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Brain Dysfunction and Criminal Behavior
Criminal behavior can be caused by many things, social inequality, class differences, drug or alcohol addiction, peer pressure to name a few. These are all external conditions which can lead to criminal behavior. However, scientists are now starting to discover the link between dysfunction of the actions of the brain and a person's propensity to engage in criminal conduct. Individuals with brain dysfunction either caused by deformity in development or through a serious head injury have been linked to criminality and those who have committed serious criminal behaviors such as serial murder have, in many cases, been found to have experienced a severe injury to the brain or a congenital deformity when the brain was developing. Having said that, brain dysfunction does not inherently lead to criminality, as is proven by the fact that many people with head injuries or malformation do not become criminals,…
Brower, M.C. & Price, B.H. (2001). Neuropsychiatry of frontal lobe dysfunction in violent and criminal behavior: a critical review. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 71. 720-26.
Moskowitz, C. (2011). Criminal minds are different from yours, brain scans reveal. Live Science.
(2010, August 17). Secrets of Your Mind: the Brain and Violence [Web Video]. Retrieved from http://watchabc.go.com/nightline-prime-secrets-of-your-mind/SH5580331/VD5581341/nightline-prime-secrets-of-your-mind-819?rfr=clicker
Shoemaker, Donald J. (2009). Juvenile Delinquency. Rowman & Littlefield: Lanham, MD.
The left and right brain
The left brain vs. The right brain: How does this impact learning
The left brain vs. The right brain: How does this impact learning
People often categorize themselves or others as left brained or right brained. This is based on the functions of brain. It is said that the people using right brain more emotions oriented, intuitive, creative, imaginative and subjective. On the other hand, the left brain capabilities are logic, critical thinking, thinking in term of numbers and not images and, reasoning. The functioning of the brain is found to be involved in different activities. It was found during experiments that different parts of brain, left or right are active during different activities (Nielsen, Zielinski, Ferguson, Lainhart, Anderson, 2013). The psychologists and educationists are interested to find how the working of the brain can be used to help the process of learning.
Burns, M., (2011), "Left vs. Right: What Your Brain Hemispheres Are Really Up To," Retrieved
Gallagher, S.H., (2013), "Left-Brained vs. Right-Brained: Which is the Better for Learning?," Retrieved from: https://eee.uci.edu/news/articles/0505brain.php
Left Brain, Right Brain, Whole Brain? (2007), Retrieved from:
Disadvantages of fMI
lshani Ganguli (2007), Harvard University, asserts in the article, "Watching the Brain Lie," that fMI lie detection does not yet merit a place in the courtroom or elsewhere. Kanwisher stresses: "No published studies come even close to demonstrating the kind of lie detection that would be useful in a real world situation."
In addition, according to Ganguli (2007), a number of various types of lies exist that include omissions, white lies, exaggerations, and denials which potentially involve differing neural processes that scientists have not yet mastered.
Jed akoff, U.S. .District Judge for the Southern District of New York, admits that he doubts fMI tests will conform to the courtroom standards for "scientific evidence (reliability and acceptance within the scientific community) anytime in the near future, or that the limited information they provide will have much impact on the stand."
As most lies in court include omissions or…
Abram S. Barth. A Double-Edged Sword: The Role of Neuroimaging in Federal Capital Sentencing, American Journal of Law and Medicine, (2007); available at HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1436644761.html
Alan Felthous & Henning Sass. International Handbook on Psychopathic Disorders and the Law, Volume 1 of the International Handbook of Psychopathic Disorders and the Law, John Wiley and Sons, (2008).
Henry T. Greely & Judy Illes. Neuroscience-Based Lie Detection: The Urgent Need for Regulation, American Journal of Law and Medicine, (2007); available at HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1436644721.html
Ishani Ganguli. Watching the Brain Lie, the Scientist, (2007); available at HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1269077571.html
88). Even this simple technique can reap big rewards in the classroom (Gilbert, 2002).
According to Jensen's book, Completing the Puzzle: The Brain-Based Approach (1996), "Choice changes the chemistry of the brain" (p. 88, cited in Gilbert). When people are presented with the opportunity to make choices about what to do and how to do it, Gilbert points out that the brain benefits in a number of ways; when people experience improved choice and control in their lives, there is a concomitant reduction in stress levels and a corresponding increase in the release of endorphins that trigger the "pleasure"-giving neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin; however, Gilbert points out that if this sense of control is removed, the brain will generate a different neurotransmitter, noradrenaline. Noradrenaline impedes clear thinking, results in lower morale, poor learning and reduced motivation. According to Gilbert, "All this can result from something as simple as allowing them…
References challenge to brain-based educators. (1999). Phi Delta Kappan, 81(3), 254.
Bergen, D. (2002). Evaluating 'brain-based' curricular claims. Social Education, 66(5), 376.
Blakemore, C.L. (2003). Movement is essential to learning. JOPERD -- the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 74(9), 22.
Brazelton, T.B., & Greenspan, S.I. (2000). The irreducible needs of children: What every child must have to grow, learn, and flourish. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
Bruer, J.T. (1997). Education and the brain: A bridge too far. Educational Researcher, 16 (8), 4-16.
Arguments upon brain-death
Technology, a very familiar phenomenon of modern world, is continuously enhancing its ways towards comforts and luxuries. New thoughts and ideas are coming with every passing second, and what started as only a blurred vision; now became a necessity for all mankind and the entire society is involved in these technological reforms. The main notion behind creating & inventing all such equipments was to actually make the living better and easier than the past, & more importantly these all are less time consuming. Along with other technological advancements, medical science has been evolved from typical classical approaches towards a better and more scientific means of equipments and descriptions. Treatments of severe diseases like cancer and tumors is possible today and thus many lives can be saved by new emerging technology. Another main contribution of medical technology towards the betterment of mankind is of transplantation of organs,…
Laureys S. 2005. "Science and society: death, unconsciousness and the brain." Nature Reviews. Neuroscience. 6 (11): 899-909.
Perry, D.L. 2011. Ethics and Personhood: Some Issues in Contemporary Neurological Science and Technology. Retrieved from: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/submitted/Perry/personhood.html
BBC Ethics Guide. Overview of anti-euthanasia arguments. http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/euthanasia/against/against_1.shtml
MSPC: The moral status of the persons on the fringe of consciouness.1995. Retrieved from: http://www.jeramyt.org/papers/personhood_neurology.html
rain Drain of Health Professionals in Zimbabwe
rain Drain is described in the work of Lowell and Findlay (2001) as something that can occur "...if emigration of tertiary educated persons for permanent or long-stays abroad reaches significant levels and is not offset by the 'feedback' effects of remittances, technology transfer, investments or trade. rain drain reduces economic growth through unrecompensed investments in education and depletion of a source country's human capital assets." (p.6) Dolvo (2003) writes that the African continent is facing an unprecedented health crisis due to the HIV / AIDS epidemic and the "re-emergence of old communicable diseases such as T and Malaria, and the apparent paradox of increasing levels disorders linked to changing lifestyles and degenerative diseases." (p.1) Added to this are other problems that impact the health system and that arise from economic challenges, which result in low health care service funding combined with health service…
Bach, Stephen. (2008). The International Mobility of Talent: Types, Causes, and Development Impact. Ed. Andres Solimano. World Institute for Development Economics: New York.
Bauer, T., Zimmerman, K.F., 1995. Modeling international migration: Economic and econometric issues. In: Causes of International Migration. Proceedings of a Workshop, Luxembourg, 14 -- 16 December 1994. Eurostat, pp. 95 -- 115
Bhargava, Alok and Docquier, Frederic. (2008). "HIV Pandemic, Medical Brain Drain, and Bloom, G & Standing, H, 2001. Human resources and health personnel. Africa Policy Development Review, 1(1): 7 -- 19.
Borjas G (1989), "Immigrant and Emigrant Earnings: A Longitudinal Study," Economic Enquiry, 27(1):21-37
The research also showed that these discoveries hold enormous promise for helping educators formulate improved methods of delivering educational services, a fact that has not been lost on mathematics teachers in particular. This is not to suggest, though, that the human brain has been completely investigated and is now thoroughly understood. To the contrary, the human brain can be likened to the bottom of the world's oceans where less than 10% of the area has been explored at all, and much more remains to be done. In fact, it would seem incredible that scientists have accomplished what they have been able to do thus far, given that the human brain is so enormously complex and every individual is unique. Despite these constraints, though, researchers continue to gain ground and new discoveries are being made every day. It may well be just a matter of time before the individual evaluation plans…
Jensen, E. (2005). Teaching with the brain in mind. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Lu, Z.L. & Kaufman, L. (2003). Magnetic source imaging of the human brain. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Mann, R.L. (2005). Gifted students with spatial strengths and sequential weaknesses: An overlooked and underidentified population. Roeper Review, 27(2), 91.
Moursund, D. (n.d.). Introduction and goals. Retrieved on June 27, 2008 from Introduction and goals. http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~moursund/Math/introduction_and_goals.htm .
One primary organization, the Brian Injury Association of America, has web resources that include general information on brain injuries, including causes and symptoms as well as national prevalence (BIAA 2010). The Brain Injury association also has state chapters, and the Association of Illinois' website contains some links to services and support groups, but the number listed is surprisingly small (BIAI 2010). Far more abundant in numerous different internet searches, each purposed to be more fine-tuned and selective than the last, websites for attorney's offices specializing in brain injury lawsuits.
These websites range from direct and clearly identified business websites to "blogs" that review the medical aspect of brain injuries only in a very general way, and are more explicitly devoted to the urging of legal action being taken in the case of wrongdoing. The Illinois State Board of Education also has a page on its website dedicated to a discussion…
BIAA. (2010). Brain injury association of America. Accessed 18 February 2010. http://www.biausa.org/
BIAI. (2010). Brain injury association of Illinois. Accessed 18 February 2010. http://www.biail.org/
IDHS. (2010). Illinois department of human services. "Illinois warriors assistance program." Accessed 18 February 2010. http://www.dhs.state.il.us/page.aspx?item=36085
ISBE. (2010). Illinois state board of education. "Special Education." Accessed 18 February 2010. http://www.isbe.net/spec-ed/
As it is passed from neuron to neuron through the different synapses, it reaches the neuromuscular junction. Where, the neurons send out specific messages to specific muscles at the distant parts of the body. In the case of flexing the right arm, the neuromuscular joint would cause the bicep to expand, while the triceps would relax. To lift the lower right arm the neuromuscular joint will have the bicep pull the hinge joint (the elbow joint) inward toward the body. (Jakab, 2006)
Write how you trace the impulse, listing the steps in as much detail as possible, from which your brain sends the message to the appropriate muscles to reach up above your head to the shelf. Include in this the steps involved in the actual muscle fiber contraction sliding filament mechanism. Again, specify which muscles are pulling on which bones and what type of joints is involved.
Jakab, C. (2006). Nervous System. North Mankato, MN: Smart Apple Media.
Brain Differences in Boys and Girls
The obvious biological differences between men and women have inspired a search for corresponding mental differences. Indeed, much of the oppression suffered by women in the traditionally patriarchal world of business and society has been blamed on the preconceived notion that women were somehow not as good as men in certain areas. The rise of feminism negated all such difference. However, recent research has brought to light new information regarding biological differences in the brains of girls and boys.
New research into brain differences has been ongoing since the 1960s (Gabriel 2001). The finding that the preoptic area within the hypothalamus was larger in males than in females resulted in more research and discoveries of this kind. These have also been made easier by means of advanced imaging technology (Gabriel 2001).
One such study has been conducted in 1999 by Dr. Gabrielle de Courten-Myers…
Gabriel, J. "The Truth About Boys and Girls." July 2001. Scientific Learning, 1999-2003.
Palar, B.H. "A study in contrasts: should boys and girls... be separated for school?" Better Homes & Gardens, Oct. 1996.
PR Newswire. "Differences Between Boys and Girls Are Found in Nature and the Brain, Not in Socialization." Sept. 18, 2000. PR Newswire Association, Inc., 2000.
Furthermore, information is not divided into subject-encapsulated classes, but subjects are integrated into one or more other categories to enhance across-the-board learning. Active participation in the lesson by the physical body of the student has become a central and critical part of learning, as studies have linked the cerebellum with movement as well as the activities of learning. Memory, spatial perception, language, attention, emotion, nonverbal cues and even decision making have also been linked to the cerebellum, making movement a central and critical part of learning, according to various studies,. (Jensen, 1998) the new studies in brain development have impacted educational practices tremendously.
Jensen, E. (1998). Teaching With the Brain in Mind. New York: Association for supervision & Curriculum Development
Van Zile, S. (2003). Grammar that'll move you! LookSmart, etrieved September 17, 2006 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0ST/is_5_112/ai_96810480
Wolfe, P. (2001) Brain Matters: Translating esearch into Classroom Practice. New York: Association for…
Jensen, E. (1998). Teaching With the Brain in Mind. New York: Association for supervision & Curriculum Development
Van Zile, S. (2003). Grammar that'll move you! LookSmart, Retrieved September 17, 2006 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0STR/is_5_112/ai_96810480
Wolfe, P. (2001) Brain Matters: Translating Research into Classroom Practice. New York: Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development
Peer 1 Chieyka
Damage to the brain and subsequent recovery is an interesting topic, and as you point out it is often affected most by age and functional recovery instead of structural recovery (Wilson, 2013). That is an important point because it shows that structural integrity is not everything—a lot of what matters is how functioning and how old the person is. Relearning skills lost can be easier for younger people and harder for older people. Structure, once damaged, is essentially not coming back. However, another good point that you make is that neurons and axons can grow back, which means the nerve fiber part of the nerve cell that takes part in the messaging does have to be considered. In people over the age of 25, regaining substantial functional recovery is going to be a significant trial (Arain et al., 2013). Good work, explaining what happens when…
Yadate, D., Wari, A., Bedane, K., &Gebayehu, G. (2019). A review article: Brain damage and neuroplastic responses. International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences, 8(4), 219–228. https://doi-org.proxy library.ashford.edu/10.4103/ijhas.IJHAS_87_18 (Links to an external site.)
Wilson, J. F. (2013). Biological basis of behavior. https://content.ashford.edu
" This allows the palm of the hand to go either up or down when in motion. The radius and the ulna connect with the bones which that are attached to the wrist and hand.
The thumbs of the human hand make it possible for the hand to lift and carry objects. The movement of the human hand is due to evolutionary development of bipedalism. The human hand consists of twenty seven bones. The wrist has cube shaped bones placed in rows of two or four each. The palm of the hand consists of bones called the carpals. hen lifting a glass of water the striated muscle pulls the radius and ulna allowing the arm to reach for the glass. The flexor muscles in the hand and fingers are used to flex the fingers around the glass making it possible to grip. The flexors which are located near the elbow…
"sliding filament theory." A Dictionary of Biology. 2004. Feb 13, 2010.
The other symptom is that a victim will experience a change in mental capability or individual's distinctive characters. Either the patient or his/her close associates can identify the symptoms independently. The final symptoms are those that helps in location of the tumor as an effect of the pressure exerted on the surrounding areas. They include a large number of symptoms but the locally noted include the weakening of different body parts, which can be on the arms or legs, poor maintenance of balance, memory weakening and in worst cases damaging, visual difficulties, communication difficulties, and a modified kind of sensing. hen it involves a stem tumor, it affects the nerve functions that leave the brain at the bottom part (Health Encyclopedia, n.p.).
During diagnosis, a physician will have interest on the medical past and other examination of the patient and then armed with the information; the physician might advice…
Ali-Osman, Francis. Brain tumors. New Jersey, U.S.: Humana Press. 2005. Print.
Health Encyclopedia. Diseases and conditions: Brain tumors. Healthscout.com
1 April 2009. Web. 28 March 2010.
Schiffer, Davide. Brain tumor pathology: current diagnostic hotspots and pitfalls. New York,
The brain can be understood in terms of its lobe-like structures, or it can be mapped out according to the regions that seem to dictate and influence certain behaviors and processes. The three major areas of the brain in this schema are the motor areas, the sensory areas, and the association areas, though in reality almost all human functions and behaviors involve interactions between these areas. Interestingly, large and imprecise movements have been found to originate in a very small space of the motor areas, whereas more precise yet much smaller movements require large brain areas. The sensory area consists of three composite areas -- the somatosensory area, the auditory area, and the visual area.
The association areas of the brain are believed to control higher-level thinking and processes that regulate behavior in a larger sense, such as turning Phineas Gage from a hardworking and responsible…
However, the most important area in terms of the connection between brain development and adolescent delinquency seems to be the prefrontal cortex, located immediately behind the forehead. In many respects, the prefrontal cortex is the "control center" of the human brain because it is substantially responsible for planning, mood modulation, organization, and working memory.
he fact that the prefrontal cortex is not fully developed in adolescence becomes critically important when the adolescent brain is simultaneously flooded by sex hormones during puberty. Especially among males, the combination of an underdeveloped prefrontal cortex with highly elevated levels of testosterone typically results in moodiness, short-temperedness, aggression, the need to exhibit social status and dominance, and rage as response to frustration, conflict, and disappointment. Naturally, there are many other factors that contribute to adolescent behavior. Whereas all teenagers experience the same types of brain development patterns and hormonal surges, not all teenagers necessarily exhibit…
The fact that the prefrontal cortex is not fully developed in adolescence becomes critically important when the adolescent brain is simultaneously flooded by sex hormones during puberty. Especially among males, the combination of an underdeveloped prefrontal cortex with highly elevated levels of testosterone typically results in moodiness, short-temperedness, aggression, the need to exhibit social status and dominance, and rage as response to frustration, conflict, and disappointment. Naturally, there are many other factors that contribute to adolescent behavior. Whereas all teenagers experience the same types of brain development patterns and hormonal surges, not all teenagers necessarily exhibit delinquent tendencies. Brain development and hormones are only two contributing factors.
Gerrig, R.J. And Zimbardo, P.G. (2009) Psychology and Life. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Brain-Based Language Arts Lesson Plan:
Grade 2 -- "th" ords
Brain-Based Language Arts Lesson Plan: Grade 2 -- "th" ords
Cross-curricular link(s): Non-specific
Recommended Usage: Summary, entire class
Intended Learning Outcomes:
Identify common word strings;
Impress students with the fact that "t" and "h" written together make a different sound
State Standards (Perma-Bound, n.d.):
Spell common, frequently used words correctly
Identify and define new words and concepts.
Pronounce most words accurately.
Learning to Read Independently: Use knowledge of phonics, word analysis (e.g., root words, prefixes and suffixes), syllabication, picture and context clues to decode and understand new words during reading.
Healthy; Thump; Then; Threw; Together; Fifth; Tooth; Thread; Mother; Father; Think; Other; Truth; Seventh; Birthday; Teeth
Teaching/Learner Activities (Olsen, 2004):
a. Activity 1: 10 minutes:
Read a story to the class from their reading book. rite "TH" on the blackboard. Have the…
Hurtova, D. (Winter 2000). Feedback. Retrieved from Dana Hurtova's Web site: danahurtova.sweb.cz/files/kanam3/feedback.rtf
Language Arts Department: Mrs. Knutelsky, Supervisor K - 12. (2010, August 31). Lesson closure. Retrieved from Jefferson Township Web site: http://blogs.jefftwp.org/wordpress/rknutelsky/2010/08/31/lesson-closure/
Olsen, K. (2004). TH words | Smart notebook lesson # 592. Retrieved from Exchange.Smarttech.com Web site: http://exchange.smarttech.com/search.html?q=+th+words&subject=English+Language+Arts&grade=Grade+2®ion=en_US
Perma-Bound. (n.d.). Pennsylvania state standards for language arts: Grade 2. Retrieved from Perma-Bound.com Web site: http://www.perma-bound.com/state-standards.do?state=PA&subject=language-arts&gradeLevel=2
Robert Bly also speaks about the "three brains" of man, but unlike in the more scientific description above, he calls them the reptilian, the mammalian, and the new brain, in order to have them correspond better to our evolution stages thus, in a way, building upon MacLean's ideas. According to Bly, the first brain is "cold and ruthless" and deals with survival issues. he mammalian part deals with comforts such as family, friends, relationships, belonging, society, religion, home, etc.
he "new" brain is "very thin, incredibly dense" and is basically a "cellular layer surrounding the rest of the brain," according to Bly. his, according to scientists, has "no purpose." Bly states that "it deals with transcendence and grows on miserly." Just as in the description above, in Bly's description all brain exist simultaneous but shrink or grow, depending upon where energy is focused. For example, each can control energy, and…
The New Dawn: The More You Know It, the Less You Know It. (2011). OSHO Library. Retrieved October 4, 2011, from .
The New Dawn: The More You Know It, the Less You Know It. (2011). OSHO
Library. Retrieved October 4, 2011, from .
This showed not only the mapping of the brain that was possible -- that is, the association of certain specific areas of the brain with certain function and/or sensations from certain parts of the body -- but also that the adult brain was capable of changing in response to new stimulation. This finding was taken to new heights by Dr. amachandran, whose work with amputees and mirrors showed how profound the brain's malleability can really be (amachandran 2007). As he describes in his lecture, many amputees experienced phantom limbs (as well as other organs), and a significant number of these had phantom pain due to a "paralyzed" phantom limb. With the simple use of a mirror, Dr. amachandran's patients were able to trick their brains into thinking the reflection of their healthy limb was in fact their phantom limb, alleviating the perceived paralysis and pain, and eventually (for some) even…
Ramachandran, V. (2007). "Ramachandran on your mind." Accessed 30 July 2009. http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/vilayanur_ramachandran_on_your_mind.html
Schwartz, J. & Begley, S. (2002). The Mind & The Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force. New York, NY: Harper Perennial.
They cannot carry impulses as they do not have an axon and dendrites. The oligodendrocyte cells are more numerous than the neurons and make up almost 90% of the brain cells. Thus, to differentiate between a neuron and oligodendrocyte the researcher would have to eliminate the presence of the axon and dendrite and check the density of the presence of these cells within the brain sample. [Wikipedia, 2005]
ASTOCYTE: These are another type of Glial cells that can easily be differentiated through their star shape. The astrocytes are seen to contain many secondary filaments that function just like dendrites in neurons. When examined the nuclei of the astrocytes is seen as smaller than that of the oligodendrocytes. The glial cells are non-neural and can easily be distinguished from the neurons. [Glia, 2005]
Author Not Available, the Brain, Enchanted Learning.com http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/anatomy/brain/Neuron.shtml,2005
Author Not Available, Glial Cell, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia,…
Author Not Available, the Brain, Enchanted Learning.com http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/anatomy/brain/Neuron.shtml,2005
Author Not Available, Glial Cell, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glia
Author Not Available, Glia, 2005, http://www.mb.jhu.edu/tins/media/Neuroglia.txt
Technology has emerged and pervaded the lives of many people as it becomes more advanced and more a part of society. A good and prominent example of this is video games. Even with the leisure and perceived positive effects of video games, their effect on the brain is a cause for concern among many in the scientific and academic communities. While many of the effects could absolutely be good, there are other effects that could be bad with age and stage of brain development being important factors to keep in mind.
One factor that clearly aggravates the situation of people playing video games and it might or does affect the brain is the fact that the younger people who still have the development of their brains in motion. As such, verifying whether or not there are effects on cognition and that development of the brain structure is an important item…
Alternatively, degeneration of the ascending cholinergic and catechola- minergic neuronal systems may contribute, at least in part, to the occurrence of this frontal-lobe-like symptomatology associated with Parkinson's disease. (Dubois & Pillon, 1996, pp.2-8)
The development of a greater understanding, over time of the causal factors as well as the manifestations and possible interventions for cognitive function in Parkinson's disease has continued since this time. Greater functional understanding of neurotransmitters and receptors as well as brain function in general have also significantly aided in the treatment Parkinson's Disease. esearch has even led to the conclusion that standards dopamine (pharmacological) treatments while they improve some cognitive function (switching between two tasks "thought to depend on circuitry connecting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the posterior parietal cortex to the dorsal caudate nucleus) might impair others that are usually spared by PD (probabilistic reversal learning, which; "implicates orbitofrontal cortex -- ventral striatal circuitry." involvement)…
Aarsland, D. Laake, K. Larsen, J.P. & Janvin, C. (2002) Donepezil for cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: a randomised controlled study. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 72 (6), 708-712.
Cools, R. Barker, R.A. Sahakian, B.J. & Robbins, T.W. (December 2001) Enhanced or Impaired Cognitive Function in Parkinson's Disease as a Function of Dopaminergic Medication and Task Demands. Cerebral Cortex, 11 (12), 1136-1143.
Drapier, D. Peron, J. Leray, E. Sauleau, P. Biseul, I. Drapier, S. Le Jeune, F. Travers, D. Bourguignon, a. Haegelen, C. Millet, B. & Verin, M. (September 2008) Emotion recognition impairment and apathy after subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease have separate neural substrates. Neuropsychologia 46 (11), 2796-2801.
Dubois, B. Pillon, B. (November 1996) Cognitive deficits in Parkinson's Disease. Journal of Nuerology. 244 (1), 2-8.
brain structures and functions associated with the motivation to engage in certain types of behavior. The specific behavior that I have selected in order to perform the analysis refers to life style habits, namely exercising. In order to better understand the mechanisms which influence motivation, I will be taking into consideration both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as genetic or the environment.
Right from the beginning, I must underline that the motivation of a person to engage in such a type of behavior is powerfully influenced by the environment in which he or she grows up and lives. It is a general known truth that the manner in which parents educate their children and the values that they teach them are fundamental for the manner in which the children will behave- even as adults. Therefore, it is safe to say that adults who grew up in families which encouraged them…
Deckers, L., (2005). Motivation: Biological, Psychological, and Environmental, (2nd Edition). Allyn and Bacon.
Goldberg, E. Attention and motivation- The Dana guide (November 2007). The Dana guide to brain health, Retrieved March 24, 2011 from http://www.dana.org/news/brainhealth/detail.aspx?id=10052
Kouneiher, F., Charron, S., Koechlin, E. Motivation and cognitive control in the human prefrontal cortex, Nature neuroscience, volume 12, number 7 (July 2009). Retrieved March 25, 2011 from http://www.cognition.ens.fr/Pdf/Kouneiher.pdf
The brain's motivation station in Science Daily (may 4, 2006). Retrieved March 25, 2011 from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/05/060504070834.htm
Anomic Aphasia is also known as nominal aphasia, dysnomia, and amnesic aphasia and refers to a disorder that generates difficulties in recalling names or words. This brain disorder is considered as a dearth of expressive language that makes it difficult for an individual to recall names or words. In addition, patients suffering from anomic aphasia experience difficulties in recalling numbers. While an individual has clear understanding of what he/she is attempting to name or write, he/she requires a relatively long period of time to recall it or may experience tremendous challenges in articulating the word, name or numbers. In some cases, patients suffering from anomic aphasia produce jargon words or other words when attempting to recall or express certain words, names or numbers. The other symptom of this condition is the inability for a patient to identify the appropriate word for an object or individual through he/she has the capability…
brain plays a vital role in the area of cognitive functions. Different sections of the brain are responsible for a number of different cognitive capabilities including memory, prediction, emotional response, sensory perception, and numerous others. Despite the partitioning of the brain and its means of providing cognitive capabilities, the different areas of this organ work in concert to produce some pivotal cognitive processes including decision-making and deriving action (output) based on sensory information (which is akin to input).
Many of these vital processes for cognitive functions occur in the part of the brain refereed to as the cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex has several different components each of which largely contributes to the way in which humans make decisions. Additionally, parts of the cerebral cortex are also responsible for facets of one's personality and how one manifests the emotion one feels. The basic paradigm that accounts for the way that…
Kean, S. (2014). Phineas Gage, neuroscience's most famous patient. www.slate.com. Retrieved from http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/science/2014/05/phineas_gage_neuroscience_case_true_story_of_famous_frontal_lobe_patient.html
Kihlstrom, J.F. (2010). Social neuroscience: The footprints of Phineas Gage. Social Cognition, 28, 757-782.
MacMillan, M. (1999). The Phineas Gage information page. www.uakron.edu. Retrieved from http://www.uakron.edu/gage/
Wagar, B.M., & Thagard, P. (2004). Spiking phineas gage: A neurocomputational theory of Cognitive-affective integration in decision making. Psychological Review, 111(1). Retrieved from http://cogsci.uwaterloo.ca/Articles/spiking.pdf
120). Together these chemicals control and boost the sexual experience. It should be noted, that while dopamine dominates the desires of wanting to have sex it is another group of chemicals that govern enjoyment. Opioids are the brains equivalent of morphine and endorphins. Dopamine may propel the behavior but the opioids are necessary for experiencing orgasm.
During orgasm, opioids boost the reward circuit to add to the effect of dopamine. In the orgasmic phase, the body releases a shot of dopamine. However, after orgasm dopamine, levels fall precipitously and individuals lose interest in sexual encounters of a time. As levels of dopamine fall, prolactin and oxytocin levels increase. Oxytocin levels increase for a short period after orgasm and produces the bonding effect (Allchin, 2011). Prolactin functions as a dopamine suppressor. It halts the action of dopamine and brings the body back to a normal level. This marks the beginning of…
Allchin, D. The Domesticated Gene. The American Biology Teacher, 73(2):120-123.
Coad, J., Dunstall, M., & McCandlish, R. (2005). Anatomy and physiology for midwives.
Robinson, M. & Wilson, G. (2005). Your brain on sex. Retrieved from http://www.reuniting.info/science/sex_in_the_brain
brain is the final frontier, even more so than outer space. Studying the brain is as difficult as studying outer space due to the limitations of technology. However, there are also ethical limitations to neuroscience research, as well as research design, methodological, and statistical limitations. The basic structure of the brain has been fairly well documented, but brain chemistry remains elusive, as do general process modeling and other abstract and location-independent functions such as memory.
Technological limitations will remain a challenge for brain researchers. Current technologies in brain imaging continue to offer fruitful results in research, but fail to offer significant breakthroughs that can aid in the study of consciousness. Through current technologies, localized functions and processes can be witnessed, but more complex ones such as imagination and dreams cannot be tested for using technologies. Language and linguistics are also difficult to research using technology, and tend to rely on…
Button, et al. (2013). Power failure. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 14: 365-376.
Schilbach, L. et al., (2013). Toward a second-person neuroscience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36(4): 393-414.
Thus, lessons can utilize elements learned from understand how the brain naturally learns a language to augment the student's ability to progress more efficiently in learning a second language later on in life. Lessons would produce the environment which calls on the same type of brain functions that were so crucial in language acquisition in early childhood. Thus, teaching can become an extension of pre-existing strategies the students have already used earlier on in their lives without even knowing it. This means lesson plans built on a structure that highlights the importance of language at the phonic level, as this is what the author asserts as the primary vehicle for language acquisition in young children.
Lightbrown & Spada (2006) also provide evidence which would back up Kuhl's claims in the text How Languages Are Learned. In their discussion of early language acquisition, Lightbrown & Spada (2006) explain how the child's…
Kuhl, Patricia K. (2010). Brain mechanisms in early language acquisition. Neuron, 67(5), 713-727. Doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2010.08.038
Lightbrown, Patsy M. & Spada, Nina. (2006). How Languages are Learned. Oxford University Press.
Dew (1996) regards left and right-brained thinking as being linked to the brain dominance theory. Left-brained thinkers emphasize rationality, data and analytics in their thinking. ight-brained people tend to solve problems through their understanding of relationships, embrace teamwork and look at things as a process. The two sides of the brain, therefore, can both play a role in problem-solving, but the approach to problem-solving can be substantially different. At times, these styles will be complementary but at other times they will be incompatible.
A mind map is a visual way of representing thinking. It can be used as a brainstorming approach, and perhaps even to solve problems. I am skeptical that a mind map makes use of brain dominance theory, however. Mind maps are maybe good for people who need to see or visualize things in order to conceptualize them. I'm not sure which side that would appeal to, probably…
Dew, J. (1996). Are you a right-brain or left-brain thinker? Quality Progress Magazine. Apirl 1996. pp. 91-93.
MindTools (2015). Mind Maps. MindTools.com. Retrieved April 28, 2015 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newISS_01.htm
Buzan, T. (2010). The origins of mind mapping. YouTube. Retrieved April 28, 2015 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2LX3peWpxV8&feature=youtu.be
Brain's Reward Pathway in the Context of Addiction
The brain's reward pathway involves the mesolimbic dopamine system controlling the way that an individual reacts to stimuli. Natural rewards such as food, sex, and diverse interactions with others can thus play an important role in motivating a person. One of the simplest ways to describe the brain's reward pathway would be to consider the fact that an individual learns that he or she needs to repeat an action in order to get a reward. Memory is connected with the reward pathway, as memory centers concentrate on identifying all the steps that lead to the reward and attempt to recreate these respective actions. Drugs that are addictive have an effect on the reward system as they reinforce certain behaviors, with the dopamine reward pathway being stimulated by these substances.
The reward pathway is particularly old when regarding things from an evolutionary point-of-view.…
Longstaff, A. "Neuroscience." (Garland Science, 2005)
Mutsatsa, S. "Physical Healthcare and Promotion in Mental Health Nursing." (Learning Matters, 13 Mar 2015)
Pomm, H.A. & Pomm, R, M. "Management of the Addicted Patient in Primary Care." (Springer Science & Business Media, 26 Aug 2008)
"Biological Research on Addiction: Comprehensive Addictive Behaviors and Disorders, Volume 2." (Academic Press, 17 May 2013)
The topic of sleep and dreaming is interesting to me because of the complex nature of the brain. It seems we know so much about human physiology, yet the brain is still mysterious. e know about neurochemicals, for instance, but do not really understand how memory is stored, accessed, or how dreaming affects our abilities during waking life. e know that a chemical upset, even minor, can make a huge difference in our state of consciousness, or our ability to perform in daily activities. Dreaming is fascinating to me because we know that the brain is a machine, and like any machine, it must be maintained (through nutrition) as well as rest and sleep. I find it personally interesting that dreams can be so vivid, unreal, frightening, pleasurable, and yet still mysterious.
Dreaming is part of sleep -- and a recurring stage in which our state of consciousness is…
Obringer, L. (2012, October). How Dreams Work. Retrieved from How Stuff Works: http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/life/inside-the-mind/human-brain/dream3.htm
Osterweil, N. (2010). The Health Benefit of Dreams. WebMD. Retrieved from: http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/features/the-health-benefits-of-dreams
Zhang, J 2004, Memory Process and the Function of Sleep, Journal of Theoretics, 6 (4): 14-21.
Neurological Models of Behavior
Understanding the roots of human behavior is a complicated process. Attempting to explore this concept from a neurological perspective is even more complicated, as it requires some sense of an ongoing pattern to describe the neurological process of learning certain behavior traits. Kozma et al. attempted to generate a mathematical model within a controlled environment.
According to Kozma et al., the human psyche is composed of complex combinations, known as vectors, which represent particular values at any one moment in question. Each neuron has a designated condition that ultimately impacts the conditions of surrounding neurons, thus allowing for a mathematical modeling of human behavior given the combinations of values that exert their influence on numerological components of the brain (Sayama et al., 2013). This model is within a controlled environment, where learning inputs invoke a response but do not need full neurological supervision to conduct learning…
Kelso, J.A. Scott, Dumass, Guillaume, & Tongoli, E. (2013). Outline of a general theory of behavior and brain coordination. Neural Network, 37(1), 120-131.
Sayama, Hiroki, Pestov, Irene, & Gross, Thilo. (2013). Computers and mathematics with applications. Science Direct, 65(10), 1645-1664.
One of the earliest theorists of personality development was Sigmund Freud. Freud defined the development of the individual's personality primarily in terms of struggle, loss, and repression -- namely the individual's family romance with the mother that was finally supplanted through a series of phases or traumas. Eventually, the individual's personality achieved a stasis or a maturity whereby the superego checked the impulses of the id and the ego. Jung expanded upon this notion to include the notion of a collective unconscious that all individuals participated in, as personalities whose forms could be generalized into shapes common to all cultures called archetypes. However, humanistic psychologists such as Piaget and Maslow offered developmental views of the personality that were not necessarily traumatic, but based in developing cognitive structures within the brain. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is perhaps most persuasive, suggesting that an individual's personality is based upon satisfying basic needs,…
Freud, Sigmund. (1917) The Ego and the Id.
Huitt, William. (February 2004) "Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs." Educational Philosophy Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved on October 18, 2004 at http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/regsys/maslow.html
Jung, Carl. (2004) "Myths, Dreams, Symbols." Retrieved on October 18, 2004 at http://www.mythsdreamssymbols.com/archetype.html
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. (2004) Web MD. Retrieved on October 18, 2004 at http://aolsvc.health.webmd.aol.com/hw/anxiety_panic_disorders/ty3382.asp
Brain Might Contextual
The information we receive from the surrounding is analyzed in different areas in the brain. These areas are interconnected. Visual impulses reach the occipital lobe in the brain from where they are carried to the somatosensory are in the parietal lobe. The parietal lobe also receives sensory information from other areas of the brain. These stimuli are integrated and stored. The stored information is used to reason similar stimuli in the future. This creates a quicker response in recognition. This theory is consistent to the top down process created by ichard Gregory.
The brain is a complex body organ consisting of two cerebral hemispheres, two cerebellums and a brain stem. The brain stem is a continuation of the spinal cord. It consists of the mid brain, pons and medulla. The brain is made up of complex neurons that transmit impulses to other body organs. These impulses help…
Dewey, R. (2007). Top down and bottom up processing. Retrieved from http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/kinser/Structure1.html
Hamilton, K.E. (2001). Sensation and perception. Retrieved from http://webhome.idirect.com/~kehamilt/psy2.html
Kavanagh, P. (n.d.). Top down processing in vision. Retrieved from http://www.visionlab.harvard.edu/members/patrick/pdf.files/topdownmitecs.pdf
Serendip. (2005, June 3). Brain structures and their functions. Retrieved from
What Kinds of Changes Are Occurring Within the Brain During the First 2 Years of Life?"
There are several kinds of changes that occur within the brain during the first 2 years of life (Bornstein & Lamb, 89). In fact, some developmental specialists believe that if first two years of life periods in brain development are not utilized, opportunities for brain development can never be regained because in later years the flexibility of using brain is lost. By the time a baby is born, she will have l00 billion brain cells, but these cells are not connected in circuits the way they will be, when the brain begins to mature. In the first two years of life, the brain rapidly forms connections between brain cells and ultimately a single cell can connect with as many as 15,000 other cells (Bruer, 75-81).
During the first year of life, the…
Bornstein, M.H. & Lamb, M.E. Development in Infancy: An Introduction. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1992
Bruer, J.T. The Myth of the First Three Years: A New Understanding of Early Brain Development and Lifelong Learning. NY: Free Press, 1999.
Campbell, F.A. & Ramey, C.T. Cognitive and school outcomes for high-risk African-American students at middle adolescence: Positive effects of early intervention. American Educational Research Journal, 1995, 32(4): 742-772.
Dawson, G & Fishcer, K. Human Behavior and the Developing Brain. NY: Guilford, 1994.
Brain Factors That Influence Psychopathy
Psychopathy is among the conditions that burden the performance of most global states in the current contemporary society. A variety of factors causes psychopathy. The factors include biological, environmental, and brain factors. Psychopathy presents with different symptoms including, violence, deceitfulness, aggression, irresponsibility, lack of guilt, and impulsiveness among other symptoms associated with it. Significant researches conducted in the past have failed to create an understanding of the brain factors that cause the psychopathy. Therefore, the following essay presents an analysis of the brain factors that cause the psychopathy. The analysis presents results obtained from studies conducted to create an understanding of the relationship.
According to Verona, Sprague, and Sadeh (2012) psychopathy refers to a condition characterized by diminished abilities for remorse and low abilities to control behaviors. Cale and Lilienfeld (2002) show in their definition that defining psychopathy should not only focus on the…
Anderson, J.L., et al., (2014). Examining the Associations between Section III Antisocial Personality Disorder Traits and Psychopathy in Community and University Samples. Journal of Personality Disorders, 12(3), 1-23.
Cale, E.M., & Lilienfeld, S.O. (2002). Histrionic Personality Disorder and Antisocial Personality Disorder: Sex-Differentiated Manifestations of Psychopathy?. Journal of Personality Disorders, 16(1), 52-72.
Coid, J., & Ullrich, S. (2010). Antisocial Personality Disorder Is On A Continuum With Psychopathy. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 51(4), 426-433.
Harmer, C., Perrett, D., Cowen, P., & Goodwin, G. (2001). Administration of the beta-adrenoceptor blocker propranolol impairs the processing of facial expressions of sadness. Psychopharmacology, 154(4), 383-389.
Cognitive Effects of Brain Injury and Disease
The care of patients with brain injury and diseases has improved substantially over the last thirty years. Nonetheless, the acute cognitive effects caused by brain injury are still a problem for the survivors. Such impairments are substantial contributors to functional disability after brain injury and reduce quality of life for affected persons and their families (Schultza, Cifub, McNameea, Nicholsb; Carneb, 2011). Accordingly, it is important for clinicians providing care to persons with brain injury to be familiar with the cognitive squeal of such injuries, their neuropathophysiologic bases, the treatment options that may alleviate such problems, and their effects on functional ability and quality of life.
Literature eview: Cognitive Effects
The anatomy, pathophysiology, and cognitive sequel of brain injury and diseases vary as a function of cause of brain injury. Accordingly, identification of the specific cause of injury and other relevant factors (e.g., age,…
Aaro, Jonsson C., Smedler, AC., Leis, Ljungmark M., & Emanuelson, I (2009). Long-term cognitive outcome after neurosurgically treated childhood traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury: ISSN: 1362-301X, Vol. 23 (13-14), pp. 1008-16. doi:10.3109/02699050903379354
Cozzarelli, Tara A. (2010). Evaluation and Treatment of Persistent Cognitive Dysfunction Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. LCDR USPHS. Journal of Special Operations Medicine. Volume 10, Edition 1.pg 39-42. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed
Howard, RS., Holmes, PA & Koutroumanidis, MA. (2011). Hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Practical Neurology [Pract Neurol], ISSN: 1474-7766, Vol. 11 (1), pp. 4-18; PMID: 21239649. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2010.235218
Kinnunen, Kirsi Maria., Greenwood, Richard., Powell, Jane Hilary., Leech, Robert., Hawkins, Peter Charlie., Bonnelle, Valerie., Patel, Maneesh Chandrakan., Counsell, Serena Jane., and Sharp, David James (2011). White matter damage and cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury. Brain A Journal Of Neurology. 134; 449 -- 463. doi:10.1093/brain/awq347
Mind and the Brain
There are several theories that have been proposed for explaining the relationship between one's mind and brain. If truth be told, it can be said that it is one of the most talked about philosophical fields.
Mind vs. Brain
Mind and brain are interrelated. For a majority of people, there is no difference between the two. Many scientists and philosophers hold the belief that the brain and the mind are one and are inseparable. These two words are mostly used as alternatives of each other. In general, brain is regarded as a physical object whereas mind is considered as a mental thing (Prabhat, 2011).
The brain is made up of hundreds and thousands of nerve cells and blood vessels. On the other hand, mind being an unseen item is not composed of any cells or vessels. Whilst the brain has a distinct shape of its own,…
Brain. (2009). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved July 23, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117007959
Carreira, J. (2011, November 03). Mind is not Brain. Retrieved July 23, 2012 from http://evolutionaryphilosophy.com/2011/11/03/mind-is-not-brain/
Clark, T. (n.d.). Is there Any Difference between the Mind and the Brain?. Retrieved July 24, 2012 from http://www.scribd.com/doc/2451851/Is-There-a-Difference-Between-the-Mind-and-Brain
Gyatso, V.G.K. (2012). What is the Mind?. Retrieved July 23, 2012 from http://kadampa.org/en/reference/what-is-the-mind/
Mind and the Brain by Schwartz and Begley
In their book, The Mind and the Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force, Jeffrey Schwartz and Sharon Begley look into the concept of the mind as something separate and distinct from the physical brain. They do so by beginning with a discussion of behaviorism, an approach that has had tremendous influence on the world of psychology, not just in theory but in shaping of treatments for people who exhibited disordered or disturbed reasoning. They talk about how behaviorism strips the humanity from people, placing human learning on roughly the same level as animal conditioning. Moreover, they also discuss the idea that, even if behaviorist approaches can effectuate therapeutic results, such as in habituation training for patients suffering from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, there are other means that do not involve the same level of cruelty towards the patients, but can still achieve…
Schwartz, J. & Begley, S. (2002). The Mind and the Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force. New York: Regan Books.
Music on Brain and Emotions
The Effect of Music on the Brain and Emotions
The study of human's mental state on subjection to music has been a research subject to many with interest. Over the past decade, interconnection between human's physical and mental strength and music has been subject to research with a number of positive outcomes. These research endeavors suggest that music exhibits the healing power in certain elements, in a human's life. A sample of music with the best or strongest healing power is the Indian music. What music does is that it injects a calming effect into a human's mind. This speeds recovery-time of certain health ailments. Music positively effects the human's hormone system allowing easy brain concentration and information assimilation (Adalarasu, K.K. et al., 2011). This means that music boosts the learning process thereby augmenting cognitive skills. This paper outlines a brief overview of the various…
Adalarasu, K.K., Jagannath, M.M., Naidu Keerthiga Ramesh, S.S., & Geethanjali, B.B. (2011). A Review on Influence of Music on Brain Activity Using Signal Processing and Imaging System. International Journal of Engineering Science & Technology, 3(4), 3276-3282.
Figueiredo P, Pereira CS, Castro SL, Teixeira J, Figueiredo P, Xavier J, et al. (2011). Music and Emotions in the Brain: Familiarity Matters. PLoS ONE 6(11): e27241. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027241]
Koelsch, S. (2009). A Neuroscientific Perspective on Music Therapy. Annals Of The New York Academy Of Sciences, 1169374-384. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04592.x
patients diagnosed with TBI cope better with counseling and outreach programs when dealing with new or abnormal behaviors?
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may result in social and emotional defects (such as delayed word recall) that result in frustrating and embarrassing moments for the victim. Of all counseling and intervention programs, rehabilitation therapy (CT) is the one that is commonly used and, therefore, this literature review will conduct a meta-analytic search (focusing on quantitative studies within the last five years) in order to assess the efficacy of CT in helping TBI individuals with their social and emotional skills and perceptions.
The essay identified and reviewed seven randomized trials of language, emotional and social communication cognitive rehabilitation. Inclusion terms were that participants had to possess sufficient cognitive capacity to be included in a group and impairment in emotional and social skills was evidenced either by a questionnaire or by the clinician's reference.…
Bell, K et al. (2011) Scheduled Telephone Intervention for Traumatic Brain Injury: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92, 1552 -- 1560
Bornhofen, C., and S. McDonald. 2008a. Treating deficits in emotion perception following traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation 18(1): 22-44.
-- -- . 2008b. Comparing strategies for treating emotion perception deficits in traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 23(2): 103-115.
Chard, K et al. (2011) Exploring the efficacy of a residential treatment program incorporating cognitive processing therapy-cognitive for veterans with PTSD and traumatic brain injury, Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24, 347 -- 351,
Psychopathology Criminal Behavior Part
What might be some of the implications for the forensic field of the differences between the "low-fear hypothesis" and the "high-impulsive" subtypes of psychopathy? In other words, how might the differences in the models help inform us about best practices for such activities as police work on the streets, interrogation methods, trial and sentencing practices, providing treatment, or evaluating recidivism risks?
In retrospect, theorists view Lykken's conceptual framework as a first step toward distinguishing between primary and secondary psychopathy (Baskins-Sommers, 2010). As theory building continues in this decade, the typology is supported by the notion of trait-like sensitivities and trait-like cognitive capacities that suggest the following implications for criminal justice procedures. Primary psychopathy is characterized by disinhibition, which is an inability to abort a dominant response, integrate socialization, or adopt alternative objectives. An individual who is considered to have primary psychopathy will fail to consider emotional…
Baskin-Sommers, A.R., Wallace, J.F., MacCoon, D.G., Curtin, J.J., and Newman, J.P. (2010, October 1). Clarifying the Factors that Undermine Behavioral Inhibition System Functioning in Psychopathy. Personal Disorders, 1(4), 203 -- 217. doi: 10.1037/a0018950. PMCID: PMC2992384. NIHMSID: NIHMS211679. Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2992384/#!po=74.5614
Baskin-Sommers, A.R., Curtin, J.J. And Newman, J.P. (2013, May). Emotion-modulated startle in psychopathy: clarifying familiar effects. Journal of Abnormal Pychology, 122(2), 458-468. 10.1037/a0030958. Epub 2013 Jan 28. Retrieved
Brain Learns to ead
The human brain is an incredibly complex structure. It learns common actions and skills in an intensely intriguing manner that we often take for granted. Take for example the case of reading, an incredibly complicated process which is learned over time through repeated exposure and emulation that builds and strengthens knowledge about language in print.
The process of learning to read is incredibly complex yet is incredibly interesting. Interestingly, many fundamental skills involved with early reading learning are done before the child even beings on his or her journey. For example, phonetic learning helps establish a strong foundation for future reading capabilities. It is important that young readers focus on learning and recognizing phonemes that are at the base of the words they are seeing. Here, the research states that "Learning to read starts with the awareness that speech is composed of individual sounds," (Sousa 2005…
Sohn Design Studio. (2011). Give young readers books that sing and rhyme: Build confidence, motivation and reading stamina! Nellie Edge. Web. http://www.nellieedge.com/articles_resources/Resources_singRhyme.htm
Sousa, David A. (2005). How the Brain Learns to Read. Corwin Press.
The accident occurred while the actress was taking a skiing lesson. She initial experienced no symptoms from her fall, but later complained of a headache and was taken to a local hospital. Reports indicate that her fall was not very spectacular and occurred at a low speed on a beginner run. She was not wearing a helmet at the time of the accident. (Quinn, 2009)
However, while it is true that sometimes there are no immediately obvious signs of a severe brain injury, at other times there are.
Severe Traumatic Brain njury
The symptoms of a severe traumatic brain injury (which can result in permanent neurological damage) include a number of cognitive problems including inability to concentrate, problems with memory, problems in focusing and paying attention, ability to process new information at a normal rate, a high level of confusion, and perseveration, which is the action of doing something over…
In describing the course of their patients, experienced clinicians who use HBOT to treat patients with brain injury, cerebral palsy, and stroke refer to improvements that may be ignored in standardized measures of motor and neuro-cognitive dysfunction. These measures do not seem to capture the impact of the changes that clinicians and parents perceive. Caregivers' perceptions should be given more weight in evaluating the significance of objective improvements in a patient's function. Unfortunately, studies have not consistently measured caregiver burden, or have assessed it only by self-report. Studies in which the caregivers' burden was directly observed would provide much stronger evidence than is currently available about treatment outcome. (AHRQ Publication Number 03-E049, 2003)
In other words, this somewhat alternative treatment produces results that are more meaningful to the injured person and his or her caregivers.
I have focused here primarily on the biochemical end of treatments for those with traumatic brain injury because it is this level of treatment that offers the long-term possibility of the greatest level of treatment. Such treatments as are described here have the chance to cure traumatic brain injury. But until these are perfected, every other kind of treatment and therapy -- from drug treatments to speech therapy to the love of friends -- will remain priceless.
The complex dynamic processes that underlie the development of the various functionalities of the infant brain and its maturation into an adult brain continue to be studied by researchers working to uncover the pattern of brain development. Earlier, there was a battle between the role of nature and nurture in brain development of a Child. Today, neurologists have concurred that both nature and nurture play a significant role during the initial years of development of the brain. Advancements in neuroimaging techniques including the various refinements in MRI and optical tomography have made possible the focused study of the various developmental stages of the brain in an infant. Particularly, the portable, safe and easy to use Optical tomography has brought the scanning device to the infant instead of having to carry the infant to the scanning device. It is also now a known fact that the emotional and behavioral development of…
1) Sean Brotherson, 'Understanding Brain Development in Young Children', Accessed Mar 29th 2010, available at, http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/yf/famsci/fs609w.htm
2) Nelson, C.A., & Bloom, E. (1997). Child development and neuroscience.
Child Development, 68,970-987.
3) Miguel et.al, 'Withdrawn and intrusive maternal interaction style and infant frontal EEG asymmetry shifts in infants of depressed and non-depressed mothers', Infant Behav Dev. 2006 April; 29(2): 220 -- 229., Available Online at, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1712668/
A Teenagers Brain
The teenage brain is different from the normal adult's brain in which "…various parts of the brain work together to evaluate choices, make decisions and act accordingly in each situation." (Edmonds, 2010) The teenage brain can be compared to an entertainment center, according to Edmonds "that hasn't been fully hooked up. There are loose wires, so that the speaker system isn't working with the DVD players, which in turn hasn't been formatted to work with the television yet. And to top it all off, the remote control hasn't even arrived." (2010)
Edmonds (2010) explains that the remote control for the brain is the 'prefrontal cortex' described as "a section of the brain that weighs outcomes, forms judgments, and controls impulses and emotions. This section of the brain also helps people understand one another." (Edmonds, 2010) Synapses are used by the prefrontal cortex in…
Edmonds, M. (2010) Are Teenage Brains Really Different From Adult Brains? Discovery Health. Brain and Central Nervous System. Retrieved from: http://health.howstuffworks.com/human-body/systems/nervous-system/teenage-brain2.htm
Adolescent Brain Development (2002) ACT for Youth -- Upstate Center of Excellence. Cornell University, University of Rochester and the NYS Center for School Safety. May 2002. Research Facts and Findings. Retrieved from: http://www.actforyouth.net/documents/may02factsheetadolbraindev.pdf
Sohn, Emily (2005) Teen Brains, Under Construction. Science News. 28 Sept 2005. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencenewsforkids.org/articles/20050928/Feature1.asp
Winters, KC and McLellan, AT (2008) Adolescent Brain Development and Drug Abuse. Jan 2008. TRI Science Addiction (Treatment Research Institute) Philadelphia PA Retrieved from: http://www.tresearch.org/archives/2008Jan_TeenBrain.pdf
Using MRS chemical composition of the tumor and the metabolite intensities can also be ascertained along with the morphological characterisitcs. Thus MRI provides better information which is useful in grading the tumor. For grade 4 astrocytoma's spectroscopic studies reveal high Cho, high lipid, high lactate and low NAA values. However, the MRI testing is time consuming (40 to 90 minutes) and is problematic for claustrophobic patients. [eMedicine] iopsy of the affected brain tissue will also help in determining the nature of the abnormal tissue growth.
Treatment for astrocytoma includes, surgery, chemotherapy, radiation and gluco corticoid medication. Treatment improves the survival rates for patients and the type of treatment depends on the growth and location of the tumor. First grade tumors such as Pilocytic Astrocytomas are easily treated by resection. In most cases removal of the affected part would be sufficient. However, if the location of the tumor makes surgery…
Capodano AM. Nervous system: Astrocytic tumors. Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. November 2000. Available at, http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Tumors/AstrocytID5007.html
BTS, "Brain Tumor Facts & Statistics," Accessed Nov 18th 2007, available at http://www.tbts.org/itemDetail.asp?categoryID=384&itemID=16535
Karen T. Barker and Richard S. Houlston, "Overgrowth syndromes: Is dysfunctional P. 13 Kinase signalling a Unifying mechanism," European Journal of Human Genetics (2003) 11, 665-670. Available online at, http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v11/n9/full/5201026a.html
Medscape, " a Review of Astrocytoma Models: Molecular pathologies of Astrocytoma," Neurosurgical Focus 8(4), 2000 eMedicine, "Astrocytoma, Brain," Accessed on Noiv 18th 2007, available at http://www.emedicine.com/radio/topic60.htm
The field of music therapy is an emerging one in medical practice. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of research to support the use of music therapy in a wide range of instances, one of which includes patients who are suffering from brain injury. This paper will review some of the literature on the subject in an attempt to understand how music affects the brain and is therefore useful in therapy.
The idea of music therapy is ancient, and was extolled by the likes of Plato. The Roman god Apollo was god of music and medicine, further cementing the link between the two in estern civilization. Non-estern cultures were also known to use music to attempt to heal people. Certain forms of music could drive out evil spirits or demons, according to the lore of many cultures. It is from these myriad traditions that the modern use…
Bradt, J., Magee, W., Dileo, C., Wheeler, B. & McGilloway, E. (2010). Music therapy for acquired brain injury. Wiley. Retrieved April 28, 2013 from http://ssh.snvtest.com/wp-content/uploads/articles/06_Music_Therapy_For_Brain_Injury.pdf
Formisano, R., Vinicola, V., Penta, F., Matteis, M., Brunelli, S. & Weckel, J. (2001). Active music therapy in the rehabilitation of severe brain injured patients during coma recovery. Annals of the Instituto Superiore di Sanita. Vol. 37 (4) 627-630.
Hamilton, L., Cross, J. & Kennelly, J. (2001). The interface of music therapy and speech pathology in the rehabilitation of children with acquired brain injury. Australian Journal of Music Therapy. Vol. 12 (2001) 13-20.
Thaut, M.H., Gardiner, J.C., Holmberg, D., Horwitz, J., Kent, L., Andrews, G., Donelan, B. And McIntosh, G.R. (2009) Neurologic music therapy improves executive function and emotional adjustment in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. 1169, 406-416.
Anger and Its Effects
Anger is a very intense feeling, and can be characterized by a number of behaviors. These include grinding teeth, an increased heart rate, rising blood pressure, clenched fists, and other signs of aggravation or frustration (Hendricks, et al., 2013). Each person reacts to anger in a different way, and some of the manifestations of anger may not be outwardly apparent. ises in blood pressure and heart rate, for example, are not easily noticed by others, but they can still be very damaging to the person who is struggling with the anger itself (Hendricks, et al., 2013). People also get angry for a number of different reasons, and they may react in an angry manner when they feel hurt, threatened, frustrated, or disappointed (Hendricks, et al., 2013). This is a relatively natural reaction for the majority of people, but that does not mean it is healthy or…
Hendricks, L., Bore, S., Aslinia, D., & Morriss, G. (2013). The effects of anger on the brain and body. National Forum Journal of Counseling and Addiction, 2(1): 2-11.
Anthropologist working with the VA
Definitions / Interests / Key Problems and Issues
Previous Work Performed by Anthropologists in this Area
The Employment Situation, Current Salaries and Opportunities for Advancement
ibliography of the most important books, chapters and articles
Relevant professional organizations, ethics statements and newsletters
Names / locations of PAs and others working in the content area locally and elsewhere.
Relevant Laws and Regulations
Relevant international / domestic organizations, private and public
Other helpful information you think about on your own
The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan had a dramatic impact on the way someone sees themselves and the world around them. This is because many veterans have been forced to serve multiple tours and are still dealing with the lasting experiences from them. Two of primary injuries most are suffering from are post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TI). Anthropologists are seeking to understand the…
Bibliography of the most important books, chapters and articles.
2014. Summary. BLS. Electronic document, http://www.bls.gov/ooh/life-physical-and-social-science/anthropologists-and-archeologists.htm . accessed April 3, 2012
2010. Hidden Battles on Unseen Fronts. Drexel Hill: Casemate.
A cornerstone concept of pop psychology, the left brain/right brain divide is "largely bogus," (Lombrozo, 2013). However, the metaphor of left brain/right brain does somewhat accurately allow us to classify people into those whose worldviews are governed by logic and reason versus those whose worldviews allow for a greater degree of impulse and emotionality. My personal worldview is thankfully somewhere between these two extremes. Too much left brain emphasis leads to rigidity and an inability to welcome new ideas, whereas too much right brain focus may lead to superstition and poor decisions.
The left brain/right brain metaphor demonstrates the need for fusing qualitative and quantitative research methods. Social scientists who discount the relevance or validity of qualitative methods can be considered left brained in their worldview. As important as quantitative analyses are, social science research does not always lend itself to quantification. Human beings are not robots. Human…
Minds and rains: Do We Have oth?
Descartes' view, "I think, therefore I am," may not be entirely accurate when proposing that the essence of cognitive judgment, using the brain to "think," necessitates the use of consciousness to comprehend the state of "being." The neurodynamics of brain construct provides proficiency at completing thought processes. However, the dynamic system that creates meaning to logic involves the mind. Thus, the ideal that separates man from machine is the dual action of both mind and brain; a complex phenomenon that will prevent artificial intelligence from ever reaching human abilities.
According to Lawrence Shapiro, the multiple realizability thesis (MRT), which states that the mind can exist in a physical form, is likely unrealistic in that it is yet to demonstrate that the mind can be duplicated. Upon evaluating brain evolution and neuroscience data, he views the cognitive capacities of the brain as placing "strong…
Freeman, Walter J. 1999. How Brains Make Up Their Minds. London, UK: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
Minsky, Marvin. 2002. "Minds Are Simply What Brains Do." [Online]. Truth Journal. Available from Leadership U, http://www.leaderu.com/truth/2truth03.html . Accessed 16 Mar. 2004.
Shapiro, Lawrence A. 2004. The Mind Incarnate. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Lawrence Shapiro, The Mind Incarnate (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004).
.....backed by other research works, is chiefly grounded in Luby and coworkers' 2013 research project titled "The Effects of Poverty on Childhood Brain Development: The Mediating Effect of Caregiving and Stressful Life Events". It was obtained from EBSCOhost's database via a search activity, utilizing the expression "poverty and the brain".
Poverty during the early childhood stage of life has an adverse effect on the development of the individual's brain, as indicated by school-goers' MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scans (Lipina & Colombo, 2009; Lende, 2012). That environmental stimuli serve to enhance the production of hippocampal cells within lab animals in comparison to animals subject to relatively rare stimuli is an established fact ("Poverty, neglect in childhood...", 2013). This research work aimed at ascertaining whether or not the early childhood income-needs ratio influences school age kids' brain development and at examining the mediating factors of the abovementioned influence.
For analyzing the impacts…
This is because all three of these psychological mind states trigger the appetitive pleasure system, which is the dopamine-based system associated with the pleasure of anticipating something desirable (Doidge, 2007).
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMI) studies confirm that when lovers look at photos of their romantic partner, areas of the brain associated with reward and motivation are activated (Doidge, 2007). Specifically, scans of the right VTA and medial caudate nucleus show significant concentrations of dopamine, which is also what brain scans of people high on cocaine look like (Doidge, 2007). Brain scans of people in love and high on cocaine look almost identical (Doidge, 2007).
Another fMI study conducted with lovers looking at photos of their beloved showed that there's a correlation between the VTA brain region and facial attractiveness; that there's a correlation between the intensity of passion associated with romantic love and the caudate brain region; and, that…
Aron, a., Fisher, H., Mashek, DJ., Strong, G., Li, H., Brown, LL. Reward, motivation, and emotion systems associated with early-stage intense romantic love. J Neurophysiology. 2005; 94: 327-337.
Heath, R.G. Pleasure and pain activity in man. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 1972; 154(1): 13-18.
Doidge, N (2007). The brain that changes itself: stories of personal triumph from the frontiers of brain science.New York: Penguin Books.
Nestler, E.J., Hyman, SE & Malenka, RC (2001). Molecular Neuropharmacology: A foundation for clinical neuroscience. USA: McGraw Hill Companies, Inc.
Dugs Affect the Brain Chemistry
Antipsychotic medication plays an important role in controlling the way mood disorders and schizophrenia affect individuals. These drugs are generally believed to be effective because of the way they manipulate the way that certain chemicals in the brain affect the person. Antipsychotics are typically used with the purpose of either treating mental disorders or removing their symptoms altogether. A specialist psychiatrist is normally in charge of prescribing such medication, as the fact that it can alter chemicals in the brain makes it particularly dangerous if used incorrectly.
Chemicals in the brain have the power to change the way a person feels and behaves. Controlling the way that chemicals affect an individual can make it possible for the respective person to experience little to no episodes involving things like hallucinations, delusions, or mood swings. It is important for chemicals in the brain to be balanced, as…
Nairne, J.S. Psychology. Cengage Learning.
Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2012). What is Psychology? Essentials. Cengage Learning.
Furthermore, the research will eventually lead to the development of both an understanding and a means through which an individual can improve his or her business sense. Though some papers have been published on this topic, there has not been enough research in this respect.
Some preliminary questions will address;.
Is the brain programmed for business success in all individuals?
If one can remember most effectively images and associations, why do so many people use standard outlining techniques?
How can one use one's whole brain to make dreams come true?
How can on improve the brain in order to maximize one's abilities?
What are the ways to increase the power of our memory, focus and creativity?
With regards to research methods, mostly qualitative research methods will be employed during the research, such as the analysis of an interview, for instance, but the addition of quantitative methods will also be employed,…
References that may be utilized
Pillay S. (November 15, 2010) Your Brain and Business: The Neuroscience of Great Leaders
Buzan T., Think Buzan Inventors of Mind Mapping, http://www.thinkbuzan.com/us/
wiring of the teenage brain?
The teenage brain undergoes major restructuring during the formative teen years. The frontal cortex goes through a growth spurt right before puberty. This leads to a thickening of the area brain responsible for thinking. Typically the human brain is already ninety-five percent the size of an adult's by age six. However, during the teenage years the growth spurt results in new neural interconnections and pathways.
It is hypothesized that skills that are in constant use during the teenage are reinforced by the brain. While those skills or areas of the brain that are not in use, do not get the same reinforcement. This is known as the "use it or lose it" principal. For example, those students who engage in high levels of music and art see those neural pathways reinforced, therefore poised to flourish in the latter years, while other skill sets and pathways…
rmstrong arguing mind . brain disticntion a distinction a difference (akin a distinction a kleenex a tissue)? Does adequately explain human conduct?
rmstrong - mind theories
There is much controversy regarding the difference between mind and brain, as while some support the belief that the mind has nothing to do with the brain because there is nothing physical about the former's functioning, others consider that the mind and the brain are basically the same thing. ccording to ustralian philosopher David Malet rmstrong, it is safe to say that the mind and the body are one and the same, particularly when considering each of them to be "that in which mental processes occur' or 'that which has mental states'" (rmstrong, 1993, p. 1). People are typically inclined to believe that the mind is not physical because it is seen (through history) as an entity that has no physical shape, being the…
All across the twentieth century, a number of philosophers shifted their attention from the belief that the mind had actually been immaterial and came to think of it as being material and actually being physically connected to the body, given that it is part of it. Armstrong in particular lobbies for people to accept that mental processes should be associated to psychico-chemical statuses present in the nervous system. Exemplifying this through the connection between DNA molecules and living cells, Armstrong demonstrates that mental processes can be likened to DNA molecules, physically influencing the body (Armstrong, 1993, p. 358).
If mental processes are equivalent to physico-chemical processes in the central nervous system, it means that they are also responsible for human behavior. People are generally inclined to believe that there is no connection between the mind and the brain because they cannot understand how a process that is purely physical is capable to determine complex thinking (Armstrong, p. 358).
In general, people who are reluctant to accept materialist theories do so because they have not yet been acquainted with a machine that is capable to produce processes like the ones generated by the mind. However, once they are aware that such mechanisms exist, they are likely to abandon their mentalist convictions and embrace materialist theories, certain that there is nothing more to the mind than purely physical processes (Armstrong, p. 358).
Social Network and Its Effects on the Developing Brain
The enhancing quantity of time kids are investing on computer systems in their home and institution has actually raised concerns about how using computer innovation might make a distinction in their lives-- from assisting with research to triggering depression to motivating terrible habits. This short article offers a review of the restricted study on the impacts of personal computer use on kids' physical development. Preliminary study recommends, for instance, that access to computer systems enhances the overall quantity of time kids invest in front of a TV or computer screen at the expenditure of other individual tasks, therefore putting them at danger for excessive weight. At the exact same time, intellectual study recommends that playing video game can be an essential foundation to computer proficiency due to the fact that it boosts kids' capability to check out and picture images in…
Deadwyler, S.A. (2008) 'Systemic and nasal delivery of Orexin -- A (Hypocretin-1) reduces the effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance in nonhuman primates', Journal of Neuroscience, 27 (52): 14239 -- 47.
Linn, S. And Poussaint, A.F. (1999). The Trouble With Teletubbies. The American prospect. May 1, 1999. June.
Sigman, A. (2007a) Remotely Controlled: How Television Is Damaging Our Lives, Vermilion, London
Sigman, A. (2007b) 'Visual voodoo: the biological impact of watching television', The Biologist, 54 (1): 14 -- 19
Schizophrenia Affects the Brain, Person, & Family
This paper looks at the how schizophrenia affects the brain, the person, & the family, also looking at the history of the subject and its role within society. Bibliography cites four sources
Schizophrenia is one of a range of mental conditions that is widely misunderstood. May see it as a relatively recent disease, and the term has only been in use for about a century. However the condition is not new. This disease, which is one of the most disabling of the range of metal conditions, can be traced back for millennia. The first documented cases appears to have occurred in Ancient Egypt, where a discretion of the condition is described in the Eber papyrus, in the Book of Hearts (kasha, 1999). The condition was not understood in detail, and the treatment was usually incubation, this was an achieved by spending the…
Okasha A, (1999), Mental Health in the Middle East: An Egyptian Perspective. Clinical Psychology Review, 19, 8, 917-33
RXlist, (2002), [online] accessed at http://www.rxlist.com/
National Institute of Mental Health, (2002), [online] accessed at www.nimh.nih.gov