The problem, first posed by an Italian monk in the late 1400s, had remained unsolved for nearly two hundred years. The issue in question was to decide how the stakes of a game of chance should be divided if that game were not completed for some reason. The example used in the original publication referred to a game of balla where six goals were required to win the game.
If the game ended normally, the winner would take all. But what if the game stopped when one player was in the lead by five goals to three? In seeking a solution to the problem, Pascal entered into correspondence with the lawyer and mathematician Pierre de Fermat. Between the two of them they laid the foundations of modern probability theory. hat Fermat and Pascal realized was that the solution came from listing all of the possibilities and then counting the proportion…… [Read More]
"On the fact that the Christian religion is not the only religion. -- So far is this from being a reason for believing that it is not the true one that, on the contrary, it makes us see that it is so. Men must be sincere in all religions; true heathens, true Jews, true Christians." (Penesees, 589-590, Section IX)
3. Pascal's orders of body, mind and heart suggestively signify the strength and weakness of mankind. Pascal defines man's body as the brute, having been created in the likeness of God but completely different from His other creatures. Man continually focuses on himself as the center of his study. Yet it is an endless task that cannot be undertaken in full satisfaction. The mind has brought reasons, postulating theories and mathematical equations, but as Pascal concludes that in comprehension all of these are limited. oth body and mind experiences lust thus…… [Read More]
A Biography on Blaise Pascal
Blaise Pascal was born in France in the region of Auvergne in the town of Clermont-Ferrand in 1623. He came from a Catholic family, not surprising since France was known in the Middle Ages as the Eldest Daughter of the Church (Coulumbe, 2012). Religion, like science and math, was very important to Pascal and his family. Indeed, his father had expressed many of the same interests that motivated Blaise—so the apple did not fall far from the tree with respect to the scholarly direction that Blaise’s life took as he grew up. However, his health was never very robust, and Blaise Pascal only lived to be 39. Nonetheless, by the time of his death, he had made important contributions in all three areas of interest—religion, science and math. His most famous works include Pensees and Provincial Letters. Pensees was a philosophical-theological work that examined the…… [Read More]
The human condition is one of suffering and redemption. One who does not suffer is not human. Death and the withering away of youth and vitality explicitly demonstrates the entropic nature of existence. This situation is problematic for the rationale mind. No universally accepted system of navigating the death sentence, known has human existence, has sufficiently explained the quandary. Blaise Pascal, the renowned 17th century mathematician and philosopher, in his unfinished and fragmented collection of thoughts gathered in his "Pensees" presented a basic and mathematically-based solution to living a life according to greater purpose.
Within the Pensees, Pascal introduced mathematical proofs to the utility in accepting and living by a religious and hierarchal system. This idea is commonly referred to as Pascal's gamble. The argument states that it is better to believe and act accordingly to a dogmatic understanding of God due to the great benefits of the…… [Read More]
Pascal's Triangle [...] who really invented Pascal's Triangle. hile the mathematical formula known as "Pascal's Triangle" has long been attributed to its' namesake, Blaise Pascal, this is not really the case. The formula was simultaneously discovered centuries before Pascal by the Chinese and the Persians, so it seems, and it was even mentioned by Omar Khayyam centuries before Pascal's existence. hy has the formula been attributed to Pascal? There are no simple answers, but Pascal, one of the world's most famous mathematicians, was the first "modern" mathematician to realize the true potential of the formula and use it accordingly, and so, it still bears his name.
ho Invented Pascal's Triangle?
The mathematical formula known as "Pascal's Triangle" has long been attributed to the great mathematician and philosopher, Blaise Pascal, who lived in France during the 17th century. Pascal only lived to be thirty-nine years old, but during his lifetime, he…… [Read More]
All human beings are, however, impure and imperfect, which does not make it very difficult to rise above the rest in terms of self-perceived perfection. In comparison to God, however, this changes. The human being who is never dissatisfied with him- or herself, however, never becomes aware that there is a contrast to be made with God.
This is what Calvin appears to mean by piety. People with true knowledge of themselves as imperfect and unholy in comparison with God are those who are most pious. They are aware that there are imperfections to be addressed and aspire to do so by contemplating the nature of Gold. Instead, impious and hypocritical human beings are never aware that there is much wrong with them. They create a type of cycle by only contemplating other human beings to compare with themselves. By doing this, they become aware only of their excellence and…… [Read More]
The Jansenists were condemned by the pope in 1653 and 1713. Characteristic beliefs of the school included "the idea of the total sinfulness of humanity, predestination, and the need for Christians to rely upon a faith in God which cannot be validated through human reason. Jansenism often, but it continued to have a strong following among those who tended to reject papal authority, but not strong moral beliefs" ("Jansenism," About.com, 2008).
After his final conversion, Pascal moved to the Jansenist monastery in Port Royal. He had already convinced his younger sister to move to the nunnery in the same location. It was there he penned the work that would contain his famous wager, the famous Pensees. He continued to live at the monastery until his death in 1662, worn out, it was said, "from study and overwork," although later historians think that tuberculosis stomach cancer was the likely culprit (Ball…… [Read More]
The question arising from this claim is whether evidence exists to prove that there exists an infinitely good, powerful, and wise God where morality naturally emerges. Humes argues that is hard to imagine that an all-good, powerful God exists in this world full of pain and misery. From these claims, one can argue that this insight, or God, has both evil and good, as is present in man if man is in God's image and likeliness.
Immanuel Kant: from the Critique of Pure Reason, the Good Will and the Categorical Imperative, the Postulates of Practical Reason
Kant believes that the vigorous application of same methods of reasoning can yield to an equal development in dealing with the issues of moral philosophy. Kant proposes a list of categories of Freedom in Relation to the concept of good vs. evil. Kant uses logical distinction as the basis for the catalog. Even though…… [Read More]
However, he reconciles these opposite views in what he designs as the new religion for man:
hile he knew that a collapse and ricorso of Vico's type into a "divine" and "barbaric" epoch was possible, he did not regard any such colossal disaster as necessary or likely. He put hope above fear, and positive over negative. He seems to have foreseen a historical transformation similar to the change from Hellenic to "Hellenistic" in ancient civilization, which, in the Roman Empire, finally did collapse into such a barbaric ricorso, or cycle. European and "estern" phases of civilization have not yet experienced Spengler's or Toynbee's "Roman paradigm" of orld State and orld Religion, and Ortega trusted that such a horrible outcome could be forever avoided by a kind of federal world order built on the model of the European Union." (Graham, 2001, p.504)
Thus, Ortega y Gasset's main attempt is to create…… [Read More]
Who is the self, and what is the self? These are among the most discussed and controversial questions in philosophy. This essay will aim to answer these questions. I will first give an analysis of what I define the self to be. I will then connect my analysis to parts of Blaise Pascal's Pensees as well as to Soren Kierkegaard's Sickness unto Death. It will be argued that the self is a spirit. As a spirit, the self should be detached from all objective factors because the objective world is not a good indicator for defining the self. Objectivity is a good indicator to define what the natural world is and how it is experienced, but it is impossible to define the self in an objective way because the self is always defining the self.
I was resting on my bed and profoundly thinking about what my understanding of…… [Read More]
History Of Communication Timeline
TIMELINE: HITORY OF COMMUNICATION
(with special reference to the development of the motorcycle)
First paleolithing "petroglyphs" and written symbols. This is important in the history of communication because it marks the first time humans left a recorded form of communication. Also, these written symbols became the ultimate source of later alphabets.
Cave paintings at Lascaux show early representational art. This is important in the history of communication because the caves depict over 2000 figures, including abstract symbols. More recent research suggests these may record astronomical information.
OURCE: Wikipedia, "Lascaux."
First surviving umerian pictograms demonstrate a primitive form of record keeping. This is important in the history of communication because pictograms, together with ideograms, represent a primitive form of writing, in which a symbol either means what it looks like, or represents a single idea.
OURCE: Wikipedia, "Pictogram."
3300…… [Read More]
Relationship of Certainty to God From Descartes Compare ith Gassedi, Pascal, and Spinoza
The French philosopher Rene Descartes was one of the most transformational figures of his time and his work is now considered one of the pillars of modern estern philosophy. Descartes was the first to eloquently describe the issues that are related to the problem of how the mind and brain function, how they are related, and the mysterious connection that exists that provides the foundation in which human consciousness can exist. Descartes was also skeptical of many of the assumption that were previously taken for granted as truth. For example, Descartes was unsure of how reliable the human senses were at providing reliable interpretations of whatever the external reality that exists happens to be.
Descartes skepticism of the senses serves as a critical component of his overall worldview and how he believed that the external environment and…… [Read More]
In ancient China, the science of mathematics was subsumed under the larger practice of suan chu, or the "art of calculation." The Chinese are believed to be one of the first civilizations to develop and use the decimal numeral system. Their early mathematical studies have influenced science among neighboring Asian countries and beyond.
This paper examines the history of mathematical knowledge in China. It looks at the early Chinese achievements in the field of mathematics, including the decimal system, calculation of pi, the use of counting aids and the application of mathematical principles to everyday life. It also examines the influence of Indian and later, European mathematical knowledge into Chinese mathematics.
Unlike the ancient Greeks who prized knowledge for its own sake, much of the scientific studies conducted in ancient China were spurred by practical everyday needs. Because of its geographic location, China was prone to…… [Read More]
Miracles: When Faith Contradicts Reason
Theologians, and philosophers alike, have traditionally sought to bring out the relationship between reason and faith. This they have done in an attempt to clarify the link between the two terms or points-of-view -- an undertaking that involves the determination of how agents are supposed to respond to assertions drawn from either perspective, within the context of rationality. A number of scholars are of the belief that reason and faith cannot yield conflicting outcomes, if each one is understood, and used in the right circumstances. Others hold the contrary opinion; conflicts between the two will always arise. The issue, in this regard, has always been 'which one, between the two, should prevail when a conflict arises?' Some advocate for the prioritizing of reason, and others, faith. Others, however, in appreciation of the different contexts within which the two are applicable, hold the view that, reason…… [Read More]
Believe About God
Looking at the atheist worldview on believe about God as a myth that people have invented to make them feel better we tend to find out whether it is impossible to have a high moral character without belief in God.
As I was getting settled into my set for a very long plane ride home a was I got to know that the person next to me was a devoted atheist who believed that God is a myth that people have invented to make them feel better, he asked me what I believed about God. Since iam a Christian I believe that God is real, the creation the origin of life and the universe gives me a concrete reason to believe in God instead of seeking real answers. Another thing is the idea of loving God is sweet and the idea that there is eternal life.…… [Read More]
emification Of Worldviews
Mortimer j.Alder an American philosopher an intellect and a person of remarkable wisdom did not believe that education should be determined by social engineering but unchanging standards of truth.
What Alder was trying to say?
Mortimer Alder in his statement "more consequences for thought and action follow affirmation of denial of God than from answering any other basic question" was trying to point out an argument about existence of God, he tries to point out that it is important to understand the issues that surrounds the seriousness of the truth that are made and the amount of evidence required to make conclusions. Since belief in atheism could possibly result in irreparable consequences, therefore the theist should be given chance to produce concrete evidence to support their position. He tried to say that atheism simply evades the test of evidence with their fingers crossed and they hope…… [Read More]
According to Toronto Star reporter Stephan Handelman in an article printed in 2005, the U.S. senior intelligence analysts consider China to be the greatest long-term threat to U.S. stability. China's military force and computer intelligence has reached its peak. Both the Europeans and the U.S. agree that the expansion of the Chinese military is more than "worrisome."
Another article posted on November 16, 2007 by the Washington Post claims that spying by China in the United States is the biggest threat keeping American technologies secret. Advances by the Chinese military are catching U.S. intelligence officials by surprise. It has also been suggested that the U.S. Department of Defense could inadvertently outsource the manufacturing of key weapons and military equipment to China. China is attempting to reverse its move into free markets by setting up state-owned enterprises and control over the 12 major industries, which include oil, telecommunications, shipping, automobiles, steel…… [Read More]
Ultimately, the it industry is already a constant presence within the lives of the modern day individual and it is expected to become even more preponderant in the years to come. The advertising organization as such does not afford not to penetrate the industry. If the company continually declines opportunities to advertise in the Information Technology and Communications industry, it would soon come to operate in a niche sector in which its chances for not only development, but very survival, would be significantly restricted.
Bangia, ., 2008, Computer fundamentals and information technology, Firewall Media
Broerrsma, M., 2003, Critics delay vote on EU intellectual property rights, ZD Net, http://www.zdnet.co.uk/news/regulation/2003/11/19/critics-delay-vote-on-eu-intellectual-property-law-39117998 / last accessed on March 11, 2011
Niles, N.J., 2010, Basics of the U.S. health care system, Jones & Bartlett Learning
2005, Market share, Info Tech Trends, http://www.infotechtrends.com/marketshare.htm last accessed on March 11, 2011
2010, 2010 it industry economic outlook looking…… [Read More]
Put us in the air and we can't do anything should anything happen to the plane. We, as humans, cannot fly on our own.
A: Chapter eight also talks about assessing intelligence and there are many ways to do so. Intelligence, however, doesn't just refer to more analytical type of thinking. In the article "Emotional intelligence: A promise unfulfilled?" authors Matthew, Zeidner and oberts (2012) discuss how emotional intelligence is a fairly new construct in differential psychology. There are many proponents of this construct and they have made powerful arguments for emotional intelligence's importance in both basic and applied psychology (2012).
Emotional intelligence is a bit different than what we might normally think of as intelligence. It is a collection of aptitudes, skills and competencies for dealing with emotions and emotional encounters (Matthew et al. 2012). Perhaps one of the reasons emotional intelligence isn't considered much -- or when it…… [Read More]
This monument is intended to commemorate the brilliance and courage and integrity of Giordano Bruno. It consists of a life-size bronze figure tied to a vertical wooden stake behind him. His face is angry but focused as though he is staring into the eyes of those who murdered him for being right. Bronze flames surround him and reach almost up to his neck. At his feet is a flat stone bearing the inscription of what Bruno was said to have responded to the judges after they pronounced him guilty of heresy and sentenced him to death: Maiori forsan cum timore sententiam in me fertis quam ego accipiam along with the English translation "Perhaps you pronounce this sentence against me with greater fear than I receive it."
Behind Bruno is a representation of the Milky Way galaxy depicted against a background of many similar galaxies that are smaller because they are…… [Read More]