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The initial survey with a low response rate of just over seventeen percent, and a continuing issue with employee satisfaction have provided the motivation to dig a little deeper into the culture and the state of employee perceptions at BIMS. Obviously, the high turnover rate is alarming because not only does it indicate a deep level of dissatisfaction, but over the course of the next few years there is predicted to be a nursing shortage which will make maintaining high levels of employee satisfaction a priority. Therefore BIMS has also integrated an exit interview into their second wave of surveys to try to determine exactly why employees have chosen to voluntarily retire from the organization.
The first question of the exit survey asked if employees believed that they were well trained for their position. This is an important question because if employees do not have the appropriate skills…
IAG's Proposed Acquisition of BMI
Report on proposed takeover of Deutsche Lufthansa AG's (Lufthansa) loss making British Midland International airline (BMI) by International Airlines Group Plc. (IAG)
Rationale for Acquisition
Appendix 3 IAG Financial Results Consolidated
This report will attempt to uncover understanding of this proposed acquisition, recognizing and critically discussing the business justification for the acquisition and the likely long-term motivation (success or failure) of the proposed takeover. Research findings within the report intend to cover details of the strategy from the point-of-view of both companies with outside references to empirical studies from the body of academic literature that addresses the underlying motivation to concentrate on maximizing shareholders wealth through expansion.
Identify the business rationale for the takeover from the perspective of Lufthansa and IAG
Complexity of acquisition; address the motives put forward and Managerial Motives for takeover
Evaluating the bid; the expected gains from the…
Buyck, C., 2011. Lufthansa sells bmi to British Airways parent IAG. [Online]
Available at: http://atwonline.com/airline-finance-data/news/lufthansa-sells-bmi-british-airways-parent-iag-1222
[Accessed 25 March 2012].
Gregory, A., 1997. An Examination of the Long Run Performance of UK Acquiring Firms. Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, 24(7), pp. 971-1002.
Obesity and BMI Mini Proposal
The obesity problems within Western civilization in today's day have presented many challenges to different aspects of society. Finding causal relationships within this epidemic of obesity is paramount for a well ordered and healthy society. It is important to understand this problems through the younger population as this population provides a unique and key aspect into the problem and provide a manner in providing solutions for the long-term.
Throughout this battle with obesity, researchers have discovered tools that have helped model this problem in new and effective ways. The Body Mass Index (BMI) model has provided health professionals and other interested parties in determining the impact of mass on the health of an individual. This relative scale has been employed in many areas and denotes and important part of the investigation between health and body weight.
Another important variable within this domain of research is…
Ho, M.(2012). Effectiveness of Lifestyle Interventions in Child Obesity: Systematic Review. Published online November 19, 2012 PEDIATRICS Vol. 130 No. 6 December 1, 2012 pp. e1647 -e1671 (doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-1176).
Maier, I.B., Stricker, L., Ozel, Y., Wagnerberger, S., Bischoff, S.C., & Bergheim,(2011). A low fructose diet in the treatment of pediatric obesity: A pilot study. Pediatrics International, 53(3), 03-308. doi:10.1111/j.1442-200X.2010.03248.x
Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T. (2008). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Siegel, R.M., Neidhard, M.S. & Kirk, S. (2011). A comparison of low glycemic index and staged portion-controlled diets in improving BMI of obese children in a pediatric weight management program. Clinical Pediatrics 2011 (50).
Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in children
The selected children are the possibly overweight children who are at risk of developing obesity and the related health complications. This informed by the contemporary high prevalence of childhood obesity due to the lifestyle that children re exposed to early at home and further within the learning institutions, the poor diet with unhealthy foods accompanied by sedentary lifestyle all work to make the life of children at risk.
In the attempt to get the patient information on health condition particularly on obesity, one of the diagnostic tools often used and has proven effective is the BMI using the waist circumference. Waist circumference is used to estimate the body fat in particular the internal fat deposits and hence pick out the likelihood of a child to develop weight-related diseases. The waist circumference is often used together with BMI in order to have accurate information…
Cespedes A., (2017). The Reliability & Validity of BMI. Retrieved June 11, 2018 from https://www.livestrong.com/article/202474-diets-to-lower-the-bmi/
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, (2018). Assessing your Weights and Health Risk. Retrieved June 11, 2018 from https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/lose_wt/risk.htm
Business Submission: Government Tax on Fast Foods
Obesity, according to the WHO, refers to the accumulation of an excessive amount of fats in the body. Obesity and overweight are measured through the BMI (body mass index). The BMI measures obesity by comparing the square of a person's height to his or her weight. It is denoted as Kg/m2. A BMI that is between 25 and 29 indicates overweight. Obesity is rather serious, and is indicated by a BMI that either equals, or exceeds 30. Essentially, obesity comes about when the energy calories consumed fail to balance with those expended. This imbalance is brought about by increased use of diets with huge fat content and inadequate levels of physical activity. Obesity increases the risk of non-communicable ailments such as diabetes, heart failure, and cancer. Effective obesity-prevention would, therefore, go a long way in reducing the prevalence of such ailments.
ASH Australia. (2013). ASH Action: Taxation and Funding the Fight against Tobacco. ASH Australia. Retrieved from http://www.ashaust.org.au/lv3/action_funding.htm
Australian Medical Association. (2013). Govts, Urban Planners Need to Get Involved to Shrink the Nation's Waistline. Australian Medicine. Retrieved from https://ama.com.au/ausmed/govts-urban-planners-need-get-involved-shrink-nation%E2%80%99s-waistline
Eriksen, M. & Whitney, C. (2013). Risk Factors: Tobacco. In McQueen, D.V. (Ed.), Global Handbook on Non-Communicable Diseases and Health Promotion (pp.115-136). Springer, NY: Springer science and Business.
ESSA. (2013). Obesity Figures Climb with No End in Sight. Exercise and Sport Science Australia (ESSA). Retrieved from http://www.essa.org.au/for-media/essa-in-the-media/?cpid=15646
A general plan for a person who is seeking to maintain a 2000 calorie/day diet must ensure that the proper nutrients are being consumed form optimum health. The following is a useful template that can be uses to help provide the necessary guidance for such a plan.
One cup of a whole grain cereal with 1 cup of low fat milk with one slice of whole wheat toast with peanut butter, can provide a nutritious breakfast that provides enough calories and vitamins to help begin the day. A 6 oz glass of orange juice or other fruit drink can also be added to help provide the Vitamin C that is necessary as well. Calorie count: 450
To help keep the metabolism moving at a quick pace, a mid morning snack is required. This should include, 1 cup of low fat yogurt and an apple. Calorie…
Deurenberg, P., Weststrate, J.A., & Seidell, J.C. (1991). Body mass index as a measure of body fatness: age -- and sex-specific prediction formulas. British journal of nutrition, 65(02), 105-114.
Prentice, A.M., & Jebb, S.A. (2001). Beyond body mass index. Obesity reviews, 2(3), 141-147.
Review and critique of a current article relating to women's biology
How Emergency Contraception Works to Prevent Pregnancy
Emergency contraceptives are drugs used to prevent pregnancy after women indulges in unprotected sex. There is a slight difference between birth control methods and use of contraceptives in preventing unplanned pregnancy. It is significant for women and men to learn and choose the appropriate method that guarantees their well-being. Use of contraceptives prevent fertilization of the ovum, while as birth control pills prevents pregnancy, and includes use of contraceptives such as, IUDs, sterilization, and abortion. This article reviews the health effects of various emergency contraceptives on female reproductive functions. The author argues that limited knowledge about Emergency contraceptive contributes to its overuse or its underuse and enhanced knowledge could trigger development of new ways, maximize use of current methods and increase acceptability of emergency contraceptives (Berger, 2012).
Review of the…
Ries, N.M. & Tigerstrom, B. (2010). Roadblocks to laws for healthy eating and activity,"
Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 182, no. 7, pp. 687 -- 692
Body Mass Index (BMI) is thought to be an indicator of overall health. Quite frequently, health researchers choose to include the measure as a possible predictor of specific outcomes of interest, such as death or incidence of a particular disease. Studies that have established an association between BMI and the incidence of cardio-vascular disease, for example, are quite common in the current literature; however, such studies do not always account for other possible contributors to cardio-vascular disease, such as smoking or other latent disease. In the study, Body-Mass Index and Mortality among 1.46 Million White Adults, researchers were interested in determining the existence of an optimal BMI level. The investigators pooled 19 prospective trials, which were initially designed to specifically address cancer related inquiries, in order to arrive at a better understanding of the association of all-cause mortality and BMI. In specific, the researchers' primary interest was, "to assess the…
de Gonzalez, A.B., Hartge, P., Cerhan, J.R., et al. (2010). Body-Mass index and mortality among 1.46 million white adults. N Engl J. Med; 363:2211-9.
Gordis, L. (2004). Epidemiology. (3rd ed.). USA: Elsevier Inc.
Diabetes and Obesity: What Are the Choices?
Diabetes is becoming an increasingly serious health problem across the United States, and indeed across the world. The majority of cases of diabetes, both in terms of new diagnoses and of current cases, are those of Type II diabetes, which is a condition generally brought on by overweight or obesity and lack of exercise, that prevents an individual's body from being able to metabolize the glucose in food in an efficient and healthy way. Individuals with Type II diabetes (as opposed to individuals with Type I diabetes) can generally be quite successfully treated by losing weight and increasing exercise. Individuals with Type II diabetes can often bring their symptoms and risks under control and even potentially eliminate them through good diet and weight loss.
Given that Type II diabetes can have very serious long-term consequences (including early death due to stroke or heart…
Early Release / Vol. 59 August 3, 2010. Retrieved from www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm59e0803.pdf.
Laska, M.N. et al. (2009). Latent class analysis of lifestyle characteristics and health risk behaviors among college youth. Prevention Science 10: 376 -- 386.
Laska, M.N. et al. (2011). The Differential Prevalence of Obesity and Related Behaviors in Two- vs. Four-Year Colleges Obesity 19: 453 -- 456.
Nelson, M.C. et al. (2008). Emerging adulthood and college-aged youth: an overlooked age for weight-related behavior change. Obesity 16: 2205 -- 2211.
The data was gathered using a sub-analysis of a large randomized control group of 1047 pregnant young women. The data was collected from the assessments at the given time intervals.
The BMI was used as the dependent variable and STD occurrence was used as the independent variable.
Alpha coefficient was not used in the statistical models of this study.
The results of this study support the importance of the association between BMI and sexual risk, and suggest the need for sexual risk prevention and weight loss programs among young mothers.
Questions and Personal Design
-How important is BMI to overall health?
-Is there a difference in the severity of STD/STI's, if so how does that affect the importance of the study's outcome.
Designing a study for my topic would require assigning the independent variable STD occurrence and the dependent variable would be that…
Kershaw, T. et al. (2011). The Skinny on Sexual Risk: The Effects of BMI on STI Incidence. AIDS and Behavior, 15. 7 Oct 2011; 1527-38.
Subject should also increase fat intake to better balance his diet.
Subject's fiber consumption was so far in excess of DV that negative digestive consequences cannot be ruled out.
Salt intake was more than the DV, but could be easily corrected with some minor dietary changes.
The Food Standards Agency has developed the Eat Well Plate as an easy to follow nutritional guideline.
The Eat Well Plate is a visual display and quick reference for consumers to better balance their diets in compliance with the DV's. Analysis revealed a shortfall in fruits and vegetables as well as bread, rice and pasta - the two largest sections of the plate. Subjects fat consumptions were well below the DV's, but per the Eat Well Plate are the smallest category recommended.
ecommendations for Subject's improved nutritional balance would include increased caloric intake, weighted heavily in the fruits and vegetables, breads, rice and pasta…
Nutritional Analysis Tool 2.0, created July 1999, retrieved January 31, 2009 http://www.nat.uiuc.edu/nat.pdl http://www.nutrition-matters.co.uk/misc/1991COMAreport.htm
Obesity is a serious social problem in America. The effects of obesity in childhood are well documented in both the social science literature and medical journals. During the last 30 years, the percentage of obese children between the ages of 6 and 11 has risen 200% while the percentage of obese children between 12 and 19 has tripled (CDC, Preventing Childhood Obesity, 2010). Obesity in the nited States has increased among all cohorts and ethnicities, spans across generations, and is not limited to income or educational levels. However, the incidence of obesity among African-American women is of particular concern given the prevalence and severity of the issue in America.
Public health issue
More than two-thirds of Americans are now obese or overweight (Ogden et al., 2010).
Rates of adult obesity now exceed 20% in 49 states and D.C and 25% in 40 states. By way of comparison, in 1991, rates…
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Vital Signs: Prevalence, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension -- United States, 1999 -- 2002 and 2005 -- 2008
Ward, S., Gray, A., Paranjape, A. (2008). African-Americans' perceptions of physician attempts to address obesity in the primary care setting. The Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(5), 579-584.
Coenen, K.R., Hasty, A.H. (2007). Obesity potentiates development of fatty liver and insulin resistance, but not atherosclerosis, in high-fat diet-fed agouti LDLR-deficient mice. Retrieved from: http://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/293/2/E492.short
The sample is related only to the point where they share the same baseline categories previously mentioned.
The sampling technique used in this research was selected sampling due to the specfic needs of the participants.
The BMI groups variables were analyzed using ANOVA for continuous variables and chi-square analyses for categorical variables.
Results or Findings
The BMI group demonstrated that 39% of participants were normal weight, 31% were overweight and 40% were obese. On other comparisons, Tukey HSD post-test analyses showed that obese participants had more stress, depression and conflict, and less self-esteem and social support than normal weight and overweight women and Conclusions
Results from this study showed that BMI significantly related to STI incidence and sexual risk. Overweight women were at increased risk for STI incidence compared to normal weight women and obese women. However, being obese was protective for STIs, with obese…
Acceptable Recruitment Methods
Acceptable Method of Selection of Controls
Minimization of Bias
Were the Confounders Accounted for in the Study Design
Are the Results Believable
Are They Applicable to Other Populations (Generalizable)
Do the Results Fit with Available Evidence
Jorde & Figenschau, 2009
Yes, as reflected from the title: Supplementation with cholecalciferol does not improve glycaemic control in diabetic subjects with normal serum 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels
Yes, because patients with poor glycemic control were randomly assigned to control and case group. Also appropriate dosages of Vit. D was used
Place of recruitment was not specified.
Patients were randomly assigned to both groups.
Variables were clearly defined.
Yes, the control group was randomly selected from the actual population
No blinding method used. Compliance was assessed by asking patients to return unused capsules.
Yes, they were: BMI, smoking status, waist to hip ratio, blood pressure, serum calcium, creatinine, lipid profile and…
Nursing elated Case Study
Tom's vitals, in the emergency department, revealed an elevated respiratory rate, heart rate and blood pressure. His oxygen saturation was also considerably low. Tom's Body Mass Index (BMI) falls in the overweight category. He was also a-febrile, at presentation, indicating that infection was not a precipitating cause.
Initially the ABGs were normal, indicating an acute severe exacerbation or life threatening asthma. Later, when the ABGs were repeated, carbon dioxide levels were above normal. A raised carbon dioxide level is the differentiating bench mark between life threatening and near fatal asthma. The ABG analysis also reveals acidemia which cannot be solely attributed to a respiratory or metabolic cause alone, and hence can be safely classified as a mixed disorder.
Tom's history is typical of atopic asthma which usually begins in childhood and is triggered by antigens from the environment, such as pollen, animal dander or dust. Upper…
Brandis, K. (n.d.). The physiology viva. Retrieved from http://www.anaesthesiamcq.com/downloads/odc.pdf
Guyton, A., & Hall, J. (2011). Guyton and hall textbook of medical physiology. (12 ed.). Mississippi: Elsevier.
Kumar Abbas, & Robbins, (2007). Basic pathology. (8 ed.). London: Saunders Company.
Myron, K. (2005, May 10). Is obesity a risk factor for asthma. Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/24118.php
Postpartum Sexually Transmitted Disease Refining Our Understanding of the Population at Risk Yale University, UMI Dissertations, 2011, 1505365.
The researchers developed a study to assess STD incidence during and after pregnancy and to determine risk factors associated with postpartum STD infections among mothers in their teens and early 20s. For this analysis, they included 848 women who were less than 24 weeks pregnant, ages 14 to 25. A total of 27.1% of participants were diagnosed with an STD within one year postpartum. Among those who were diagnosed with an STD during pregnancy, 43.4% also contracted an STD during the postpartum period. By comparison, 18.7% of participants with no history of infection and 24% of women who had a history of STDs before pregnancy contracted one postpartum.
heeler (2011) presents the best research for my specific topic. My hypothesis suggests that high rates of postpartum STI infections may be reduced using…
Wheeler (2011) presents the best research for my specific topic. My hypothesis suggests that high rates of postpartum STI infections may be reduced using pregnancy as window of prevention. This article gives some solid facts to base my research upon. The conclusions in this article give clear relationships to pertinent information that is needed to build my case.
The other two articles contain some useful information, however there are a significant number of confounding variables within each that tends to muddy my argument and stretches the definition of correlation. One such variable is the BMI index. Although this is an important indicator of STIs, it does not directly relate to pregnancy as an opportunity to prevent.
During these SLP assignments I realized how precise and focused research can be. General ideas are mostly not present in these research articles as detail and statistical analysis serve as more persuasive evidence. I have also learned that inference is very important in the research process, as adding one's own take on the subject is necessary to truly grasp the knowledge presented within the literature.
Role of Nutrition in Health
Nutritional Assessment is a detailed evaluation of objective as well as subjective data, relating to an individual's food intake, along with giving due consideration to factors such as medical history and lifestyle of the said individual. The purpose of a nutritional assessment is to identify the malnourishment and/or undernourishment in an individual's diet and to eradicate the factors that make it unhealthy and unfit. Once the data relating an individual's eating habits has been collected and organized, it can be used to evaluate the nutritional status of that person. The assessment is followed up by a plan to either intervene or to devise a new proper nutritious diet plan to help the individual attain a healthier status (Carol Rees Parrish, August 2003).
In keeping up with the current obesity and overweight statistics, the need for a balanced nutrition profile has increased tenfold. Australia today is…
Ageing, D. o. (1998). Australian Guide to Eating Healthy. http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/E384CFA588B74377CA256F190004059B/$File/fd-cons.pdf .
Carol Rees Parrish, M.R. (August 2003). Nutritional Assessment: Current Concepts and Guidelines for the Busy Physician.
Institute, M.O. (June 2012). Obesity in Australia.
Institute, N.H. Obesisty. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/obesity/ob_gdlns.pdf .
eview: Ogut, H. (2006). "Information technology security risk management." Ph.D. Dissertation: University of Texas at Dallas
The research that was conducted and presented here was almost entirely of a qualitative rather than a quantitative nature. The author attempts to quantify a great deal of information that is ultimately more complex, varied, and based on human decision-making factors than he truly accounts for, and this creates certain questions in many different areas and levels of his research and presentation. The fact that this dissertation is comprised of several wholly independent research projects and essays while still put forth by the author as a unified project with consistent findings and a coherent theme is another major weakness of the presentation. In many simple and direct regards, there is little doubt that the author's efforts yielded some solid findings through careful observations; the specific research questions asked are matched by the tools used…
Review: Ogut, H. (2006). "Information technology security risk management." Ph.D. Dissertation: University of Texas at Dallas
The research that was conducted and presented here was almost entirely of a qualitative rather than a quantitative nature. The author attempts to quantify a great deal of information that is ultimately more complex, varied, and based on human decision-making factors than he truly accounts for, and this creates certain questions in many different areas and levels of his research and presentation. The fact that this dissertation is comprised of several wholly independent research projects and essays while still put forth by the author as a unified project with consistent findings and a coherent theme is another major weakness of the presentation. In many simple and direct regards, there is little doubt that the author's efforts yielded some solid findings through careful observations; the specific research questions asked are matched by the tools used to collect data (or at least so it seems to a reader not wholly familiar with the concepts described yet not entirely defined by the author or his field), but the larger conclusions that the author reaches seem at times vague and in all circumstances based on an element of qualitative data that is not explicitly recognized in the dissertation.
All in all, there is a relatively clear progression of information here, but the ultimate results or significance of the information is somewhat clouded by the uncertainties in the research methods and the lack of clarity regarding the definitions of certain concepts and phenomena. The author presents in a quantified manner data that is at least partially if not wholly qualitative, and at no point does the author acknowledge the sheer human uncertainties that are a part of the observation and thus the conclusions in this dissertation.
Pattern of Development: COMPAE AND CONTAST
Is it even a mystery how we have become the fattest country in the world (Sturm 2007)? Why do we have such poor choices for food? Enter Derrick. Derrick is a 15-year-old male from Jackson, Mississippi who has been clinically diagnosed as being "Class II Obese" or "Morbidly Obese" with a BMI of 37. His poor food choices at any given time during the day, along with his extremely low-level of activity, can be easily sighted as the determining factors regarding his alarming condition (Whitlock et al. 2009). Why does he make such unhealthy choices? Enter Dino. Dino is also a 15-year-old male, but he is from Zurich, Switzerland. Dino has a BMI of only 8 and is not obese, nor is he even overweight. Is this simply due to the relative abundance of healthier food choices and having a non-sedentary lifestyle,…
Rosenheck R (November 2008). "Fast food consumption and increased caloric intake: a systematic review of a trajectory towards weight gain and obesity risk." Obes Rev 9 (6): 535 -- 47.
Sturm R (2007). "Increases in morbid obesity in the U.S.A.: 2000 -- 2005." Public Health 121 (7): 492 -- 6.
Whitlock G, Lewington S, Sherliker P, et al. (March 2009). "Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900-000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies." Lancet 373 (9669): 1083 -- 96.
Initial Patient Analysis
Discomfort in lower back.
Patient is a 78-year-old woman presented as disheveled, with bug bites throughout her body, and exuding a foul odor. Cognitively, she orients only to her name with a BMI of 30 and a minimal understanding of the English language. She is able to nod "yes" or "no" to questions, but calls the nurse "Mother." She is unsteady on her feet, and has a fine "pill-rolling "tremor in her left hand. He legs are quite cool to the touch, hairless, and toe capillary refill is greater than 2 seconds.
Past Medical History
Unknown, but patient appears to be in distress both physically and psychologically.
Poor, disheveled, may not be receiving adequate care or living in an environment with enough food or warmth. BMI of 30 is technically obese, which also may indicate the patient is not…
Hypoglycemia. (2012). Web MD. Retrieved from: http://symptoms.webmd.com/#./conditionView
Michael, K. And Shaughnessy, M. (2006). Stroke Prevention and Management in Older
Adults. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 21 (55): 521-26.
Mohr, J., et al. (2004). Stroke: Pathopshyciology, Diagnosis and Management. New York: Churchill Livingstone.
Specifically, deficient cae may esult in a child's being vulneable as a consequence of a low intinsic level of self-esteem and self-woth (Pake, Baett, and Hickie, 1992). It is clea that a numbe of factos ae likely to affect the teenaged individual esulting in depession and it is citically noted that this depession must necessaily be addessed, teated and esolved. The client in this instance has bodeline low blood pessue which should be monitoed seveal times each week and futhemoe the body mass index (BMI) of this individual is excessively low indicating that this patient needs to be counseled in egads to thei diet both in tems of quality and quantity of foods consumed.
Logsdon, Cynthia J.(nd) Depession in Adolescent Gils: Sceening and Teatment Stategies fo Pimay Cae Povides Jounal of the Ameican Medical Women's Association Volume 59, No 2.
Lemay, Edwad P. And Ashmoe, Richad D. (2005) the…
reference: Studies of occupational and recreational choice. Social Psychology Quarterly, 49, 11-18.
A level of 126 mg/dL or above, confirmed by repeating the test on another day, means that you have diabetes.
An oral glucose tolerance test measures your blood glucose after you have gone at least 8 hours without eating and 2 hours after you drink a glucose-containing beverage. This test can be used to diagnose diabetes or pre-diabetes. OGTT is more sensitive than the FPG test for diagnosing pre-diabetes, but it is less convenient to administer. The OGTT requires you to fast for at least 8 hours before the test. Your plasma glucose is measured immediately before and 2 hours after you drink a liquid containing 75 grams of glucose dissolved in water.
If your blood glucose level is between 140 and 199 mg/dL 2 hours after drinking the liquid, you have a form of pre-diabetes called impaired glucose tolerance or IGT, meaning that you are more likely to develop…
Braunald, Eugene., Fauci, Anthony S., Kasper, Dennis L., Hauser, Stephen L., Longo, Dan L., Jameson, J. Larry. 2001. Harrison's Principle of Internal Medicine, 15th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division.
The Merck Manual (16th ed.). (1995). Portland, Oregon: Merck & Co., Inc.
In the STAI, the researcher asks the subjects how they feel at the moment and in the recent past, and how they anticipate feeling in the future (enazon & Coyne, 2000). This test is designed to overlap between depression and anxiety scales by measuring the most common anxiety symptoms which are minimally shared with depression (American, 1994). oth physiological and cognitive components of anxiety are addressed in the 21 items describing subjective, somatic, or panic-related symptoms (Kingsbury & Williams, 2003).
Once those tests are completed, the volunteers will be asked to cycle on an ergometer for 30 minutes. The Talk Test, Target Heart Rate Evaluation, and the org Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale will all be administered while the volunteer is cycling. This is done to determine the energy level - or the perceived energy level - of the volunteer. All of these tests and this same specific pattern will…
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Benazon, N.R., & Coyne, J.C. (2000). Living with a depressed spouse. Journal of Family Psychology, 14 (1), 71-79.
Dietz, W., MD, Ph.D. (2002). The obesity epidemic: Causes, consequences and solutions. Retrieved from University of Michigan, School of Public Health Web site: http://www.sph.umich.edu/symposium/2002/keynote.html .
Hewitt, P.L., et al. (2001). Death from anorexia nervosa: Age span and sex differences. Aging and Mental Health, 5(1), 41-46.
A recent article shows that such an approach "brings the company direct economic benefits" (Zwetsloot, p. 115).
The program can also provide educational information for the employees to further prod them in their efforts to become healthy. Such information can include items on illnesses, diseases and the effects of ill-health that being obese or overweight exacerbates.
A recent study shows that "chronic exposure to stressful situations such as work overload, poor supervisory support and low input into decision-making have been cross-sectionally and prospectively linked to a range of debilitating health outcomes, including depression, anxiety, emotional exhaustion, immune deficiency disorders and cardiovascular disease" (Noblet, p. 347). A program such as the one being proposed can help to alleviate such outcomes.
The opportunity exists for the company to expand its intranet services, using the provided services not only to track the individual employee's progress, but provide each of them a personalized report…
Noblet, a., LaMontagne, a.D., (2006) the role of workplace health promotion in addressing job stress, Health Promotion International, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 346-353
Zwetsloot, G., Pot, F., (2004) the Business Value of Health Management, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 55, No. 2, pp. 115-124
John is 30 years of age, has a resting heart rate of 70 bpm, is 73 inches tall, weighs 200 pounds and has 18% body fat. He played sports in high school and college. He is in good health. Based on this information provide the following information:
Calculate John's BMI.
inches is 6 ft.1 inch. John is 26.4
Calculate John's BMR.
He can eat 1,921 calories per day
Calculate John's THR at 60% and 80% using the Karvonen formula.
maximum heart rate is: 190
Maximum training heart rate is: 164
Minimum training rate is: 138
Maximum heart rate is: 190
Maximum training heart rate is: 168
Minimum training rate is: 146
Discuss what methods of testing or evaluation you would use to assess John's current fitness level.
There are numerous tests that can be used.
ome of these categories are:
Cardiovascular Endurance -- which measures how well heart and lung…
Free Workout Plans for Sport Athletes
e. fat storage. These physiological concerns are significant in that programming that was designed to maintain a nurturing position for young children the physiological environment interprets crisis as anything that creates a stressful physical demeanor. The stress and psychology of abandonment is a constant, once the abandonment by the father has occurred. The body does not distinguish between a fasting period associated with unavailable food, or drought and psychological long-term emotional stress. The human body also does not distinguish between a self imposed diet and a period of famine. It reduces its basal metabolic rate, or the rate of metabolism needed to perform its base functions, and then the recovery period would seem to be longer than expected. This is the diet conundrum, though it has also been proven that prolonged periods of psychological stress and/or depression that could be associated with abandonment by the father will also cause a…
Anderson, P.M., & Butcher, K.F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes. The Future of Children, 16(1), 19.
Anderson, P.M., Butcher, K.F., & Levine, P.B. (2003). Economic Perspectives on Childhood Obesity. Economic Perspectives, 27(3), 30.
Bifulco, a. (1998). Wednesday's Child: Research into Women's Experience of Neglect and Abuse in Childhood and Adult Depression. London: Routledge.
Caprio, Sonia. (2006) "Treating Child Obesity and Associated Medical Conditions." The Future of Children 16 (1), 209.
1. The dilemma of Obesity
Mokdad et al., (1999) in his study found that the issue of unhealthy weight, overweight and obesity are perhaps one of the rising concerns for the Americans in the 21st century as more and more U.S. citizens become vulnerable to the circumstantial risks and dangers of the phenomenon (Mokdad et al., 1999). It is usually the body mass indexes (BMI) that indicate whether a person is actually overweight or not. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) carried out a study for the years 1999 to 2002 using the BMI phenomenon and concluded that about 65% of U.S. citizens in the adulthood years were categorized under the overweight group because of their BMI (Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2005).
To understand the phenomenon of obesity and its rise, it's important to understand…
Adam Drewnowski and S.E. Specter (2004), Poverty and Obesity: The Role of Energy Density and Energy Costs, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79, no. 1: 6-16.
Akande, a. & Akande, B.E. (1994). On becoming a person: Activities to help children with their anger. Early Child Development and Care, 102, 31-62.
Akande, a. Wyk, C.D.WV. And Osagie, J.E. (2000). Importance of Exercise and Nutrition in the Prevention of Illness and the Enchancement of Health. Education. 120: 4.
Alexander, M.A., & Blank, J.J. (1988). Factors related to obesity in Mexican-American preschool children. Image, 20(2), 79-82.
Definition of Obesity
The most common definition of obesity relates to the body mass index , or BMI. In the United States, the National Institutes of Health defines overweight as having a BMI of 25 or more, and obese as having a BMI of 30 or more. The BMI is basically a formula that relates one\\'s weight to one\\'s height (MedicineNet.com, 2018). The World Health Organization also uses the same definitions of overweight and obese (WHO, 2018). The operational definition of obesity can be broken down further, into Obese Level I, II, and III, each with higher BMI levels. A BMI over 40 is considered morbid obesity (MacMillan, 2018).
While the definition of obesity using BMI is uniform, it is not without its faults. There are several critiques of BMI. One is that it does not take into account muscle mass (Janiszewski, 2012). This is true, of course, but…
Maternal Perceptions of Weight Status of Children
Maynard et al. 2003
You asked for an outline to put on a PowerPoint presentation. You can bullet most of these points and put them right in a presentation:
Previous studies have found that a significant percentage of mothers with overweight preschool children failed to see the child as being overweight. These findings appear dependent on education with mothers with a high school education or less being more likely to misperceive their children's weight than those with a college education.
Such investigations are believed to be directly relevant to the success or prevention of overweight prevention or weight intervention programs as mothers who do not perceive a problem are less likely to take action for their children
(Good discussion point here is that mothers who misclassify children's weight use less negative descriptions of children such as "thick" or "solid")
esearchers wanted to better…
Maynard, M.L., Galuska, D.A., Blanck, H.M., & Serdula, M.K. (2003). Maternal perceptions of weight status of children. Pediatrics, 111(5), 1226-1231.
Windshield Survey of Diabetes in the Asian-Indian Community in Plainsboro, New Jersey: Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation
As the home to the second-largest population of Asian-Indians in the United States today (the first is another nearby small community, Edison, New Jersey) (Sahney, 2010). Out of a population of around 23,500, 16.97% of the residents of Plainsboro (or about 4,000) describe themselves as having Indian ancestry (Sahney, 2010). Although Plainsboro enjoys a high standard of living, a desirable community environment and state-of-the-art medical facilities, it is reasonable to suggest that some of the Asian-Indian population in this community remain marginalized due to an inability to afford these state-of-the-art health care services and the potential for cross-cultural differences in views about health care may further exacerbate this lack of access.
A growing body of evidence also indicates that Asian-Indians are among the highest-risk populations for developing diabetes, making this community an especially important…
About Plainsboro. (2015). Township of Plainsboro. Retrieved from http://www.plains boronj.com/content/about-plainsboro.
Anderson, E. N. (2014). Everyone eats: Understanding food and culture. New York: New York University Press.
Brooks, J. (2004, July 26). NLC membership offers many benefits to cities, towns. Nation's Cities Weekly, 27(30), 8.
Chandras, K. V. & Eddy, J. P. (1999, Winter). Counseling Asian-Americans: Implications for training. Education, 120(2), 239.
During the study a number of factors were considered for the evaluation of the fact that females unlike males in Saudi Arabia constitute a larger proportion.
Lifestyle and dietary
Adolescent boys and girls were studied for at least two weeks on their feeding habits, for this period, females were observed to consume more snacks than male in that males could only consume snacks once a fortnight unlike their female counterparts who for the 14 days averagely took snacks at least 12 days. For the consumption of rice, bread, nuts and fish the percentage of females consuming this surpassed that of men i.e. 54.8 to 50.5%, this shows that females consumes more food products that are energy giving than males in Saudi Arabia leading to deposition of more calories in the body triggering obesity as it is supposed that the body can not convert the whole chunk of calories. More…
Al-Gelban, K.S. (2008). Diatery Habits and Exercise Practices among the Students of a Saudi
Teachers Training College. Saudi Med J, 29 (5), 754-759.
Al-Rukban, M. (2003). Obesity among Saudi Male Adolescents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med Journal, 34, 27-33.
Al-Shammari, S., Khoja, T., & Al-Subaie, A. (1994). Trans-cultural Attitude Towards Being
isk Factors for Obesity: A Critique
Major isk Factors for Obesity: A Critique of the esearch Literature
Major isk Factors for Obesity: A Critique of the esearch Literature
The World Health Organization (WHO, 2013) estimated that close to 1.4 million adults were overweight in 2008 and of these 500 million were obese. For adults over the age of 20 this implies that 35 and 11% of the global adult population were overweight and obese, respectively. The definition of overweight is a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or higher, while obesity is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher. While obesity does not directly result in the death of anyone, it is the fifth leading mortality risk globally and is responsible for 2.8 million deaths annually. This is due to obesity representing a significant risk factor for serious comorbid conditions, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, nearly…
Cooper, M. (2012, December 12). Census officials, citing increasing diversity, say U.S. will be a 'plurality nation.' New York Times, p. A20.
Gaskin, D.J., Thorpe, R.J. Jr., McGinty, E.E., Bower, K., Rohde, C., Young, J.H. et al. (2013). Disparities in diabetes: The nexus of race, poverty, and place. American Journal of Public Health, published online ahead of print 14 Nov. 2013.
Goldschmidt, A.B., Wilfley, D.E., Paluch, R.A., Roemmich, J.N., & Epstein, L.H. (2013). Indicated prevention of adult obesity: How much weight change is necessary for normalization of weight status in children? Journal of the American Medical Association -- Pediatrics, 167(1), 21-6.
Hearst, M.O., Pasch, K.E., & Laska, M.N. (2012). Urban v. suburban perceptions of the neighborhood food environment as correlates of adolescent food purchasing. Public Health Nutrition, 15(2), 299-306.
Indeed, obesity among children and adolescents is even associated with an increase in economic costs. It is estimated that the hospital costs for obesity-related disease among children and adolescents increased from $35 million in 1979-1981 to $127 million in 1997-1999, which represents more than three times the costs of 20 years ago (Wang & Dietz, 2002).
Numerous obesity-related health complications such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, type II diabetes mellitus, coronary plaque formation, and serious psychosocial implications, are also affecting children and adolescents (Freedman & Stern, 2004; Pinhas-Hamiel, Dolan, Daniels, Standiford, Khoury & Zeitler, 1996; Ludwig & Ebbeling, 2001; Dietz, 1998; American Academy of Pediatrics, 2002). Since the increase in such health problems has generally paralleled that of the obesity epidemic, Anderson and Butcher (2006) remarked that there should be an association between these health problems and childhood obesity.
Guo, Wu, Chumlea & oche (2002) indicated that overweight children…
Adkins, S., Sherwood, N.E., Story, M. & Davis, M. (2004). Physical Activity among African-American Girls: The Role of Parents and the Home Environment. Obesity Research, 12: 38S-45S.
Allison, K.R., Dwyer, J.J.M., Goldenberg, E., Fein, A., Yoshida, K.K., & Boutilier, M. (2005). Male Adolescents' Reasons for Participating in Physical Activity, Barriers to Participation, and Suggestions for Increasing Participation. Adolescence, 40 (157) [HIDDEN]
American Academy of Pediatrics (2004). Soft Drinks in Schools. Pediatrics, 113 (1): 152-154.
American Heart Association (2004). Overweight and Obesity -- Statistics. Retrieved in June, 2011 from the internet website: http://www.americanheart.org/downloadable/heart/1136820021462Overweight06.Pdf
Obesity a Disease?
Introduction, Background, and Definition
Persuade the scientists
Persuade the advocacy groups
Persuade the federal agencies
Persuade the insurance companies
Persuade the drug makers
Recommendations & Conclusions
Is Obesity a Disease?
hat is a disease? According to the Merriam-ebster Online Dictionary, the second two definitions of "disease" are "2: a condition of the living animal or plant body or of one of its parts that impairs normal functioning: SICKNESS, MALADY; 3: a harmful development (as in a social institution)" (Merriam-ebster OnLine, 2003). Definition number two describes how the being is personally affected by a disease, and definition number three describes how society as a whole is affected by a disease. It is recommended that the epidemic of obesity in America be given a disease status to confront this "harmful development" that "impairs normal functioning" in society.
By declaring obesity a disease, American society can face up…
Body Mass Index Charts. Partnership for Healthy Weight Management. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at http://www.consumer.gov/weightloss/bmi.htm .
Brownell, Kelly; Liebman, Bonnie. "The pressure to eat: why we're getting fatter." Nutrition Action Health Newsletter. July-August 1998. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0813/n6_v25/21128354/p1/article.jhtml?term= .
Critser, Greg. "Let them eat fat." Harper's Magazine. March 2000. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1111/1798_300/60102141/p1/article.jhtml .
Knoll Pharmaceutical Company begins nationwide distribution of new anti-obesity agent, MERIDIA." Business Wire. February 12, 1998. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0EIN/1998_Feb_12/20231879/p2/article.jhtml?term=
Translation of esearch in Evidence-Based Practice
Nursing involves men and women who are willing to help the patients with their skills like health maintenance, recovery of ill or injured people and the treatment. They develop a care plan for the patient sometimes in collaboration with the physicists or therapists. This paper discusses the current nursing practice in which I am involved and needs to be changed.
Identification of a Current Nursing Practice equiring Change
Description of the Current Nursing Practice
Children of all age groups are facing a grave problem these days: obesity.
Childhood obesity is a major risk factor for future health problems, in addition to being a significant public health problem, given the evidence available in research literature. Literature properly documents the risk factors and multi-related factors associated with childhood obesity and overweight that threatens public health.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention…
Action for Healthy Kids. (2004). The Learning Connation: The value of improving nutrition and physical activity in our schools. Retrieved 9.12.08 from www.actionforhealthykids.org/.
Barlow, S.E. & Expert Committee (2007). Expert committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: Summary report. Pediatrics, 120, S164-S192.
Berkowitz, B. & Borchard, M. (2009). Advocating for the prevention of childhood obesity: A call to action for nursing. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 14. Retrieved from http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol142009/No1Jan09/Prevention-of-Childhood-Obesity.html
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics (2007). Health, United States (PHS, 2007-1232, GPO Stock Number: 017-022-01604-4). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Weight and Obesity
The Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Immigrant Women from Sub-Saharan Africa Living in Grande Prairie, Alberta
In spite of the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in the general population, little attention has been paid to immigrant communities, which are at a greater risk of weight gain compared to the majority. This is quite disturbing given the increased rate of migration from low-income countries. Lack of epidemiological data relating to overweight and obesity is particularly true for women of sub-Saharan African origin living in Grande Prairie, Alberta, Canada. This study will involve a cross-sectional survey, to fill this gap in literature. A sample of 100 subjects is deemed to be representative of the target population. Knowledge of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in this population will be important for designing weight management interventions for this group, thereby reducing the risk of overweight and obesity as…
Adhikari, A., (2014). Prevalence of obesity among immigrants living in Canada. American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 2(1): 35-39.
Choi, J. (2012). Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US immigrants: results of the 2003 New Immigrant Survey. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 14(6), 1112-1118.
City of Grande Prairie (2015). Census population. Retrieved from: http://www.cityofgp.com/index.aspx?page=2507
Gele, A., & Mbalilaki, A. (2013). Overweight and obesity among African immigrants in Oslo. BMC Research Notes, 6: 119.
This research was permitted by the Human ights Committee, the institutional assessment board of the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh. There was conduction of a chart evaluation of three thousand a seven health administration visits to the Children's Hospital during a constant three-month period, from December 1, 2001, to February 28, 2002. The Patient visits were not included when the child's age was less than three months or when the visit was afterward recognized as a follow-up. If the patient had more than one health supervision visit during the selected period of study, his second visit was not included in the analysis. Four hundred and ninety two visits were not included on the foundation of these criteria .this left 2515 visits that were used for analysis.
As one goes through the essay, he will totally be perplexed by it. Presented in clear, simple and grammatically correct English, it should be…
Barlow SE, Dietz WH (1998). Obesity evaluation and treatment: expert committee recommendations. Pediatrics.1998; 102(3) . Available at: www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/102/3/e29
Houser, J (2007)Nursing Research Reading, Using, and Creating Evidence
Medical Dictionary (2009) 'Sampling Bias' Retrieved on September 23, 2009
Marcellus, L (2004) Are We Missing Anything? Pursuing Research on Attrition .
Adolescent Obesity and Drug Abuse -- Literature eview
The work of Brownson, et al. (2010) states that childhood obesity "…is a serious public health problem." In fact, "obesity rates have increased threefold among U.S. children and adolescents. Approximately 16% of children and adolescents aged 2 to 29 years are obese." (Brownson, et al., 2010) isk factors include hypertension and high cholesterol as well as increased risk of cardiovascular disease and incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. (Brownson, et al., 2010, paraphrased) Health professionals identify overweight and obesity through use of the Body Mass Index (BMI), which is calculated by measuring the proportion of weight to height. (Eisenberg, adunovich, and Brennan, 2007, paraphrased) The criteria used for categorizing BMI for children are both age and sex-specific and often referred to as BMI-for-age. BMI-for-age weight status categories and the corresponding percentiles are listed in Appendix 'A' following this study.…
Rates of youth obesity is reported to vary among different groups with African-American, non-Hispanic girls and Mexican-American boys being the groups most likely to be obese. (Eisenberg, Radunovich, and Brennan, 2007, paraphrased) African-American females are reported to "remain at the highest risk, and have substantial rates of obesity-related diseases and causes of death." (Eisenberg, Radunovich, and Brennan, 2007) It is reported that there is "no assessment of body composition inherent in BMI" as "BMI identifies people who are at risk for having high levels of excessive body fat but it does not actually determine body fat. Anthropometric measurements, such as subscapular and triceps skinfolds and bioelectrical impendence are commonly used to assess body fatness in clinical settings." (Fleming and Towey, 2003) The causes of adolescent obesity are stated to include: (1) parental influence; (2) school influence; and (3) community influences. (Fleming and Towey, 2003)
Discipline II & Integration
Drug addiction among adolescents is a problem that requires the benefit of more research as new findings have shed light on the origins of addiction. The work of Nestler (2004) reports that one of the mechanisms that result from drug abuse and that serves to induce relatively long-lasting changes in the brain resulting in the addictive state is the mechanism of regulation of gene expression. In other words, addiction is in reality a disease directly related to the individual's genetics. The two transcription factors are stated by Nestler to be those as follows: (1) CREB (CAMP response element binding protein); and (3) ?FosB, which contributes to drug-induced changes in gene expression. (Nestler, 2004) Both of these are reported as of the nature that are activated "…in the nucleus accumbens, a major brain reward region, but mediate different aspects of the addicted state." (Nestler, 2004) CREB is stated to be the mediator of a type of tolerance and dependence of the nature that dulls the individual's sensitivity to "subsequent drug exposure) as well as contributing to an emotional state characterized by negativity during early withdrawal stages. FosB on the other hand is the mediator of "a state of relatively prolonged sensitization to drug exposure and may contribute to the increased drive and motivation for drug, which is a core symptom of addictive disorders. There is stated to be a need to better understand how CREB and ?FosB, acting together in other various drug-induced nucleus accumbens changes and other regions
e. managerial, social, political, economic benefits are linked to the study's results) the proposed helpful outcomes are realistic (i.e. dealing with questions that can actually be answered through the type of data gathering and analysis you're proposing. The suggested helpful outcomes do not go beyond the data that's to be collected).
The increase in teen smoking may be abating, or may be taking a pause before it continues the climb seen in the past 10 years, from 1996 to 2005. In either case, reducing smoking at an early age has a lifelong effect on individuals' health, and can lead to better quality of life for millions of people who might otherwise take up smoking. A secondary benefit is that lessons learned may help to reduce the current 3.1 million teen smokers, many of whom try smoking and quit -- it would be useful to know why they started in the…
Bobo, J.H. (2000). Sociocultural Influences on Smoking and Drinking. Alcohol Research & Health, 225-234.
Cooper, T.K. (2003). A prospective evaluation of the relationships between smoking dosage and body mass index in an adolescent, biracial cohort. Addictive Behaviors, 501-512.
Falba, T. (2005). Health events and the smoking cessation of middle aged Americans. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, n.p.
Gies, C.B. (2007). Effect of an Inpatient Nurse-Directed Smoking Cessation Program. Western Journal of Nursing Research, n.p.
Anabolic Steroid and Performance Enhancing Drug Use
Among High School Athletes
Anabolic steroid use has, at least in the past, been prevalent among major college and, especially, professional sports. Major League Baseball implemented a drug testing regimen very recently after backlash from fans made it an issue that the sport believed it had to listen to. The National Football League has a testing program that has been in place since 1989, and other sports have also begun programs to test for anabolic steroids and other performance enhancing drugs (PED) to ensure that there is a level playing field among all of their athletes. Unfortunately this testing has led to consequences for some athletes.
Some notable case of athletes being either stripped of honors or not being selected for honors because they acknowledged PED or steroid use have occurred in recent times. Lance Armstrong was recently stripped of all of his…
Denham, BE. (2006). Effects of mass communication on attitudes toward anabolic steroids: An analysis of high school seniors. Journal of Drug Issues, 36(4), 809- 823.
Green, G.A. (2007). The prevalence of anabolic steroid use by Southern California high school athletes. LA84 Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.la84foundation.org/3 CE/AnabolicSteroidsSouthernCaliforniaHighScho ol.pdf
Liberatore, S. (2009). Q: I have a lot of competitive athletes in my classes. If they decide to use steroids, what effect will this have on their health? The Science Teacher, 76(1), 70.
Martin, J., & Govender, K. (2011). Making muscle junkies: Investigating traditional masculine ideology, body image discrepancy, and the pursuit of muscularity in adolescent males. International Journal of Men's Health, 10(3), 220-233.
In addition, the Marines have a much smaller force than the army.
On the other hand, the army cannot be as selective as the marines because it needs to maintain a much higher number of troops. The article explains that the army "needs 80,000 new soldiers this year and must find them in a populace that is in many ways less willing and less able to serve than earlier generations were (Mockenhaupt, 2007, pg.86)." The article explains that teenagers and young adults are overweight and less fit than any previous generation. In addition, this generation of young Americans eats more unhealthy foods, watches more television, and engages in less physical activity than previous generations. The article further asserts that this generation is "more individualistic and less inclined to join the military. And with the unemployment rate hovering near historic lows, they have other choices (Mockenhaupt, 2007, pg.86)."
Overall it is…
Anderson, P.M., & Butcher, K.F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes. The Future of Children, 16(1), 19+.
Body Mass Index. http://www.nhlbisupport.com/bmi/
Belkin D. (February 20, 2006) Struggling for recruits, Army relaxes its rules: Fitness, education, age criteria change. The Boston Globe Retrieved March 16, 2008 from; http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2006/02/20/struggling_for_recruits_army_relaxes_its_rules/?page=1
Daniels, S.R. (2006). The Consequences of Childhood Overweight and Obesity. The Future of Children, 16(1), 47+.
" (Dietz, 1998). Obese children are often taller than their non-overweight peers, and are apt to be viewed as more mature. This is an inappropriate expectation that may result in adverse effects on their socialization. (Dietz, 1998). Overweight children and adolescents report negative assumptions made about them by others, including being inactive or lazy, being strong or tougher than others, not having feelings and being unclean. (American Obesity Association, 2000).
This epidemic did not occur overnight. Obesity and overweight are chronic conditions.
This study was concerned with genetics, family dynamics and parenting, and nutrition and dietary intake, all three of which contribute to childhood obesity. Specifically the researcher will attempt to determine what factors are contributing to the nations epidemic rises in obesity among children and what the effects are of the growing girth that is plaguing the nations children. The objective of the research study will be…
American Obesity Association. (2004). Childhood Obesity. Retrieved March 20th, 2005, on the World Wide Web: http://www.obesity.org/subs/childhood/prevalence.shtml.
American Obesity Association. (September 1999). Obesity in Youth. (Conference outcomes). Washington, DC: Author retrieved March 20th, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://www.obesity.com/Obesity_Youth.htm.
Axmaker, L. (2002). "Childhood obesity should be taken seriously." In Blasi, M.J.
2003). "A burger and fries: The increasing dilemmas of childhood obesity," Childhood Education, 79(5).
Drug dosing is often based overall on the "volume of distribution for the loading dose and on the clearance for maintenance, with volume of distribution being increased if drug is distributed among lean and fat tissues (Casati & Putzu, 2005).
Coe, Saleh, Samuel & Edwards (2004) report that multiple problems related to anesthesia and obesity exist. The level of obesity defined by MBI has a significant impact on the type of anesthesia most patients choose (Coe, et. al, 2004). ecent studies have focused on encouraging patients to lose a certain amount of weight prior to surgical intervention to make anesthesia delivery a more viable and safe option (Coe, et. al, 2004). Unfortunately most patients undergoing bariatric surgery have utilized all other resources thus must risk any potential contraindications associated with anesthetic delivery in order to lose weight.
Obesity is a complicated and rapidly advancing disease affecting millions of people…
Bostwick, G.J. & Melcher, J. (1998). "The obese client: Myths, fats, assessment and intervention." Health and Social Work, 23(3): 195.
Cabay, C., Dreyer, M.G. & Pellegrinelli, N. (2001 - May). "Leptin directly induces the secretion of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in human monocytes." Journal Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism 86: 783-91.
Casati, A. & Putzu, M. (2005 - mar). "Anesthesia in the obese patient: Pharmacokinetic considerations." J. Clin Anesth. 17(2): 134-45.
Coe, A.J., Saleh, T., Samuel, T., Edwards, R. (2004 - Jun). "The management of patients with morbid obesity in the anaesthetic assessment clinic." Anaesthesia, 59(6): 570-3.
Incidence rates of obesity are rising globally, with tremendous impacts to the cost and nature of healthcare intervention. As measured as body mass index (BMI) of 25 or over, being overweight affects as many as 67% of all American adults, while up to 40% can be classified as obese with a BMI of 30 or more. About 5% of Americans are classified as morbidly obese with a BMI of 40 or more. Obesity affects persons from all demographic groups, and has been on the rise in all demographic groups, even though some groups have higher rates of obesity than others. As many as 10% of all children worldwide are either obese or overweight. Being overweight and being obese are associated with a number of health conditions including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes. Moreover, obesity may cause psychological and social issues ranging from depression and anxiety to stigma and prejudice, with…
Camden, S.G. (2009). Obesity: An emerging concern for patients and nurses. OJIN 14(1).
Childhood Obesity: Assessing the Effectiveness of the National School Lunch Program
Assessing the Effectiveness of the National School Lunch Program: Childhood Obesity
Childhood is a serious health concern for policymakers in the United States. It is estimated that currently, one in every five children below the ages of 2 and 19 in America is obese. For this reason, numerous policies have been formulated to help in preventing or minimizing the risk of obesity among children. This study assesses the effectiveness of one such policy -- the National School Lunch Program.
Childhood Obesity: Assessing the Effectiveness of the National School Lunch Program
Childhood obesity has become a serious health concern for parents and policymakers in the U.S. over the last few decades. It is estimated that approximately 12.5 million children between the ages of 2 and 19, which translates to approximately 1 in every five children, is obese (Toro, 2011). These…
Leach, R. A. (2004). The Chiropractic Theories: A Textbook of Scientific Research (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Levine, D. M. & Stephan, D. F. (2009). Even You can Learn Statistics: A Guide for Everyone who has Ever been Afraid of Statistics (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ FT Press.
Sukal, M. (2013). Research Methods: Applying Statistics in Research. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint.
Toro, R. (2011). Childhood Obesity. Live Science. Retrieved October 7, 2015 from http://www.livescience.com/17244-childhood-obesity-infographic.html
while the parents were asked to complete the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS). This helped the researchers obtain information regarding the behavioral abnormalities, hyperactivity, inattention, ADHD, etc.
Statistical analysis of the gathered information clearly revealed an increase in inattentive behavior (p ? 0.001 for both Internet and console video games) and ADHD (p = 0.018 and 0.020 for console and Internet games, respectively). The researchers also concluded that students who engaged in video gaming for more than an hour showed significantly lower academic performance with (Grade point average (GPA), p = 0.019 and 0.009 for console and Internet games, respectively). The association between the time spent on playing video games and the YIAS (p < 0.001), was clearly evident indicating the development of video game addiction among the subjects who played for more than one hour daily [Philip and Terry, (2006)]. This study shows that children playing video games may…
1) Online Education, 'Video game Statistics' Accessed Mar 26th 2010, available at, http://www.onlineeducation.net/videogame/
2) NIMF, 'Effects of Video game playing on Children', Accessed Mar 26th 2010, available at, http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_effect.shtml
3) Jerald J. Block, M.D., 'Issues for DSM-V: Internet Addiction', Am J. Psychiatry
165:306-307, Mar 2008, Available online at, http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/165/3/306
Magnesium was in great demand during World War II. It was described as the wonder metal and used for incendiary munitions casings and airplane engines, frames, and other parts. The processing of magnesium is multi-step task using significant amounts of energy. In the June 1944 issue of the Desert, Lelande Quick provides the following pictorial of how magnesium is processed:
everal employees of Basic Magnesium spent much time in England learning the skills required for the above process. Ironically, the Germans assisted England in building the plant prior to war. Locating the processing plant near Hoover Dam resulted in low cost energy. When the facility was at full capacity it produced over five million pounds of magnesium nuggets per day and employed over 13,500 people. This made BMI bigger than the employee base of the Hoover Dam and BMI's weekly payroll was greater than a month's payroll at the dam.…
Elliott, Russell R. And William D. Rowley, History of Nevada. Nebraska: University of Nebraska, 1987
Schemata, Geoff Sun, Sin and Suburbia: An Essential History of Modern Las Vegas. Nevada: Stephens Press LLC, 2010.
Quick, Lelande. Miracle Metal from Nevada Hills, Desert Magazine, June 1944, pages 10-13. Retrieve from http://www.scribd.com/doc/2097157/194406-Desert-Magazine-1944-June
Las Vegas Evening Review-Journal and Boulder City Journal, August 14, 1942
(1996). In this study, weight, height, and dietary patterns were obtained from 540 adolescent girls aged 12 to 18 years. These researchers used the body mass index of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANESI) as their reference for adolescence (Madani et al., 1996). The respective prevalence rates among this sample was found to be 14.7% underweight (85th percentiles). Based on these findings, Madani and his associates posited that the dietary practices of Saudi adolescents were comparable to their peers in other developed countries in the West and may reflect a tendency on the part of Saudi youth to adopt more Western-like lifestyles.
Al-Abbad (1995) assessed the prevalence of obesity and a number of the condition's associated risk factors following the same criteria used in the Madani et al. (1996) study. In Al-Abbad's analysis, 700 randomly selected students from six female intermediate and high schools in Al-Khobar city ranging…
Al-Abbar, F.A. (1995). Prevalence of obesity and risk factors among single female intermediate and high school students in Al-Khobar, Eastern Province Saudi Arabia. College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, King Faisal University, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi
Arabia, 1995 (unpublished fellowship dissertation).
Al-Nuaim a, Bamgboye E, Al-Herbish a. (1996). The pattern of growth and obesity in Saudi
Arabian male school children. International Journal of Obesity, 20, 1000-1005.
Obesity: An Overview
hat is the disease?
Obesity is an increasingly prevalent metabolic disorder whereby a patient's BMI or body mass index, defined as the patient's weight in kilograms divided by the patient's height in meters squared in kilograms, is greater than 30. Obesity puts one at greater risk for a number of ailments, and a BMI less than 21 is associated with the greatest protection from coronary heart disease mortality and other life-threatening ailments affecting the heart, other vital organs, and the body's metabolism. (Eckel, 1997)
However, there are problems with the BMI-based definition of obesity, as many women with a BMI of near 30 may be less at risk for heart disease if their increase in adipose tissue is distributed in the pelvis and not the abdomen. Substantial evidence now indicates that an increased waist circumference, or waist-to-hip ratio, better predicts co-morbidities and mortality from obesity, such as…
Benson, Lorna. (2003) "MPR: Obesity as a Disease." Minnesota Public Radio (MPH) Special Report. Retrieved 11 Aug 2005 at http://news.minnesota.publicradio.org/features/2004/03/29_bensonl_desease/
Eckel, Robert H. (1997) "Obesity and Heart Disease: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the Nutrition Committee, American Heart Association. Circulation. 96:3248-3250. Retrieved 11 Aug 2005 at http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/96/9/3248#SEC1
Epidemiological Analysis of Obesity
As a result of increasingly sedentary lifestyles and poor nutritional choices, an increasing number of consumers are gaining weight and obesity has reached epidemic levels in many countries. Although the social and economic consequences of obesity are well documented, there remains a need to better understand the epidemiology of obesity in order to formulate effective population-based interventions. To this end, this paper provides an analysis of the obesity problem in the United States compared to Thailand where obesity is not as great a problem, but where the prevalence of obesity is still on the rise. A further comparison of obesity rates and obesity-related healthcare costs in New York compared to national rates and costs is followed by an assessment concerning how the political aspects of this issue hinder the ability of epidemiologists in addressing this problem. In addition, recommendations concerning four new policies or laws that…
Anderson, P.M., Butcher, K.F. And Levine, P.B. (2003). Economic perspectives on childhood obesity. Economic Perspectives, 27(3), 30.
Clinton, J., & Smith, D. (1999). Understanding childhood obesity. Jackson, MS: University
Press of Mississippi.
Daniels, S.R. (2006). Consequences of childhood overweight and obesity. The Future of Children, 16(1), 47.
Biological Factors and Juvenile Delinquency
A biological theory or a biological factor contributing to delinquency:
A genetic propensity for addiction
Although many teens experiment with drugs and alcohol, not all teens become addicted. Biological as well as social factors can impact an adolescent's propensity to become addicted to illicit substances. According to the research study, "Youth substance use and body composition: Does risk in one area predict risk in the other?" from the Journal of Youth and Adolescence, a positive association has been found in numerous studies between high adolescent BMI and alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use (Pasch et al. 2012). The willingness to engage in illegal behavior regarding drugs and alcohol has thus been linked to a higher BMI in youth and adolescents.
The authors of the study initially speculated that this association might be due to the fact that overweight teens use smoking as an appetite suppressant,…
Pasch, K.E., Velazquez, C.E., Cance, J.D., Moe, S.G., & Lytle, L.A. (2012). Youth
substance use and body composition: Does risk in one area predict risk in the other? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(1), 14-26. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-011-9706-y
Poverty and Obesity
Evidence is mounting that many Canadians are not getting enough to eat. Among the most vulnerable are people living with poverty . The following statistics begin to paint a picture of poverty in Canada.
• In 1998 -- 99, the Statistics Canada National Population Health Survey (NPHS) reported that 2.4 million Canadians were food insecure -- or unable to get enough or the appropriate kinds of food (ainville and Brink 2001).
• In the 2000 -- 01 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS),8.2percent of BC residents reported "sometimes" or "often" not having enough to eat due to lack of money; 11.6% reported "sometimes" or "often" worrying that there wouldn't be enough to eat; and 14.8% reported "sometimes" or "often" not eating the quality of food they wanted (Statistics Canada, 2001 -- 02).
Parallel to the persistent and growing poverty in Canada is the escalating crisis of obesity. Obesity…
Rainville, B. & Brink, S. (2001). Food insecurity in Canada 1998-1999. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from http://
hrdc.arhc.gc.ca/sp-ps/arb-dgra / publicationa/research/2001docs/R-01-02/R-01-2_E_abs.shtml
Statistics Canada. (1997). Selected leading causes of death by sex. Retrieved June 15, 2012, from http://
Childhood Obesity Intervention
Since the early 1980s childhood obesity has increased three-fold and during the 2005-2006 school year an estimated 16% of merican children were obese (reviewed by Gleason and Dodd, 2009). Childhood obesity and weight problems predispose a child to physical and behavioral problems that can extend into their adult years (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2010) and for this reason health researchers and educators are attempting to curb this epidemic.
K-12 schools provide between 35% and 47% of a child's daily nutritional requirements (reviewed by Gleason and Dodd, 2009), providing an opportunity to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity the United States. Towards this goal a coalition of nutrition and educational researchers conducted a 2-year pilot study to test the efficacy of a broad-based intervention strategy targeting obesity in 3,769 children attending grades 1-6 in a public school district in central Florida (Hollar et al., 2010).…
Another primary outcome measure was academic performance, as measured by the FCAT (Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test). A number of studies have found an association between being overweight or obese and poorer K-12 academic performance (Roberts, Freed, and McCarthy, 2010), which could be related to the psychological problems that accompany this condition (Krukowski et al., 2009). In support of this association, children attending intervention schools experienced a significant improvement in their math scores (p = 0.0005). Reading scores trended towards significance (p = 0.08).
Summary and Critique
A comprehensive program to reduce the prevalence of obesity in school-aged children was shown to be effective in this pilot study. Enhanced BMI reductions were observed and
Caloric and Energy Requirements
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Rangers or AMDRs were established from evidence levels of consumption, which either increase or decrease the risk of developing disease conditions (Otten et al., n.d.; USDA, n.d.). These disease conditions include coronary heart disease, obesity, diabetes and cancer. An AMDR refers to a range of food intakes aimed at reducing the risk of these disease conditions. At the same time, AMDR provides sufficient intakes of essential nutrients, which meet the body's daily nutritional requirements for health and energy. In order to accomplish these goals, an average adult should obtain 45-65% carbohydrates, 20-35% from fat, and 10-35% from protein sources (Otten et al., USDA).
Greg, who is a 19-year-old basketball player, weighs 84.82 kilograms. He stands .96520 meters and has a body mass index or MI of 22.5. Energy balance depends on intake from energy derived from food and drinks and the amount of…
Otten, J. et al., editors (n.d). Dietary reference intakes: the essential guide to nutrient
Requirement. National Academy of Sciences: Institute of Medicine of the National
Academies. Retrieved on October 26, 2015 from http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11537.html
USDA (n.d.)., Dietary reference intakes: estimated average requirements. Food and Nutrition Board: United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved on October 26,
School's ole In Fighting Obesity
When parents send their children to school, they entrust the school with the care of their child. Thus, the school has a duty to look over the health and safety of the child just as though it were a parent. In today's economy, it often takes both parents to work leaving children sometimes in the care of a third party for much of the day. In an effort to make sure the child is getting the best attention and consideration possible, a school may take small steps to alert parents when over a critical development in the child's well-being becomes manifest. In this context, a school sending a letter to parents discussing a child's BMI is appropriate. This paper will show that schools should be involved in helping decrease the obesity rate in America because they are the last line of defense when it comes…
Butler, J. (2015). Running the 'Gun Violence' Numbers. The Truth About Guns.
Retrieved from http://www.thetruthaboutguns.com/2015/02/john-butler/running-gun-violence-numbers/
Gortmaker, S., Peterson, K. (1999). Reducing obesity via a school-based interdisciplinary intervention among youth. Arch Pediatrics Adolescence Med, 153(4): 409-418.
Story, M. (1999). School-based approaches for preventing and treating obesity.
Chi-Squared Test Where Continuous Data Has Been Transformed Into Categorical Data
Using Continuous data as categorical
Statistical analysis can provide a robust approach to assess data, using the raw data to generate useful results which may provide insights into the phenomena being examined. For the results to be meaningful and useful it is essential that the most appropriate method tests are utilized (Bryman & Bell, 2011). In the research undertaken by azmjou et al., (2009) a decision way made to transform one type of variable, changing it from a continuous variable into a categorical variable. BMI, which is a continuous variable, was changed into categories of normal, overweight, and obese (azmjou et al., 2009). Usually, transforming continuous data into categorical data results in a loss of detail, so is usually ill-advised, but in some circumstances may help to more useful data (Bryman & Bell, 2011). The circumstances under which continuous…
Bruce, N. (2009). Quantitative Methods for Health Research: A Practical Interactive Guide to Epidemiology and Statistics. Hoboken: Wiley-Interscience.
Bryman, A., & Bell, E. (2011). Business Research Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Curwin, J., & Slater, R. (2006). Quantitative Methods for Business Decisions. London: Thompson Business Press.
Razmjou, H; Davis, A M, Jaglal, S B; Holtby, R; Richards, R, (2009), Cross-sectional analysis of baseline differences of candidates for rotator cuff surgery: a sex and gender perspective, BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 10(26), retrieved 17th November 2015 from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2474/10/26
In the last three decades, the rates of childhood obesity have increased by more than three times. This is according to the American Health Trust (2013), which further reports that 30 states have over 30% of their children above the overweight mark. Weight ranges greater than what is considered healthy for a given height, is what is considered overweight or obese by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). These weight ranges are considered to increase the likelihood of some health complications such as Type 2 Diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea and liver disease. Both the CDC and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommend the Body Mass Index (BMI) as the screening tool to identify possible weight problems in children.
Overweight and obese children are at a risk of developing serious health complications such as diabetes type 2 and hypertension (CDC, 2015b). Children and adolescents are the ones…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015a). Healthy Weight. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/ on August 29, 2016
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015b). Childhood Overweight and Obesity. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov /obesity/childhood/ on August 29, 2016
Chang, W., Lee, P., Lai, H., Chou, Y. & Chang, L. (2009). Perceptions of exercise in obese school-aged children. Journal of Nursing Research, 17(3), 170-176.
Fahlman, M., Dake, J., Mccaughtry, N., & Martin, J. (2008). A pilot study to examine the effects of a Nutrition Intervention on Nutrition Knowledge, Behaviors, and Efficacy Expectations in Middle School Children. Journal of School Health, 78(4), 216-222.
ascertaining the link between depression and eating disorders, with particular focus on young adults and teens. Not much information is available on the subject of eating disorder (ED)-diagnosed persons' nutritional status and food consumption. The objectives of this study were:
To explain eating disorder-diagnosed teens' nutritional intake and To study the relationship of depression with ED among teens without as well as with ED.
A number of data sources were employed for individual papers examined for this research. This examination facilitates the drawing of a few key inferences. ED's high stability and its major link to obesity and declining psychological health among adults highlight the necessity of timely problem identification and treatment in childhood and teenage. Depressed youngsters must be especially observed to detect restrictive ED development. Further, adult females depicting a lifetime ED diagnosis showed double the likelihood to report migraines as compared to unrelated members of this very…
Allen, K., Mori, T., Beilin, L., Byrne, S., Hickling, S., & Oddy, W. (2012). Dietary intake in population-based adolescents: support for a relationship between eating disorder symptoms, low fatty acid intake and depressive symptoms. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 459 - 469.
Christina, B., Lange, K., Stahl-Pehe, A., Castillo, K., Scheuing, N., Holl, R., . . . Rosenbaeur, J. (2015). Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Depression in Emerging Adults with Early - Onset, Long-Duration Type 1 Diabetes and Their Association with Metabolic Control. PLoS ONE.
Costa, J., Maroco, J., Pinto Gouveia, J., & Ferreira, C. (2016). Shame, Self-Criticism, Perfectionistic Self-Presentation and Depression in Eating Disorders. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 315 - 328.
Herpertz-Dahlmann, B., Dempfle, A., Konrad, K., Klasen, F., & Ravens-Sieberer, U. (2015). Eating disorder symptoms do not just disappear: the implications of adolescent eating-disordered behaviour for body weight and mental health in young adulthood. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 675 - 684.
In addition, those who are emotionally troubled and who are overweight -- often a contributing factor to emotional difficulties -- do not receive extra counseling time." Seale, Seale & Zhang (2008, p.425) This is a serious concern and one that must be addressed immediately by physicians who are providing care for obese patients.
A lot of revamping has to be done to meet this increased need of obese elderly and this has to be done fast. The numbers are increasing by the day and unless some initiatives are taken right away, it can blow up into a full-fledged catastrophe in the future. The first and foremost step that is required is to change the present healthcare system to make it more effective and efficient. Changes have to be made in the delivery of service as well as payments to make it more accessible to the elderly.
Another important step…
Arterburn, David E. (2004). The Coming Epidemic of Obesity in Elderly Americans. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 52(11). 1907-1912
Odilia I; Bermudez; Tucker, Katherine L. (2001). Total and Central Obesity among Elderly Hispanics and the Association with Type 2 Diabetes. Obesity Research (9), 443 -- 451; doi: 10.1038/oby.2001.58
Thompson, Dennis. (2009, December 31). As U.S. Ages, Health Care May Need to Change. HealthDay Consumer News Service.
Dutton, Drake, D; Engelke. K; McAuliffe, M; Rose, M., (2005). Challenges that nurses face in caring for morbidly obese patients in the acute care setting. Surgery for Obesity and Related
(Institute of Medicine, 2009)
Strategy 3: Community Food Access - Promote efforts to provide fruits and vegetables in a variety of settings, such as farmers' markets, farm stands, mobile markets, community gardens, and youth-focused gardens. (Institute of Medicine, 2009)
Action Steps: (1) Encourage farmers markets to accept Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) food package vouchers and WIC Farmers Market Nutrition Program coupons; and encourage and make it possible for farmers markets to accept Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (or SNAP, formerly the Food Stamp Program) and WIC Program Electronic enefit Transfer (ET) cards by allocating funding for equipment that uses electronic methods of payment; (2) Improve funding for outreach, education, and transportation to encourage use of farmers markets and farm stands by residents of lower-income neighborhoods, and by WIC and SNAP recipients. Introduce or modify land use policies/zoning regulations to promote, expand, and protect potential sites…
Berkowitz, Bobbie and Borchard, Marleyse (2009) Prevention of Childhood Obesity Advocating for the Prevention of Childhood Obesity: A Call to Action for Nursing. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. ANA Periodicals Vol 14 -- 2009 No 1 Jan'09http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol142009/No1Jan09/Prevention-of-Childhood-Obesity.aspx
Dehghan, Mahshid, Akhtar-Danesh, Noori, and Merchant, Anwar T. (2005) Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention. Nutrition Journal 2 Sept 2005. Online available at: http://www.nutritionj.com/content/4/1/24
National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) March 06, 2009 National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) March 06, 2009 http://obssr.od.nih.gov/news_and_events/news.aspx
Local Government Actions to Prevent Childhood Obesity (2009) Institute of Medicine. September 2009. Report Brief. Online available at: http://www.rwjf.org/files/research/20090901iombrief.pdf