E.R., & Steeley, J. (2003) 'On the Existence of Visual Technical Patterns in the Uk Stock Market'. Journal of Business Finance and Accounting 30 (1-2), 263-293
They ae thee to play and not to show off thei bodies.
Female athletes with lage body size will find discomfots in the tightly fitted unifoms. This then pesents poblem to safety. The female athletes who will not be at ease to the equied unifom could not focus on the game she is playing. She will, fom time to time, ty to eaange, pull o push some pats o the gament whee she thinks she needs to be coveed. With such attention that will be given to the gament, how can it be assued that the athlete will be safe in pefoming on he spoting event?
Lastly, female athletes who have lage body size will not be motivated to join any spoting activities anymoe because of the fea fo negative judgments fom the cowd and the media. The spots aena is becoming moe of an aea fo the body image…
references of college women basketball players. Master's Thesis
Ford, S., & Feather, B. (May, 1993). Women's basketball uniform analysis. Final report presented to Russell Athletic Corporation.
Gitlin Cara. (November 2000). "Male gawkers have all the fun." The John Hopkins News Letter.
Girls Skip Meals to be like Skinny Models." news.bbc.co.uk. 04 Feb. 2003. BBC Newsround. 8 Aug. 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/uk/newsid_2726000/2726279.stm
Hellmich, Nanci..usatoday.com. "Do thin models warp girls' body image?" 26 September 2006. USA Today. 30 Nov. 2006. http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2006-09-25-thin-models_x.htm
She sent equally matched pairs of lack and white men to apply for low-skilled jobs in 350 places in the area. These applicants were bright, articulate students who pretended to apply for the jobs. The result was that the lack applicants without criminal record were called back for interview only 14% of the time as compared to white applicants with criminal record at 17% of the time.
The author quotes Julia Taylor, president of the Greater Milwaukee Committee as saying that a lot of work had to be done towards educating employers and their attitudes towards race. Taylor commented that racial discrimination in employment affected the region, its workforce and inner-city growth. The result of the study did not surprise many African-Americans who knew the existence of this type of discrimination in the region's job market. On the other hand, many white Americans thought that direct, racial discrimination of this…
Coleman, Major C.; Darity, William a.; and Sharpe, Rhonda V. Sharpe. Are Reports of Discrimination Valid? American Journal of Economics and Sociology: American
Journal of Economics and Sociology, Inc., 2008. Retrieved on March 2, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0254/is_2_67/ai_n27911457?tag=content;col1
Johnson-Elie, Tannette. Study Shows How Deeply Black Men Face Discrimination in Hiring. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel: JSOnline, 2003. Retrieved on March 7, 2009 from http://www.jobbankusa.com/News/Hiring/hiring100803a.html
Levitan, Mark. A Crisis of Black Male Employment: Unemployment and Joblessness in New City. Community Service Society Annual Report. Community Service Society, 2004. Retrieved on March 2, 2009 at http://www.cssny.org/pubs/special/2004_02/labormarket.pdf
Blues music however did not cross racial lines, with the majority of famous blues musicians still residing in New Orleans and various other well-known black music entertainment venues of the South.
Gospel music has been an African-American church tradition with influences from traditional African music and especially prevalent during the slavery era. Later (most likely because of those particular ignominious associations and all they implied, especially in the South) gospel music was strongly discouraged within mainstream society and actively suppressed.
Similarly, blues music represented a blending of black musical traditions with a centuries-long history originating from the earliest days of American slavery. Sammy Davis Jr. And Nat King Cole, were and remain today among the best-known of early black entertainers within the (then) up-and-coming rock 'n roll genre of the 1940's. Each had a heavy influence upon Elvis himself.
Obviously, though, the blending of Southern musical traditions was not started…
African-American Musical Tradition." (June 9, 1998). Retrieved January 9, 2007,
From: http://www.questia.com/html .
Bane, Michael. White Boy Singin' the Blues: The Black Roots of White Rock.
Harmondsworth, Eng: Penguin, 1982.
5% of total liabilities. Their retained earnings, on the other hand, total $5.073 billion. The heavy use of retained earnings is partially explained by their view of themselves as a growth company. hile they pay a dividend, Nike prefers to re-invest much of its profits back into expansion. They do not feel that the market has matured sufficiently to stop their aggressive growth strategy. Another consideration in their capital structure is the cost of capital. On account of its low volatility, Nike has a low cost of debt, approximately 6.8% using CAPM. Their long-term debt is primarily a revolving credit facility. The rate, based on their a+ rating, is LIBOR + 0.15%, which would equate to 4.12% based on the October 15th price of the 1-year LIBOR. If anything, Nike could become more financially efficient by increasing their use of debt financing.
Nike places strong emphasis on human resources. They…
Cohen, Marshal (2007). USA: Athletic footwear is significant portion of overall footwear market. Fibre 2 Fashion. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at http://www.fibre2fashion.com/news/company-news/npd-group/newsdetails.aspx?news_id=32512
Some financial information, ratios from Reuters. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/overview?symbol=NKE.N
Nike 2008 Annual Report. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at http://media.corporate-ir.net/media_files/irol/10/100529/Areports/ar_06/docs/10k.pdf
Nike 2006 Annual Report. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at
Are Vaccines Safe or is There a Link to Autism
The rapidity with which the novel coronavirus believed to cause COVID-19 overtook the world caused alarm among leaders and media leading to an urgent demand for an emergency vaccine. Because vaccines typically take years if not decades to develop, manufacture and test, the rollout of a COVID vaccine seemed dubious at best. But as Arnold (2020) points out, scientists had no choice—they had to implement atypical methods to speed up the process: it would be the first time in history that a new disease was identified and a vaccine for it was developed at the same time that the initial outbreak persisted. Scientists quickly began rolling out a variety of vaccines that worked differently in the body—but not without cutting corners here and there (Arnold, 2020). The fact of the matter is that creating and testing vaccines safely takes…
American Academy of Pediatrics (2020). Immunizations. Retrieved from https://www.aap.org/en-us/advocacy-and-policy/aap-health-initiatives/immunizations/pages/immunizations-home.aspx
Arnold, C. (2020). Race for a vaccine. New Scientist, 245(3274), 44-47. Doi:10.1016/s0262-4079(20)30600-x
Barath, H. (2020). Vaccine transport. Scientific American, 322(6), 13.
Bowman, D. H. (2004). Federal analysis concludes vaccines, autism not linked. Education Week, 23(38), 11.
CDC. (2017). CDC Study Finds Flu Vaccine Saves Children’s Lives. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2017/p0403-flu-vaccine.html
Mnookin, S. (2011). Panic virus. The true story behind the vaccine autism controversy.
Rahul, N. W. (2020). Vaccine: A solution or a challenge? A public opinion about vaccine in 2020. Journal of Advanced Research, 11, 10-16.
Mark Ames, an expatriate living in Moscow, Russia, had only heard of Old Navy from friends. "The Old Navy store chain is one of those cultural events that I missed out on, having spent almost all of the 1990s abroad," he claimed. However, upon visiting one of the stores for the first time in January of 2003, he was able to percieve the class differences at play between Old Navy, the Gap, and anana Republic, the sister retail clothing companies that are owned by Old Navy's parent company, Gap Incorporated. These three companies, in addition to Gap Kids and aby Gap, provide an excellent example of market segmentation.
The old saying goes that 'the clothes make the man,' and our concept of 'materialism' is most expressively represented in the material, or fabric, that we chose to wear. Although internalized demographic notions affect most of the patterns of consumption that are…
automobiles, beer, cereals, soap, detergents, etc. Select a large national company and list all the different brands of a product that the company manufactures. Explain why you think the company markets each of these brands of the same product. Should be able to explain demand analysis and market segmentation
electing the first black president of the United States three years ago, racism continues to be a prevalent nuisance in America. Still, a vast amount of progress has taken place concerning racism in America. Slavery and the Jim Crowe laws were abolished and balance-minded programs such as Affirmative Action (though controversial) have been implemented (Bonilla-Silva, 2009). However, a large degree of racism continues to be present in the United States as the push for equality has remained nearly stagnant for decades.
acism is an extremely difficult problem to eradicate for several reasons. For one, it has been a part of America since its beginning causing structural discrimination to occur. When the puritans (pilgrims) came to America they were attempting to escape religious persecution and achieve freedom to live how they wanted (Bonilla-Silva, 20009). The puritans were invested in their beliefs and ways of life. Therefore, because the founding pilgrims were…
Bonilla-Silva, E. (2009). Racism without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence
of Racial Inequality in America. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Berry, B. Bonilla-Silva, E. (2008). They should hire the one with the best score': White sensitivity to qualification differences in affirmative action hiring decisions. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 31 (2), 215-242. doi: 10.1080/01419870701337619
Clow, K, & Black, Integrated Advertising, Promotion, Marketing Communication, 5th Edition (Global), Pearson Publishing (2012). ISBN 978-0-273-75328-5 Case: - Fast Food War Singapore I a paper case
Write a brief description of the organization you selected and the ethical issue it faces. Using the classical concepts of ethics and responsibility, explain why this is an ethical issue and how it could be addressed by the organization.
Public and nonprofit organizations are provided with guidelines for acceptable behavior by business ethics. Such guidelines are employed in strategy formulation and the regular business operations. Enacting an ethics program helps business organizations avoid and prevent employee misconduct coupled with tarnished company reputation. Business organizations are bound to moral responsibilities to its stake holders including customers, employees, vendors, loyal customers and the community at large. Self-interest is an independent concept for many business organizations though it still calls for adherence to the law and…
Discrimination involves illicitly distinguishing of people basing on prejudice or other invidious or morally disgraceful attitude which could otherwise be done basing on individual merit (Velasquez, 2006, p. 307). Both the profit and nonprofit organizations should eliminate discrimination in the work place by the development of an Affirmative Action plan (Terry L. Cooper 2012). This type of program helps organizations comply with procedures against discrimination. It is designed to help in promotion of minorities respective to the available workforce. The Kantian Theory states that human should be treated as ends and should never be used as mere means. The concept in this is that individuals have the moral duty to treat each other as free persons and with equality (Velasquez, 2006, p. 321).
Marketing is essential to every business organization. The fact that everyone is a consumer in the market, we frequently interact with the business directly (Boatright, 2009, p. 272). Common ethical problems in marketing concerns three major concepts: fairness, freedom and well-being (Boatright, 2009, p. 274). The business' consumers should rightfully content of what they are buying and other necessary information that should be contained in the product label. Product pricing should reflect real goods' value to avoid actions driving against ethics.
It is the customers' right to be informed on what they are buying. All the necessary product information should be included on the label. Pricing of the product to reflect the real value of goods is essential to avoid unethical actions against ethics (price discrimination). The organization should eliminate price discrimination and promote fairness by offering the same costs for every customer. The use of deceptive advertisements, as well as marketing practices, is a form of customer discrimination. This involves the use of false or misleading
Similarly, while ed Envelope focuses on the family by having links "for him," "for her," and "for baby," H. And . block focuses on a more professional approach, linking clients to informative financial services articles. Although both sites make use of graphics and design, ed Envelope uses a great deal more photographs, enticing customers to purchase its products. These differences most likely exist because H. And . block is attempting to entice professionals to use its services, while ed Envelope is seeking to touch the personal side of individuals with its products.
By studying these similarities and differences, one can quickly recognize the differences between product and service web sites. While the site marketing products is more straight forward and makes greater use of graphics, the web sites marketing services provide a great deal more information about their field and helpful articles intended to persuade potential customers that these services…
References and R. block. (n.d.) Retrieved July 9, 2008, from www.hrblock.com.
Red Envelop.com (n.d.) Retrieved July 9, 208, from www.redenvelope.com.
Samuel R. Delany's novel, Tales of Neveryon depicts a society where the monetary system is highly eroticized. Slavery is eroticized, and human sexuality becomes a commodity that can be bought and sold with the purchase of a slave. The story of the Rublyn culture reveals that inter-gender and inter-class relationships are closely impacted by a change from the barter to a monetary system, as women begin to choose males with money, rather than choosing males with which they can live harmoniously. Eroticizing slavery, class relations, and economic exchange has an important impact on society, as shown within Tales of Neveryon. In Delany's book, sexuality becomes intimately tied to ownership and economics, and individuals lose the ability to love freely.
Tales of Neveryon is part of a larger series, which includes the titles Tales of Neveryon, Neveryona, Flight from Neveryon, Return to Neveryon, and The Bridge of Lost Desire.…
Delany, Samuel R. 1993. Tales of Neveryon. Wesleyan/New England University Press
Starwood hotel chain expand their business into Kazan market?
Kazan is one of the largest cities in the epublic of Tatarstan in ussia. With a populace of just one, 143, 546 recorded for the year 2010 in the earlier results of the national Census, it ranks as the eighth most populated city in ussia and was branded as the third capital of ussia in 2009. Subsequently, it has also been dubbed as the sports capital of the region. The importance of the city can be recognized from the recent level of importance it has been given by the ussian government as it continues to increase the economic strength, foreign investment and trade for the country.
As technology brings the planet closer together, more businesses have become multinational corporations (MNC) and have included in a method in their administrative policies to strengthen their market share and profits. The success to become…
Abesser, C. (2010). Open-loop ground source heat pumps and the groundwater systems: A literature review of current applications, regulations and problems. British Geological Survey.
Becker, B.E., & Huselid, M.A. (2006). Strategic human resources management: Where do we go from here? Journal of Management, 32(6), 898-925.
Bjorkman, I. And Schaap, A. (1994) 'Outsiders in the Middle Kingdom: Expatriate Managers in Saudi Arabian-Western Joint Ventures', European Management Journal, 12(2): 147 -- 53.
Black, J.S. (1990) 'The Relationship of Personal Characteristics with Adjustment of Japanese Expatriate Managers', Management International Review, 30: 119 -- 34.
Quality, cost-competitiveness, customer service and first-to-market are all essential determinants to global commercial success. All sectors of the economic market are obliged to reduce costs and production times while increasing profits and market share. Ambitious organizations are turning to systems management programs such as Six Sigma or Total Quality Management to develop and maintain exceptional standards across the whole of an organization. This includes all aspects of production and manufacturing processes, as well as marketing, sales and distribution, financial considerations, employee motivation and customer service. Finally, product development in the form of a perennial portfolio of projects helps to ensure the viability of a company.
The incorporation of systems management programs has become integral to the renaissance and future of an organization. Often, enterprises will combine qualities from several methodologies such as integration aspects of Six Sigma with Project Management; the very topic of consideration for this essay that examines…
(1) Anbari F.T. (2004) A Systems Approach to Six Sigma Quality, Innovation, and Project Management. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Systems Thinking, Innovation, Quality, Entrepreneurship and Environment (STIQE 2004). Maribor, Slovenia.
(2) Anbari F.T. (2003). An Integrated View of the Six Sigma Management Method and Project Management. Proceedings of IPMA 17th World Congress on Project Management. Moscow, Russia.
(3) Anbari F.T. (2002). Six Sigma Method and Its Applications in Project Management. Proceedings of the Project Management Institute Annual Seminars & Symposium, San Antonio, TX.
(4) Kwak Y.H., Anbari F.T. (2004). Benefits, Obstacles, and Future of Six Sigma Approach. Technovation: The International Journal of Technological Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Technology Management, 26 (5-6), pp. 708-715.
John Martin pulled the plug on Black Sparrow Press. The fact that one more small press bit the dust wouldn't be big news, but for those who believe in the power of symbols and metaphors, Black Sparrow Press going flat-line means the end of an era in the world of publishing. Another literary device that one can attach to its passing is irony, for Black Sparrow, considered one of the leading purveyors of fine writing is now in the hands of Random House which itself long past the days when Bennett Cerf made that Random House synonymous with great literature, is now owned by the kingpin of the sensationalistic media, Rupert Murdoch. For most small presses to be bought out by a big fish like Random House would be a dream come true, but for those who know American literature, the acquisition was nothing short of sacrilege, akin to say…
ABA. (November 18, 2002)"Bureau of the Census, Current Retail Trade Branch." Online at American Booksellers. Available: http://news.bookweb.org/news/955.html .(11/25/02)
Columbia University Press (2000) "Mergers and Acquisition." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. Online at elibrary.com. Available: (http://ask.elibrary.com/(11/25/02)
Farrington, Maire (June 1999) Snuggle up with A Good 'Indie' Bookstore. Online at Noe Valley Voice. Available: ( http://www.noevalleyvoice.com/1999/June/indiebooks.html (11/25/02)
Hansen & Ydstie (05-31-2002) Commentary: Loss of Black Sparrow Press, a small publishing company that gave great love and attention to producing fine writers and books., All Things Considered (NPR), Available: (http://ask.elibrary.com (11/25/02)
ehavioral Finance and Human Interaction a Study of the Decision-Making
Processes Impacting Financial Markets
Understanding the Stock Market
Contrasting Financial Theories
Flaws of the Efficient Market Hypothesis
Financial ubbles and Chaos
The stock market's dominant theory, the efficient market hypothesis (EMH) has been greatly criticized recently for its failure to account for human errors, heuristic bias, use of misinformation, psychological tendencies, in determining future expected performance and obtainable profits.
Existing evidence indicates that past confidence in the EMH may have been misdirected, as the theory's models do not show a thorough understanding of trading operations in a realistic light.
Researchers have suggested that a variety of anomalies and inconsistent historical results demand that traditional financial theories, namely the EMH, be reconstructed to include human interaction as a key decision-making process that directly affects the performance of financial markets.
This research paper aims to determine whether or not there is a…
Barrett, Larry. (January, 2001). Emotional investing a recipe for disaster. CNET News.com.
Bernstein, Peter. (1998). Against the Gods: The Remarkable Story of Risk. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Brennan, Phil. (March 12, 2002) The Great Stock Market Scam. NewsMax.com.
Business Week. (September 29, 1997) The Perils of Investing Too Close to Home.
Women, lacks and Indigenous People in Colonial Latin America
Colonial Latin America was a diverse country, though it largely consisted of women, blacks and indigenous peoples. The manner of life for these groups was not always the same, as class could be divided between slaves and owners; and even in the work, there was diversity according to region. For example, in various urban areas, women "administered bakeries and worked in wax and tobacco factories."[footnoteRef:1] Thus, women's work depended upon social and ethnic orientation, with "some being considered more appropriate for the urban non-affluent white woman, and others most commonly carried out by Indians, castas or blacks."[footnoteRef:2] This paper will discuss the ways in which these particular groups worked and lived in Colonial Latin America. [1: Asuncion Lavrin, "Women in Spanish American Colonial Society," in The Cambridge History of Latin America, edited by Leslie ethell (UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 330.]…
Burkholder, Mark; Johnson, Lyman. "Population and Labor" in Colonial Latin America.
UK: Oxford University Press, 2008
Hemming, John. Red Gold. MA: Harvard University Press, 1978.
Lavrin, Asuncion. "Women in Spanish American Colonial Society," in The Cambridge
The international company to be featured in this paper is Avon International. Avon is a cosmetics company located in about seventy-five countries in five geographical locations: Latin America, North America, Central, Eastern and estern Europe, Middle East and Africa, and Asia Pacific. In addition to cosmetics (fragrances, skin care, personal care and color cosmetics), Avon also produces fashion items (fashion jewelry, watches, apparel, footwear, accessories and children's products) and products for the home (gift and decorative products, house wares, entertainment and leisure products and nutritional produces) (Forbes, 2014).
Avon was founded in 1886 in the United States and has 36,700 employees; Avon has annual sales of around $9.98 billion and is ranked #70 in Forbes' list of "orld's Most Powerful Brands" (Forbes, 2014).
The company is unique in that it doesn't generally sell its products in department stores or other retail venues. It hires women to go door-to-door…
Avon. (2013). Code of Conduct / Avon South Africa / Avon Products. Retrieved January 11, 2015, from http://www.avoncompany.com .
ENSafrica. (2013). General corporate information for foreign clients: establishing a business
In South Africa. Retrieved January 11, 2015, from http://mandarin.ensafrica.com .
Harris, D. (2014). China Law For Foreign Companies Doing Business In China. It's Real.
Energy prices went up again in 2008. Drillers created 29,000 jobs for the people. And State and local governments offered $240 million worth of taxes (Sapien 2009). And modern technology was there to realize the dream.
When asked about the initiative's threat to human health, the DEP at first assured all sectors that TDS were not generally considered a major risk. In 2008 alone, at least 4,000 new oil and gas wells were drilled. The frenzy sidestepped the greater and graver responsibility of disposal of huge wastewater. The new oil and gas wells produce approximately 9 million gallons of wastewater a day in Pennsylvania alone. This volume was expected to increase to at least 19 million this year. This volume is greater than that what all of the State's waterways combined can safely absorb, DEP itself says. ut in the wake of continued complaints and apprehensions, it advised consumers to…
Legera, Laura. Hazards Posed by Natural Gas Drilling Not Always Underground. The Sheranton Times Tribune: hetimes-tribune.com, 2010. Retrieved on May 3, 2011
Lustgarten, Abrahm. Is New York's Marcellus Shale too Hot to Handle? ProPublica:
ProPublica, Inc., 2009. Retrieved on April 18, 2011 from http://www.propublica.org/articles/is_the-marcellus-shale-too-hot-to-handle-1109
Supply Analysis of Lululemon
Porter's Five Forces Analysis of Lululemon
PESTLE Analysis of Lululemo
Analysis of Marketing Strategy of Lululemon
Analysis of Company Management
Lululemon Athletica Inc. which was founded in 1998 in the city of Vancouver by Chip Wilson is a specialist in the design and production of high-end technical clothing for athletes and yoga clothing.
While operating primarily in the continents of North America and Australia, the company initially targeted the educated woman who strives to live an active and a healthy life as their primary customers. The first store of the company was opened up in November of 2000 and it was aimed by the company to also function as a social and community hub allowing people to come together and learn and discuss issues related to physical aspects as well as the mental aspects for…
Blais, Steven. Business Analysis. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley, 2012. Print.
Cadle, James et al. Business Analysis. Swindon: BCS Learning & Development Limited, 2014. Print.
http://www.lululemon.com ,. "Manufacturing." N.p., 2016. Web. 11 Feb. 2016.
Investor.lululemon.com,. "Lululemon Athletica, Inc. - Annual Report." N.p., 2016. Web. 11 Feb. 2016.
S. is the world's leading producer of pornographic media. The Reagan dministration was obsessed with prosecuting pornographers, and eventually convicted one of the industry's earliest producers, a man named Reuben Sturman, on charges of tax evasion. Ironically, the dministration claimed to worship dam Smith and free enterprise -- except, of course, when it conflicted with its ideals of Christian morality.
Republican administrations have felt less uncomfortable with the prospect of illegal labor, as Schlosser's chronicles of the conditions of strawberry pickers illustrate. Children, men, and women work at the back-breaking labor for $6.75-$10 a day (Schlosser 2003, p. 92). gain, hypocrisy is evident -- the same right-wing advertisers who created the Willie Horton ad campaign that defeated Michael Dukakis have fought unionization of the migrant workers, and local authorities have refused to set up low-income housing (Schlosser 2003, p. 106). The market rewards only efficiency, Schlosser muses: "every other human…
Attitudes about sexuality are even more hypocritical. For example, the United States has some of the strictest rules in the world about what can be said and shown on television, yet the U.S. is the world's leading producer of pornographic media. The Reagan Administration was obsessed with prosecuting pornographers, and eventually convicted one of the industry's earliest producers, a man named Reuben Sturman, on charges of tax evasion. Ironically, the Administration claimed to worship Adam Smith and free enterprise -- except, of course, when it conflicted with its ideals of Christian morality.
Republican administrations have felt less uncomfortable with the prospect of illegal labor, as Schlosser's chronicles of the conditions of strawberry pickers illustrate. Children, men, and women work at the back-breaking labor for $6.75-$10 a day (Schlosser 2003, p. 92). Again, hypocrisy is evident -- the same right-wing advertisers who created the Willie Horton ad campaign that defeated Michael Dukakis have fought unionization of the migrant workers, and local authorities have refused to set up low-income housing (Schlosser 2003, p. 106). The market rewards only efficiency, Schlosser muses: "every other human value gets in the way," in the case of these workers (Schlosser 2003, p. 108).
It is especially interesting to read this book in light of the recent failures of the free market system to regulate itself. Supposedly, the dangers and costs of illegal enterprises should be too great for the producers -- yet these industries remain wildly popular, and laws have proved ineffective in curtailing their growth. This is partially due to the powerful nature of the demand for drugs, sexuality, and money, but also because of the piecemeal nature of legislation designed to curb 'vices.' On one hand, big tobacco supports candidates in Congress, while Congress passes stringent laws regarding the drug trade in marijuana. On one hand, pornography is condemned and limited through zoning legislation, yet it is widely available on the internet. On one hand, businesses grow rich because of the low wages they pay illegal workers, yet the politicians who support tax breaks for those businesses are also vociferously anti-immigration. Schlosser selects three, seemingly unrelated industries and demands that Americans look at all of them through the same lens, and confront America's collective, blind hypocrisy.
"As a case in point we may take the known fact of the prevalence of reefer and dope addiction in Negro areas. This is essentially explained in terms of poverty, slum living, and broken families, yet it would be easy to show the lack of drug addiction among other ethnic groups where the same conditions apply." Inciardi 248()
Legalizing drugs has been deemed to have many socio-economic effects. A study that was conducted by Jeffrey a. Miron, who was a Harvard economist estimated that by legalizing drugs, this would inject about $76.8 billion in to the U.S. every year. 44.1 billion dollars would come from savings made from the law enforcement measures and 32.7 billion would be from tax revenue. This revenue can be thought to be broken down as follows: 6.7 billion dollars from marijuana, 22.5 billion from heroin and cocaine and the rest from the other…
Blumenson, Eric, and Eva S. Nilsen. How to Construct an Underclass, or How the War on Drugs Became a War on Education. Massachusetts: Drug Policy Forum of Massachusetts, 2002. Print.
Campos, Isaac. "Degeneration and the Origins of Mexico's War on Drugs." Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 26.2 (2010): 379-408. Print.
Chabat, Jorge. "Mexico's War on Drugs: No Margin for Maneuver." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 582.ArticleType: research-article / Issue Title: Cross-National Drug Policy / Full publication date: Jul., 2002 / Copyright © 2002 American Academy of Political and Social Science (2002): 134-48. Print.
Council on Hemispheric Affairs. "Low Taxation Perpetuates Insecurity in Central America." 2011. May 5th 2012. .
Involved people in these illegal transfers take advantage of institutional weaknesses and corruption to achieve their objectives.
One of the constant features found along the research is the weak handling of systematic information by the state authorities, especially from the police bodies. At the same time, the lack of channels that facilitate the free access to information about official proceedings make it difficult for the citizens to take part in solving the problem (ibid.).
The borders' porosity is another risk for democracy because bordering zones are strategic spaces for different illicit traffics which look to be controlled by organized crime. Internationalization of crime and its organization structures represent a problem for national security and for the region's stability.
Illegal traffic of fire arms is associated with other illicit traffics which are complemented mainly with drug traffic. Economic resources generated with those actions at the sideline of law are higher than…
Camacho, Daniel Avila . " Interrelationship between Drug Trafficking and the Illicit Arms Trade."
Unidir.org. Unidir.org, 2012. Web. 9 Apr 2012. .
Cullinan, Jeanna . "Latin American Leaders Demand Action on Illicit Arms Trafficking ."
According to Burrow, Verard and Kleindl (2007), "a market economy is an economic system in which individual buying decisions in the marketplace together determine what, how, and for whom goods and services will be produced." Hence in any hypothetical pure market economy, the government of the day does not take an active role in deciding what products the citizenry should buy and in what quantities. A pure market economy is however taken to be a theoretical ideal. Burrow, Verard and Kleindl (2007) on the other hand note that "a command economy is an economic system in which a central planning authority, under the control of the country's government, owns most of the factors of production and determines what, how, and for whom goods and services will be produced." In such an economic system, the government of the day largely dictates the mode of utilization of the various factors of…
Baumol, W.J. & Blinder, A.S. (2011). Economics: Principles and Policy. Cengage Learning.
Burrow, J.L., Everard, K.E. & Kleindl, B. (2007). Business Principles and Management. Cengage Learning.
Europe's more liberal drug policies are not the right model for America.
Most non-violent drug users get treatment, not jail time. (Legalization, 2010).
There are no benefits for society in the legalization of marijuana. The money from the taxing of the marijuana will end up being use to regulate and enforce the dispensaries. The money to treat the addiction will be another source of lost revenues from the taxation.
Increased usage by underage teens will be the same as cigarettes and alcohol and will increase as the price drops as it did in the Dutch experiment. Kids will be introduced onto the drug culture that leads to the use of the harder narcotics as a result of the increased access to the marijuana. The benefits will be just moved from one area to other areas of criminalization.
DEA website. 2010. etrieved on May 10,…
DEA website. 2010. Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/features/jan-june01/drugs_marijuanaharm.html
"Feature: Hundreds of Los Angeles Medical Marijuana Dispensaries Face Closure Under New Rules Passed by Council" 2010. Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from http://stopthedrugwar.org/chronicle/618/los_angeles_medical_marijuana_dispensary_ordinance_approved
Joffe, a. & Yancy, W. "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth." 2004. PEDIATRICS Vol. 113 No. 6 June 2004, pp. e632-e638. Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/113/6/e632
"Legalization- Arguments Pro and Con." 2010 Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from http://www.libraryindex.com/pages/2395/Legalization-ARGUMENTS-PRO-CON.html