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Body Image and the Difference Between Europe and America
The concept of body image is really a perception involving imagination, emotions and physical sensations about our body. (America Now Short Readings from Recent Periodicals) This does not remain the same, but keeps on changing, and depends a lot on our moods, the environment that we live in and the practical experiences in life that we have. Often we do not realize the factual situation within it. It involves a lot of our psychology and depends a lot more on our self-esteem than the real physical attractiveness that we have according to others. People do not directly tell us this, but this is what we feel. The transmission of this knowledge is cultural and through the family and friends. (Body Image: International Eating Disorder Referral Organization)
Most of the people involved are not happy with the bodies they have. There are…
America Now Short Readings from Recent Periodicals. Retrieved from http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/book.asp?disc=& ; id_product=1149000370& compType=TOC Accessed on 10 June, 2005
Body Image: International Eating Disorder Referral Organization. Retrieved from http://www.edreferral.com/body_image.htm#improving%20body%20image Accessed on 10 June, 2005
Body Image. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio1/onelife/personal/body_image/media.shtml Accessed on 10 June, 2005
Boston, John Cloud. Never Too Buff. Time Europe. 24 April, 2000. Vol: 155; No: 16. Retrieved from http://www.time.com/time/europe/magazine/2000/0424/bodyimage.html Accessed on 10 June, 2005
The follow-up interview was conducted by an independent researcher and focused on the massage intervention's effects. The results indicated that showed that each of the three women felt positively regarding the intervention. It is possible that they simply did not want to provide negative feedback, but there is no evidence that they found the massage unhelpful in adjusting to their new bodies. redin (1999) concluded that intervention techniques like massage can go a very long way toward making women more comfortable with their bodies after mastectomy and should be part of an overall wellness plan for these women, because their mental and emotional states are important, as well as their physical state. In summary, the literature indicated that there is still much more to be studied where women's health and wellness following mastectomy is concerned. The nursing implications related to this issue are vital because it is nurses who often…
Body Image Disturbances After Mastectomy
The main concerns for many women after a mastectomy are pain and anxiety about the possible return of the cancer. However, another concern that is often overlooked is a woman's body image. She is not always able to reconcile how she looks now with 'being a woman.' The purpose of this paper is to show the importance of these kinds of issues to the field of nursing. In a study by Bredin (1999), the issue of body image after mastectomy was addressed from the point of therapeutic massage and listening to help women feel better about the way that they look now. The purpose of the article was to show whether this type of intervention was beneficial to these women. The sample for the study was limited to three participants because the intervention was so time consuming. The method was for these women to participate in two semi-structured interviews of one hour each and six sessions of therapeutic massage. Initial interview and massage sessions were conducted by the study's author. The follow-up interview was conducted by an independent researcher and focused on the massage intervention's effects. The results indicated that showed that each of the three women felt positively regarding the intervention. It is possible that they simply did not want to provide negative feedback, but there is no evidence that they found the massage unhelpful in adjusting to their new bodies. Bredin (1999) concluded that intervention techniques like massage can go a very long way toward making women more comfortable with their bodies after mastectomy and should be part of an overall wellness plan for these women, because their mental and emotional states are important, as well as their physical state. In summary, the literature indicated that there is still much more to be studied where women's health and wellness following mastectomy is concerned. The nursing implications related to this issue are vital because it is nurses who often mentor to the emotional and mental state of their patients. Nurses can use these kinds of techniques to help patients recover better.
As noted above, during the hunter-gatherer phase of mankind, the desirable physical appearance of the male of the species would have been one that contributed to their ability to hunt and kill the large mega-fauna that roamed the land. y contrast, modern males may not be expected to be able to take down a wooly mammoth, but a healthy physique equates to good genes for reproduction and even modern women may therefore be more attracted to men who exhibit superior physical qualities. The studies of body image issues among modern women have typically focused on the impact played by various societal factors, most especially idealized role models as exemplified by ultra-thin fashion models (Rothblum, 1994). As noted above, although there remains a paucity of timely and relevant research in this area as it applies to men specifically, Lee and Owen (2002) suggest that it is not an unreasonable extension of…
Based on its illegality in most sports settings, it has been difficult for researchers to develop accurate estimates of anabolic steroid use but the studies to date indicate that it is widespread. For example, Blouin and Goldfield (1995) found that more than three-quarters (78%) of the sample of competitive body-builders they analyzed reported anabolic steroid use; likewise, one-in-five recreational body-builders reported such use. Another study of 16- to 19-year-old Swedish students conducted by Kindlundh et al. (1999) determined that 2.7% of these males had used steroids. Other researchers, though, found significantly lesser rates with Drewnowski et al. (1995) determining that just 0.6% of non-sporting adolescent males used steroids. Yet other studies have found a range of usage rates among different groups, with Wroblewska (1997) citing steroid usage rates of between 4% for males in general up to 75% for competitive body-builders. These respective rates translate into an enormous amount of money, with annual national spending in the United States for anabolic steroid intended for non-medical applications amount to approximately a half billion dollars in 1993 alone (Lee & Owens, 2002). Whatever the true percentages, the studies to date suggest that there are significant numbers of males engaging in musculature-building regimens that include steroids use that may carry severe healthcare consequences, including both physical and mental health issues, particularly aggressive behavior (Lee & Owens, 2002). Because the difference between harsh reality, expectations and desired outcomes contributes to self-esteem, to the extent that men (and women) fail to live up to their idealized versions of themselves will likely be the extent to which body esteem problems will result (Brownell, 1991).
Drive for Thinness
Because many eating disorders have been viewed as a female-specific problem as it relates to body image perceptions, there has been little attention given to the same forces as they apply to men. The disparities between the incidence of eating disorders between men and women would appear to justify this focus on women, with most studies that include men in their analysis at all placing the prevalence rate for men significantly lower than their female counterparts (i.e., rarely more than 10% of anorexics and 20% of bulimia cases being male (Hsu, 1990). Despite these findings, other researchers emphasize that males suffer from anorexia and bulimia (Buckley, Freyne & Walsh, 1991; Carlat & Carmargo, 1991). The causes of such eating disorders among males appear to be similar to those experienced by women as well. For example, studies have found that males who suffer
Media Exposure in Body Image Attitudes Using a One-Way Design
Research Methods- Investigating the effects of media exposure in body image attitudes using a one-way design
his research tries to analyze the connection in between media use and body discontentment by comparing the media with the internal element of self-confidence and various other social elements such as peer and adult mindsets. A sample of 30 female undergraduates finished measures of media exposure. he paper develops three specific conditions that were analyzed and that had stimuli created for them; these three conditions were the idealized figures, the non-idealized figures and control images of no figures. Moreover, social/environmental impacts and self-confidence showed to be the toughest signs of body frustration, which recommends that the indirect result of media messages on body frustration is a vital location for additional evaluation.
hin models and starlets seem to rule the requirement of beauty in…
This research of body discontentment in females (idealized figures, non-idealized figures and control figures) is essential due to the fact that body frustration might result in hazardous disordered-eating habits such as anorexia or bulimia nervosa (Garner, Olmstead, & Polivy, 1983). Body discontentment has actually been linked to media usage because media are frequently recognized as sources ladies count on for info about their physical look (idealized figures, non-idealized figures and control figures), and thin models and starlets are seemingly the requirement in present media (projected idealized figures). Cultivation and social contrast concepts have actually been utilized to analyze the association in between media usage and body discontentment (idealized figures, non-idealized figures and control figures). The objective of this job was to draw from the 2 concepts to analyze the effect of media exposure on internalization of the thin suitable (projected idealized image) and body frustration in context with various other social/environmental elements like peer and adult mindsets.
The first phase in the task was committed to comprehending the standard relationships amongst internal and social/environmental elements-- consisting of media, friends and parents-- and the internalization of the thin suitable. When become part of the statistical analysis, the media exposure measures did not appear to have substantial connections to internalization of the thin suitable (projected idealized figures). Total TV exposure and dramatization exposure appeared to have considerable connections to internalization of the thin suitable however their effect appeared to be eclipsed by various other aspects. This outcome contributes to the concerns about the importance of total TV exposure vs. exposure to certain categories, and their association with girls' approval of slimness (projected idealized figures) as a social and cultural worth. Nonetheless, the absence of proof of a connection in between genre-based exposure and some thin-ideal truth shows needs to be seen thoroughly due to the manipulated nature of the exposure measures. The absence of a regular circulation for those seeing measures makes it tough to make conclusions about their relations with internalization of the thin suitable. Although general media exposure was not connected, a media connection appeared. Up contrast with media figures was the toughest media aspect connected to internalization of the thin perfect and its contribution to the model was equivalent to self-confidence. Nevertheless, generally talking, peer mindset towards slimness was the main aspect connected with internalization of the thin suitable.
This observation recommends the resonance could play a fundamental part in forming the mindsets that are associated with
Indeed, if there is only one type of beautiful person, it contributes to increased insecurity in women who happen to be a different shape or size from the "ideal" women perpetuated in the popular culture.
According to Dank, Norton, Olds and Olive (1996), there has a lengthy association between dolls and ideal proportions, a relationship going back to Greek times. For example, pre-18th century dolls were manufactured so as to reflect classically ideal proportions, and many believe that the contemporary versions as manifested in arbie and Ken ideals are completely unrealistic, especially during a period of increasing global diversity. Some studies have focused on the actual physical measurements and proportions of the dolls, comparing them to adults (Dank et al., 1996).
One such study determined that it was not the chest measurement of arbie that was out of proportion, as some consumers and critics have suggested; rather, it is actually…
Austrian, Sonia G., ed. 2002. Developmental Theories through the Life Cycle. New York: Columbia University Press.
Chodorow, Nancy. 1995. Family Structure and Feminine Personality. In Tong & Tuana, eds., 1995.
____. 1978. The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Cohn, Lawrence D. & Nancy E. Adler. 1992. Female and Male Perceptions of Ideal Body Shapes: Distorted Views Among Caucasian College Students. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 16, 69-79.
Fashion and Body Image
Fashion industry, body image, and self-esteem
The fashion industry has established itself as a multimillion industry with more and more players jumping onboard each waking day. ith the new agencies fro the fashion industry opening shop, there are higher standards of beauty set in the fashion industry. This means each agency would like to have the most beautiful models rolling out of their agency and representing the best and most famous brands in the world.
As a result, there have been more and more stringent rules on the selection of the appropriate candidates fro the agencies to me molded into a final product to be rolled, out in the market. This has made the fashion industry to act as a modern human trafficking and slavery for the participants and the society at large.
This paper purposes to look into the portrayal of good image as per…
Business Network. Body Dissatisfaction and the Media - Brief Article - Statistical Data
Included. Nutrition Research Newsletter, 2000. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0887/is_5_19/ai_62296769/?tag=rbxcra.2.a.44 Accessed May 6, 2011.
Disorder Eating. Anorexia Nervosa Statistics (U.S.). 2010.
http://www.disordered-eating.co.uk/eating-disorders-statistics/anorexia-nervosa-statistics-us.html . Accessed May 6, 2011
Male Body Image
The need for gender-specific survey instruments and measures of body image is clear, given that the same instruments and methods used to measure female body image likely do not apply to male subjects. Future research undoubtedly will be devoted to the development, perfection, and standardization of male body image measures. Since conducting this research two new instruments have been proposed. One attempts to go beyond muscularity, including categories such as body fat, youthfulness, body hair, and penis characteristics. The instrument is called the Multidimensional Male Body Concerns Questionnaire (MMBCQ), and includes more than 30 different items along five dimensions. The MMBCQ was developed by usticus (2010).
A second instrument that has recently been developed is called the Male Body Dissatisfaction Scale (MBDS). Proposed by Ochner, Gray & Brickner (2009), the MBDS enables the correlation of body image variables with other psychological variables like self-esteem. Moreover, the MBDS…
Ochner, C.N., Gray, J.A. & Brickner, K. (2009). The development and initial validation of a new measure of male body dissatisfaction. Eating Behaviors 10(4): 197-201.
Rusticus, S.A. (2010). Going beyond muscularity: developing a multidimensional measure of male body concerns. Retrieved online: https://circle.ubc.ca/handle/2429/23469
" Despite the fact that "beauty is in the eye of the beholder" social and economic norms and standards make a clear difference between women in particular when it comes to their tagging in the society. There is a clear cut idea that the attribute of "beautiful" or "attractive" is also synonymous to higher rates of productivity.
Beautiful women are considered to be better assets for the companies and employers tend to perceive them as being more open minded and better communicators (Mobius and Rosenblat, 2006) There are those who consider that discrimination based on physical appearance is similar to that related to race and sex (ebster, 1983). More precisely, ebster argues that "attractiveness effects usually derive from the structure of the society. Beauty or its opposite often function as a status cue; that is, when it activates patterns of widely shared cultural beliefs it is a status characteristic just…
Amanda B. Bower and Stacy Landreth. "Is Beauty Best? Highly vs. Normally Attractive Models in Advertising." Journal of Advertising Vol. 30, No. 1 (Spring, 2001), pp. 1-12
Bower, Amanda B. "Highly Attractive Models in Advertising and the Women Who Loathe Them: The Implications of Negative Affect for Spokesperson Effectiveness." Journal of Advertising. 2001. Available at http://www.allbusiness.com/management/consumer-demand-management/823915-1.html
Chia-Ching Tsai, Chih-Hsiang Chang. "The effect of physical attractiveness of models on advertising effectiveness for male and female adolescents." Adolescence, Winter, 2007. Available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2248/is_168_42/ai_n27483312/
Dia Sekayi. "Commercialism in the Lives of Children and Youth of Color: Education and Other Socialization Contexts" Journal of Negro Education. Vol. 72, No. 4, (Autumn, 2003), pp. 467-477.
advertising aims to convince us to buy things, ads seldom portray people that look like us. The billboards, the commercials, the polish, the panache, the beauty products that promise a drink from the fountain of youth all offer, in what ever form they choose a chance at a viable, workable self-esteem. But these offers are intangible and indeed elusive. One can usually only attain the skinny legs and the full voluptuous lips by plastic surgery or starvation. Most women who are featured on the cover of major magazines are altered. Either made lighter, darker, thinner or larger in breast size. These "false body images," do not accurately portray the general population, and in the end does more to damage self-esteem than its claims to resurrect it.
The average female fashion model wears sizes 0-4, while the average American woman wears between a size 12 and a size 14. Over the…
Bordo, Susan. Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body. San Jose: University of California Press, 2004.
Dittmar, Dr. Helga. Consumer culture, identity, and well-being: The search for the 'good life' and 'body perfect'. United Kingdom: Psychology Press, 2008.
Killing Us Softly 4. Dir. Sut Jhally. Perf. Jean Kilbourne. 2011.
Levine, Dr. Michael. The Prevention of eating problems and eating disorders: Theory, research and practice. Gambier: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2006.
omen around the world and throughout time have modified their bodies, willingly or under coercion, in order to achieve a culturally desirable aesthetic. ith her body as central to her role, status, and identity, females manipulate their bodies or their bodies are manipulated for them. In some cases, the body modification is an overt sign of patriarchy, because it enables greater control over the woman's life. This is especially true with Chinese foot binding, which was outlawed in 1911. ith her feet bound, the woman could not walk properly and was therefore literally bound to be docile and subservient to the husband (Crossley). In other cases, gender and aesthetic norms are what dictates the body modification practice. Usually the body modification in these cases also feeds into a patriarchal culture in which the female's value on the marriage market is ascertained by her appearance. Modern forms of body…
ASAPS. Statistics, surveys, and trends. 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.surgery.org/media/news-releases/the-american-society-for-aesthetic-plastic-surgery-reports-americans-spent-largest-amount-on-cosmetic-surger
Crossley, Lucy. "The last living Chinese women with bound feet more than 100 years after the centuries-old symbol of beauty and status was banned." The Mail. 8 June 2014. Retrieved online: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2652228/PICTURED-The-living-Chinese-women-bound-feet-100-years-centuries-old-symbol-beauty-status-banned.html
Gluckman, Ron. "Stretching One's Neck." Retrieved online: http://www.gluckman.com/LongNeck.html
Harding, Andrew. "Burmese women in Thai 'human zoo'"BBC News. Retrieved online: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7215182.stm
The purpose of this historiography is to use secondary sources that will make for a greater understanding of my topic and how it relates to American body culture. In the last six decades obese people have faced discrimination in American society because of their physical appearance. Typically, society has categorized obese people as unhealthy individuals; their appearance causes discomfort; they are viewed pessimistically by employers and their career opportunities as a result have been limited. While more than 27% of the American population is obese, the federal government does nothing to prevent employment discrimination against obese or overweight people. The focus of this paper will be to analyze the issue of cultural discrimination against obese and overweight individuals and provide recommendations for changes with regard to the treatment of obese people in society so that they might be more accepted socially and enabled to fit more seamlessly into mainstream American…
The course readings and many other sources show that young women suffering from anorexia are suffering from a skewed body image. In most western societies, the ideal female form is tall and thin, sometimes extremely thin. When young women mature, they begin menstruation, but they also begin to form their curves. They gain fat in their hips and breasts, and sometimes in other areas, too. Many see these curves as feminine, but others see them only as fat, and the goal is to not be fat at any cost. They become obsessed with gaining weight, and will do anything to remain thin and ideal to society. They want to conform and to fit in, and so they turn to anorexia in an attempt to maintain a body image that is really far from ideal. In many cases, they cannot see their own image at all. Even when they lost startling…
Media Negatively Affects the Body Image Concerns of Adolescent Girls
Among adolescent girls, body image concerns are not uncommon. The hypothesis of this paper believes that media negatively affects the body image concerns of adolescent girls. The independent variable is the adolescent girls and the dependent variable is the media. This is because adolescent girls can be affected by a lot of other things when it concerns body image, this can come in the form of their peers, society and even history. These variables can affect the concerns on body image of adolescent girls in both a positive and a negative way. However, this paper will only discuss the negative affects which body images are supplied by media to adolescent girls with.
The theoretical approach which best suits this study is the Psychodynamic Approach. This is because the concerns regarding body images are implanted in the minds of these adolescent…
Anschutz, D.J., Van Strien, T., & Engels, R.C. (2008). Exposure to Slim Images in Mass Media: Television Commercials as Reminders of Restriction in Restrained Eaters. Health Psychology. 27(4); 401-408.
Cheng, H.L. & Mallinckrodt (2009). Parental Bonds, Anxious Attachment, Media Internalization, and Body Image Dissatisfaction: Exploring a Mediation Model. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 56(5); 365-375.
Clark, L., & Tiggemann, M. (2008). Sociocultural and Individual Psychological Predictors of Body Image in Young Girls: A Prospective Study. Developmental Psychology. 44(4); 1124-1134.
Dohnt, H. & Tiggemann, M. (2006). The Contribution of Peer and Media Influences to the Development of Body Satisfaction and Self-Esteem in Young Girls: A Prospective Study. Developmental Psychology. 42(5); 929-936.
CL's "Hello itches" and the Post-Feminist Representation of the ody
In the music video by CL entitled "Hello itches," CL has managed to escape the constriction of the typical K-pop girl group (sexy, innocent, seductive, chic) by asserting a more aggressive, masculine-mimicking (gagsta-rap-mimicking to be exact), hyper-sexual attitude of domineering vibes; yet, in doing so, she has fallen into another and separate trope -- not the trope of the cute/sexy K-pop artist but rather the trope of the strong, feminist, sexually assertive/aggressive pop artist (a trend represented in various modes by others such as Nicki Minaj, Iggy Azalea, eyonce, Lady Gaga). CL's performance in the video channels the swagger of chauvinistic hip-hop artists, who wave and strut and bounce in front of the camera while surrounded by their posse and/or cadre of scantily clad women. For CL, her posse is the cadre of women -- but here they are donned…
Gill, Rosalind. "Postfeminist media culture: Elements of a sensibility," European
Journal of Cultural Studies, vol. 10, no. 2 (2007): 147-166.
McLuhan, Marshall. Understanding Media, critical edition, edited by W.Terrence.
Gordon. Berkeley, California: Gingko Press, 2013.
Body Shop and Marketing:
Since its inception, The Body Shop has continued to grow rapidly to an extent that it currently has more than 2,000 stores in approximately 54 countries. Currently, the company operates or conducts trading in more than 25 different languages and 12 time zones across the globe. The Body Shop is internationally recognized as a firm with a product range of over 1,200 products that include the popular Body Butters, accessories, gifts, fragrances, and magnificent make-up. The company has been able to sustainable business relationships with several communities worldwide through satisfying its demand for accessories, ingredients, and gifts in a fair method. The Body Shop's products manufactured with love for life and the world, individuality, commitment to fair trading, and community spirit. One of the core values of the firm is the belief that business has the ability to make suitable difference to the world necessitating the…
Burlingham, B (n.d.), This Woman Has Changed Business Forever, Inc.com, viewed 14 April
Burns, P (n.d.), Body Shop -- Case Studies in Entrepreneurship, Palgrave Macmillan,
viewed 14 April 2012,
Image Enhancement Techniques
Research shows that out of the five senses which are hearing, smell, sight, touch, and taste -- which humans utilize to observe their environment, sight is the most influential (Jeong, 2011). Analyzing images and getting them really does form a huge part of the unchanging cerebral activity of human beings during the course of their lives. Actually, beyond 98% of the activity of the human brain is included in managing images from the visual cortex (Guruvareddy & Giri Prasad, 2011). In today's communications system it is vital to recognize that the multimedia is an area that is continually increasing.
Basically, it is a field that is growing more and more each day. Many are starting to see the various avenues that a person can go into when it comes to image enhancement techniques. There used to be an era when the options were very limited, but now…
Botser, I.B., M.D., Herman, A., Nathaniel, R., Rappaport, D., & Chechik, A. (2009). Digital image enhancement improves diagnosis of nondisplaced proximal femur fractures. Clinical Orthopaedic and Related Research, 467(1), 246-53.
Gorgel, P., Sertbas, A., & Ucan, O.N. (2010). A wavelet-based mammographic image denoising and enhancement with homomorphic filtering. Journal of Medical Systems, 34(6), 993-1002.
Guruvareddy, A., Sri, R.K., & Giri Prasad,, M.N. (2011). An effective local contrast enhancement technique by blending of local statistics and genetic algorithm. Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis, 21(4), 606-615.
Jeong, C.B., Kim, K.G., Kim, T.S., & Kim, S.K. (2011). Comparison of image enhancement methods for the effective diagnosis in successive whole-body bone scans. Journal of Digital Imaging, 24(3), 424-36.
K. The advertising campaign does not differ from that in other countries, since it is integrated in the company's global marketing strategy.
egarding the consumer behavior strategy, it is recommended that The Body Shop implements a marketing approach that is more centered on competitive advantage. The company did not manage to distinguish its competitive advantage. The Body Shop is not sufficiently differentiated from other cosmetics producers that also address the South Korean market.
It is also recommended that the company analyzes consumers' needs that have not yet been addressed by their competitors. Such situations present opportunities that can be exploited by the company in order to gain more customers.
egarding the website strategy and its relation with the localization theory, it is recommended that the company's website is active enough in educating and informing consumers about the company's social values and campaigns. In addition to this, the website should…
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3. Value Proposition (2009). Investopedia. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/v/valueproposition.asp .
4. Perner, L. (2009). Consumer Behavior: The Psychology of Marketing. University of Southern California. Retrieved December 7, 2009 from http://www.consumerpsychologist.com/ .
BODY SHOP INTENATIONAL, LTD.
The Body Shop International, Plc.
A Situation Analysis of Corporate esponsibility
Early to the contemporary trend of corporate responsibility in business management practices, Anita oddick's innovative UK-based corporation responded to a niche in the hair and skin beauty product market when no one else had even conceived of combining activism with ecological product development and social cause networks. Offering consumers a complete social responsibility package as stakeholders in support of free trade and planetary resource management, The Body Shop® International, Plc and its global network of online and franchise retailers continues in its timeless appeal to the now several generations of conscious consumers seeking "Nature's Way to Beautiful."
Combining activism with marketing and the culture of beauty, entrepreneur Anita oddick's The Body Shop International, Plc retail corporation sells organic-based hair and skin products infused with the brand's promotion of "self-esteem as well as social and environmental…
Daviss, B. (1999). Profits from Principle. Futurist, 33(3), 28.
Elmer-Dewitt, P., & Lea, E. (1993). Anita the agitator. Time, 141(4), 52.
Roddick, A. (1994). Corporate responsibility. Vital Speeches of the Day, 60(7), 196.
The Body Shop International, Plc (2010). Retrieved from: http://www.thebodyshop-usa.com/
e see therefore that sensations and sensibilities work hand-in-hand as thought processes work together with the affective domain like partners in a dance. A balance or equilibrium is attained where the heart and mind intersect, where beneficial decisions are made, such as whether to satisfy a hunger that is necessary for living, or just a craving that can make one obese.
The sense of hunger like any living sensation is a biological calling for survival. hen one needs to energize, one has to fuel up with some supply of calories and for living things, it is called food. Here we see that what captures the senses, whether they are grounded on necessity or excess, is the first encompassing attracting element of any advertising campaign.
Until now McDonalds advertisements evoke the sense of fulfilling one's basic needs such as food that can be conveniently accessed and attained with ease because of…
The Editors of Publications International, Ltd. 8 Memorable Advertisement Campaigns.
The key assumptions are the level of inventory turnover improvement, the level of sales improvement, the operating expenses improvement, and the increase in fixed assets. These are all at the core of the proposed strategy for restoring Body Shop's performance. They reflect directly on management's plan to move inventory faster, to modernize the stores and to drive down costs through our supply chain. The debt needs vary fairly significantly with these assumptions. For example, if inventory turnover does not improve -- that is it stays at 13.7% of sales -- this will cost us £5 million per year. If we scale back our modernization plan such that it only adds 10% to fixed assets rather than 15%, that will reduce our debt requirements by £23.2 million. It will also impact our profitability improves in future years, however. If consumers do not respond to our initiatives and sales do not increase,…
Debt needs vary with some of the assumptions. The key assumptions are the level of inventory turnover improvement, the level of sales improvement, the operating expenses improvement, and the increase in fixed assets. These are all at the core of the proposed strategy for restoring Body Shop's performance. They reflect directly on management's plan to move inventory faster, to modernize the stores and to drive down costs through our supply chain. The debt needs vary fairly significantly with these assumptions. For example, if inventory turnover does not improve -- that is it stays at 13.7% of sales -- this will cost us £5 million per year. If we scale back our modernization plan such that it only adds 10% to fixed assets rather than 15%, that will reduce our debt requirements by £23.2 million. It will also impact our profitability improves in future years, however. If consumers do not respond to our initiatives and sales do not increase, it will cost us £2.4 million in profit over this span, and more down the road.
In the coming years, the company will be making an investment in the future. This will result in a short-term deterioration of financial position as we take on more debt. The company's long-term debt ratio is 26.5% today and this will increase to 39% in 2004. However, Body Shop's liquidity will remain strong. Profits will continue to grow over this period. Shareholders will not only continue to receive their dividend but will also see an improvement in shareholder's equity. Essentially, the company has the means to undertake this modernization, and will begin to see reward with an immediate return to profitability.
It is recommended that Body Shop contain the costs of the modernization. The forecast presented depends on the money spent going into store improvements, not contractors' pockets. The more of our money that goes into the stores, the more our company will improve. Even at current rates of sales growth, we will return to profitability if we can make our cost-cutting measures stick. It is recommended that this be given highest priority of the three elements of Gournay's plan. The third element, "reinforce our stakeholder culture" -- I have no idea what that means but it does not appear to translate to our finances and therefore should be given lowest priority. In short, this path of cost cutting and revenue improvements looks like it will be a success. The revenue improvements will need to be dramatic in 2005 and beyond in order to justify the expenditure, however, because the immediate payoff is only a minor profit improvement. The final recommendation is to maintain the focus on inventory reduction. Even minor improvements can result in millions of pounds of increased profit.
For the parent company, the potential market is significant; Body Scanner should be test-marketed with one or two key partners prior to full scale release. It is expected that Body Scanner will be in full launch in time for the holiday shopping season.
There are two major types of ethical implications that can arise from Body Scanner software. The first is that consumers are going to have three-dimensional images of themselves loaded onto the Internet. Thus, security concerns are paramount as these images may be considered sensitive, especially if consumers are partially undressed for the pictures. It is necessary that Body Scanner protect its consumers and their images using all available measures. This is especially true it dealing with partners, since those images may need to be made available to the partners (or not, depending on how the system is designed). There are also security issues associated with…
BBC. (2004). Virtual dummy to try on clothes. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved April 3, 2010 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/3430131.stm
Kim, J. & Forsythe, S. (2008). Adoption of virtual try-on technology for online apparel shopping. Journal of Interactive Marketing. Vol. 22 (2) 45-59.
Way, H. (2010). Revolution in Internet shopping? Try clothes on virtually before you buy -- Mimicme.com. TechFluff.tv. Retrieved April 3, 2011 from http://techfluff.tv/2010/06/18/revolution-in-internet-shopping-try-clothes-on-virtually-before-you-buy-mimicme-com/
But they do not enjoy any company like that of their family especially grandchildren. In fact, they love their grand children more than their own off springs, forming a very special and beautiful bond between the two. This eventually leads to the conclusion that they despise being left in old homes and may become severely depressed and gloomy.
Another thing, that old people may sure we, the younger generation, must realize is that they are extremely contending about their lives. We usually think that they are depressed, and desperate to somehow turn back time which is not true. In fact they are very satisfied with their lives at the moment and like it the way it is.
However, there is one thing that does bother them too which is what will happen when they will become extremely physically weak/incapable. This might result in making them very irritable and attention seeking.…
Clinicians who are aware of these findings are better able to treat pierced patients without any social biases, and they are more aware of the need to provide counseling in relation to the importance of not relying on lay opinion on medical issues and in relation to the fact that patients with one piercing should be made aware that they may regret subsequent piercings.
The connection between impaired urine flow in connection with penile piercings suggests the need for additional studies in relation to specific procedures and piercing placement to minimize that potential complication. Other areas of further study include the possible connection between different types of sexual experimentation, risk-taking behavior, and earlier onset of first sexual experience among those with intimate body piercings.
Caliendo, C., Armstrong, M., & oberts, a. (2005). "Self-reported characteristics of women and men with intimate body piercings." Journal of Advanced Nursing, 49(5), 474-484.
Armstrong, M., Roberts, a., Owen, D., & Koch, J. (2004). "Toward building a composite of college student influences with body art." Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 27(4), 277-295.
Caliendo, C., Armstrong, M., & Roberts, a. (2005). "Self-reported characteristics of women and men with intimate body piercings." Journal of Advanced Nursing, 49(5), 474-484.
Moreover, adolescence and young adulthood are periods of both increased anxiety about appearance and social acceptance as well as of greater dependence on the opinions and perceptions of others (Jones, Vigfusdottir, & Lee, 2004). That would seem to suggest that exposure to media images associated with beauty would have the greatest influence on the individual. This proposal is designed to test the relationship between exposure to images and other visual representations associated with physical beauty and the development of self-perception in the individual.
It is hypothesized that self-perception among adolescents and young adults with respect to relative physical attractiveness will vary directly in proportion to their degree of interest in and exposure to media images of beauty. The independent variable will be the exposure of subjects to various forms of media associated with a high degree of emphasis on physical attractiveness. The dependent variable will be the measure of…
Gerrig R. And Zimbardo P. (2008). Psychology and Life. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Henslin JM. (2002). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach.
here could be numerous reasons for the shift, including the growing trend of body fitness and overall media portrayal of the male physique.
he study conducted through Monash University has confirmed most of the findings of earlier research. here are significant opportunities for error within the study however. Since all participants are blind participants through the university website, there are almost no controls over the data and thus it is subject to many different unintended biases. Age factors should also be considered as the majority of those surveyed were college students, and are not a complete and accurate reflection of the cross sections of society. Overall, more research needs to be conducted within the area of the growth in male body dissatisfaction and factors that will help both genders deal with their overestimation of body shape.
Fallon, a.E., & Rozin, P. (1985). Sex differences in perceptions of desirable body shape.…
Turner, S., Hamilton, H., Jacobs, M., Angood, L.M., & Dwyer, DH (1997). The influence of fashion magazines on the body image satisfaction of college women: An exploratory analysis. Adolescence, 32(127), 603-614.
Abell, S.C., & Richards, M.H. (1996). The relationship between body shape satisfaction and self-esteem: An investigation of gender and class differences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 25, 691-703.
Crawford, D., & Worsley, a. (1987). Present and desired body weights of Australian adults: A cause for concern. Community Health Studies, 11.
Anyone who chooses to engage in this expensive and controversial surgery for the sake of a boyfriend should consider the real motivation behind his asking and her acquiescence. The surgery may not deliver on what it promises and the sense of inadequacy is psychological and may not abate because of a cosmetic change. I would also include the truth that there is no such thing as the perfect vagina and we should be willing to love what we have and accommodate difference.
The concept of beauty was different for different groups, White girls considered beauty as a static quality that is personified in the Barbie doll. African-American girls espoused a concept of beauty as the result of the intersection of multiple qualities, attitude, style, personality, and presence form the basis of this nexus. For African-American girls there is no perfect or uniform look to attain, therefore their body…
These results are important, however, in understanding if and how media images may be related to eating disorders in women. Polivy and Herman (2004) ask the commonsense question: "Why do women and girls continue to buy fashion magazines featuring thin models that make them feel anxious, depressed, and generally miserable about their bodies?" Some women find them to be a relaxing way to spend time. This shows that it is much too simple-minded for people to say that media images make women feel bad about themselves. Wouldn't it be smart to consider that maybe these small populations of women who do develop eating disorders are already dissatisfied and the media images may reinforce their inherent paranoia about their bodies? Or, perhaps it is people who are critical of every aspect of media who feel like they need to criticize the media because they themselves are made to feel insecure about…
Groesz, L.M., Levine, M.P., & Murnen, S.K. (2002). The effect of experimental presentation of thin media images on body satisfaction: A meta-analytic review.
International Journal of Eating Disorders, 31, 1-16.
Polivy, J. & Herman, P.C. (2004). Sociocultural idealization of thin female body shapes:
an introduction to the special issue on body image and eating disorders. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(1), 1-6.
Body, Identity, Gender]
From birth, humans learn, act out and experience their gendered identities. The society's concepts of femininity and masculinity form a person's relationship to his/her body and the bodies of other individuals. The issue of gender is also an aspect of prevailing norms of inequality and oppression. Discrimination based on appearances continues to be a common occurrence.
For example, feminists and philosophers, such as Simone de Beauvoir in The Second Sex question, "what is a woman?" (in Ashton-Jones101). She dislikes the traditional explanation of "woman is a womb," but recognizes that throughout history woman has been defined as "the Other" of man: "Thus humanity is male and man defines woman not in herself but as relative to him." (in Ashton-Jones 102). In other words, man is the absolute being and woman takes on all of the negative bodily, mortal and irrational aspects that he prefers not to find…
de Beauvoir, Simone. "Femininity and Sisterhood." In Evelyn Ashton-Jones and Gary A. Olson (Eds.) The Gender Reader. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1991, pp. 34-350.
Bordon, Susan. "Material Girl." In Roger N. Lancaster and Micaela di Leonardo (Eds.) The Gender Sexuality Reader. New York: Routledge, pp. 335-358.
Butler, Judith. "Exerpt from 'Inroduction' to Bodies That Matter. In Roger N. Lancaster and Micaela di Leonardo (Eds.) The Gender Sexuality Reader. New York: Routledge, pp.531-542.
hooks, bell. Black Looks: Race and Representation. Boston: South End Press, 1992.
Providing a strong cultural and personal role model may be more important than attempting to socially engineer the messages teens and all citizens receive. The lesser susceptibility of certain ethnic groups to media pressures to live up to an ideal of thinness or physical perfection highlights the complex interplay between cultural, social, and psychological factors that produce self-esteem and what might be called body image. The interplay of these factors is more important in creating a 'body image' than what constitutes an individual's media exposure.
This is an important topic of research because it highlights the fact that censorship of media has limited value in engineering positive social results. hile it would be tempting and easy to suggest that developing minds and bodies should be shielded from toxic media influence as though it were the plague, this type of isolation would have a limited effect. It would not screen out…
Girls get anorexia 'because their brains are wired differently' (17 Dec 2007). The Daily Mail. Retrieved 26 Oct 2008 at ttp:/ / www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-502705/Girls-anorexia-brains-wired-differently.html
Holmstrom, Amanda J. (2004). The effects of the media on body image: A meta-analysis.
Entrepreneur. Retrieved 26 Oct 2008 at http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/118953907_5.html
Media's effect on girls: Body image and gender identity. (2008). National Institute on Media and the Family. Retrieved 26 Oct 2008 at http://www.media family.org/facts/facts_mediaeffect.shtml' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Debra Gimlin's book "Body ork" is an in-depth exploration of American women's relationships with their bodies. She argues that women do not engage in body work (activities like exercise and plastic surgery) in order to conform to a paternalistic, and unrealistic view of beauty that is perpetrated by the popular media. Instead, Gimlin gives the empowering argument that women engage in body work in order to nurture a relationship between the body and self-identity.
In "Body ork," Gimlin examines a series of mini-ethnographies in her attempt to understand the complex relationships that American women have with their bodies and their self-identities. She examines four main sites, in collecting research for her book. Gimlin conducted in-depth research and extensive interviews at each location. Gimlin explores a beauty salon, an aerobics class, a plastic surgery clinic, and the National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance (NAAFA), a political and social organization designed to…
Gimlin, Debra L. Body Work: Beauty and Self-Image in American Culture. University of California Press, 2002.
Wolf, Naomi. The Beauty Myth. Vintage Books, Toronto, 1991.
Sex, Body, and Identity: How the Language of Metaphor Functions in Various Physically-Challenged Individuals' Expression of Identity and Selfhood
In her memoir aist-High in the orld: A Life Among the Nondisabled [sic], author Nancy Mairs, who writes about how having Multiple Sclerosis (MS) had impacted her self-image, body image, and day to-day life, observes that:
In biblical times, physical and mental disorders were thought to signify possession by demons. . . People who were stooped or blind or subject to seizures were clearly not okay as they were but required fixing
Mairs's detailed, often painfully honest reflections on dealing with (in her case, progressive) physical disabilities, e.g., difficulties with walking, sitting, standing straight; brushing her teeth (capabilities most take for granted) shed light on the myriad physical, psychological, emotional, and other challenges that daily fill the lives of those with physical disabilities. Narratives written by individuals with physical disabilities ranging…
Fries, Kenny. Body Remember: A Memoir. New York: Dutton,1997. Retrieved
July 26, 2005, from: .
Hockenberry, John. Moving Violations: War Zones, Wheelchairs and Declarations of Independence. New York: Hyperion, 1995. Retrieved July
26, 2005, from: .
Much as in Mary Shelly's Frankenstein, the Monster has no memory of who he was in parts, only of who he is as a whole distinct person, although that abnormal brain certainly didn't help his feedback system.
Shelly, not our Shelly but Frankenstein's', reminds us that human beings are not just machines and trying to simply piece them together as if the parts are the only concern rarely works out well. However, is Frankenstein the ubermensch that Neitize talked about? If so there are certainly some problems. Of course this is metaphorical, in our experiment Smelly has been pieced together a bit, but more from a teleological standpoint in trying to ascertain the meaning of personality rather than the meaning of life. But in a sense there is also some reality to this metaphor. The scientific breakthroughs in cloning organisms and genetic manipulation, as well as this Smelly situation, certainly…
images boys girls offered today's advertising media.
The images of boys and girls as offered by today's advertising media
Even with the fact that boys and girls are born genetically and hormonally different, the information they learn is decisive in influencing them to take on gender roles. Gender is also something that people learn as they grow up, as it does not only involve a person's physical nature. As children develop they are bombarded with information regarding how it would be socially acceptable for them to behave. Devices like the media are influential in this situation as they pressure children in getting a limited definition concerning their role.
The Media Environment
Media devices promoting a simple expression such as "big boys don't cry" can influence some parents in developing less tolerant attitudes toward boys who cry. Some parents might be influenced to believe that it is unnatural for a boy…
Cardwell, M., and Flanagan, C., "Psychology A2: The Complete Companion," (Nelson Thornes, Sep 1, 2003)
Gurian, M., "Boys and Girls Learn Differently! A Guide for Teachers and Parents: Revised 10th Anniversary Edition," (John Wiley & Sons, Aug 26, 2010)
Klein, S., "Handbook for Achieving Gender Equity Through Education," (Routledge, May 22, 2007)
Wood, J.T., "Gendered Media: The Influence of Media on Views of Gender," Retrieved February 18, 2013, from the University of Delaware Website: http://www.udel.edu/comm245/readings/GenderedMedia.pdf
Their pricing is relatively high due to high product differentiation.
The Body Ship has almost 2, 500 stores in 61 countries. Started in the late 1970s to appeal to a market that has been increasingly enamored with natural ingredients and products, this market has only grown whilst trends for holistic and organic items have, if not stayed constant, certainly increased. In this way, the Body Shop not only managed to carve a niche for itself when inclination for natural products was just beginning but it has gained a reputation and foothold in this field, that a rare few have been able to beat.
The Body Shop is a mature market and a long-established company having a niche in the field. It has high entry barriers making for tough competition and little opportunity for new entrants. Their key strength is, therefore, their name, experience, and image. They also…
An ageing population with motivation and the capacities to spend on premium-priced products that claim to possess natural anti-ageing properties is another factor that works in the store's favor.
The Body Shop. (2009) Living our values. The Body Shop International PLC
One viewer simply sees an outstretched hand holding an orange. A true connoisseur of imagery looks deeper, in search of the underlying message. Seeking clarity and understanding of what the creator is attempting to do. That is what separates the people that walk through life excepting what others tell them without curiosity of what meanings really exist. And the person who can visualize the unwritten and often unspoken message displayed in a single image. It has been difficult to try to master the art of looking deeply into an image and deciding what it is really trying to say to you. The viewer looks at the image with fascination, almost all of a sudden either becoming hungry or thirsty. The thought of a thirst or hunger fulfilling orange is now in the viewers mind. Next is where to get this need/want. The viewer's eyes begin to scan the image for…
Berger, John. Ways of Seeing. n.p.: N.P., 1972
By showing the workers being treated cruelly by the authorities alongside of the scene showing the bull being slaughtered Eisenstein thus wants the audience to become actively involved in revealing the political message regarding how workers are nothing but animals being carried around a slaughterhouse.
The film is practically a paradox when considering that Eisenstein uses the intellectual montage technique and does not use concepts like reason or logic with the purpose of putting across his message to the audience. Instead, he makes use of ideas like farce and parody in an attempt to demonstrate the stupidity related to a capitalist system and its lackeys as they destroy people's lives. Eisenstein certainly loved drama and this is obvious when looking at the numerous tools that he uses with the purpose of dramatizing scenes throughout the motion picture. It appears that the director intended to address viewers from a psychological point-of-view…
Goodwin, James, "Eisenstein, Cinema, and History," (University of Illinois Press, 01.02.1993)
Nelmes, Jill, "An Introduction to Film Studies," (Routledge, 2003)
We always find that personal library embraces its distinct structures as well as meanings, which can be either through mental traces or highlighting the answers and the questions that happens to thread through it. However, the bulk of an individual's reading such as newspaper will never form a personal library not unless an individual posses the foresight and the discipline to copy or clip it. Intellectual life will be more aided by a digital personal library.
Generally personal library will always be made up of documents that have been read by the owner, maybe using annex for the documents that he might wish to read. There could be an amplified intellectual life in case somebody finds it easy to the materials they once read, by use of non-specific sketchy summary of it (in addition to a single striking point of a distorted memory) finds its way back to the mind.…
Aristotle, the Nicomachean Ethics ('Ethics'), Harmondsworth: Penguin (1976). Retrieved July 1, 2013. http://infed.org/mobi/aristotle-on-knowledge/
GE.M. Anscombe, "Modern Moral Philosophy" (1958) .Retrieved July 1, 2013. http://www.philosophy.uncc.edu/mleldrid/cmt/mmp.html
Philip E. Agre, Supporting the Intellectual Life of a Democratic Society. (2001). Retrieved July 1, 2013. http://polaris.gseis.ucla.edu/pagre/intellectual.html
Tad Beckman, "Aristotle" Harvey Mudd College, (1999). Retrieved July 1, 2013. http://www4.hmc.edu:8001/humanities/beckman/philnotes/arist.htm
image chosen is an advertisement for Jurlique products put out by that company. Specifically, the ad is for a line of Jurlique products which are lavender-scented lotions and sprays and designed for a person's skin care. This advertisement is directed at women who are concerned about their skincare and their physical appearance. It also indicates from the text and the overall presentation that women who are stressed or overwhelmed will benefit from purchasing this product. The overall effect of the advertisement is to assure women who see it that buying these skin care products from Jurlique will not only benefit their skin care and thus their physical appearance, but their life as well in that stress will be reduced and relaxation and calm will follow.
The layout of the image is rectangular shaped. The left side of the advertisement shows three long lavender flowers. They are laid at an angle…
The curvilinear forms of the human bodies are framed by the intense angularity of the architectural elements behind them. On the left, a tree provides extra verticality, but both images offer a geometric background that contrasts with the undulating forms of female bodies, drapery, and the softness of the infants. The heads of the mothers in both compositions are where the eye is drawn. Even if slightly off-center, the heads form the thematic midpoint. The Virgin's head is placed slightly higher on the canvas, but in both cases the heads are the emphasis in the composition. Both compositions use monochrome, with no color. The Schongauer engraving depicts the mother Mary and infant Jesus seated on the ground inside an ordinary medieval walled compound; whereas the photograph on the right depicts a Madonna-like image of a black-clad mother smiling with her two happy children.
The silkscreen Warhol self-portrait is rendered…
body worn cameras for the police, and the policy for using them.
Most police executives claim that their biggest problem is not about the choice of the technology to adopt; it is finding the appropriate combination technologies to use in a particular jurisdiction depending on such factors as its funding levels and crime problems. Deciding on the suitable combination, however, requires one to understand fully how each technology works. Leaders in police departments who have adopted body-worn cameras claim that the cameras are quite beneficial. According to them, the cameras are important in documenting evidence, training officers, resolving and preventing the public's complaints, enhancing police transparency, accountability and performance (Implementing a Body-Worn Camera Program ecommendations and Lessons Learned). Furthermore, since the police can now use the cameras on their cell phones to take video recordings of their encounters, the body-worn cameras ensure that the police departments capture the…
Colorado Public Radio - In-Depth News and Streaming Music. (n.d.). Police Body Camera Recommendations Head to Lawmakers - CPR. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from http://www.cpr.org/news/newsbeat/police-body-camera-recommendations-head-lawmakers
COPS Office: Grants and Resources for Community Policing. (n.d.). Implementing a Body-Worn Camera Program Recommendations and Lessons Learned. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from http://ric-zai-inc.com/Publications/cops-p296-pub.pdf
Draft Recommendation: A Body Worn Cameras. (n.d.). Draft Recommendation: A Body Worn Cameras. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from http://sonomacounty.ca.gov/Community-and-Local-Law-Enforcement-Task-Force/Community-Policing-Subcommittee/Draft-Recommendations/Body-Worn-Cameras/
PoliceMisconduct.net - (n.d.). The Cato Institute's National Police Misconduct Reporting Project. Police Body Cameras - Policemisconduct.net. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from http://www.policemisconduct.net/explainers/police-body-cameras/
This was true for the most part of the 20th century, when the concept of "work" involved going to the office or the factory. For many, the term "work" additionally meant working for an employer or a boss, a person who was usually not liked. Very few people had the option of leisure, working independently or going into business for themselves.
With telecommuting technology, however, many people are re-defining traditional notions of "work." Staying at the office for eight hours a day is no longer a requirement. This technology allows many parents, for example, to spend more time in with their families, a pursuit that many people certainly find more liberating that being yoked to a desk.
Other people are able to spend extra time pursuing less profitable interests, such as volunteering for charity, writing a novel or taking continuing education classes.
For many people, the technology work itself is…
Images in "Strike"
A Marxist engineer and architect by formal training, Sergei Eisenstein used his training to create the "montage." Though Eisenstein's work suffers some criticism for its use of bludgeons to convey blunt propaganda, his seminal work is deemed the basis for montages in the work of such eminent directors as Hitchcock, De Palma and Coppola. Arousing strong emotional impact from the juxtaposition of seemingly unrelated images, multiple effective montages are evident in Eisenstein's first film, Strike.
Sergei Eisenstein (1898 -- 1948) was one of the most famous filmmakers of the early 20th Century (Archive Media Project, LP). His formal training as an engineer and architect in St. Petersburg greatly influenced his eventual career in filmmaking. In addition, his Marxist ideology and his Russian heritage highly influenced his work. Eisenstein experimented with several cinematic devices and due to his contributions, was embraced by the ritish Film Institute as one…
Anonymous. "Sergei Eisenstein." n.d. isites.harvard.edu Web site. Web. 31 October 2012.
Archive Media Project, LP. Russian Archives Online > Gallery > Eisenstein. 2008. Web. 31 October 2012.
Shaw, Dan. Sergei Eisenstein. 2012. Web. 31 October 2012.
Strike. Dir. Sergei M. Eisenstein. Perf. Grigori Aleksandrov and Maksim Shtraukh. 1925. DVD.
e. hypertrophy). In the elderly, this process is reverse. Hence, the functional reserve capacities of the skeletal muscles decline with age, largely due to diminished levels of physical activity. As a result daily tasks once taken for granted become progressively more difficult, and eventually impossible, to perform. In illustration, a great deal of muscle force is required to simply stand up or to climb stairs. Therefore, skeletal system is relying upon the reserve capacity of the heart to provide the endurance needed to perform such activities. If an elderly person does not engage in some sort of endurance-based activities, he or she will not have the cardiac reserve capacity needed for daily tasks. More importantly, diminished capacity may not counteract illnesses or diseases. Although strength-based activities help the cardiac reserve, it may not benefit the skeletal system. "While resistance exercise promotes fiber hypertrophy in skeletal muscles, the explosive power of…
Bailey, R. (2011). Muscle tissue. About.com Guide. Retrieved from http://biology.about.com/od/anatomy/a/aa022808a.htm
Carpi, A. (1999). Basic anatomy - tissues & organs. Retrieved from http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/14-anatomy.htm
Lakatta, E.G. (1994). Cardiovascular reserve capacity in healthy older humans. Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, 6(4): 213-23.
Courtesy of Musculartory System BlogSpot
Mind and Body
A review of the required literature, Robert Thurman's "isdom" (Thurman), Karen Armstrong's "Homo Religiousus" (Armstrong), and Oliver Sacks' "The Mind's Eye: hat the Blind See" (Sacks), gives significant insights into how the mind and body must work together to create our lived experience. Though the three authors may initially appear to discuss somewhat different topics, they have vital commonalities. The readings will lead the thoughtful reader to a three-pronged thesis: that mind/body coaction ideally involves knowledge of the genuine "self"; that there is a common experience of "self-delusion"; and that "universality" is of ultimate importance. The "self" is approached uniquely by each author. Thurman's is a Buddhist perspective explores the different concepts of "self" from self-ish to the self-less ideal. hile Thurman does not speak specifically about mind/body interaction, his deference to the power of the mind is clear. Armstrong also speaks of the self's importance, though…
Armstrong, Karen. "Homo Religiousus." Miller, Richard E. The New Humanities Reader, 4th ed. Boston: Wadsworth Publishing, 2011. 22-38. Print.
Sacks, Oliver. "The Mind's Eye: What the Blind See." Miller, Richard E. And Kurt Spellmeyer. The New Humanities Reader, 4th ed. Boston: Wadsworth Publishing, 2011. 303-317. Print.
Thurman, Robert. "Wisdom." Miller, Richard E. And Kurt Spellmeyer. The New Humanities Reader, 4th ed. Boston: Wadsworth Publishing, 2011. 460-473. Print.
Despite the fact that full body scanners may be the most technologically advanced equipment we could realistically put in an airport, they still have their shortcomings. Full body scanners can't see inside your body. Generally, the machines also can't find items stashed in a body cavity. This means that a determined terrorist could potentially store bomb materials or weapons inside their body, specifically in their anus. Since such a low dose of electromagnetic energy is beamed inside the people who enter the scanners, the images are only skin deep. So just how drug traffickers smuggle drugs inside their bodies, terrorists could do the same but with far more dangerous materials. As America witnessed with the failed shoe bomber, it does not take a great deal of free space to hide materials that could overthrow or take a plane down. For instance, C4 explosive, which is military grade, can be…
Advanced Imaging Technology (AIT). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.tsa.gov/approach/tech/ait/index.shtm
Brain, M. (2012). How Airport Full-Body Scanners Work -- and the huge national debate around the TSA right now. Retrieved from http://blogs.howstuffworks.com/2010/11/17/how-airport-full-body-scanners-work-
Eaton, K. (2009). Full-Body Scanners at Airports: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.
171). On the other hand, men are sometimes depicted in the opposite stance: as overtly dominant. The difference between the "willing subordination" and the cocky gaze is that the former is a pose formally reserved for females whereas the latter epitomizes male social roles of dominance and political control. The individual who gazes directly at the viewer is confident and in control, whereas the individual who bears his or her behind and looks away from the viewer is saying "take me, do what you want with me." Interestingly, Bardo discovers a racial and age disparity among the images. African-American males are more likely to be shown in a dominant role, whereas young males are more likely to be represented as submissive (p. 192).
Thus, Bardo explores the language of visual imagery through a direct discussion of the male body. hereas the female body has been the de facto tableau on…
Bardo, Susan. "Beauty (Re)Discovers the Male Body." In the Male Body: A New Look at Men in Public and in Private. Farrar, Straus and Giroux; 1st edition (July 15, 2000)
BODY IMAGE & THE MEDIA
Views on How Body Image & Media Can Affect Developmental Tasks of Adolescents and Young Adults with Disabilities
The images displayed in the media and advertisements regarding the perfect body are misleading. The models and actors used to advertise products all have perfect bodies, and this leads many people to believe that they should also have such types of bodies (Grabe, Ward, & Hyde, 2008). For normal individuals without any disabilities, the images are hurting to a person's self-image, and they end up yearning to get a small petite body. For people with disabilities, this is even worse because the media portrays disability as negative and evil. Adolescents with disabilities have a hard time fitting into society, and they have bodily changes taking place that limit their capabilities. An adolescent with a disability would love to have acceptance from their peers, but this is hard…
Cusumano, D. L., & Thompson, J. K. (2001). Media influence and body image in 8 -- 11-year-old boys and girls: A preliminary report on the multidimensional media influence scale. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 29(1), 37-44.
Grabe, S., Ward, L. M., & Hyde, J. S. (2008). The role of the media in body image concerns among women: a meta-analysis of experimental and correlational studies. Psychological bulletin, 134(3), 460.
God in mankind
Image of God and mankind
According to Genesis 1;26-27
Then God said Let Us make man in our image, according to our likeness: and let them rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the earth, and over every creeping things that creep on earth.
God created man in His own image .In the image of God He created him: male and female he created them.]
This simply means that God finished his work with a personal touch according to his own image. God made man from dust and gave life to him by sharing his own breath with man. This therefore means that man is unique among all God's creations since man has both a material body and an immaterial body which is the spirit or soul. Having the image or likeness of…
Grigg, R.(2012).Made in the image of God. Retrieved 20, January 2013 from http://creation.com/made-in-the-image-of-god
The bible; Genesis 1:26-27
Sing the Body Electric
Although the 19th century is often conceptualized as a repressive era, Walt Whitman's poem "I Sing the Body Electric" crackles with sexual electricity. It celebrates the human, physical body in a very positive manner. Whitman points out some very positive physical characteristics all human beings possess. However, as you note, he also points out some very negative aspects of human physical life: "The sprawl and fullness of babes, the bosoms and heads of women, the folds of their dress, their style as we pass in the street, the contour of their shape downwards." As you note, women in particular often had a very difficult life, physically as well as emotionally speaking, in the 19th century. Middle-class women were hemmed in by corsets and constant child-bearing and lower-class women had to suffer heavy physical labor. Whitman attempts to create a complete, all-encompassing picture of the physical body…
Mind and Body -- I Sing the Body Electronic, I Interfere with the Body Extraterrestrial
Change the body, and change the nature of human existence. Change the body's means of sustenance, and change the delicate balance that exists within a particular society. These are the two scenarios presented in the science fiction novels, that of Necromancer by illiam Gibson, and Sparrow by Mary Doria Russell. Both novels underline the importance of the physical state of individual bodies in shaping society. A body can be surgically altered with computer technology, or a body's nutrition and reproductive rate can affect the ability of another populace to exist. However, Gibson presents a vision of the world where the body is rendered unimportant, while Russell suggests that the delicate cultural, ecological, and political balance of a sustainable economy on another planet underlines the importance of the body in maintaining a livable world. Both books,…
Brians, Paul. "Study Guide for William Gibson Necromancer (1984)." 29 Aug 2005. Department of English, Washington State University. [5 Jun 2006]
Gevers, Nick. "Of Prayers and Predators. Maria Doria Russell Interviewed." Infinity Plus Non-Fiction. 1999. [5 Jun 2006]
What is the image of God? This is an important theological question. Depending upon what a person believes the image of God to be, and man's relation to that image, the whole rest of that person's theological belief system will be affected and slanted by it. The Bible gives some good guidelines as to what the image of God is, and what man's relation to that image is. Noted theologian Henry Theissen discusses it in his lecture series, as well. This paper discusses the idea of the image of God and man's relation to that image using contemporary theological research.
The Bible tells us that man was created in the image of God. This seems pretty straightforward. On first reading, one might reasonably assume that man was created to look like God. This would mean that God looks like us. This is a very comforting thought for most people,…
Dolphin, Lambert. "Made in the Image of God." LDolphin.Org. 2001. http://www.ldolphin.org/Image.html>.
Humanity as the Image of God." Shef.Ac.UK. n.d. http://www.shef.ac.uk/uni/academic/A-C/biblst/DJACcurrres/Postmodern2/Humanity.html
The Image of God in Man." Let Us Reason Ministries. n.d. http://www.letusreason.org/Wf14.htm >.
Man, Created in the Image of God: How Man is Unique Among All Other Creatures on Earth." God and Science.Org. 2003. http://www.godandscience.org/evolution/imageofgod.html
CI realized a finalizing image stories ( authors) interrelate ( final image ) works focus . You asked interrelate works referred syllabus-based reading: glancing references materials authors assigned reading syllabus; reference works author: short stories, plays, poetry, essays, graphic stories, comicstrips, photographs, moving pictures (created authors photojournalists, movie directors final phase respective, correlatable, works art).
The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the themes presented in two short stories, namely "A good man is hard to find" by Flannery O'Connor and in "Hands" by Sherwood Anderson. In order to have a better understanding of the concepts which these authors deal with we will also be referring to other short stories written by each of them. The social standards almost crush the individuals' true identity. There is a lack of real communication in people's lives. The divine manifests itself even in the grotesque. The tragic destiny of the characters…
Anderson, S. The egg and other stories, CreateSpace, 2009
Asals, F. Flanery Rows, Novel: a forum on fiction, vol.4, no.1, 1971, pp.92-96
Friedman, M., T., Bya nd about Flannery O'Connor, Journal of Modern Literature, vol.1, no.2 (1970-1971), pp.288-292
Friedman, M.T.Review: Flannery O'Connor: the canon completed, the commentary continuing. The Souhern literary Jornal, vol. 5, no. 2, 1973, pp.116-123
This has often made it very difficult for black individuals to become high educational and social achievers. Racists then twist the reasons behind this lack of achievement and use it as evidence that members of the group are inferior (Gimlin, 2005). Racism and discrimination are both common threads in prejudiced activity toward black women, and this works to perpetuate the problems that they have faced in the past and that they are still facing in society today.
There is little that can be done to eliminate biological differences between the ethnic groups, but society can change differences that have been created by its own political and economic systems. Some psychologists even argue that racism should be treated like a mental health issue. Racism, therefore, becomes a double-edged sword and both the oppressors and the oppressed suffer from and for it. The oppressors have guilt, shame, and remorse, while the…
Collins, Patricia Hill (1998) "Mammies, matriarchs, and other controlling images, black feminist thought" New York: Routledge
Espiritu, Yen Le (2007) "Chapter five: Ideological racism and cultural resistance." In Asian-American women and men: Labor, laws, and love. New York: Rowman and Littlefield
Hook, Bell (1998) "Selling Hot Pussy: Representations of Black Female Sexuality in the Cultural Market" in: R. Weitz (ed) The Politics Of Women's Bodies: Sexuality Appearance and Behaviour. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Gimlin, Debra. (2005). "Cosmetic Surgery: Paying for Your Beauty." In L. Richardson, V. Taylor and N. Whittier (ed), Feminist Frontiers, 6th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill
The Shared Governance arrangement:
offers an apparatus for registered nurses to show guidance in the development of practice decisions authorizes all nursing staff to add to work redesign advances the quality of patient and family outcomes.
In the shared governance arrangement, the staff nurses are a big piece of the course, designated and chosen from their units to stand for an area of practice on one of many councils. it's all about shared choice making and authorizing staff nurses to affect their practice atmosphere and have a say in unit choices (Shared Governance at Henry Ford Hospital, 2011).
A new nursing deficiency is revitalizing shared governance. This pioneering organizational model gives staff nurses power over their practice and can expand their affect into administrative areas formerly controlled solely by managers. But nursing shared governance is tough to describe. Its configurations and procedures are dissimilar in every business. Shared governance, is…
Drenkard, Karen. (2010). Going for the gold: The value of attaining Magnet recognition.
Retrieved February 18, 2011, from Web site:
Estlund, Sarah. (2010). List of Nursing Labor Unions. Retrieved February 17, 2011, from Web
Regulating Tattoo and ody Piercing Shops
In the United States, only 11 states have regulations and laws governing tattoo and body piercing licenses and training, while South Carolina and Oklahoma have banned tattooing in their states. Regulations help promote professionalism, and discourage "scratchers." This is important when considering disease transmission - HIV and Hepatitis in particular (Westbrook, 2003). States that have regulations promote not only professionalism but can guarantee to consumers that when they go into a tattoo or body piercing parlor that they are going to receive professional, and safe service. They can be assured that if buildings are not safe, clean and have adequate lighting that they are supported by their state and that particular parlor would be shut down.
More importantly they will know that a licensed tattoo artist has gone through proper training and an apprenticeship and all equipment and procedures in tattooing and body piercing…
DeLio M. The Darkside of Tattooing www.faqs.org/faqs/bodyart/tattoo-faq/part8/section-11.html
Investigates some of the harmful cases of tattooing, including sex-crimes and body disfigurement. Regulation and proper licensing measures would allow for law enforcement to be able to take action against these crimes as well as lower their occurrence.
Westbrook, B.U.S. Laws Regulating Tattooing www.faqs.org/faqs/bodyart/tattoo-faq/part8/section-12.html
Article outlines the states that have laws regulating tattooing and tattoo licensing, as well as laws in Florida that make it a unique state. The 11 states that have regulations on tattoo parlors have guidelines that would be beneficial to the other states to incorporate in their laws. They are simple and pretty much common sense that will supplement my argument.
Amy Cuddy's "Your Body Language Shapes Who You Are" TED talk is fascinating because it is so simple. The speaker begins by showing how body language is widely recognized and proven as being important factors in social situations. We judge people, consciously or not, on their body language. What Cuddy wanted to know is whether our own body language affects the way we think and feel about ourselves, to the point where our body language could eventually determine our behaviors and our outcomes in life.
The researcher performed a study in which she asked participants to adopt either a high power or a low power pose for just two minutes. After the poses, she had the participants choose whether or not to play a gambling game, and then she measured the cortisol and testosterone levels of the participants. Cortisol is a hormone that is linked to stress. High levels of…
Gaze and the Culturally Determined Body
Michel Foucault first developed his theory of the panopticon as a means of describing the ways in which a society may dominate the thought processes and behavior of the individual by "convincing" that individual to implicitly engage in their own surveillance, in the same way that a literal, brick-and-mortar panopticon relies on the self-regulation of prisoner behavior due to the fear of possible surveillance and punishment. In formulating this theory, Foucault uncovered important details regarding the way in the body is created, regulated, and sometimes even decimated by societal standards, something which Susan Bordo expands upon in her essay "Beauty (re)Discovers the Male Body." Bordo analyzes the way in which bodies (and in this case, male bodies) and the meanings gained from them are culturally determined, to the extent that the human body as it is commonly considered has almost nothing to do with…
Bordo, Susan. The Male Body: A New Look at Men in Public and Private. New York, NY: Farrar,
Straus, & Giroux, 1999. Print.
Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish. New York, NY: Vintage Books, 1977. Print.
In other words, revealing the character by celebrating the human form in a highly stylized and beautiful fashion was critical to Ritts' art. Even his ordinary subjects look like models. In "Vladimir: Hollywood 1980" a man smoking a cigarette with a stocking cap on his head looks almost sensual in his delight at this act, as if he is advertising the brand as well as simply enjoying a smoke.
Ritts' studies of African natives, far away from exposure to the estern media, are lit in ways that recall his Calvin Klein ads and other commercial representations from America like "Dijimon with Octopus." This work shows an African native with braided, octopus-like hair. (Images available from the website text and image catalogue "Herb Ritts on Show," 2000) Ritts suggests that even celebrities have a personal and human side, and even ordinary Americans and Africans have the power to speak to the…
BBC News. (27 Dec 2002) "Photographer Herb Ritts dies." Images and accompanying text available at 25 Jan 2005 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/showbiz/2608665.stm
Dybowska, Kasia. (2002) "Herb Ritts Photography." Trincoll Journal: Current Events. Images and accompanying text available at 25 Jan 2005 at http://www.trincoll.edu/zines/tj/tj11.14.96/articles/cover.html
Herb Ritts on Show." (15 Feb 2001) Images and accompanying text available at 25 Jan 2005 at http://www.designboom.com/portrait/hr.html
Managerial benefits of CS
CS improves brand image
CS increases sales
Effects of CS on customer satisfaction
CS increases the demand of goods and services
CS improves corporate performance
CS affects employees, investors, and customers positively
CS boosts recruitment and worker relations
This paper examines the concept of business ethics and corporate responsibility through the lens of the social contract theory as well as the agency theory. Much of it however is on the social contract theory that holds the opinion that corporations must operate within the society via contract of giving back and caring for their environment. The paper then discusses the benefits associated with corporate social responsibility to a given firm. We look at how in increases efficiency in a given corporation as well the effects of business ethics and social responsibility the company's relationships with employees, investors, and customers. A recommendation and conclusion then follows.…
Barone, M.J., Miyazaki, A.D., & Taylor, K.A. (2000). The influence of cause-related marketing on consumerchoice: does one good turn deserve another? Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(2), pp.248-62.
Bowen, H (1953) Social responsibilities of the Businessman (Harper, New York)
Brammer, S. & Millington, A. 2008. Does it pay to be different? An analysis of the relationship between corporate social and financial performance. Strategic Management
Journal, 29(12): 1325-1343.
What changes will occur will be demographic and social. These changes will influence the way in which faith is practiced, but not the faith itself. The faith remains. This can be compared with the current trend of the Global Church as well. Christians from across the world are joining this Church under the unifying umbrella of their faith. Culturally, this means the integration of a wide variety of cultures and denominations. These differences no longer cause division, since the unifying factor, faith, is stronger. Allen seems to imply the same in his work. The faith that makes the Catholic Church remains its foundation. In the Global Church, the same thing occurs on a wider scale. The Christian faith remains unchanged, although the way in which this faith is expressed and integrated undergoes some changes.
What Lewis seems to be describing is a type of uniform Christian society, free…