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Bloom's Taxonomy: Nursing Education
Like most areas of life, education has increased in complexity. Many new philosophies and a deeper understanding of the human mind have brought about a myriad new ways to educate students for their future lives and careers. Further complicating this is the fact that not all students respond uniformly to the same educational system or method. In addition, specific areas of study and their related professions have seen changes in focus and value systems, which need to be taken into account in the classroom. This is also true of nursing education. For this reason, Bloom's taxonomy of education has been found to apply well in terms of the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills required in nursing excellence.
The first domain of Bloom's taxonomy is the cognitive (Jones and Bartlett Publishers, n.d., p. 101). The focus of this domain is learned facts, including recall and recognition of…… [Read More]
Bloom's Taxonomy is a way of evaluating educational goals as they relate to student performance. The taxonomy was developed originally as more of a measurement tool, to serve as a common language about learning goals to help individuals communicate ideas pertaining to subject matter and grade levels. The idea was that this common language would serve to facilitate a basis for determining a particular curriculum, and the alignment of objectives, activities, and assessments (Krathwohl, 2002).
According to Halawi, McCarthy, and Pires (2009) Bloom, Englehart, Furst, Hill, and Krathwohl categorized learning into three domains of behavior, cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. Bloom further categorized these domains into simple and complex classifications. The cognitive domain deals with the recall or recognition of knowledge and the development of intellectual abilities and skills. The affective domain concerns changes in interest, attitudes, and values, and the development of appreciations and adequate adjustment. The psychomotor domain encompassed…… [Read More]
Bloom's Taxonomy: Grading eading Comprehension
Bloom's Taxonomy offers a sequential method of grading a student's ability to comprehend a higher-level work of academic writing. According to Granello (2010), while she grants that the stages of the taxonomy are not absolutes, they are useful in painting a general portrait of how the "predominant skills and assumptions are perceived" by the teacher of the student's maturity and depth of perception (Granello 2001, 299).
The first stage of understanding is that of simple knowledge. For example, someone reading an article on Shakespeare should be able to understand that the main idea of the work was focused on the tragedy of Hamlet, and the specifics of the play. The second stage, comprehension, is the ability to understand and explain the main ideas of the work. Someone with only a rough knowledge of how to assimilate academic material often simply lists facts when trying to…… [Read More]
This last element of diversity education also creates a place for reflective teaching, which is also directly encouraged by an examination and application of Bloom's taxonomy of learning. Analyzing student achievement with an eye towards the improvements diversity education is expected to instill allows for a deeper analysis of the teaching methods and perspective being utilized. The direct application of Bloom's taxonomy in the development of lesson plans and activities also necessarily depends upon the questioning and analysis of teaching practices, and the constant reexamination of these practices as student achievement and progress provides feedback to the instructor. Producing higher order learning and interactions requires a constant conscious attention to the details of learning activities and levels of engagement, and this places the use of Bloom's taxonomy -- for increased diversity as well as other purposes -- squarely in the realm of reflective teaching.
The basic tenets…… [Read More]
Learning objectives help keep nursing students focused on the goals of their academic and professional careers. Using Bloom’s taxonomy, it becomes easier to identify the core competencies and underlying purpose of specific and general learning objectives. This paper reveals two specific and measurable personal learning objectives using Bloom’s taxonomy, linking those objectives to the overarching DNP learning objectives.
Learning Objectives Using Bloom’s Taxonomy
Bloom’s taxonomy has been described as a “framework for categorizing educational goals,” (Armstrong, 2017, p. 1). Although the original taxonomy was developed in the 1950s, a revised edition has been used since 2001. According to Armstrong (2017), the revised version of Bloom’s taxonomy offers “a more dynamic conception of classification,” (p. 1). Using action words, Bloom’s taxonomy encompasses the following elements: Remembering, Understanding, Applying, Analyzing, Evaluating, and Creating. Bloom’s taxonomy helps to define and clarify learning objectives for nurses.
Measurable Learning Objective: Explicate the Importance of…… [Read More]
The Old vs. the New Versions of Learning Classifications
The classification levels of intellectual behavior advocated by enjamin loom and his fellow educational psychologists in 1956 were listed as verbs (Atherton, 2013). In their time, intellectual behavior was seen as a formal and concrete accomplishment; hence, they were stated as nouns. They gave strongest recognition to knowledge, followed by comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and, last, analysis. loom's taxonomy classifies learning objectives, which he and his team considered important in learning. His former student, Anderson, modified this concept in the 90s. First, he and his team changed the objectives from nouns to verbs, to mean that learning is an act -- which is never complete -- rather than an accomplishment that is final and complete (Atherton).
Anderson's new version gives the highest recognition to remembering, then to understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating, in that order (Atherton, 2015). It also places…… [Read More]
Valuing: A range of acceptance that is placed on the information being received.
Organization: this is the organizing of the values by contrasting differing values.
Internalizing Values: This has to do with the learners value system and how the learner assigns value.
The Psychomotor category includes physical aspects of movement, as well as coordination in movement. There were not subcategories in the Psychomotor development category.
Critics of loom:
There are those critics who claim that loom's taxonomy lacks comprehensiveness in certain areas and other claim that it is altogether too narrow as it has not included all of the necessary learning outcomes that are expected in schools. loom maintains that lack of physical as well as mental growth early in life is a permanent loss, but Tanner (1963) 'found evidence that even when physical growth is severely student for a time by malnutrition or illness, the organism has a target-seeking…… [Read More]
Ideally, faculty would also engage in an ongoing effort to speak their students' languages.
Active, inquiry-based, and cooperative learning are central components in authentic education. Students must engage in constructive, multi-modal, and multi-dimensional activities in order to fully understand the curriculum and the learning process. Thematic, multi-sensory learning stations throughout classrooms provide students such opportunities. Quiet study areas and objects reflecting student interests also encourage meaningful learning. Activities that allow students to explore their learning styles enhance educational experiences and bolsters academic success. In addition, displays of community, school, and classroom pride encourage self-esteem and responsibility. Student-generated goals serve this end.
Instructors may also post the learning pyramid in order to make students aware of the various levels of thinking. With such an obvious display to act as a reminder, this undoubtedly would benefit teachers as they plan units and lessons. Logically, learning must take place at all levels of…… [Read More]
On the lowest tier "Knowledge" from Bloom's taxonomy was changed to "remembering." The two upper tiers were also adjusted synthesis was changed to evaluating and evaluation to creating. Anderson's work privileges the creative ability. This is a consistent reflection of the contemporary need for creative thinking to be applied to complex and complicated problems.
The structural changes moved the original one dimensional taxonomy to a two dimensional construct. There is an expression of the types of knowledge that can be learnt as well as the processes that can also be learnt. This change advocates that the cognitive experience involves not only the apprehension of knowledge but also an understanding of accompanying processes. It also alludes to the possibility that individuals could have knowledge but be unaware of processes. This is a logical improvement over the original Bloom formulation and provides greater analytical tools for identifying and expressing learning outcomes.
The…… [Read More]
Nursing Education Assessment Project
Coursework early in a nursing education program covers a broad range of topics and extensive amount of details must be committed to memory. Assessments that are directly tied to coursework are primarily formative assessments, which demonstrate the ongoing learning over the period of the course. Formative assessments generally take the form of quizzes and clinical demonstrations of a particular knowledge set recently covered in during a class or classes. ummative assessments are generally used at the end of a course to assess the overall learning that has taken place during the course; summative assessments include final exams or tests, practicum demonstrations, and capstone projects.
The focus of this assessment project is a formative criterion-referenced test of general, fundamental nursing education knowledge. The items used in the test are included in Appendix A -- Nursing Education -- Fundamental Concepts. Twelve individuals were approached to take the exam…… [Read More]
nursing development class. The theme of Stroke and brain injury will be continued to be used in order to highlight how an instructive class may be developed, instituted and assessed. This essay will discuss the learning objectives and present their delivery in a form that outlines basic teaching and learning principles that reflect the essence of healing and the professional medical community.
Class Need Assessment
Evaluating the learning for this class will come in different stages. The first half of the class is based on the cognitive and basic knowledge skills that nurses need to have to identify the important factors dealing with stroke. This knowledge can be assessed with a simple testing procedure that quizzes the student on their knowledge using multiple choice questions and answers. The second half of the instruction is more hands on and requires the students to perform their job in a simulated activity of…… [Read More]
An alternative assessment strategy that I would use is the idea spinner. The idea spinner would allow me to engage students in both a group and individual basis. I would modify the idea spinner slightly during a group setting by making it more group oriented. In this way each member of the group would be encouraged to participate rather than relying on a sole member.
With the idea spinner, I would create 4 distinct quadrants. The contents of the quadrant will vary depending on the subject matter being discussed. In general, the quadrants will ask students to "Predict, summarize, evaluate, or explain" a particular subject matter. As the moderator of this activity, I will be careful to guide the activity in a manner that allows all students to learn even if they were not selected to participate in spinner activity. For example, if a student participating in the spinner…… [Read More]
Similarly, there is no way to ensure 100% job satisfaction with every employee all the time. One can only cross-train, communicate, work on a job extension and stretch plan, and use every potential resource available to allow the employee to self-actualize. Change is frightening to some, but with perserverance, tenacity, and commitment, our organization will be stronger because of it. Further, effectiveness within an organization is a measure of how effective the organization is in achieving the outcomes or goals it has for itself. An organization's effectiveness is also interdependent upon its set of morals, ethics, and ability to community appropriately. Effectiveness is important in different ways for different organizations because of the criteria used to judge (e.g. A non-profit aid group might have a different benchmark than a new accounting firm). It is sometimes difficult for an organization to be effective due to external factors, lack of clear definition…… [Read More]
" (Simon, 188) the fundamental perspective here is that leadership and the ability to apply actions based on culturally driven decisions are central to helping members of the organization learn in a concrete manner how best to accord with the reigning culture.
In order for this to occur though, there must be a certain initial scrutiny and selectiveness where leadership and personnel are concerned, endorsing an organization-wide emphasis on the quality of personnel. This implicitly brings us to consideration of the application phase in terms of learning organizational culture, which is inevitably associated to all actionable aspects of an organization's structure and operations. The correlation between recruitment, personnel makeup and leadership personalities is perhaps threaded by the common string of day-to-day responsibility within an organizational culture. And quite certainly, we see the stamp of organizational culture on so many of the most important applicable indicators. Schein, to this end, points…… [Read More]
Moreover, Hill reports that he used to spend 16 hours a week lecturing, and now he uses that time to mentor students individually. Thus while Hills may still be putting in the same amount of hours, his students, who are only mentored for minutes at a time each day, are bound to be happy about the reduced investment of their own time. While Hills does state that those students who were not willing to work hard and show progress "phased themselves out" he does not provide any real evidence that the reason for his system's popularity was based on the pride of personal achievement as opposed to taking an 'easier road'.
Identification of At Least Two Problems or Strengths
Starting with the positive, the main strength of this article (and its content) is that it provides ideas for developing helpful evaluation and tracking tools for teachers to measure student progress.…… [Read More]
Digital Camera: Lesson Plan
Students will learn how to use a digital camera in an age-appropriate way.
Students will be able to identify steps in using a digital camera.
Students will be able to identify parts of a digital camera necessary for use.
Students will be able to describe camera.
Students will understand special uses for digital camera -- why it is different from other varieties of cameras.
Students will be able to use digital camera to creatively express themselves, within their own personal desires and artistic limits, abilities, and desires.
Include the grade or age level of the students to be tested.
Grade five, ages 9-11.
Describe the unit of instruction.
Introducing hands-on learning methods in the visual arts and computer science.
List the five objectives again, and to the right of each specify the level of Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Skills to which it corresponds.
Students will be…… [Read More]
In forty-five hours of teaching percussion, I have learned to apply various learning theories to my work. I believe a greater understanding of these theories has improved my pedagogy and enhanced communications and interpersonal connections with my students, who are both male and female and range in age from child to adult. The purpose of this paper is to reflect on my own learning experience as a teacher, including application of learning theories, effective communication techniques, use of formative and summative assessments, and incorporating language literacy and numeracy in the lessons. By reflecting on the teaching experience, I hope to gain insight that will inform my approach in the future and help me better meet the needs of all my students.
For many of my students, I use the London College of Music series that has a graded course (1-8) for drum kit. Each handbook includes…… [Read More]
At times, even though the research may be complicated by varying definitions of homelessness, researchers are establishing methods for estimating the size of the homeless population, which includes people who have nowhere to go; at risk of losing housing through eviction or institutional discharge (Drury, 2008).
Case Study Methodology
In the case study methodology, a form of qualitative descriptive research, according to M. Dereshiwsky (1999) in "Electronic Textbook - Let Us Count the Ways: Strategies for Doing Qualitative esearch," the researcher using the case study methodology does not focus on discovering a universal, generalizable truth, nor do the researcher generally search for cause-effect relationships. Instead, the researcher emphasizes the exploring and describing process. As the researcher examines one individual or small participant pool, he/she then draws conclusions only about that one particular participant or group; only in the designated, specific context Case Studies 2008).
In considering or defining the case…… [Read More]
The first affect would be for the educator to want to implement the technique within their own classroom setting, which is the intent of the article. The reader then would have to research the issue further to see if this particular method of instruction was successful in other classroom settings and seek to adapt the method to their own classroom and subject matter. Finally the reader would have to present this article and a procedure of implementation to their administration for approval.
The second reaction could be the opposite one. The reader may notice the problems presented above and decide not to implement the procedure as demonstrated. They may also decide to modify it in a way that would allow for them to have success in their own classroom settings.
Anderson, John C., ungtusanatham Manus, Schroeder oger G. "A Theory of Quality Management Underlying Deming's Management Model." (1994) Academy…… [Read More]
I have used many different types of assessments in my classes in the past. I would use student self-assessment, portfolio assessment, observational (informal) assessment, and formal assessment such as tests, quizzes and exams. I felt that the more varied your assessment methods, the more reflective of the student’s overall abilities the score at the end would be. Student self-assessments allow students a chance to review their work on their own and judge their performance; it promotes active engagement with their work instead of passive engagement with whatever assessment the teacher gives. Portfolio assessments are good because they allow the student to gather the best work over a period of time and see how they are developing. Observational assessment is good for developing a sense of the student’s skills in an informal way, the student’s participation level, the student’s methods of interaction and communication, etc. Formal assessment is good…… [Read More]
Schools are pressed in terms of their funding, and cannot always provide as much individualized education as is necessary to help students in the classroom.
The results of this study support the notion that preschool intervention can be extremely valuable for helping children with autism, even before the children enter kindergarten. Unfortunately, early intervention programs are struggling to find financial support even more so than standard public schools. Furthermore, children who lack economic resources may not be diagnosed adequately by parents and physicians at an early enough age to fully benefit from treatment and may receive less individualized treatment in their school environment.
Early interventions for 'challenged' children has consistently been shown to be valuable, and to 'pay off' in terms of the academic gains children are able to make, provided the students continue to receive support. The article's suggestion for an intervention was relatively simple, but it…… [Read More]
g. Johnny Appleseed for history, etc.). Read aloud, pass out a blank matrix and ask students to fill in the matrix with questions using Bloom's taxonomy -- at least two questions per heading.
Assessment: using a rubric, students can self-assess their work by switching papers with a partner and checking to see if the questions listed are appropriate for the taxonomy ladder. Once this is done, divide class into six groups, each group taking the "Expert Role" of one of the categories. The group will present their own definition of that category and give examples using one of the fruits used earlier -- not just asking, but answering and explaining why these questions are important.
Special Learners: Advanced students should use their favorite television program to fill in the matrix, paying special attention to the types of questions most frequently asked? Higher or lower level? Why? Slower students should work…… [Read More]
Standad maketing follow-up pocesses will be used to detemine whethe each taget maket undestood the specific content and context of the maketing communications initiatives diected to them. Suveys will addess the extent to which the intended messages managed to communicate the intended messages effectively and whethe those audiences made puchasing decisions based on the claity and effectiveness of those messages.
Standad maketing follow-up pocesses will be used to detemine how well customes believe the sevice met thei specific needs and expectations pospectively. Suveys will addess the extent to which the sevices they puchased met thei expectations and povided the benefits pomised and desied. Those mechanisms will also be used to collect infomation petaining to any desied changes o pefeences of customes in connection with thei futue patonage. Sevice packages, picing, and maketing changes will eflect the analysis of those data.
Standad maketing follow-up pocesses will be used…… [Read More]
Nurse Critical Thinking
Critical Thinking and Other Intellectual Skills: Documented Benefits and Skill Application in Nursing
There are many academic skills that are necessary for nursing students that also serve nurses well in professional practice. This paper will examine three such academic skills both in their general benefits to learners and professionals in all sectors and personally to my own advances in nursing knowledge and practice. Active reading, effective writing, and critical thinking skills are essential tools for helping one to properly take in, analyze, and communicate information in efficient and effective manners, and each of these individual thinking areas benefits the other two, as well. There are certain challenges that one might be face with in acquiring these skills, and I will detail my own personal challenges below following a general investigation of benefits and prior to a discussion of my application of these skills.
Psychologist Benjamin Bloom…… [Read More]
Again, if the students got it wrong, she will switch the pictures and compliment their efforts either way.
The teacher will then tell the students that while pizza can be all different types of thicknesses in America, in Italy it is usually very thin, almost like a cracker. She will also tell them that in America, pizza is usually round, but in Italy, it is often rectangular in shape. Once again, if the students got it wrong, she will switch the pictures, and compliment their efforts either way.
Lastly, the teacher will tell the children that pizza in America is often loaded with all kinds of crazy toppings, but in Italy, the toppings are much sparser and tend to be just vegetables. Sometimes they don't even have cheese. Again, if the students got it wrong, she will switch the pictures and compliment their efforts either way.
The last part of…… [Read More]
These various elements will allow everyone to show how well they comprehend the material and provide areas for identifying critical weaknesses. These insights will be used to improve performance and enhance their comprehension of different areas. (Walvoord, 2010)
Create a fully developed holistic rubric.
The best way to develop a holistic rubric is to use Bloom's Taxonomy. This is designed to promote the most effective areas of evaluating student performance (utilizing testing) and determining if a particular approach is producing results. This is achieved by concentrating on their ability to use cognitive skills. The most notable include: recalling key ideas, focusing on their understanding, application, creativity, evaluation and analysis of them. (Weil, 2004)
emembering the information is the most important part of helping a student to utilize the skills they are taught in the future. Understanding is when they can explain how it works in their own words. Application is…… [Read More]
Blueprint for Teaching Ethics in Nursing Practice
The development of a test blueprint is an important component in teaching practice just like architecture is to the building and construction industry. One of the major reasons for the development and use of a test blueprint in the teaching profession is the differences in understanding and perspectives of the term "test" by students and teachers alike. Moreover, teachers and students are increasingly likely to have differing opinions and expectations regarding the contents of a test. Therefore, teachers are increasingly faced with the task of preventing these misunderstandings about the nature of a test. A test blueprint is an important tool through which teachers make valid and reliable judgments regarding test scores before the test itself (Oermann & Gaberson, 2013, p.59). For this lesson plan on teaching ethics in nursing practice, tests administered to students will be based on the development of a…… [Read More]
Blueprint for Evaluating Patient Safety Competency in Nursing Students
Ever since the report To Err is Human was published in 2000 by Kohn and colleagues, healthcare stakeholders in Western countries have intensified reform efforts designed to increase patient safety. The report revealed that nearly 100,000 patients were dying annually from medical errors in the 1990s, a statistic that caught the attention of legislators, healthcare policymakers, clinicians, patients, and the general public. Additional research revealed that nurses were considered to be the source of most medical errors and also the best defense against errors, but nurses had little, if any, control over patient care planning (Lachman, 2007). Systems were therefore a major determinant of patient safety.
Patient safety and nursing ethics are also inseparable (Lachman, 2007, p. 401). While avoiding specific recommendations, provision three in the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics states that nursing professionals must protect the safety of…… [Read More]
By the same token to evaluate application would require if the employment of "critical thinking" is evident in a writing example (Wirth, 2004). This data is then used to make decisions regarding the effectiveness of teaching managerial material used to train students in how to analyze a case study example.
Though Bloom's taxonomy offers a guideline for measuring the success of a Knowledge Assessment there are other evaluations that may be more effective depending on the type of discipline.
The Function or value of a Knowledge Assessment is to appraise the student's ability to answer test questions. It is not to actually test the student. It is primarily a survey. Usually the KA is done at the beginning or end of the course to judge how well teachers were able to teach course content (Wirth, 2004). Much like a course evaluation.
This assessment was chosen because it allows the teacher…… [Read More]
" (nd) Adaptive leaders do not simply come up with something or make it up as they go but adaptive leaders "create from the base of intent, visions, goals, and personal preconditions that are fixed and unchanging." (yrum, nd) yrum goes further to state that adaptive leadership "requires courage, conviction, and faith in the capacity to work with others and make situations better. There are 'spiritual' dimensions of leadership that transcend logic and reason. Adaptive leadership certainly requires competency, but it also requires a genius of judgment and encounters unprecedented situations not as a passive victim but as an energetic and active creator. Adaptive leaders will capture people's attention, command their best energies..." (yrum, nd) yrum states that adaptive leaders give "old cliches a new meaning: "Success is a journey, not a destination"; "What matters most is where we are moving, not where we stand." (nd) yrum states that adaptive…… [Read More]
There seems to be an ongoing debate about the effects that computer and video games have on young people. One view holds that the violence they portray may desensitize and change behaviors for young people, the other that the skills necessary to be productive in a global environment can be enhanced through video gaming. Whether one is an avid gamer or not, many of the basic ideas in gaming, "particularly when combined with the guidance and support of an excellent teacher" assist in learning through patterns, exploration, extrapolation, higher-level thinking and critical approaches to a number of problems (e.g. what do I need to do to get to the next level? What kinds of strategies should I employee, etc.) (Bjerge, 2011).
In games like World of War craft, for instance, the goal is not just menace and mayhem, but strategies and tactics. One of the criticisms many have about…… [Read More]
Deconstruction of a Standard
The purpose of this deconstruction of a standard exercise was to unpack a standard, examine it critically and identify the key words to help determine the level of cognitive demand (based on Bloom’s Taxonomy). A review of the standard as a whole was conducted to identify the type of achievement target. The standard selected was the 9th Grade Mathematics Common Core Standard CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSS.IC.A.1. The achievement target for the standard was understanding (comprehension) and therefore the lesson targets focused on weighting the different cognitive demands according to the place in the process of understanding at which they occurred. This paper provides a Deconstructing a Standard Table and a Reflection of the process overall—including my reaction to the process, identification of specific professional development that may be needed in my building, and my role as a leader.
Keywords: common core standards, math standards, understanding 9th grade math…… [Read More]
hen establishing criteria for curriculum development the three domains should be used in such a manner as to make it a simple matter for students to understand what is expected. In a recent study the researchers discovered that it was "necessary to separate operationally the effects of tension in the cognitive and the affective domains,,because students reacted most productively not to the degree of difficulty and expectation in the course,,but to the quality of materials and activities." (Spielmann 2001-page 259)
If those two domains are adversely affected by poor research materials or activities that are not relevant to the subject, then one way to achieve a higher level of learning is to incorporate improved materials into the daily lesson plans. Using material that is current and relevant makes a lot of sense and piques the interest of most students.
In the case of the psycho-motor domain, the key to developing…… [Read More]
Blind Men and the Elephant
An Integrated Approach to learning
In contemporary psychology, learning is one of the key topics; however, defining it is a very complex thing. According to the general accepted definitions of learning, it is "understanding," "knowledge," or "comprehension" that is achieved with experience or practice. Due to the ill-defined terms such as mastery, comprehension, and knowledge that it contains, many psychologists would call this definition improper. ather, we choose a description of learning that refers apparent behavior changes. Gregory A. Kimble (1917-2006) suggested one of the popularly accepted definitions that describe learning as a comparatively lasting change in behavioral potentiality that happens due to reinforced practice (Kimble, as cited in Olson and Hergenhahn, 2013). Even though this meaning is well-liked, it is far from accepted across the world. Let's look at it more vigilantly before reviewing causes of disagreement over Kimble's description (Olson and Hergenhahn, 2013).…… [Read More]
Significant findings were that the survey revealed that "participants in any type of extracurricular activity were significantly more likely than non-participants to exercise and consume nutritious foods, to like school and do homework, and to express positive attitudes about self, peers, teachers, and parents. Involved students were less likely to skip school, get into fights, vandalize property, smoke cigarettes or marijuana, binge drink, or have sexual intercourse. Students who participate in sports are less likely to suffer depression than non-participants. "
3. The Involvement Principle:
Reported in the Journal of Higher Education (1995) the work entitled "The Other Curriculum: Out-of-Class Experiences with Student Learning and Personal Development" sought to understand the relationship between leadership and socialization skills in relation to the personal development that seemingly takes place during extracurricular activities. According to the author of this work George D. Kuh, graduates believe that participation in student's organizations, part-time work as…… [Read More]
Activity #1: Discuss the pros and cons of testing from two perspectives: (1) as a test-taker and (2) as a test-giver
From the point-of-view of the test-taker, the 'cons' of taking a test seem obvious. Besides the nerves and the fear of being put under pressure, from the test-taker's point-of-view being tested requires subjecting something quite unique, namely their individual human mind, to an objective test that cannot take into consideration adverse circumstances, from a lack of engagement with the material, poor teaching, or an eccentric learning style. Testing can thus discourage creativity and a sense of fun in learning for the test taker. Test can also encourage students to learn how to take a particular teacher's tests, rather than to truly learn and actively engage with the material on an individual basis like a research paper.
This is also the downside of testing from the teacher's perspective as…… [Read More]
Echo finally died of old age, and the raw emotion from the park rangers and zoologists just brought tears. Similarly, he thinks that now that he is older he can sift through the "B.S. In advertising and media hype," and enjoys such cynical, but rather realistic, portrays of modern society in Mad Men, Weeds, and Breaking Bad.
As far as personality development, Tom believes that children get a pretty good grounding from their parents and early school experiences. Concepts like empathy, morality, situational ethics, and reliability are built when one is young. However, that being said, Tom does not see himself as a rule follower like his parents. Both believed that if something said x in the rules, then x it was. They both also believed that a person should get a job and stay with that job until retirement. Tom has already had two careers, and estimates he will…… [Read More]
" T. he following illustration provides the characteristics of 'fully differentiated' and 'not differentiated' instruction in programs and classrooms.
Differences in Programs and Classrooms that are Differentiated and those which are not Differentiated
Source: Walker (nd) U.S. Department of Education Publication
Therefore, differentiated instruction may take many forms and may utilize various instructional methods in differentiation of instruction and includes those listed in the table above under the heading 'Differentiated'. Flexibility is 'key' in this pursuit and instruction that is 'reactive', 'fixed', or 'closed' is not differentiated because differentiated instruction is never characterized by any of these three elements. The work of aum and Nichols (2007) states that there are four keys to differentiation. Those four keys are as follows:
The teacher should know their students and themselves in their role of teacher;
The teacher should know their curriculum;
The teacher should develop effective differentiation strategies; and the teacher should…… [Read More]
Creative thinkers lead the way in nearly every field because they are willing to take intellectual risks, according to Kanar and Hopper. Risk-taking involves a leap of faith and even a willingness to fail. The creative thinker has an insatiable hunger for knowledge and understanding, and "does not take no for an answer," (Kanar and Hopper 51). However, creativity alone is insufficient for developing the type of mind that excels in fields like science and technology. Critical thinking is also crucial, because it provides the toolbox for analysis, learning, and intelligent comprehension. Ideally, analysis and invention combine in the dynamic individual.
According to Bloom's Taxonomy, there are six levels of learning including knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. These six levels of learning suggest that there are multiple approaches to solving a problem. A creative thinker knows that if one angle of thinking is not yielding results, that another…… [Read More]
Teaching Critical Thinking
Critical thinking has been explained as the capability to evaluate and assess information and facts. Critical thinkers establish important issues and concerns, construct them clearly, collect and examine pertinent data, make use of abstract concepts, contemplate open-mindedly, and also communicate efficiently with other individuals (Duron et al., 2006).
I recommend the following 4 teaching strategies to be the most relevant to critical thinking. (We will only discuss two in detail here):
Utilize higher order thinking questions during instruction and assessment
Teach the process
Adapt tasks and assessments
Incorporate games into lessons
Teaching Strategy 1: Utilize higher order thinking questions during instruction and assessment
"Teachers who have been great questioners inspire their learners, promote higher level thinking, support creativeness, as well as improve self-concept in their learners and also themselves." (Johnson, 1990)
Teaching that encourages critical thinking utilizes questioning methods that demand students to evaluate, synthesize, and also…… [Read More]
One very timely and cogent example of this is within the realm of Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDS). These systems are interactive computer programs designed to assist medical professionals in the analysis and diagnosis and provide greater health care options at a more cost effective rate. The raw data that is used is the knoweldge base -- raw statistics about populations, trends, demography, and individual indicators such as test results, measurments, vital statistics and symptomology. Then, the process moves into information in which the inference part of the program takes what may be disparate data and combines it into something that may have meaning for that particular situation or patient -- or may not -- thus saving medical personnel time pouring over chart data. Finally, usuing algorithims in machine learning (computers learn from past experiences and patterns) and artifical intelligence (computers make connections that were not always aapparent, the system…… [Read More]
Strategic Planning Management Health Systems
Two financial metrics that can be used to understand an organization's financial capabilities for strategic initiatives are the OI metrics and OA? The OI metrics address two measures which are resource investments and financial returns (Bloom, 2010). OI metrics contribute innovation management financial discipline and aid in protect and recognizing the worth of strategic initiatives, programs and the whole investment in modernization. Companies with extremely effective and well-organized marketing show much better levels of measurement aptitudes, with approximately half to three-quarters offering positive scores on their capabilities -- which is normally two to three times the levels described from the complete base of marketers (Cave, 2007). The capability to measure marketing performance and enhance the distribution of their marketing budget obviously allows these companies to accomplish and deliver more operational and well-organized marketing. There is a strong correlation among marketing efficiency and competence and the…… [Read More]
Problem Solving in Mathematics
GCSE or the General Certificate of Secondary Education is basically a system that is present in England, Northern Ireland and in Wales. In this system, a student is awarded an academic qualification based on the grades that they attain. The qualification that a person attains is equivalent to either a level 2 or Level 1 key skills qualification. Normally, a student can uptake as many subjects as he or she wants. However, different systems set a requirement for how many subjects or GCSEs a student must take. There is present an international system of IGCSE as well and these subjects can be up taken anywhere in the world. This was just a precise history of what exactly the GCSE system is all about. Interestingly enough, the GCSE system was not the first one of its kind. Prior to this, GCE and the English Baccalaureate System were…… [Read More]
Cognitive Strategies in Education
The purpose of this work is the first define metacognition and explain the four cognitive strategies of chunking, mnemonics, advance organizers and rehearsals and then to consider how each one might be useful in helping facilitate understanding of metacognition. Finally this work intends to create a sample lesson plan that represents the strategies.
Metacognition can be defined as the learner's awareness of the knowledge they possess as well as their ability in understanding, controlling and manipulating of their own metacognitive processes. Metacognitive skills are important both from an educational perspective and throughout the individual's life. Metacognition is a new field which has left theorists in a vague position in terms of conventional terminology. The primary factor in metacognition is the "conscious awareness" on the part of the individual in learning as to the learning taking place and their control of the learning process.
I.…… [Read More]
SS.912.E.1.Su.p - Recognize a budget plan that includes wages and essential expenses, such as food and housing. SS.912.E.1.Pa.p - Recognize a plan (budget) to save and spend money.
E. Big Ideas: Economics SS.912.E.1 - Understand the fundamental concepts relevant to the development of a market economy. Create and use a spreadsheet to analyze variables (e.g., 12-month budget, loan rates, science and math experiments, and investment portfolios); Prepare a short- and long-term personal budget; make expenditure, revenue and savings forecasts; maintain proper records.
2. STATEMENT of OBJECTIVE: (Use Bloom's Taxonomy. Inform students of what they will learn and how they will demonstrate that learning: describes what student will do, not the teacher; must be measurable; must be realistic with respect to time/resources.) Students will be able to: (Bloom's) create (product) and analyze a budget on a computer (content) for personal financial management by (Student Behavior) utilizing a sample budget, money principles,…… [Read More]
A BIEF synopsis of the Australian Blueberry Industry
Introductory Production Information
Australian and World production
Seasonal growth cycle
Native to North America, the blueberry, is also known as bilberries, whortleberries and hurtle berries, (Filippone 2006). The blueberry is a member of the Ericaceae, or Heather family and its growth was regulated by the indigenous peoples of North America (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada 2005). Blueberries are of the genus Vaccinium, which originates from the Latin word vacca, which means cow. Captain James Cook, circa late 1700s, noted in his records that cows really liked to eat this tasty berry (Filippone 2006). The first European settlers recognized these berries to be analogous to kinds of berries found in their land of birth. For example, there's the blaeberry which is found in Scotland, whortleberries in Ireland, bilberries in Denmark, blabar in Sweden,…… [Read More]
The story was filled with factual accuracy, while fictional, and vividly rich with images and characters that she and her father could picture with accurate detail. Romano tells us how Mariana finished the story with a young member of the family holding a roughly cut, wooden pony, and how when she gently finished the tale as he was in tears
Villanueva, Victor. Bootstraps: From an American Academic of Color. Urbana, Ill: National Council of Teachers of English. 1993. Print. This book an unusual book: at one level it is autobiographical, detailing the life of an American of Puerto Rican extraction from his childhood in New York City to an academic post at a university. At another level, Villanueva ponders his experiences in light of the history of rhetoric, the English Only movement, current socio- and psycholinguistic theory, and the writings of Gramsci and Freire, among others.
Zinsser, K. William. On…… [Read More]
Allowing the students to "choose" the lesson, both empowers them and allows them a more engaging learning experience.
Part 3 -- Questioning - Ineffective questioning typically asks for a rote memorization paradigm, as opposed to a more robust use of higher-level questions designed to go beyond the text and make the issue relevant, personal, and interesting. Instead, look at the learning target and formulate questions that will continually guide the students towards discovering answers -- not the answer. Use nonverbal clues such as nodding, eye contact, moving around the classroom. Continually ask students "why," or follow up on another student's answer with, "Mary thought this, in your situation, what would you say?" In effect, if the teacher can take Bloom's taxonomy of learning, and simply superimpose that on every lesson (certainly not using every issue every time), but more of a method of moving to evaluation, analysis, and synthesis; the…… [Read More]
rown lists 'labor intensive' strategies for differentiation to include those as follows:
Assessment, data analysis, and diagnosis;
Differentiated learning encounters;
Independent study. (rown, nd)
The work of Jahnine losser (2005) entitled: "Unit of Lessons: Safety in the Secondary Science Classroom" states that there is "a growing need to make all students understand science and the relevancy of science to their lives." losser notes that "many students learn differently from others and need a different instruction or enhanced instruction." (2005) losser states that a single classroom may contain "students who can read and comprehend at college level as well as those who have trouble simply decoding words." (citing Tomlinson, 1995) ecause of this it is "paramount that teachers use different strategies to reach and challenge all learners. Differentiated instruction can help a teacher do this." (losser, 2005) losser states that differentiated…… [Read More]
" May (2003) emphasizes the need exists for greater technological sense and knowledge for all current and future students. Consequently, this need has led to incorporation of technology in classrooms settings, as technologies aim to increase students' intensity of wisdom, cooperation and text assessment. Today, literacy reading skills prove to be vital for both normal and special-needs students, as exposure to literacy encompasses more than books. In fact, the range of information is more fast and varied in accordance with contemporary technical improvements. A book review, using software programs such as Kidspiration and Timeliner, provides one pertinent illustration of incorporating technology in a classroom setting to better comprehend. Using software programs such as these could help students, in individual tasks or as they work in a group exercise, visualize their thoughts and opinions, as well as communicate them more effectively. (May, 2003)
To improve their reading skills of special-needs students,…… [Read More]
Using "Stage One: Rubric for Group Invesigative Roles" can be helpful here, a grading rubric that stresses the ability of students to present information aloud and on paper to with sources correctly cited, with understanding, etc. During the performance, students should be assessed not simply on acting ability, but as denoted in "Stage Three: Rubric for Peformance," that they can understand and morally evaluate what is going on, such as clearly explaining several ways in which a character 'saw' things differently than other characters. This may require teachers to meet with students one-on-one, before giving a final grade, so as to discuss what students learned from the project.
hat is the revision process once you have the results from your evaluation?
Students can fill out a questionaire, reporting and assessing their contribution to the experience to allow the teacher to assimilate new information into the lesson plan next year.
orks…… [Read More]
Restorative Justice in Education." In other words, how effective does the use of critical theory prove to be when applied to restorative justice in education? Author Dorothy Vaandering uses a logic and flow-driven narrative, which is informative and leaves a distinct impression that she has provided a worthwhile study for examination.
hat is restorative justice? Vaandering explains that restorative justice (RJ) is a process that eschews "punitive, managerial structures" in education -- that is, the "old school" system of hard core discipline that promises punishment if instructions are not followed -- and replaces those strategies with policies that "emphasize the building and repairing of relationships" (Vaandering, 2010, p. 145). Basically, RJ is a policy that allows the perpetrator of a wrongdoing to meet and interact with (and apologize to) the person harmed by those actions; and in the case of educational environments, the rather than just punish and isolate the…… [Read More]
The wealth of activities and opportunities that are available to teachers online enhances what is available to them for use in the classroom. Teachers who are well educated will make the most use of the available internet resources. Additionally, the modern classroom does not have to be a physical location; it extends into the cyber world. This fusion creates dynamic and exciting possibilities for both teacher and student, increasing the learning experience for all.
Garrison, .D. & Vaughn N.D. (2007).Blended Learning in Higher Education: Framework,
Principles, and Guidelines New York: Jossey Bass Publications.
Holschuh, D.. & Caverly, D.C. (2010). Techtalk: Cloud Computing and Developmental
Education. Journal of Developmental Education. 36-38.
Lambropoulos, N. & Zaphiris, P. (2007).User-centered design of online learning communities.
Hershey P.A. Idea Group Inc.
Lan, T. & Chiu S. (2010) esearch of Modular Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment
E-Learning on Social Study for Elementary School Students. Journal…… [Read More]
(Fletcher & Crochiere, 2004)
Motivation to Learn
Motivation to learn can be defined as the degree of cognitive effort invested to achieve educational goals (Li, 2003). It can also be understood as the degree of "seriousness" with which a student attempts to address the commitments and targets school with the purpose of: a) master the knowledge and skills rather than and get away with doing the minimum, b) clearly verify the status of their knowledge rather than try to complete the task independently of being sure that they actually learned something (MacIntyre, 2002).
Marshall (2001) have proposed to distinguish two types of motivation to learn, one that manifests itself as a personality trait and one that manifests itself as a state. In the first sense, the concept refers to a general provision that allows a student to perceive learning as an inherently valuable and satisfactory and therefore to engage in…… [Read More]
This presents a challenge to educators who may have a classroom full of students who are cognitively at different levels. Educational programs that allow students to advance at their own pace, such as accelerated reader, or explore knowledge independently might be ways to encourage cognitive development in students.
Constructivism is closely tied to the cognitive approach in that constructive learning requires that the students are the primary agents in their own learning. In this theory, students must construct new knowledge on the framework of existing knowledge (Ertmer and Newby, 1993). It is literally a building of a larger knowledge base that students achieve individually. If a student does not have the prior knowledge for a particular skill or concept, then he or she will be unable to construct something new. According to Jean Piaget, the most well-known constructivist, learning has to be achieved by discovery. This requires students to be…… [Read More]
[I also had my students write how they would say it out loud when naming it. Example: "Line AB or line segment AB is perpendicular to line segment CD."] Below is information on how students should label rays, lines, etc.
1. ay - the endpoint letter first, then a second point with a line ending in an arrow over the two letters, pointing to the right.
2. Point - a dot and then the point's letter.
3. Line - Two points on the line with a line with arrows in both directions above the letters.
4. Segment - the two endpoint letters of the segment with a line, no arrows, above the two letters
5. Intersecting - (AB x BC) the AB and BC would have a line or a line with arrows above them to show what figures they were. The x stands for intersects.
6. Parallel - (AB…… [Read More]
Context and Literature
May's experience in the classroom is not unique. Many teachers find that they spend an inordinate amount of time working on behavioral difficulties as opposed to actually teaching material. May was fortunate that she was in a school in which the administration was supportive of both inquiry-based research and the use of literature to help mitigate situations and grow as a teacher. The particular advantage May had using outside literature was a combination of alternative point-of-view and experience. May would not have the time or resources to go through the types of research, data collection and analysis, and number of students that others have already done. She is also able to glean additional insights from others who have tried and succeeded, and tried and failed, with techniques. Often, too, reading other materials spurs ideas that one can pick and choose -- this works for my…… [Read More]
Educational Theories Guiding Educational Experience
Description of an education event experienced
I am a dentist, and I have started a course on teaching dentistry. My experience with education was never a particularly encouraging one as my teacher was always absent. When I was at school, the teachers went on strike, and that left us with no attention from them. We had to do much of the studying alone, and all required research lay squarely on our shoulders in the absence of teachers for as long as they were striking. Whenever the teachers came around school, they applied a work to rule strategy and that was extremely devastating. Lecturers were never available for any extra consultation, and we had to take our learning as individual responsibilities instead of waiting for support or guidance from lecturers. Any difficulties, which we may have faced during the study never, had a chance in the…… [Read More]
The vey cux of the agument comes to the cental point of censoship -- who must be potected and why must they be potected? Ideas, political, social, o othewise, may be the most dangeous fom of liteatue eve. Fo instance, in 19th centuy autocatic egimes, the ideas of Kal Max, even Voltaie, Locke, and Jeffeson wee seen to be subvesive because they challenged the ode of things, the idea that the monachy should ule by divine ight, and that cetain people had, by manifest destiny, the ight to be moe equal than othes. So, too, do images and vebiage change ove time egading public acceptance. At the tun of the centuy bathing suits coveed almost 90% of the human body, and a day at the beach would've been fa diffeent had some of today's skimpy G-stings o bikinis shown up. Similaly, sexual activity was hinted at fom the ealy days…… [Read More]
Patricia Benner Theory
21st century nursing is an evolving, rewarding, but challenging occupation. Unlike nurses in the past, the modern nurse's role is not limited to the physician's assistant, but rather takes on a critical partnership role with both doctor and patient. This role is multicimensional: advocate, caregiver, teacher, researcher, counselor, translator, and case manager. Of course, care is of the upmost importance and includes those activities that assist the client physically mentally and emotionally. This requires a holistic approach to the patient as a person, not a disease, number or statistic (Mariano, 2005). Using nursing theory and scholarship can help aid a nurse's toolbox as well as keep the nurse current with practice and philosophical ideas. Case histories, for instance, provide a way to examine different aspects of nursing theory with tangible, tactical solutions, as well as points for strategic discussion (Alligood, 2009, intro).
Change…… [Read More]